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Elements of Ecology, 8e (Smith/Smith

Chapter 8 Properties of Populations

8.1 Short Answer Questions

1) A group of individuals of the same species inhabiting a given area is called a(n) ________.
Answer: population
Topic: Introduction to Chapter 8

2) An individual tree or plant produced by sexual reproduction and thus arising from a zygote is
a genetic individual, known as a(n) ________.
Answer: genet
Topic: Section 8.1

3) The ________ of a population describes its spatial location, the area over which it occurs.
Answer: distribution
Topic: Section 8.2

4) As a result of environmental heterogeneity, most populations are divided into smaller
populations, referred to as local ________.
Answer: subpopulations
Topic: Section 8.2

5) ________ defines the size of a population, the number of individuals in it.
Answer: Abundance
Topic: Section 8.3

6) Population ________ is the number of individuals per unit area, or per unit volume.
Answer: density
Topic: Section 8.3

7) Because a direct count of all individuals within a population is often impossible, population
density is usually estimated by one or more methods of ________.
Answer: sampling
Topic: Section 8.4

8) Counting the total number of individuals within a square or rectangle of known area, referred
to as a(n)________, is a sampling method that is commonly used to study plants or other sessile
Answer: quadrat
Topic: Section 8.4

9) Populations can be divided into three ecologically important age classes: prereproductive,
reproductive, and ________.
Answer: postreproductive
Topic: Section 8.5

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Inc. Answer: secondary Topic: Section 8. C) clone. Answer: birth. which may remain physically linked to the parent or may be separate.7 13) A round-trip movement of an individual from one place to another and back again is called ________.8 8. death birth. is referred to as a A) genet. Answer: migration Topic: Section 8.7 14) The primary factors driving the dynamics of population abundance are the demographic processes of ________ and ________. Answer: pyramid Topic: Section 8. B) ramet. Answer: B Topic: Section 8.1 2 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education.6 12) Individuals moving from another location into a subpopulation is referred to as ________.5 11) In most mammalian populations. . death birth death birth and death birth & death birth/death Topic: Section 8. Answer: immigration Topic: Section 8. D) bud.10) A graph that compares the relative number of individuals within different age groups of a population is called an age ________.2 Multiple-Choice Questions 1) Which of the following is not a feature of a population? A) size B) density C) number of species D) distribution Answer: C Topic: Introduction to Chapter 8 2) A module that is produced asexually by an original genetic individual. the ________ sex ratio at birth is often weighted toward males.

Answer: D Topic: Section 8. C) ecosystem. C) random. D) uniform. B) density.3 7) In populations of animals that defend an area for their own exclusive use or in plants that compete intensively for belowground resources such as water or nutrients. B) species. C) unit of area divided by the number of individuals.1 4) A group of local subpopulations is called a(n) A) community.3) Which of the following represents a modular organism? A) lizard B) coral C) dog D) ant Answer: B Topic: Section 8.2 5) The area inhabited by all individuals of a particular species is known as this population's A) geographic range. . D) habitat. B) clumped. Answer: A Topic: Section 8. the spatial distribution of individuals is usually A) homogenous. Answer: C Topic: Section 8.2 6) A population's density is calculated as the A) area over which the population is distributed.3 3 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education. B) number of individuals within the population. Inc. D) number of individuals per unit area. C) metapopulation. Answer: D Topic: Section 8. D) ecogroup.

. 28 D) 12.8) An ecologist counts the number of individuals in five samples of equal area for four species of organisms. C) measuring the diameter of a trunk at breast height (dbh).3 9) Which of the following sampling techniques represents an index of abundance rather than an estimate of density? A) number of oak trees within a quadrat B) number of bear droppings along a trail C) ratio of marked and unmarked mice in a field D) number of ducks on a pond Answer: B Topic: Section 8. B) counting tree growth rings. C) wide at top and bottom. Answer: B Topic: Section 8. D) similarly wide from top to bottom.5 12) The movement of individuals in space is called A) distribution. Answer: C Topic: Section 8. C) dispersal. D) density. Inc. 12. 22.5 11) The demographic age pyramid of a rapidly growing population is A) wide at the base. 119 C) 47. 18. narrow at the top. 21. narrow in the middle. 18 B) 133. 13. 113. 11 Answer: C Topic: Section 8. 13.7 4 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education.4 10) The age of a tree is best approximated by A) estimating tree height. Answer: A Topic: Section 8. narrow at the bottom. D) counting the number of leaves. 12. 128. B) migration. B) wide at the top. 93. 124. 25. Which of these counts best represents a clumped population? A) 23.

3 True/False Questions 1) The members of a population often belong to different species. 24 chicks survived to become adults. Answer: TRUE Topic: Section 8. there were 86 adults. How many individuals emigrated? A) 8 B) 12 C) 16 D) 24 Answer: C Topic: Section 8. Answer: TRUE Topic: Section 8. 76 chicks hatched from eggs.2 5 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education. Answer: TRUE Topic: Section 8.13) An ecologist spent a year studying the population dynamics of a species of duck on a lake. Answer: FALSE Topic: Introduction to Chapter 8 3) A ramet is genetically identical to its original parent. Inc. Answer: FALSE Topic: Introduction to Part 3 2) A genet is produced asexually. and 8 adults died. Answer: FALSE Topic: Section 8. 16 adults left the lake. At the beginning of the year.2 6) Most populations are divided into subpopulations.1 4) An individual plant is often more difficult to recognize than an individual animal. Of these.7 14) Which of the following organisms is listed as a Federal Noxious Weed because of its profound negative impacts on ecosystems of the southeastern United States? A) gypsy moth B) corn C) ivy D) kudzu Answer: D Topic: Ecological Issues: Human-Assisted Dispersal 8. 12 adults arrived on the lake from elsewhere.1 5) The distribution of species is rarely determined by minimum and maximum temperature tolerances. .

7 6 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education.3 10) The density of a population is usually measured by counting every individual.3 8) The most common spatial distribution among individuals within a population is clumped.7) A uniform distribution of individuals within a population occurs if each individual's position is independent of others' positions. whereas all plants disperse passively.5 13) Small trees are often the same age as large individuals in the canopy. Answer: TRUE Topic: Section 8. Answer: FALSE Topic: Section 8.6 15) All animals disperse actively. Answer: FALSE Topic: Section 8. Answer: FALSE Topic: Section 8. . migration refers to round-trip movements. Answer: FALSE Topic: Section 8. Inc. Answer: FALSE Topic: Section 8.3 9) Ecological density is a measure of the number of individuals per unit of available living space.4 11) A quadrat is usually used to measure density in mobile populations of animals.5 14) The sex ratio in a population is usually fixed and does not vary among age classes. Answer: TRUE Topic: Section 8. Answer: TRUE Topic: Section 8. Answer: TRUE Topic: Section 8.7 16) Unlike the one-way movement of an individual in emigration and immigration.4 12) The age of a fish can be determined by counting the annual rings of otoliths (ear stones). Answer: TRUE Topic: Section 8.

7 6) Some animals migrate daily.1 2) Discuss the three distribution patterns of individuals within a population and explain the conditions that give rise to each pattern. Provide some examples of individual and modular organisms. and identify the conditions for which each method would be most useful. Topic: Section 8.7 7) Using examples. Topic: Section 8.3 3) Discuss three methods of determining density in a species of organisms. Give an example of each migration pattern and explain the benefit of this lifestyle to the organisms exhibiting each pattern. Inc. Describe how and why introduced species typically alter native ecosystems. discuss the impact of increased human travel in the 20th century on long- distance dispersal of plants and animals.4 4) Describe several approaches used by ecologists to establish age structure for plant and animal populations.5 5) Describe several ways that plants disperse. Topic: Section 8. Topic: Section 8.8. Topic: Section 8. . Topic: Ecological Issues: Human-Assisted Dispersal 7 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education. whereas others migrate seasonally.4 Essay Questions 1) Explain how the mode of reproduction can make it difficult to define an individual. Topic: Section 8.