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Solution Findings

BSSOPT
2G Radio Network Optimization Principles (RG20)

Finding (optimization) Solutions

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Solution Findings

Objectives

At the end of this chapter the participants will:

• understand the basic interfaces / network elements and how


to optimize them
• understand the basics behind CS / PS performance
optimization
• Find out which tools can be used for optimization

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Solution Findings

Contents of BSSOPT

• Introduction
– What is network optimization?
– What should be taken into account when starting network optimization?
• Assessment
– Current network situation
• KPIs and Measurements
– Measurement tables and KPIs
• Finding optimization solutions and verification
– Maximum gain in limited time and investments
– Optimization tasks, implementations, solutions
• Optimization Features
– NSN recommended optimization features

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Solution Findings

Solution Findings – Table of Contents

• Introduction
• Optimization tasks
– Performance optimization
– Traffic and Capacity optimization
– Coverage Optimization
– Frequency Optimization
– Neighbor Optimization
– HO Optimization
– (E)GPRS Optimization
• Alarms
• Implementations (documentation, good case)
• Solution verification
• Monitoring
• Tools to be used

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Solution Findings

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
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Assessments &

Solution Finding - Introduction


Performance Project Solutions
Problems Starts Analysis

Solution
Implementations Work orders Priorization
Verification

Are Criteria’s Monitoring /


Fulfilled Analysis Solutions
Data collection

More detailed inputs Project


Ends
Project
report

(ifMore
necessary) based
detailed inputs
(if necessary) based
INPUTS
INPUTS on assessment
on assessment

Performance
Performance Project
Project Assessments &
Assessments Solutions
Solutions
Problems
Problems Starts
Starts Analysis

Solution
Solution
Implementations
Implementations Work orders
Work orders Priorization
Priorization
Verification
Verification

Are Criteria’s
Are Criteria’s
No
Monitoring //
Monitoring
Fulfilled
Fulfilled Analysis
Analysis Solutions
Solutions
Data collection
Data collection

Yes Project
Project
report
report
Solution Finding Phase
Project
Project
Ends
Ends
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Solution Findings

Performance Optimization

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Solution Findings

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
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Performance Optimization - Introduction


Performance Project Assessments &
Solutions
Problems Starts Analysis

Solution
Implementations Work orders Priorization
Verification

Are Criteria’s Monitoring /


Fulfilled Analysis Solutions
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

Typical performance problems which have to be improved:

Indoor coverage CS / PS Capacity


problems problems
Downlink coverage problems
Downlink interference problems
Uplink Signaling (access)
problems

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Solution Findings

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
INPUTS on assessment

Performance Project Assessments &


Solutions
Problems Starts Analysis

Performance Optimization - Basic CS/PS flows


Solution
Implementations Work orders Priorization
Verification

Are Criteria’s Monitoring /


Fulfilled Analysis Solutions
Data collection

Project
report

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Ends

Paging SDCCH TCH


Optimization Optimization Optimization
• Accessibility • Retainability
• Accessibility
• Signaling • Quality
• Traffic / TSLs allocation
• Data rates

CS – Basic Call Flow


PCH Establish Establish
Get SDCCH Get Call Release
AGCH TCH
SDCCH connection TCH phase phase
RACH connection

PS – MO Uplink TBF
Establish Requested
Ready Send immediate Get TBF Release
TSLs to
State RACH assignment PDCH Session phase
Allocate

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Solution Findings

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
INPUTS on assessment

Performance Optimization
Performance Project Assessments &
Solutions
Problems Starts Analysis

Solution
Implementations Work orders Priorization
Verification

Are Criteria’s Monitoring /


Fulfilled Analysis Solutions
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

Performance optimization will include:


CS PS
• Accessibility • MM and SM Signaling
• Signaling problems • GPRS Attach
• PDP Context activations
• Retainability
• TCH Dropped calls • RLC/MAC TSL data rate
• TBF Failure
• Quality
• interference • E2E Data Rate
• Throughput
• Traffic
• Traffic handling • Multislot usage
• Territory downgrades/upgrades
• PS Blocking
• Mobility
• Cell reselection
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Solution Findings

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
INPUTS on assessment

Performance Optimization – CS
Performance Project Assessments &
Solutions
Problems Starts Analysis

Solution
Implementations Work orders Priorization
Verification

Accessibility Signaling Are Criteria’s


Fulfilled

Project
report
Monitoring /
Data collection
Analysis Solutions

Project
Ends

For RACH, AGCH, PCH capacity problems:

• Check if combined signaling exist. If it is does, it should be removed


Combined SDCCH in TSL0
It should be TSL0 = BCCH
TSL1= SDCCH

• Check if TRXSIG is big enough; default value is 32K. In case of high SMS traffic
and at the same time HR is used, then 64K should be used.
• Check for possible high interference levels
– High interference levels can cause repetitions  Increased blocking
• Check CCCH related parameters
• Check if location areas are optimized
– Sizes
– Borders

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Solution Findings

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
INPUTS on assessment

Performance Project Assessments &


Solutions
Problems Starts Analysis

Performance Optimization – Retainability CS


Solution
Implementations Work orders Priorization
Verification

Are Criteria’s Monitoring /


Fulfilled Analysis Solutions
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

TCH drops (1)

Most Common TCH drop reasons can be seen in the table below:
Drop Reason Counter Description
TCH radio fail call c1013 Transactions ended due to radio failure.
TCH radio fail old c1014 Transactions ended due to old channel failure in HO.
TCH tc fail call c1029 Transaction failures due to transcoder failure.
TCH tc fail old c1030 Transaction failures due to transcoder failure on old channel during HO.
Lapd fail c1046 Transaction failures due to Lapd problems.
BTS fail c1047 Transaction failures due to BTS problems.
user act c1048 Transaction failures due to user actions.
BCSU reset c1049 Transaction failures due to BCSU reset.
cnfg act c1050 Transaction failures due to radio network
Act fail call c1081 Channel activation failures during call.
Abis fail call c1084 Abis failures during call.
Abis fail old c1085 Abis failures on old channel during TCH HO.
A if fail call c1087 A if failures during call.
A if fail old c1088 A if failures on old channel during TCH HO.

In the BSSOPT course we are concentrating on the radio reasons

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Solution Findings

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
INPUTS on assessment

Performance Project Assessments &


Solutions
Problems Starts Analysis

Performance Optimization – Retainability CS


Solution
Implementations Work orders Priorization
Verification

Are Criteria’s Monitoring /


Fulfilled Analysis Solutions
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

TCH drops (2)


TCH DROP Distribution

Exercise
Name typical reasons for TCH radio drops.
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Solution Findings

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
INPUTS on assessment

Performance Project Assessments &


Solutions
Problems Starts Analysis

Performance Optimization – Quality CS


Solution
Implementations Work orders Priorization
Verification

Are Criteria’s Monitoring /


Fulfilled Analysis Solutions
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

RX Quality – Level Distribution (1)

NOTE! Same level – quality


Rx Quality x Rx Level distribution for both UL and DL
HW Problem:
Bad Quality
Good Quality for all Rx Levels

Coverage Problem:
Bad quality and
HW Problem Low Rx Level
All samples below -
100dBm
CL10  <-100dBm

High Rv Level
Interference Problem:
Bad quality and
High Rx Level
NWD report 204 model

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Solution Findings

Performance Optimization – Quality CS


RX Quality – Level Distribution (2)
RX quality – level distribution examples:
Like Normal distribution HW Problem, TRX/combiner etc is broken
Q0 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 Q6 Q7 Q0 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 Q6 Q7
CL10 10645 8516 6813 5450 4360 3488 2791 2232 CL10 5323 4258 3406 2725 2180 1744 4563 9765
CL15 47043 37634 30108 24086 9865 7543 5643 2345 CL15 11761 9409 7527 6022 9383 1886 65432 7675
CL20
CL30
CL40
CL63
56204
200863
12785
4583
44963
160690
10228
1123
35971
128552
8182
583
28776
102842
6546
452
6574
17654
456
261
10324
9876
112
76
345
145
24
26
65
28
23
2
CL20
CL30
CL40
CL63
3 14051
33772
3196
1146
11241
27017
2557
281
8993
21614
2046
146
7194
17291
1636
113
18271
75037
4938
3378
2581
2469
28
19
65438
18765
3659
100
63562
14523
2648
174

HW problem, Q4 amount of samples is strange Interference problem


Q0 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 Q6 Q7 Q0 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 Q6 Q7
CL10 5323 4258 3406 2725 2180 1744 1395 1116 CL10 5323 4258 3406 2725 2180 1744 1395 1116
CL15 23522 18817 15054 12043 18765 3772 2822 1173 CL15 23522 13234 10588 8470 13234 10588 8470 6776
CL20
CL30
CL40
CL63
1 28102
67544
6393
2292
22482
54035
5114
562
17985
43228
4091
292
14388
34582
3273
226
36542
150073
9876
6756
5162
4938
56
38
173
73
12
13
33
14
12
1
4
CL20
CL30
CL40
CL63
28102
67544
6393
9987
2123
3634
4091
7543
1699
2908
3273
4323
1359
2326
2618
3454
2123
3634
4091
2275
1699
2908
3273
1187
1359
2326
2618
876
1087
1861
4532
654

HW Problem, TRX/combiner etc is broken


Q0 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 Q6 Q7
CL10 200863 160690 128552 102842 17654 9876 7865 6543
CL15 16543 13234 10588 8470 6776 2822 1173 234

2
CL20 2654 2123 1699 1359 1087 173 33 65
CL30 4543 3634 2908 2326 1861 73 14 28
CL40 5114 4091 3273 2618 2095 12 12 23
CL63 24 54 8 87 7 0 0 0

1. Lots of Q4 samples. Distribution is not OK  HW problem. Site reset will help


2. Lots of bad signal level samples  TRX/Combiner is broken. If not a HW
problem then site is totally in the wrong place and is likely to be transferring traffic
to another cell (cause level HO). Typically a HW problem
3. Lots of Q6 and Q7 samples. Distribution is not OK; no Q5 samples  HW
problems. Reset site or replace faulty TRX
4. Typical normal interference problem., lots of Q4-Q7 samples in good signal level
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Solution Findings

Performance Optimization – CS
Uplink Interference

q0 q1 q2 q3 q4 q5 q6 q7
-100dBm 10645 8516 6813 5450 4360 3488 2791 2232 MS power control can be seen here.
-95dBm 47043 37634 30108 24086 9865 7543 5643 2345 If Power is reduced → no bad UL
-90dBm 56204 44963 35971 28776 16574 5676 845 65 problems. BSC border is increasing
-80dBm 200863 160690 128552 102842 17654 3653 145 28 good level samples
-70dBm 1234 987 790 632 505 404 323 259
-47dBm 24 19 15 12 10 8 6 5

q0 q1 q2 q3 q4 q5 q6 q7 High interference problems. By using


-100dBm 10645 8516 6813 5450 4360 3488 2791 2232 POC parameter, interference can be
-95dBm 47043 37634 30108 24086 9865 7543 5643 2345 decreased by how power is adjusted.
-90dBm 56204 44963 35971 28776 16574 5676 845 65 Also, optimum MS power feature
-80dBm 200863 160690 128552 102842 17654 3653 145 28 improves UL interference as full
-70dBm 1234 987 790 632 505 404 323 259
power is not transmitted after HO.
-47dBm 24 19 15 12 10 8 6 5

q0 q1 q2 q3 q4 q5 q6 q7 Bad quality sample due to signal


-100dBm 10645 8516 6813 5450 4360 3488 2791 2232 level problems. Diversity should be
-95dBm 47043 37634 30108 24086 9865 7543 5643 2345 checked. Also check possibility to
-90dBm 56204 44963 35971 28776 16574 5676 845 65 use LNA to improve UL signal level.
-80dBm 200863 160690 128552 102842 17654 3653 145 28 Antenna positioning should also be
-70dBm 1234 987 790 632 505 404 323 259 rechecked to verify that obstacle do
-47dBm 24 19 15 12 10 8 6 5 not obstruct the radio path.

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Uplink optimization – Summary of ways or actions that can be taken to reduce the
interference levels and improve radio performance:
• Adjust MS transmitted power levels (e.g. use POC parameter)
• Adjust MS transmitted power levels after handover
• Check diversity
• investigate possibility of using LNA (Low Noise Amplifier)
• check antenna positioning (no obstacles)

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Solution Findings

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
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Performance Project Assessments &


Solutions
Problems Starts Analysis

Performance Optimization – CS
Solution
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Verification

Are Criteria’s Monitoring /


Fulfilled Analysis Solutions
Data collection

Project
report

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Ends

Uplink interference examples


UL_q0 UL_q1 UL_q2 UL_q3 UL_q4 UL_q5 UL_q6 UL_q7 Example of UL interference with
-100dBm 490 137 368 605 1014 1378 1830 2586 good signal level. UL power control
-95dBm 8410 3768 3225 3023 2767 2304 1561 1859
-90dBm 38512 5249 3066 2323 1692 1570 1191 1268
is not working properly. UL power
-80dBm 219137 4600 2453 2311 1470 1724 1864 1221 control is good indicator - if power is
-70dBm 509591 2504 1812 3050 1271 1465 1649 337 adjusted then there shouldn’t be any
-47dBm 244302 582 711 1363 1713 873 671 87 more problems in the UL direction.

UL_q0 UL_q1 UL_q2 UL_q3 UL_q4 UL_q5 UL_q6 UL_q7 There is no UL interference (or very
-100dBm 70004 5020 3500 2564 2232 1946 2190 2579 little). MS is adjusting power properly
-95dBm 80339 392 286 461 328 250 275 92
-90dBm 106883 233 318 602 199 146 234 64
but there are very few samples with
-80dBm 246892 227 314 860 298 338 395 60 good UL signal level.
-70dBm 254875 155 298 935 203 135 166 15
-47dBm 23288 21 27 103 109 11 41 0

UL_q0 UL_q1 UL_q2 UL_q3 UL_q4 UL_q5 UL_q6 UL_q7 DL_q0 DL_q1 DL_q2 DL_q3 DL_q4 DL_q5 DL_q6 DL_q7
-100dBm 251992 30668 20552 18417 18156 18286 16983 12478 27862 5537 5529 6069 6109 6107 5389 4119
-95dBm 123653 1151 403 692 519 351 221 72 89094 4236 3853 3576 2893 2264 1372 584
-90dBm 62938 247 144 288 353 129 62 29 142228 2732 2550 2356 1510 1114 774 404
-80dBm 27005 51 65 149 177 82 40 16 222462 1523 1355 1552 716 812 1081 343
-70dBm 2831 3 9 28 87 10 6 0 44504 91 123 151 81 101 191 88
-47dBm 751 0 4 10 25 1 0 0 5994 49 17 17 12 29 65 10

High amount of UL bad samples  Cell is not working properly; as if it is transferring traffic: UL
quality/ UL level HO’s are triggered immediately. These kind of cells must be investigated.

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Solution Findings

Performance Optimization –
Downlink Interference CS
q0 q1 q2 q3 q4 q5 q6 q7 Critical interference problem: signal level is very good
-100dBm 10645 8516 6813 5450 4360 3488 2791 2232 (<-70dBm) with no better cell available, thus no HOs
-95dBm 47043 37634 30108 24086 9865 7543 5643 2345 take place (samples can be seen in the table).
-90dBm 56204 44963 35971 28776 16574 5676 845 65 Interference is causing drops.
-80dBm 200863 160690 128552 102842 17654 3653 145 28
-70dBm 12785 10228 8182 6546 456 112 24 23
-47dBm 4583 1123 583 452 261 76 26 2

q0 q1 q2 q3 q4 q5 q6 q7 Bad interference problem: signal level is good (<-80dBm)


-100dBm 10645 8516 6813 5450 4360 3488 2791 2232 and sometimes no better cell is available. If a better cell is
-95dBm 47043 37634 30108 24086 9865 7543 5643 2345 available and quality samples are Q4 or worse then HOs
-90dBm 56204 44963 35971 28776 16574 5676 845 65 can take place (HO reason could be quality or
-80dBm 200863 160690 128552 102842 17654 3653 145 28 interference; depends on the parameter). Interference is
-70dBm 12785 10228 8182 6546 456 112 24 23 causing drops.
-47dBm 4583 1123 583 452 261 76 26 2

q0 q1 q2 q3 q4 q5 q6 q7 “network is working properly” situation: In case of quality 4


-100dBm 10645 8516 6813 5450 4360 3488 2791 2232
or worse samples  quality HO. In case of Q5 to Q7
samples  interference problem and interference must be
-95dBm 47043 37634 30108 24086 9865 7543 5643 2345
analyzed and removed. If quality HOs but no Q5 to Q7
-90dBm 56204 44963 35971 28776 16574 5676 845 65
samples  better cell is available (no interference
-80dBm 200863 160690 128552 102842 17654 3653 145 28 problems). Quality HO when overlapping exists in these
-70dBm 12785 10228 8182 6546 456 112 24 23 signal levels and if the HO reason is not PBGT. By
-47dBm 4583 1123 583 452 261 76 26 2 parameter tuning the amount of quality HOs can be
adjusted.

q0 q1 q2 q3 q4 q5 q6 q7 Bad quality samples due to signal level problems. If


-100dBm 10645 8516 6813 5450 4360 3488 2791 2232 PBGT overlapping is not used  high number of quality
-95dBm 47043 37634 30108 24086 9865 7543 5643 2345 HOs + level HOs (margins are lower than in PBGT).
-90dBm 56204 44963 35971 28776 16574 5676 845 65  Not an interference problem – more of a coverage
-80dBm 200863 160690 128552 102842 17654 3653 145 28 problem.
-70dBm 12785 10228 8182 6546 456 112 24 23
-47dBm 4583 1123 583 452 261 76 26 2

Check ratio of samples vs. HOs and if better


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cells are available or not.

RG20 release introduces feature “Energy optimized TCH allocation” that enhances
the RG10 Energy Efficiency solutions and significantly reduces interference levels on
the downlink:
•Through this RG20 feature, the BTS power consumption can be reduced by
allocating the most power demanding MSs to the BCCH TRX (which is always at the
maximum power)
•Allocation to the BCCH TRX is based upon the Downlink received signal level
information
•The improved power management achieved reduces the level of interference in the
Downlink and consequently may decreases the call drop rate
•Transmit Power reductions of 1.5 to 2.5dB are anticipated, leading to a possible
Power Consumption improvement of around 10%  OPEX savings
•The gain is greatest for lower to medium TRX loading levels (up to approximately
60% TRX loading). For increasing loads, the influence of the feature and
consequently the gain, reduces

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Solution Findings

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
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Performance Project Assessments &


Solutions
Problems Starts Analysis

Performance Optimization – CS
Solution
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Verification

Are Criteria’s Monitoring /


Fulfilled Analysis Solutions
Data collection

Project
report

Project
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Downlink interference examples


DL_q0 DL_q1 DL_q2 DL_q3 DL_q4 DL_q5 DL_q6 DL_q7
-100dBm 12057 2827 3108 3952 4783 6200 7013 8156 There are almost as many Q5 and Q7 samples as Q4 
-95dBm 44818 4811 5041 5866 6587 7223 7259 6781 High interference or there is no better cell available (no HOs
-90dBm 98587 7107 7400 8334 8470 8781 7825 6162 after bad quality samples). This kind of interference should
-80dBm 225919 7450 7731 8445 7726 7441 5695 3369 be optimized, otherwise high number of drops will occur.
-70dBm 88708 1014 971 998 751 688 689 367
-47dBm 15881 84 109 122 104 167 199 184

DL_q0 DL_q1 DL_q2 DL_q3 DL_q4 DL_q5 DL_q6 DL_q7


-100dBm 8006 1636 1681 2197 2379 2510 2025 1290 There are not as many Q5 to Q7 samples as Q4  after
-95dBm 24951 1636 1627 1767 1037 431 175 53 interference samples Quality HO is done or the interference
-90dBm 57559 2171 1884 1651 781 330 161 47 situation is not so bad, for example sampling is
-80dBm 200602 5771 4686 4130 1736 566 254 97 Q0,Q2,Q4,Q2,Q5,Q0,Q2,Q3,Q4,Q2  quality HO is not
-70dBm 304206 5464 4310 3796 1315 350 153 105 triggered.
-47dBm 108047 2134 1908 1623 689 230 129 64

DL_q0 DL_q1 DL_q2 DL_q3 DL_q4 DL_q5 DL_q6 DL_q7


-100dBm 7055 1398 1374 1906 2163 2003 1468 832 Bad quality samples due to low signal level problems.
-95dBm 20109 1307 1274 1161 694 332 211 84
-90dBm 34531 1053 745 587 273 131 94 41
-80dBm 107539 875 518 630 161 98 113 47
-70dBm 177614 283 316 663 61 32 29 9
-47dBm 58718 78 91 198 54 40 54 32

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Solution Findings

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
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Performance Project Assessments &


Solutions
Problems Starts Analysis

Performance Optimization - CS
Solution
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Verification

Are Criteria’s Monitoring /


Fulfilled Analysis Solutions
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

Internal / external interference


•Internal Interference
– Interference can be seen from stats or measured with scanner.
– Neighbor cells (in the DL) or mobiles (UL) are causing interference.
– By frequency / network planning interference can be decreased.
•External Interference
– Interference can be seen from stats or measured with scanner.
– External radio frequencies are causing interference
 Military frequencies
 In country border areas the interfering frequency could be from another
country.
 Other external wireless system (e.g. industrial system) is causing
interference

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Solution Findings

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
INPUTS on assessment

Performance Project Assessments &


Solutions
Problems Starts Analysis

Performance Optimization – Traffic CS


Solution
Implementations Work orders Priorization
Verification

Are Criteria’s Monitoring /


Fulfilled Analysis Solutions
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

Traffic handling (1)


How can we balance traffic
between cells in the same
Blocking in cellA
site?
•HO parameters cellA
– PBGT
– Quality / interference margins
– Level margins Traffic will be
pushed to neighbor
•HO Features cellB cells
– Umbrella
– Traffic reason HO
– DR
•Traffic layers cellC
– 1800 (dual band)
– CBCCH

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Solution Findings

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
INPUTS on assessment

Performance Project Assessments &


Solutions
Problems Starts Analysis

Performance Optimization – Traffic CS


Solution
Implementations Work orders Priorization
Verification

Are Criteria’s Monitoring /


Fulfilled Analysis Solutions
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

Traffic handling (2)


How can we balance traffic
between cells in different cellA
sites? Blocking in cellA
• HO parameters
– PBGT
– Quality / interference margins Traffic will be pushed
– Level margins to neighbor cells

• HO Features
– Umbrella
– Traffic reason HO
– DR cellB
cellC

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Solution Findings

Performance Optimization – PS

Before PS Optimization basic GSM optimization


should be performed

1. As high signal level as possible


• Signal level should be high enough (even indoors) in order to have
MCS9 to get the highest data rate possible on the RLC/MAC
layer.
2. As low interference as possible
• The aim of having high C/I is to avoid throughput reduction based
on interference.
3. Enough capacity
• Enough BSS hardware capacity (interface and connectivity) is
needed to provide the required capacity for PSW services in time.
Both CSW and PSW traffic management should be harmonized
with the layer structure and long term plans.
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Solution Findings

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
INPUTS on assessment

Performance Project Assessments &


Solutions
Problems Starts Analysis

Performance Optimization – GPRS Attach PS


Solution
Implementations Work orders Priorization
Verification

Are Criteria’s Monitoring /


Fulfilled Analysis Solutions
Data collection

Project
report

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Typical failures outside BSS


• User subscription
– non-GPRS users and users from other operators with no roaming
agreement
• Protocol error
– Mainly caused by MS not responding during attach - main reasons:
 Radio contact lost
 MS out of coverage
– Collision of signaling message – MS sends Attach Request or Detach
Request when the previous Attach Request is still in process
Typical recommendations:
• PS Core settings
• Further RF optimization
• GPRS detach feature

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Solution Findings

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
INPUTS on assessment

Performance Project Assessments &


Solutions
Problems Starts Analysis

Performance Optimization – PS
Solution
Implementations Work orders Priorization
Verification

Are Criteria’s Monitoring /


Fulfilled Analysis Solutions
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

PDP Context Activation

Typical failures:
• PS Core
• Subscribers use incorrect APN during PDP Context Activation
Request
– Subscribers / MS reattempting with the incorrect APN can badly affect
overall PDP Activation Success Rate
– APN of other operators often seen. Main reason is subscribers using
the same MS with different SIM

24 © Nokia Siemens Networks RN20224EN20GLN0

RN20224EN20GLN0 24
Solution Findings

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
INPUTS on assessment

Performance Project Assessments &


Solutions
Problems Starts Analysis

Performance Optimization – TBF Failure PS


Solution
Implementations Work orders Priorization
Verification

Are Criteria’s Monitoring /


Fulfilled Analysis Solutions
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

Typical reasons for TBF failures


• Radio reasons
– Bad coverage
– Interference problems
– Blocking
• Parameter discrepancies TBF Failures
– MCA parameters
– POC Establishment No
Flush
CSW
Suspend
Failures Response
– GPRS_POC Traffic
Normally
TBF
 IFP, TFP Attempts
Ended
TBFs
• SGSN problems
– Gb, Gn traces will be needed

25 © Nokia Siemens Networks RN20224EN20GLN0

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Solution Findings

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
INPUTS on assessment

Performance Project Assessments &


Solutions
Problems Starts Analysis

Performance Optimization – Throughput PS


Solution
Implementations Work orders Priorization
Verification

Are Criteria’s Monitoring /


Fulfilled Analysis Solutions
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

• Radio reasons (throughput / timeslot)


– Bad coverage
– Interference problems
 Decreased coding scheme  low throughput even with many timeslots
occupied
• TSL allocation problems (low total throughput)
– Check territory usage
• Check downgrades due to CSW traffic and PSW rejects
• If feasible, add more dedicated timeslots for data
– Check TBF sharing
• If lots of TBF/ TSL => check that CDED parameter <> 0
• Too much sharing => territory not big enough. If possible, add more dedicated timeslots

• Transmission problems
– EDAP congestion
– Gg congestion

26 © Nokia Siemens Networks RN20224EN20GLN0

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Solution Findings

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
INPUTS on assessment

Performance Project Assessments &


Solutions
Problems Starts Analysis

Solution
Implementations Work orders Priorization
Verification

Performance Optimization – Multislot Usage PS


Are Criteria’s Monitoring /
Fulfilled Analysis Solutions
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

Territory downgrade and upgrade


• Territory downgrade due to CSW traffic rise (c1179)
– CS traffic handling
• Territory downgrade due to less PSW traffic (c1181)
– Territory optimization (territory is perhaps not big enough)
– CS Traffic handling
• Territory upgrade request rejection beyond default territory
– Upgrade request beyond Default territory for additional resources
(c1174) which can be rejected because of:
1. No (E)GPRS capable resource left (No (E)GPRS enabled TRX or the maximum (E)GPRS
capacity reached)
2. PCU and EDAP capacity limitation (256 Abis TSL per PCU)
3. High CSW load Default territory

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

1174 1179

1181

1180

27 © Nokia Siemens Networks RN20224EN20GLN0

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Solution Findings

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
INPUTS on assessment

Performance Project Assessments &


Solutions
Problems Starts Analysis

Performance Optimization – PS Blocking PS


Solution
Implementations Work orders Priorization
Verification

Are Criteria’s Monitoring /


Fulfilled Analysis Solutions
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

• Hard blocking – no resources available


– More TSLs for data must be available
 Check unavailability in the cell
 More dedicated timeslots for data
 Amount of CS traffic must be reduced (traffic handling with features)
– RF optimization  higher throughput  less blocking
• Soft blocking – TSL allocation problems
– Check parameters:
 Territory parameters, CDED, CDEF
 (E)GPRS parameters
 Timers
• High delays  more blocking

28 © Nokia Siemens Networks RN20224EN20GLN0

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Solution Findings

(if necessary) based


INPUTS on assessment

Performance Project Assessments &


Solutions
Problems Starts Analysis

Solution
Implementations Work orders Priorization
Verification

Performance Optimization – Cell Reselection PS


Are Criteria’s Monitoring /
Fulfilled Analysis Solutions
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

Typical main causes:


• Bad overshooting
– Dominance areas are not clear
– Too many cell reselections

• Link balance problems


– UL / DL

• Cell reselection parameters are not properly planned


– Check C1,C2, NCCR parameters
– Check IFP, TFP parameters

• BSC / PCU area optimization is not properly performed


– Increased delays if areas are not properly planned

29 © Nokia Siemens Networks RN20224EN20GLN0

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Solution Findings

Traffic and Capacity Optimization

30 © Nokia Siemens Networks RN20224EN20GLN0

RN20224EN20GLN0 30
Solution Findings

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
INPUTS on assessment

Traffic and Capacity Optimization


Performance Project Assessments &
Solutions
Problems Starts Analysis

Solution
Implementations Work orders Priorization
Verification

GSM Architecture
Are Criteria’s Monitoring /
Fulfilled Analysis Solutions
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

Traffic and Capacity Optimization levels


• Ater, Transcoder (TC), A-interface
• BSC level
• Site level
• TRX level
• Timeslot level
• Signaling TC MSC

A
Ater
Air
interface BTS
BSC 2G

Abis Gb SGSN
BCSU

31 © Nokia Siemens Networks RN20224EN20GLN0

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Solution Findings

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
INPUTS on assessment

Traffic and Capacity Optimization


Performance Project Assessments &
Solutions
Problems Starts Analysis

Solution
Implementations Work orders Priorization
Verification

Introduction Are Criteria’s


Fulfilled

Project
report
Monitoring /
Data collection
Analysis Solutions

Project
Ends

• Ater, TC, A
– Capacity and pools
• BSC
– BSC Type, BSC load, Gb links
– BCSU, capacity
– EDAP/PCU Type, Load
• Site
– Antennas, BTS HW/SW BTS configuration, Dual band, CBCCH, SDCCH
traffic etc
• TRX
– Where will capacity be needed
• Timeslot
– FR/HR, AMR FR/HR, territory, CMAX, SDCCH traffic
• Signaling
– CCCH, TRXSIG, SS7 links

32 © Nokia Siemens Networks RN20224EN20GLN0

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Solution Findings

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
INPUTS on assessment

Traffic and Capacity Optimization


Performance Project Assessments &
Solutions
Problems Starts Analysis

Solution
Implementations Work orders Priorization
Verification

Ater, TC, A (1) Are Criteria’s


Fulfilled

Project
report
Monitoring /
Data collection
Analysis Solutions

Project

Abis Ends

interfaces

Ater Interface

•All traffic from BSC must be transferred to


transcoders. Number of E1s in Ater / Asub
interface depends on:
• TCH Traffic from all Abis IF’s
• CCS7 traffics
• O&M links
• Utilization rate

•1 PCM timeslot in Ater / Asub interface:


• 64Kbit/s
•1 PCM timeslot in Abis interface :
• FR= 16 Kbps
• HR = 8 Kbps
=> 4 or 8 PCM timeslots in Abis = 1 PCM
timeslot in Ater

33 © Nokia Siemens Networks RN20224EN20GLN0

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Solution Findings

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
INPUTS on assessment

Performance Project Assessments &


Solutions

Traffic and Capacity Optimization


Problems Starts Analysis

Solution
Implementations Work orders Priorization
Verification

Are Criteria’s Monitoring /


Fulfilled Analysis Solutions
Data collection

Ater, TC, A (2)


Project
report

Project
Ends

Required transcoding (TC) capacity is


derived from:
• Total number of required Ater Channels.
• Number of Ater channels is based on total
Erlangs in BSC and blocking in A-interface
• Configuration options for TCSM3i for
standalone installations can be seen below
TCSM3i units (capacity step) ETSI channels ANSI channels ET 16 ET 16 TR3E
(16 E1 (16 E1
PCMs)-1 PCMs)
BSC several
BSCs
1 960 760 3 3 8
2
3
1920
2880
1520
2280
5
8
6
9
16
24
Note! In certain solutions
4 3840 3040 10 12 32 the Transcoder is
5
6
4800
5760
3800
4560
13
15
15
18
40
48
implemented in the Media
7 6720 5320 18 21 56 Gateway (MGW)
8 7680 6080 20 24 64
9 8640 6840 23 27 72
10 9600 7600 25 30 80
11 10560 8360 28 33 88
12 11520 9120 30 36 96
34 © Nokia Siemens Networks RN20224EN20GLN0

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Solution Findings

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
INPUTS on assessment

Traffic and Capacity Optimization


Performance Project Assessments &
Solutions
Problems Starts Analysis

Solution
Implementations Work orders Priorization
Verification

Ater, TC, A (3) Are Criteria’s


Fulfilled

Project
report
Monitoring /
Data collection
Analysis Solutions

Project
Ends

A Interface
Number of required A-Interface PCMs is derived from the total number
of required Ater Channels (4:1 multiplexing)
1 : 120 4:1

ETSI Channels Ater interface PCMs A interface PCMs (4:1)


For Example: 960 8 32
1920 16 64
• Total Erlangs in BSC = 3920 Erl
2880 24 96
• Blocking in A-interface = 0.1% 3840 32 128
4800 40 160
→ ErlangB table(3920, 0.1QoS )
5760 48 192
→ 4042 Ater Channels 6720 56 224
7680 64 256
8640 72 288
9600 80 320
10560 88 352
11520 96 384

→ Ater Interface PCMs = 4042(ETSI) / 120 = 34


→ A interface PCMs (1:4) = 34*4 = 136
35 © Nokia Siemens Networks RN20224EN20GLN0

RG20 release introduces two new features for A over IP functionality:


1. BSS21341 - A over IP, Transcoder in BSS
2. BSS30380 - A over IP, Transcoder in MGW

Two architecture options are possible:


1. Transcoder function is located in the BSS (standard GSM architecture) -
BSS21341
2. Transcoder function is located in the Core Network (standard UMTS architecture) -
BSS30380

Performance benefit:
With Transcoder in the Core Network, voice quality is enhanced, since tandem
coding is no longer necessary and latency is also improved. A reduced transcoding
capacity is required in the BSS (realized in the Core Network).

RN20224EN20GLN0 35
Solution Findings

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
INPUTS on assessment

Traffic and Capacity Optimization


Performance Project Assessments &
Solutions
Problems Starts Analysis

Solution
Implementations Work orders Priorization
Verification

BSC Are Criteria’s


Fulfilled

Project
report
Monitoring /
Data collection
Analysis Solutions

Project

• Example of BSC capacity evolution


Ends

Static limits BSC2i BSC3i 660 BSC3i 1000/2000 BSC3i 3000


1 cab 2 cab
# TRX 512 660 1000 2000 3000
#BTS 512 660 1000 2000 3000
#BCF 248 504 1000 2000 3000
#BSCU 6 6 5 10 6
#SS7L 16 16 16 16 16
#LAPD 992 1236 2240 4480 5760
# (logical) PCU 16 24 50 100 30
# abis 16k channe 4096 6144 12800 25600 30720
#E1/T1 lines 144 256 384 800 800
Erlangs 3040 3920 5940 11880 17820

How are Erlangs calculated? Traffic Profile example


Mean holding time 120s
• This depends on used traffic profile Mobile originated calls (MO) 70%
Mobile terminated calls (MT) 30%
• Different traffic profile  different Handovers per call 1.5
2
results Location updated per call
IMSI detach per call 0.1
Paging response 63%
Example: How can we calculate BH call attempts SMS (req(subs/1 hour) 1
Terminated SMS 80% 80%
= (Total_Erl x 3600s) / mean_holding_time(s) QoS 2%

36 © Nokia Siemens Networks RN20224EN20GLN0

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Solution Findings

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
INPUTS on assessment

Traffic and Capacity Optimization


Performance Project Assessments &
Solutions
Problems Starts Analysis

Solution
Implementations Work orders Priorization
Verification

BSC utilization example Are Criteria’s


Fulfilled

Project
report
Monitoring /
Data collection
Analysis Solutions

Project
Ends

BSC Utilization Actual TRX utilization


• TRX Usage
Actual TCH Utilization
• TCH Usage

If utilization values
are too high:
BCS Capacity
optimization is
needed!

Utilization analysis can be used for long term BSC optimization


Capacity management vs. configuration optimization
37 © Nokia Siemens Networks RN20224EN20GLN0

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Solution Findings

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
INPUTS on assessment

Traffic and Capacity Optimization


Performance Project Assessments &
Solutions
Problems Starts Analysis

Solution
Implementations Work orders Priorization
Verification

BSC - EDAP / PCU / Gb


Are Criteria’s Monitoring /
Fulfilled Analysis Solutions
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

• EDAP capacity can be optimized based on KPI values


– DL / UL MCS selection limited by EDAP (dap_7a, dap_8c)
– DL / UL MCS selection limited by PCU (dap_9, dap_10)
– Peak DL EDAP usage (c76004)
– Peak UL EDAP usage (c76005)
– Territory upgrade rejection due to lack of PCU capacity (blck_32)
– Not too much capacity, nor too less capacity

• EDAP / PCU performance can be decreased due to Gb link


size
– UL/ DL Gb load: frl_7a/ frl_8a
– This should be checked always with EDAP / PCU optimization

38 © Nokia Siemens Networks RN20224EN20GLN0

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Solution Findings

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
INPUTS on assessment

Traffic and Capacity Optimization


Performance Project Assessments &
Solutions
Problems Starts Analysis

Solution
Implementations Work orders Priorization
Verification

BSC - EDAP / PCU Are Criteria’s


Fulfilled

Project
report
Monitoring /
Data collection
Analysis Solutions

Project
Ends

• EDAP blocking
– If EDAP utilization is below 100  increasing EDAP does not
provide any help  PCU optimization is needed
– As a rule of thumb the following estimation can be used to
calculate number of E1 links.

Nbr of TRX Amount of E1s


12 TRX GSM / GPRS
9 TRX GSM / EGPRS 1 E1
6 TRX GSM / Heavy EGPRS Note!
T1s can also be used
18 TRX GSM / GPRS
15 TRX GSM / EGPRS 1.5 E1 E1:32 channels
12 TRX GSM / Heavy EGPRS T1:24 channels
24 TRX GSM / GPRS
21 TRX GSM / EGPRS 2 E1
18 TRX GSM / Heavy EGPRS

39 © Nokia Siemens Networks RN20224EN20GLN0

RN20224EN20GLN0 39
Solution Findings

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
INPUTS on assessment

Traffic and Capacity Optimization


Performance Project Assessments &
Solutions
Problems Starts Analysis

Solution
Implementations Work orders Priorization
Verification

BSC - Gb Are Criteria’s


Fulfilled

Project
report
Monitoring /
Data collection
Analysis Solutions

Project
Ends

• Gb utilization
– If values near thresholds, it is recommended to increase Gb link size
OR Implement Gb over IP
Maximum received load % ( DL)
Gb bandwidth Restricting Gb
[kbps] link utilization
[%]
128 25
256 61
384 68
512 68
640 70
768 75
896 85
1024 90

40 © Nokia Siemens Networks RN20224EN20GLN0

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Solution Findings

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
INPUTS on assessment

Traffic and Capacity Optimization


Performance Project Assessments &
Solutions
Problems Starts Analysis

Solution
Implementations Work orders Priorization
Verification

Indoor site solution Are Criteria’s


Fulfilled

Project
report
Monitoring /
Data collection
Analysis Solutions

Project
Ends

Indoor solution:

Before 4 TRX, 20Erl

After 2 TRX, 5Erl Indoor Site


4TRX, 15Erl

Note! Indoor solution is collecting traffic inside the office (heavy traffic)
 Less frequencies needed outside the building
41 © Nokia Siemens Networks RN20224EN20GLN0

The indoor site solution described in the above slide provides considerable benefits:
•Better indoor coverage (especially for operators on the GSM1800 band) with higher
signal level indoors
•Increased revenue for operator
•Less frequencies used outside  reduced interference levels
•Indoor traffic offloaded from outdoor site

RN20224EN20GLN0 41
Solution Findings

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
INPUTS on assessment

Traffic and Capacity Optimization


Performance Project Assessments &
Solutions
Problems Starts Analysis

Solution
Implementations Work orders Priorization
Verification

Dual Band Network Are Criteria’s


Fulfilled

Project
report
Monitoring /
Data collection
Analysis Solutions

Project
Ends

Before
GSM 900 layer (4TRX:24Erl (Bad blocking),

GSM 900 layer (2TRX:2Erl)

Actions:
• 1800 layer was added
• From 900 layer traffic to 1800 layer
After • 3 TRX was removed from 900 layers
GSM 900 layer (2TRX:7Erl no blocking) • Total traffic was increased
GSM 1800 layer (4TRX:21Erl)
GSM 900 layer (1TRX:1,5Erl

42
Note! Dual band layers can also be GSM 900 and WCDMA
© Nokia Siemens Networks RN20224EN20GLN0

RN20224EN20GLN0 42
Solution Findings

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
INPUTS on assessment

Performance Project Assessments &

Traffic and Capacity Optimization


Solutions
Problems Starts Analysis

Solution
Implementations Work orders Priorization
Verification

Traffic layers
Are Criteria’s Monitoring /
Fulfilled Analysis Solutions
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

3G Layers
• 2100 Macro
• 2100 Micro
• 2100 Indoor

2G Layers
• 900 Macro
• 1800 Macro
• 900/1800 Micro
• 900/1800 Indoor
Note! Traffic between layers (handovers)
can be handled by parameters
43 © Nokia Siemens Networks RN20224EN20GLN0

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Solution Findings

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
INPUTS on assessment

Traffic and Capacity Optimization


Performance Project Assessments &
Solutions
Problems Starts Analysis

Solution
Implementations Work orders Priorization
Verification

TRX capacity where it is needed Are Criteria’s


Fulfilled

Project
report
Monitoring /
Data collection
Analysis Solutions

Project
Ends

Example: site configuration 2+2+2 in all sites


Bad Blocking area
8Erl 3Erl • More capacity is needed
5Erl 9Erl

2Erl 1Erl
4Erl
5Erl
5Erl 6Erl
1Erl
4Erl 1Erl
Extra capacity:
4Erl 2 TRX/every cell is too
much  TRXs can be
3Erl transferred to the cells
where these are more
needed
44 © Nokia Siemens Networks RN20224EN20GLN0

Adding extra hardware (e.g. TRXs) is not always the answer to improve network
capacity.

As a rule, not more TRXs should be used than those needed:


•Resouces are valuable; do not waste them (hardware and CAPEX/OPEX)
•Higher number of TRXs used  higher number of frequecies  higher interference
•OPEX savigns through power savings when less TRXs are use
•Reduced Handovers (reduced signaling load on the network)
....

Accurate traffic and capacity planning and optimization is needed in order to use
exact number of capacity (TRXs) required and get more from the network.

RN20224EN20GLN0 44
Solution Findings

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
INPUTS on assessment

Traffic and Capacity Optimization


Performance Project Assessments &
Solutions
Problems Starts Analysis

Solution
Implementations Work orders Priorization
Verification

Timeslot – AMR FR/HR (1) Are Criteria’s


Fulfilled

Project
report
Monitoring /
Data collection
Analysis Solutions

Project
Ends

Half rate (HR) is recommended to use when:


• More capacity is needed but additional TRXs can not be
added
– Interference problems, Frequency reuse
– HW limitations
• Temporary needs for additional capacity
– Special events
– Due to daily traffic profile, additional capacity will be needed for
short period of time
• Big cruise ship is passing by, tens of calls during short time

45 © Nokia Siemens Networks RN20224EN20GLN0

RG20 Release introduces a new feature: “OSC Half Rate with SAIC MS”
(BSS21309) that can further increase network capacity without extending the BTS
configuration (e.g. adding more hardware – TRXs)

Feature Summary:
Orthogonal Sub Channel (OSC) introduces a doubling of the voice channel capacity,
such that with this new feature, four users can now share the same radio Timeslot.
The increase in voice channel capacity is realized through the adoption of a
quaternary modulation scheme in the Downlink and utilizing spatially orthogonal sub-
channels in the Uplink. These two solutions, combined with AMR, enable the
possibility to serve two Handsets which support single antenna interference
cancellation (SAIC), simultaneously in a single radio traffic channel.

OSC not only introduces a step change in network capacity, it is achieved in a very
energy efficient manner, reducing the total energy requirement at the BTS, saving
further for the operator.

RN20224EN20GLN0 45
Solution Findings

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
INPUTS on assessment

Traffic and Capacity Optimization


Performance Project Assessments &
Solutions
Problems Starts Analysis

Solution
Implementations Work orders Priorization
Verification

Timeslot – AMR FR/HR (2) Are Criteria’s


Fulfilled

Project
report
Monitoring /
Data collection
Analysis Solutions

Project
Ends

• Channel Mode Adaptation is a HO algorithm that aims at


selecting the correct channel rate (FR or HR).
• The selection of the channel rate depends on 2 main
factors: load and quality

Codec
Good
load
Quality

AMR FR packing AMR HR

AMR FR unpacking AMR HR


Bad
Quality
46 © Nokia Siemens Networks RN20224EN20GLN0

RN20224EN20GLN0 46
Solution Findings

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
INPUTS on assessment

Assessments &

Traffic and Capacity Optimization


Performance Project Solutions
Problems Starts Analysis

Solution
Implementations Work orders Priorization
Verification

Are Criteria’s Monitoring /

Timeslot – FR/HR & PS territory


Fulfilled Analysis Solutions
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

Strategy – which timeslots for data and which for speech?


• BFG parameter
• Whether the BCCH TRX or other TRXs are preferred in GPRS channel allocation .

• FRL parameter
• With this parameter the percentage of full rate TCH resources that must be available for
traffic channel allocation is defined.

• FRU parameter
• With this parameter the percentage of full rate TCH resources that must be available for
traffic channel allocation is defined.

• Note! Territory and dual rate in same TRX (HR just


after territory)  not good, should be changed
tsl0 tsl1 tsl2 tsl3 tsl4 tsl5 tsl6 tsl7

TRX1 bcch sdcch How can we


tsl0 tsl1 tsl2 tsl3 tsl4 tsl5 tsl6 tsl7
allocate CS and
TRX2
PS channels?
47 © Nokia Siemens Networks RN20224EN20GLN0

RN20224EN20GLN0 47
Solution Findings

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
INPUTS on assessment

Performance Project Assessments &


Solutions
Problems Starts Analysis

Traffic and Capacity Optimization –


Solution
Implementations Work orders Priorization
Verification

Are Criteria’s Monitoring /


Fulfilled Analysis Solutions
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

AMR and PS interworking, CS TCH Allocation Calculation


CS TCH allocation calculation (CTC)
• Defines how the GPRS territory is seen when calculating FR resources.
CTC Value
x x x x x
0 = Only CSW used RTSLs
EGPRS
used/default MBCCHC TCHD TCHD TCHD TCHD TCHD TCHD CDEF are used to calculate
resources
5 CS calls 1 = CSW and PSW used
CTC 0 CTC1 CTC2
RTSLs are used. PSW used
RTSLs are seen as occupied
Territory resource when calculating
Free FR TCH resources 1 1 2
downgrade due to PSW RTSLs
Working FR TCH resources 6 7 7 CS traffic 2 = CSW used and PSW
% of free FR resources 16.7% 14.3% 28.6% used RTSLs are used. PSW
HR Preferred? N Y N used RTSLs are seen as idle
resource when calculating
resources
x x x x x x
FRL = relative amounts of
EGPRS downgrad free FR TCH resources in
downgraded MBCCHC TCHD TCHD TCHD TCHD TCHD TCHD ed proportion to working FR TCH
resources
6 CS calls

FRL = 15% in this example


Free FR TCH resources 1 1 1
Working FR TCH resources 7 7 7
% of free FR resources 14.3% 14.3% 14.3%
HR Preferred? Y Y Y

48 © Nokia Siemens Networks RN20224EN20GLN0

RN20224EN20GLN0 48
Solution Findings

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
INPUTS on assessment

Traffic and Capacity Optimization


Performance Project Assessments &
Solutions
Problems Starts Analysis

Solution
Implementations Work orders Priorization
Verification

Timeslot – AMR FR/HR (3) Are Criteria’s


Fulfilled

Project
report
Monitoring /
Data collection
Analysis Solutions

Project
Ends

HR will be allocated when there are few free FR TCHs available.


• The purpose is to avoid congestion / blocking
• HR switches back to FR when there are again enough free FR TCHs
• Thresholds are set by parameters (FRL, FRU)
Free FR TCHs

Upper limit for free FR TCHs

Low er limit for free FR TCHs

Time
No packing of Packing of No packing of
FR calls FR calls FR calls

49 © Nokia Siemens Networks RN20224EN20GLN0

RN20224EN20GLN0 49
Solution Findings

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
INPUTS on assessment

Traffic and Capacity Optimization


Performance Project Assessments &
Solutions
Problems Starts Analysis

Solution
Implementations Work orders Priorization
Verification

Signaling - Paging Are Criteria’s


Fulfilled

Project
report
Monitoring /
Data collection
Analysis Solutions

Project
Ends

Paging
TRXSIG can be dimensioned based on the following table:
• After implementation, paging capacity KPIs and occurrence of
LAPD overload must be checked
TRXSIG Comments
16k Can be used if 32k is not possible to use
32k Default value. Must be used if HR is used or high
64 k SMS
Must tbe ffi
used if HR is used and high SMS traffic

Note! If the cell is part of a large location area then high


paging load is expected. Thus, small signaling links (16Kbps)
should be avoided.

50 © Nokia Siemens Networks RN20224EN20GLN0

LAPD = link access protocol for the D-channel

RN20224EN20GLN0 50
Solution Findings

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
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Traffic and Capacity Optimization


Performance Project Assessments &
Solutions
Problems Starts Analysis

Solution
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Verification

Signaling – SDCCH (1)


Are Criteria’s Monitoring /
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Data collection

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Ends

• SDCCH capacity in the cell depends on the number of TRXs in


the cell
• SDCCH capacity in the cell also depends heavily on Traffic
profiles (e.g. amount of SMSs)
Number of TRX in SDCCH Traffic (Erl) Number of SDCCH in the cell
the cell Erl mErl/subs subs 1 sms/subs/hour 5 sms/subs/hour 10 sms/subs/hour 1 sms/subs/hour 5 sms/subs/hour 10 sms/subs/hour
1 2.2 25 88 0.4 0.8 1.3 1 1 1
2 8.2 25 328 1.6 3.1 4.9 1 2 2
3 14.9 25 596 3.0 5.6 8.9 1 2 3
4 21 25 840 4.2 7.9 12.6 2 2 3
5 27 25 1080 5.4 10.2 16.2 2 3 4

• SDCCH blocking KPIs should be monitored & avoided


– And reason for blocking, SMS, LU, paging etc should be known.
• Note! Exceptions are cells that cover ports of entry, such as airports, where
a large number of subscriber location updates are expected

51 © Nokia Siemens Networks RN20224EN20GLN0

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Solution Findings

More detailed inputs


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Traffic and Capacity Optimization


Performance Project Assessments &
Solutions
Problems Starts Analysis

Solution
Implementations Work orders Priorization
Verification

Signaling – SDCCH (2)


Are Criteria’s Monitoring /
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Data collection

Project
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Ends

Increased Dynamic SDCCH


• SDCCH resources are used for call
establishment, location updates and
short messages (SMS) BCCH SDCCH/8 TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH

• Dynamic SDCCH allocation feature


configures additional SDCCH resources
according to the traffic situation in a cell
• When a BTS needs temporarily larger BCCH SDCCH/8SDCCH/8 TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH

SDCCH capacity, then idle TCH


resources are configured for the
SDCCH use
• When the congestion situation is over • In case of SDCCH congestion one
extra SDCCH resources are configured free traffic channel can be
immediately back to TCH resources changed dynamically to SDCCH/8
• By using Increased Dynamic SDCCH • When SDCCH/8 is no longer
Capacity, you can use up to 32 needed it is changed dynamically
SDCCHs per non-BCCH TRX and 24 back to TCH
per BCCH TRX

52 © Nokia Siemens Networks RN20224EN20GLN0

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Solution Findings

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Traffic and Capacity Optimization


Performance Project Assessments &
Solutions
Problems Starts Analysis

Solution
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Verification

Signaling – SS7 (1)


Are Criteria’s Monitoring /
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Ends

SS7 capacity planning depends heavily on traffic profile.


• Typical traffic profile + bytes needed can be seen below
• Example of BSC Traffic = 3920 Erl
• Configuration 2+2+2 (per cell 2 signaling channels, 1 dedicated for data )

Reference model of call traffic Procedure Bytes


Mean holding 120s MOT 290
Mobile originated 70% MTC 267
Mobile 30% HO 145
Handovers per 1.5 LU 160
Location updated 2 Security 120
IMSI detach per 0.1 SMS 218
SMS (req(subs/1 1

TOTAL _ Erl = subscriber s * 25 mErl

TOTAL _ Erl * 3600 s


BusyHourCa llAttempts =
MeanHoldin gTime

3920 Erl * 3600 s


BusyHourCa llAttempts = = 117600
120 s

53 © Nokia Siemens Networks RN20224EN20GLN0

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Solution Findings

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Traffic and Capacity Optimization


Performance Project Assessments &
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Signaling – SS7 (2)


Are Criteria’s Monitoring /
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Project
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Ends

Total throughput must be calculated based on traffic profile (see previous


slide)
Procedure Bytes # in Busy Hour Kbps
Mobile Originated Call 290 82320 53
Mobile Terminated 267 35280 21
Handover (MSC) 145 176400 57
Location Update 160 235200 83
Security 120 117600 31
SMS 218 117600 57
Total 302

Total SS7 Capacity: 302 kbps


If SS7 utilization is 20%
→ 302 kbps / (0.2 * 64kbps)
→ 24 64kbps SS7 links are needed
Note!
• 1 E1 = 31 x 64kbps (total 32, 31 can be used for this purpose)
• 1 T1 = 24 x 64kbps
54 © Nokia Siemens Networks RN20224EN20GLN0

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Solution Findings

Coverage Optimization

55 © Nokia Siemens Networks RN20224EN20GLN0

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Solution Findings

More detailed inputs


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Performance Project Assessments &


Solutions
Problems Starts Analysis

Solution Finding – Coverage Optimization (1)


Solution
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20 km away from site

• Signal level -95dBm? 20km SiteA

• Are both cases critical ones?


• Are both cases coverage problem
cases?

Bad coverage – what does it mean?


20km

56 © Nokia Siemens Networks RN20224EN20GLN0

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Solution Findings

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Solutions
Problems Starts Analysis

Solution Finding – Coverage Optimization (2)


Solution
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Project
report

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Ends

Signal level – quality distribution


12478 samples
251992 samples
• signal level < -100dBm
• signal level < -100dBm
• Quality 7
• Quality 0
=> UL coverage problem?
=> UL coverage problem?
Exercise:
How should we optimize coverage?
Any problems?
QUALITY
UL_q0 UL_q1 UL_q2 UL_q3 UL_q4 UL_q5 UL_q6 UL_q7
SIGNAL LEVEL

-100dBm 251992 30668 20552 18417 18156 18286 16983 12478


-95dBm 123653 1151 403 692 519 351 221 72
UL -90dBm
-80dBm
62938
27005
247
51
144
65
288
149
353
177
129
82
62
40
29
16
-70dBm 2831 3 9 28 87 10 6 0
-47dBm 751 0 4 10 25 1 0 0
DL_q0 DL_q1 DL_q2 DL_q3 DL_q4 DL_q5 DL_q6 DL_q7
-100dBm 27862 5537 5529 6069 6109 6107 5389 4119
-95dBm 89094 4236 3853 3576 2893 2264 1372 584
DL -90dBm
-80dBm
142228
222462
2732
1523
2550
1355
2356
1552
1510
716
1114
812
774
1081
404
343
-70dBm 44504 91 123 151 81 101 191 88
-47dBm 5994 49 17 17 12 29 65 10

57 © Nokia Siemens Networks RN20224EN20GLN0

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Solution Findings

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Solution Finding – Coverage Optimization (3)


Solution
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Data collection

Project
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Signal level <-90…-95dBm is many times the level threshold


• Typical values for UL/DL level HO (UL -95dBm, DL -90dBm)
• UL / DL coverage should always de analyzed separately
• In example below: high number of bad UL signal level samples  UL
coverage should be improved

QUALITY

UL_q0 UL_q1 UL_q2 UL_q3 UL_q4 UL_q5 UL_q6 UL_q7


SIGNAL LEVEL

-100dBm 251992 30668 20552 18417 18156 18286 16983 12478


-95dBm 123653 1151 403 692 519 351 221 72
UL -90dBm
-80dBm
62938
27005
247
51
144
65
288
149
353
177
129
82
62
40
29
16
-70dBm 2831 3 9 28 87 10 6 0
-47dBm 751 0 4 10 25 1 0 0
DL_q0 DL_q1 DL_q2 DL_q3 DL_q4 DL_q5 DL_q6 DL_q7
-100dBm 27862 5537 5529 6069 6109 6107 5389 4119
-95dBm 89094 4236 3853 3576 2893 2264 1372 584
DL -90dBm
-80dBm
142228
222462
2732
1523
2550
1355
2356
1552
1510
716
1114
812
774
1081
404
343
-70dBm 44504 91 123 151 81 101 191 88
-47dBm 5994 49 17 17 12 29 65 10

58 © Nokia Siemens Networks RN20224EN20GLN0

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Solution Findings

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Performance Project Assessments &


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Problems Starts Analysis

Solution Finding – Coverage Optimization (4)


Solution
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Solutions to improve coverage


• Antenna changes
 Tilting
 Adding antenna with bigger gain
• New cell / site
 Costly
• DL /UL amplifiers
 DL, boosters
 UL, Mast head amplifier (MHA)
• Diversity
 UL
• Reducing losses
 Combiner types
 Feeder types
• Better site / antenna place

59 © Nokia Siemens Networks RN20224EN20GLN0

Other techniques that can be used for coverage optimization include:


• Extended cell
• Smart radio concept
• Antenna hopping

RN20224EN20GLN0 59
Solution Findings

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Problems Starts Analysis

Solution finding – Coverage Optimization


Solution
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Indoor Coverage
Project
report

Project
Ends

• Many networks have insufficient indoor coverage due to building high


penetration losses. This includes subways, under ground facilities and
tunnels.
• Outdoor coverage is good in urban areas. Interference is more of an
issue for outdoor users.
• Microcells and Indoor cells are good solutions to improve indoor
coverage and network quality.
– Antenna location is the main factor for successful indoor coverage
planning

Indoor BTS
Indoor Panel
Antenna
Master Unit

Optical Fiber RF Cable

Remote Unit

60 © Nokia Siemens Networks RN20224EN20GLN0

Signals from GSM networks operating at the 1800 band have higher penetration losses when
going through obstacles such as walls compared to GSM networks operating at the 900
band.

The best way to improve indoor coverage (especially for large businesses and business
customers) is by deploying indoor picocells to provide indoor coverage.

RN20224EN20GLN0 60
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Wrong Parameter Set


Performance Project Assessments &
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Data collection

Impact on network operation/performance – call setup,


Project
report

Project
Ends

quality, bands
1. No call setup in a cell
• Cell Barred
• Non existent (LAC, Cell ID) in MSC
• DMAX = 0
2. Very few calls setting up in a cell
• RxLevAccesMin
• Wrong MNC, MCC, LAC declaration
3. Very low traffic in a cell
• msTxPwrMax = 0, bsTxPwrMax = 30
4. Bad quality in UL after rehoming
5. Low traffic in 1800 layer of a dual band 900/1800 network

61 © Nokia Siemens Networks RN20224EN20GLN0

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Solution Findings

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Problems Starts Analysis

Example 1a
Solution
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No call setup in a cell:


• The cell has been barred
Handover

SY
Call Setup

S
(C IN
ell FO
Ba
r 3(
ye rAcc BCC
s) es H
s= )

62 © Nokia Siemens Networks RN20224EN20GLN0

This problem can be spotted by comparing the Handover with the Call Setup KPIs. If
the cell accepts handovers from its neighbouring cells and at the same time no calls
can be initiated at the cell, then the SYSINFO3(BCCH) CellBarrAccess parameter
should be checked. If its value is set to YES then this is the reason the cell cannot
setup any calls.

Before parameter is changed to NO, verification is needed that the cell was not
blocked for a specific reason e.g. cell was performing poorly and network
performance improved (especially that of neighbouring cells) after cell was barred.

RN20224EN20GLN0 62
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Example 1b
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No call setup in a cell:


• CI different between MSC and BSC or non existent (LAC, Cell
ID) in MSC

MSC cannot find the cell


(LAC, CI) in its database.
63 © Nokia Siemens Networks RN20224EN20GLN0

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Solution Findings

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Problems Starts Analysis

Example 1c
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No call setup in a cell:


• MsMaxDistanceInCallSetup (DMAX) = 0
Despite the coverage
of the cell, no calls
will be established!

Call Setup
DMAX = 0

 RxLevel = -70
dBm

64 © Nokia Siemens Networks RN20224EN20GLN0

This problem can easily be spotted with a drive survey: scanner will show good cell
coverage and signal level but the testing software will not be able to setup any test
calls in this specific cell. All calls will be setup in neighbouring cells.

Check that parameter MsMaxDistanceInCallSetup (DMAX) is not set to 0. If it is then


change it to the correct value according to the network’s configuration database.

RN20224EN20GLN0 64
Solution Findings

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Performance Project Assessments &


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Problems Starts Analysis

Example 2
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Very few calls setting up in a cell:


• RxLevAccesMin Parameter
Mapping OSS BSS Be careful when setting
database MML parameter through xml or dat
Lowest range 0 -110 dBm file! OSS database unit
1 -109 dBm should be used to specify
... ... parameter value!
62 -48 dBm
Highest range 63 -47 dBm

Cell coverage

RxLevAccessMin = -47 dBm

65 © Nokia Siemens Networks RN20224EN20GLN0

When the RxLevelAccesMin parameter is set incorrectly to a very high value (e.g. -
47dBm) then only MSs with a high Received Signal Level will be able to setup a call
in the cell. That practically means that only MSs in close proximity to the cell will be
able to setup a call.

A drive survey could be helpful in pinpointing this problem: the testing software would
not be able to setup any calls after a certain distance from the cell when the
Received Signal Level drops below the value set in the RxLevelAccesMin parameter.

Another common wrong parameter set problem that causes very few calls to be
setup in a cell is a wrong MNC, MCC, LAC declaration in the network. E.g. MNC is
01 and not 1! (in OSS must have correct value).

RN20224EN20GLN0 65
Solution Findings

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Problems Starts Analysis

Example 3
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Very low traffic in a cell: Parameter Value_______ Default value


•msTxPwrMax = 0, bsTxPwrMax = 30 bsTxPwrMax 0 … 30 dB 0 dB
bsTxPwrMin 0 … 30 dB 30 dB
minMsTxPower 0 … 36 dBm 0 dB
msTxPwrMax 0 … 36 dBm

Delta Attenuation Values (dB)



BTS Max Power = BTS Power – (bsTxPwrMax = 0 dB)
BTS Min Power = BTS Power – (bsTxPwrMin = 30 dB)

s olu te Power Values (dBm)

A b
MS Max Power = (msTxPwrMax = 33 dB)
MS Min Power = (minMsTxPower = 13 dB)

66 © Nokia Siemens Networks RN20224EN20GLN0

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Solution Findings

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Problems Starts Analysis

Example 4
Solution
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Project
report

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Ends

Bad quality in UL after rehoming:


• DiversityUsed parameter not set to yes anymore

After rehoming
RDIV parameter RDIV = Y
was set to default
value (NO) and UL
quality was
affected.

Uplink Diversity
improves quality of
signal received.

67 © Nokia Siemens Networks RN20224EN20GLN0

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Solution Findings

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Performance Project Assessments &


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Problems Starts Analysis

Example 5
Solution
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Are Criteria’s Monitoring /


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Project
report

Project
Ends

Low traffic in 1800 layer of a dual band 900/1800 network:


• Idle Mode: C2 parameters not set properly (temporaryOffset,
penaltyTime)
• Idle / dedicated mode parameters should be according to
strategy

BCCH
BCCH

slow moving mobile


fast moving mobile
1800: micro-Layer 900: macro-layer

68 © Nokia Siemens Networks RN20224EN20GLN0

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Solution Findings

Frequency Optimization

69 © Nokia Siemens Networks RN20224EN20GLN0

RN20224EN20GLN0 69
Solution Findings

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
INPUTS on assessment

Performance Project Assessments &


Solutions
Problems Starts Analysis

Solution Finding – Frequency Optimization


Solution
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Verification

Are Criteria’s Monitoring /


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Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

Performance of a GSM network depends on good frequency


planning.
Poor frequency planning causes high interference levels
• High number of dropped calls
• CS/PS quality is low
• Features are not working properly
• More sites built to cope with the high interference problems
• Many customer complaints
• Finally: loss of revenue and increased churn

 Frequency plan should be optimal!

70 © Nokia Siemens Networks RN20224EN20GLN0

Basic Theory - How to analyze a frequency plan:


• Frequency reuse distance
• Frequency allocation reuse
• Frequency load
• Effective frequency load

RN20224EN20GLN0 70
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Solution Finding – Frequency Optimization


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Theory, Effective Reuse


Project
report

Project
Ends

• Since the available spectrum is always limited, the available frequencies


have to be reused in the network.
• As the reuse distance becomes smaller, more frequencies become
available for each cell, so more capacity can be provided.
• The effective reuse is essentially the same as the conventional
frequency reuse distance.
N freqsTOT
Reff =
N TRXave
where:
Reff = effective reuse
NfreqsTOT = total number of used frequencies
NTRXave = average number of TRXs in a cell

Note! The smaller the effective reuse, the higher the capacity in terms of
the number of TCHs provided by one frequency in the network.
71 © Nokia Siemens Networks RN20224EN20GLN0

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Solution Findings

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Problems Starts Analysis

Solution Finding – Frequency Optimization


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Theory, Frequency Allocation Reuse RF Hopping only


Project
report

Project
Ends

• Frequency allocation reuse indicates how closely the frequencies


are actually reused in a network.

N freqsTOT
FAR =
N freqs/ MA
where:
FAR = frequency allocation reuse
NfreqsTOT = total number of used frequencies
Nfreqs/MA = average number of frequencies in MA-lists

• It indicates the severity of a worst case C/I in the cell border.


• If the network doesn’t utilize fractional loading, the frequency allocation
reuse is the same as the effective reuse.

72 © Nokia Siemens Networks RN20224EN20GLN0

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Solution Finding – Frequency Optimization


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Theory, Frequency Load


Project
report

Project
Ends

• The C/I is low when frequency collisions occur.


– In order to guarantee an adequate quality, the collision probability has to be low
– The collision probability depends on the load of the hopping frequencies called frequency
load
• The frequency load describes the probability that a frequency channel is used for
transmission at one cell at one time.
• The frequency load is a product of two other loads:
– hard blocking load (the average busy hour TCH occupancy in most of the cases)
– fractional load

L freq = LHW ⋅ L frac


where:
Lfreq = frequency load
LHW = the busy hour average hard blocking load (see next slides)
Lfrac = fractional load (see next slides)

73 © Nokia Siemens Networks RN20224EN20GLN0

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Solution Findings

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Problems Starts Analysis

Solution Finding – Frequency Optimization


Solution
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Theory, Hard Blocking Load


Project
report

Project
Ends

• The hard blocking load is calculated as

ThopTCH
LHW =
N hopTCH

where:
LHW = hard blocking load
ThopTCH = average number of used TCHs in the busy hour
NhopTCH = total number of TCHs in the hopping TRXs

74 © Nokia Siemens Networks RN20224EN20GLN0

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Solution Findings

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Performance Project Assessments &


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Problems Starts Analysis

Solution Finding – Frequency Optimization


Solution
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Theory, Fractional Load


Project
report

Project
Ends

• Fractional load means that the cell has been allocated more frequencies
than TRXs. This is only possible for RF hopping TRXs.
• The fractional load is very useful when the number of TRXs is low. By
utilizing fractional load, it is possible to provide enough frequencies to hop
over (to get FH gain) to even a cell with just one hopping TRX.

N TRX
L frac =
N freqs/cell
where:
Lfrac = fractional load
NTRX = number of TRXs in a cell
Nfreqs/cell = number of frequencies allocated to a cell (MA-list length)

75 © Nokia Siemens Networks RN20224EN20GLN0

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Solution Findings

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Performance Project Assessments &


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Problems Starts Analysis

Solution Finding – Frequency Optimization


Solution
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Theory, Frequency Load, HW and Fractional Load


Project
report

Project
Ends

• • “HW
“HWload”
load”isis75%
75%
• • Fractional
Fractionalload
loadFL
FLisis
75 % 25 % 33TRX
TRX / 5 F = 0.6==60%
/ 5 F = 0.6 60%
• • “Frequency
“Frequencyload”
load”isis
HWL
HWL* *FLFL==45%
45%

TRX-1 BCCH 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 f1

TRX-2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 f2, f3, f4, f5, f6

TRX-3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 f3, f4, f5, f6, f2

TRX-4 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 f4, f5, f6, f2, f3

(E)GPRS is on the BCCH


Active
Activeslots
slots Empty
Emptyslots
slots layer in this case

76 © Nokia Siemens Networks RN20224EN20GLN0

Effective Frequency Load (EFL):


•Coverage limited network has low EFL
•Interference limited network has high EFL

The Effective Frequency Load can be calculated from the following equation:

RN20224EN20GLN0 76
Solution Findings

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Solution Finding – Frequency Optimization


Solution
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Visual BCCH Plan Inspection


Project
report

Project
Ends

584 re-used
close together

584 re-used
close together

Heavy re-use
of 582

77 © Nokia Siemens Networks RN20224EN20GLN0

RN20224EN20GLN0 77
Solution Findings

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Performance Project Assessments &


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Problems Starts Analysis

Solution Finding – Frequency Optimization


Solution
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Data collection

BCCH Carrier Utilization


Project
report

Project
Ends

Channel distribution
60

50
Occurrences

40

30

20 Carriers also used


in MA List
10

0
572

573

574

575

576

577

578
513

514

515

516

517

518
519

520

521

522

570

571

579

580

581

582

583

584
78 © Nokia Siemens Networks RN20224EN20GLN0

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Solution Findings

More detailed inputs


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Performance Project Assessments &


Solutions
Problems Starts Analysis

Solution Finding – Frequency Optimization


Solution
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Data collection

BSIC Utilization
Project
report

Project
Ends

BSIC allocation distribution

• As can be seen from the


figure, the amount of BSIC
combinations is not spread
smoothly
• BSIC planning is not
properly done  risks to
double BCCH+BSIC
combinations is increased

Note! Good radio network is based on correct


BSIC and BCCH Planning

79 © Nokia Siemens Networks RN20224EN20GLN0

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Solution Findings

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Solution Finding – Frequency Optimization


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Same color =
same frequency

Signal level is good,


but quality is bad
 Frequency plan is
not optimal!

80 © Nokia Siemens Networks RN20224EN20GLN0

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Problems Starts Analysis

Solution Finding – Frequency Optimization


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Data collection

Different Frequency Planning Methods


Project
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Project
Ends

Exercise
How do these planning methods differ?

• Based on Prediction tools


– Planning Tools with propagation models
• Based on Interference matrix
– Optimizer
• MapInfo
– Visualization

Any other methods?

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Problems Starts Analysis

Solution Finding – Frequency Optimization


Solution
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Are Criteria’s Monitoring /


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Data collection

Frequency Hopping (1)


Project
report

Project
Ends

Interference
Network capacity and performance is
typically limited by co-channel F1
Interference Diversity
interference, multipath fading, delay F3
spread and noise F1

F1

Frequency Hopping benefits are based F2 average


on: F2 F3
F2 F
3

Interference Diversity
• where interference is averaged over MS_1 MS_2 MS_3
multiple frequencies
Frequency Diversity
Signal Frequency Diversity
• which reduces the needed fading Level

margins F1
F2
F3
Interference averaging and reduced
immunity to signal fading gives the
possibility to reduce the C/I margins and Distance
tighten the frequency reuse schemes
MS Location
Bursts sent on frequency F2 may be degraded or lost, but the initial signal can
still be reconstructed from the bursts on frequencies F1 and F3.

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Solution Finding – Frequency Optimization


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Data collection

Frequency Hopping (2)


Project
report

Project
Ends

Baseband Hopping
0 1 2 7 Timeslot
HSN1
TRX 1 BC f1 Timeslot 0 hops over TRXs 2-4 only
CH

TRX 2 f2 BCCH does not hop

TRX 3 f3
HSN2
TRX 4 f4 Timeslots 1-7 hop over all TRXs

RF Hopping
0 1 2 7 Timeslot
TRX 1 BC
CH
f1 – no hopping
TRX 2

f2,f3..fn – hopping according


TRX 3 mobile allocation list
One hopping sequence
TRX 4 number only

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Solutions

Solution Finding – Frequency Optimization


Problems Starts Analysis

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Data collection

DFCA – (Dynamic Frequency & Channel Allocation)


Project
report

Project
Ends

Random FH
TRX 1 BCCH
TRX 2 Random FH
over a fixed
TRX 3 frequency
TRX 4 list •• Loose
Looseinterference
interferencecontrol
control
•• Relies
Relies on random spreadingofofthe
on random spreading the
interference
interference
DFCA
TRX 1 BCCH
Cyclic FH
TRX 2 over
individually C/I > C/I target
TRX 3 selected
frequency lists
TRX 4 and MAIOs
for each
connection
•• Accurate
Accurateinterference
interferencecontrol
control(C/I
(C/Iestimations)
estimations)
•• Each connection is assigned with the
Each connection is assigned with themost mostsuitable
suitable
radio
radiochannel
channel(MA
(MAlist,
list,MAIO,
MAIO,TSL)
TSL)
84 © Nokia Siemens Networks RN20224EN20GLN0

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Solution Findings

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Performance Project Assessments &

Frequency Optimization - Consistency check


Solutions
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Cells with co-channel and adj-channel frequencies


Project
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A -6dB -9dB
Cell A Cell B
B

FREQ=10 FREQ=9,10,11

• Co-channel frequencies: HO is not possible in case of co-BCCH


• Adj-channel frequencies: HO is possible but might fail due to
interference.
• If Co / Adj-channel frequencies are used they must be removed

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Frequency Optimization - Consistency check


Performance Project Assessments &
Solutions
Problems Starts Analysis

Solution
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Verification

Are Criteria’s Monitoring /


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Check BCCH-BSIC and BCCH reuse distance


Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

Small distances may be


dangerous!
FREQ = 234
BSIC = 42

FREQ = 234 A

FREQ = 234
BSIC = 42
Reuse 4/12

86 © Nokia Siemens Networks RN20224EN20GLN0

In the slide above the BCCH-BSIC reuse distance A is greater than B and thus
optimal. Distance A will cause higher interference than B.

Other consistency checks that should be performed during frequency optimization


are:
•Neighbors with co-channel frequencies
•Neighbors with adj-channel frequencies
•Same cell neighbors with co-BSIC, co-BCCH
•Other vendor neighbors
•Frequencies / co-BSICs near the country border (if available)

RN20224EN20GLN0 86
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Problems Starts Analysis

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Project

impact on network operation/performance – Frequencies


report

Project
Ends

1. Dropped call rate increases after new frequency plan


implementation
• Double BA List activated
2. Unable to unlock a BTS after an RF-frequency hopping
implementation
3. Unable to unlock a BTS after a frequency retune
• NON-EDGE TRX, with GTRX = Y
• TRX, with GTRX = Y, not attached to any EDAP pool

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Example 1
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Project
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Ends

Dropped call rate increases after new frequency plan implementation:


• In the meantime, measurementBcchAllocation has been changed to
idle and MA list defined with old BCCH frequency band

OLD MA List

BCCH TCH OLD FREQUENCY PLAN

TCH BCCH TCH


NEW FREQUENCY PLAN

These BCCH frequencies will not be measured by old MA List

These TCH frequencies will be wrongly measured

88 © Nokia Siemens Networks RN20224EN20GLN0

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Example 2
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Project
report

Project
Ends

Unable to unlock a BTS after an RF-frequency hopping


implementation:
• After frequency hopping retune, a BCCH frequency might
be equal to the TRX frequency of non-BCCH TRXs
• After changing the TRX frequency, verify BSIC and TSC
(Training Sequence Code) are changed accordingly.

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Problems Starts Analysis

Example 3a
Solution
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Project
report

Project
Ends

Unable to unlock a BTS after a frequency retune:


• NON-EDGE TRX, with GTRX = Y, in a cell with EGENA set
to yes

SEG SEG
EGENA = Y
BTS EGENA = Y
BTS
(E)GPRS territory (E)GPRS territory
EDGE TRX(s)
B GTRX = Y B GTRX = Y
EDGE TRX(s)

NON- NON-
GTRX = Y EDGE GTRX = N EDGE
TRX(s) TRX(s)

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Example 3b
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Project
report

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Unable to unlock a BTS after a frequency retune:


• TRX, with GTRX = Y, not attached to any EDAP pool in a cell
with EGENA set to yes
SEG
EGENA = Y
BTS
(E)GPRS territory
1
B GTRX = Y
EDGE TRX(s)

NON-
2 GTRX = N EDGE
TRX(s)

Add TRX-1 to EDAP


EDAP pool
pool

91 © Nokia Siemens Networks RN20224EN20GLN0

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Solution Findings

Neighbor Optimization

92 © Nokia Siemens Networks RN20224EN20GLN0

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Solution Findings

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Problems Starts Analysis

Solution Finding – Neighbor Optimization (1)


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• Keep the neighbor list in order.


– If overshooting occurs then dominance areas are not clear  neighbor list
is getting bigger.
– Bad overshooting should be avoided
– Worst case scenario: Missing neighbors
• Use the Handover Adjacency Statistics to identify and remove
neighbors
– Bad overshooting cells can cause problems
• ISHO optimization

Avoid:
• neighbor definitions that are co-BCCH and co-BSIC or Adj-BCCH and
co-BSIC that can lead to wrong neighbor reporting
• One-way neighbors

93 © Nokia Siemens Networks RN20224EN20GLN0

The most common problems that are encountered when performing neighbor
optimization in a GSM network are the following:
•Missing neighbors (cells that have not been added to a cell‘s neighbor list)
•One-way neighbors
•Problems after reparenting (when sites are reparented to a new BSC the neighbor
lists must be carefully redefined)

GSM network performance depends heavily on neighbor optimization as neighbor


errors have a big impact on network KPIs.

RN20224EN20GLN0 93
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GREEN = source
RED = neighbor cell
BLUE = no neighbor

As it can be seen on the map,


neighbors are not fully optimized.
There are missing neighbors and
on the other hand, some far away
cells are neighbors

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Problems Starts Analysis

Solution Finding – Neighbor Optimization (3)


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Project
report

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Ends

Overshooting cells  added


to neighbor list.
Neighbor planning is more
difficult to do, when
GREEN = source overshooting cells are used
RED = neighbor cell
BLUE = no neighbor

Performance problems in this


area due to unoptimized
neighbors
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Problems Starts Analysis

Solution Finding – Neighbor Optimization (4)


Solution
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Project
report

Project
Ends

Challenges Not enough neighbors


defined  performance
• Sites by the sea problems will occur in
the sea.
• Dominance areas are reaching
far away  neighbor cells can
be far away SEA
• Indoor solutions
• Signal levels from outdoor cells
near windows can be high
• High buildings
• Many cells can be “heard” near
the window
• 3G cells
• Limited amount of neighbors

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Problems Starts Analysis

Solution Finding – Neighbor Optimization (5)


Solution
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Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

Neighbor optimization based on statistics:


• HO attempts, blocking and fails can be analyzed as source or
target cells
• Neighbor removing can be done based on stats

In case “Number of HO
Attempts” is very low to
a certain cell, consider
removing this cell from
the Adjacency list.

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Problems Starts Analysis

Neighbor Planning – Consistency check


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Data collection

Project

Non symmetrical adjacencies


report

Project
Ends

Find all non symmetrical adjacencies :


• cell B is neighbor of Cell A
• cell A is not neighbor of Cell B

Cell A Cell B

• If non symmetrical adjacencies exist in the network they must


be changed to symmetrical adjacencies

98 © Nokia Siemens Networks RN20224EN20GLN0

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Solution Findings

More detailed inputs

Neighbor Planning – Consistency check


(if necessary) based
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Performance Project Assessments &


Solutions
Problems Starts Analysis

Solution
Implementations Work orders Priorization
Verification

Neighbors with co-channel and adj-channel


Are Criteria’s Monitoring /
Fulfilled Analysis Solutions
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

frequencies or co-BSIC, co-BCCH


Cell B
f=10, BSIC=2,2 f=10

Cell A Cell C f=24


f=9,10,11
f=24 f=10, BSIC=2,2

Neighbors with co-BSIC, co-BCCH: Neighbors with co-channel or


adjacent channel frequencies:
• Might generate ghost-access and
HO drop calls. •Will cause interference between
neighbor cells
• High SDCCH Abis failures and high
handover failures could be
indicators for this case.

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Problems Starts Analysis

Solution Finding – Neighbor Optimization


Solution
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Verification

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Data collection

Different planning methods


Project
report

Project
Ends

Exercise
How do these planning methods differ?
1.Add maximum number of neighbors and after 2 weeks
remove extra neighbors based on HO statistic
2.Firstly, add only nearest (dominance area) neighbors and if
problems occur, add more neighbors

In neighbor optimization following selection methods can be


used
• Based on Optimizer
• Based on Map
• Based on OSS Statistics

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Neighbor planning – Consistency check


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Data collection

Other Checks
Project
report

Project
Ends

Except those mentioned in the above slides the following


neighbor planning checks should also be performed:
•Check cells in MSC vs. cells in BSC
•Check external adjacencies in MSC
•Non symmetrical adjacencies
•Neighbors of a same cell with co-BSIC, co-BCCH
•3G neighbors

101 © Nokia Siemens Networks RN20224EN20GLN0

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Solution Findings

Handover Optimization

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Solution Findings

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Problems Starts Analysis

Solution Finding – HO Optimization


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Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

HO Strategies – Traffic handling (GSM900/1800 layers)

PBGT, quality, level

1800
Umbrella
layer
Traffic Reason
IUO
PBGT, quality, level

900
layer

103 © Nokia Siemens Networks RN20224EN20GLN0

RG20 Release introduces also the “Merged P- & E-GSM900” feature (BSS21238)
that among other spectral efficiencies it also reduces the number of HOs needed in
the GSM Network. It is thus a useful feature to be considered in order to perform
further HO optimization.

Summary:
A number of P-GSM / E-GSM feature enhancements have already been provided in
earlier software releases. This feature complements these through combining the P-
GSM and E-GSM frequency bands into one and removing the specific handling
previously required for P-GSM only handsets.

Benefits for the Operator:


This new feature introduces an improved spectral efficiency through the merging of
the P-GSM and E-GSM Bands. Furthermore, the general operability of the network is
improved and simplified.

RN20224EN20GLN0 103
Solution Findings

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Performance Project Assessments &


Solutions
Problems Starts Analysis

Solution Finding – HO Optimization


Solution
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Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

Optimizing HOs, Reduce unnecessary HOs


• DL Level HO typically (-94dB)
old
• Quality HO 3dB
• HO Level margin 2dB
=> if Cell1 <-98dBm and Cell2 >-96dBm  HO
=> HO might fail

new  HO level margin 24dBm (disabled in this case)


 Quality HO 3dB (HO is performed only if quality problems occur)
Unnecessary HO is
 No HO, AMR is used => no drops and quality is OK prevented in this area
 PBGT is still working. Value can be decreased if problems occur)

-100dBm

Cell1 route Cell2

-100dBm

104 © Nokia Siemens Networks RN20224EN20GLN0

The table below shows some examples of High Level HO KPIs:


HANDOVERS INTERNAL Internal Handover Requests
Internal Handover Attempts
Internal Handover Success
Internal assignment handover attempts to better cell
Internal assignment handover attempts to worse cell
Internal successful handover attempts to better cell
Internal successful handover attempts to worse cell
Internal handover due to poor dl qual
Internal handover due to poor ul qual
Internal handover due to high TA
Internal handover attempts at low signal serving-cell
Internal handover attempts at high signal serving-cell
Internal handover attempts at high handover rate
Internal handover successes at high handover rate
EXTERNAL External O/G Handover Requests
External O/G Handover Attempts
External O/G Handover Success
External assignment handover attempts to better cell
External assignment handover attempts to worse cell
External successful handover attempts to better cell
External successful handover attempts to worse cell
External handover due to poor dl qual
External handover due to poor ul qual
External handover due to high TA
External handover attempts at low signal serving-cell
External handover attempts at high signal serving-cell
External handover attempts at high handover rate
External handover successes at high handover rate
UNDERLAY/OVERLAY Handover attempts to underlay
Sucessful handover attempts to underlay
Handover attempts to overlay
Sucessful handover attempts to overlay
INTRACELL Intracell handovers due to poor ul quality
Intracell handovers due to poor dl quality
Intracell handover returns

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Solution Finding – HO Optimization


Solution
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Ends

Optimizing HOs, HO parameters


• Umbrella (AUCL parameter)
• AMR FR/HR
– Packing, unpacking parameters
• Interference / quality HO
– If interference level is -75dB => interference problems in good signal level
– The rest are quality HOs => bad quality can also occur due to decreased
signal level.
• Level / PBGT
– If margin is same as PBGT, the only difference is level (example in
previous slide where Level HO is disabled.
– It is useful to know if overlapping in good signal level and bad signal level
 Can be noticed if overshooting
 No Level HOs  real coverage problems without overlapping

105 © Nokia Siemens Networks RN20224EN20GLN0

It is very important to be able to distinguish between Interference and Quality based


Handovers as defined in the slide above.

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Problems Starts Analysis

Solution Finding – HO Optimization


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AMR + Power Control & HO control co-ordination in UL


Project
report

Project
Ends

Quality
(BER)

(PxNx:6/16)
UURF 0

Power down quality Packing of the call


(PxNx:4/6)
IHRF 1

No action
(PxNx: 2/3)
LURF 3
Power up quality
(PxNx: 4/6)
IHRH 4
Unpacking the call
(PxNx: 1/1)

(PxNx:1/1)

(PxNx:1/1)
QURF
Handover trigger
RxLevel
-110dBm
LUR (HOC) -95

-47dBm

UUR (POC) -70


LUR (POC) -95

Power down
Handover

Power up
trigger

(AMR) Qual HO
HYS -6dB
level

level
106 © Nokia Siemens Networks RN20224EN20GLN0

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Synchronized handover
Project
report

Project
Ends

Non-synchronized Handover
– MS sends access bursts (HO_ACCESS) (with varying TA)
until it receives PHYSICAL_INFO
Synchronized Handover
– MS sends a few access bursts (HO_ACCESS) and then starts
transmission with previous TA

Non-synchronized handover leads to a longer communication


interruption than synchronized handover (200ms vs. 100ms)
Synchronized HO should be activated between sectors of the same site.
If activated on inter-site adjacencies the handover can fail
Synchronized HO
Non- Synchronized HO

Site A
107 © Nokia Siemens Networks RN20224EN20GLN0 Site B

RN20224EN20GLN0 107
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Problems Starts Analysis

Solution Finding – HO Optimization


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Different methods
Project
report

Project
Ends

Exercise 1
In which case is the network working better? (theoretical)
• All handovers are quality handovers
• All handovers are level handovers
Exercise 2
How do these differ from each other?
• Quality HO vs. Interference HO
• PBGT vs. Level HO
• Traffic handling: decreased power 2 dB vs. decreased HO
margin 2dB

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Solution Findings

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Performance Project Assessments &

HO Planning – Consistency check


Solutions
Problems Starts Analysis

Solution
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Verification

Are Criteria’s Monitoring /


Fulfilled Analysis Solutions
Data collection

Other Checks
Project
report

Project
Ends

Except those mentioned in the above slides the following


handover planning checks should also be performed:
•Check cells in MSC vs. cells in BSC
•Check external adjacencies in MSC
•Neighbors with co-channel frequencies
•Neighbors with adj-channel frequencies
•Neighbors of a same cell with co-BSIC, co-BCCH
•Check site with same MA List in different sectors and different
HSN
•Check site with same MA List in different sectors and MAIO
collision

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Performance Project Assessments &


Solutions

Examples of Wrong Parameter Set


Problems Starts Analysis

Solution
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Are Criteria’s Monitoring /


Fulfilled Analysis Solutions
Data collection

Project
report

Impact on network operation / performance – Handover


Project
Ends

1. No handovers taking place from a cell towards all its neighbors


• PLMN permitted = No
2. High handover failures after implementation of a new adjacency plan
• SYNC = YES
3. No handovers taking place from an interfered cell
• hoMarginQual set to 0
4. 100% of handover failures in an adjacency relation
• Co-BSIC co-BCCH declarations
5. High number of handovers
• hoThresholdsLevUL = hoThresholdsLevDL
6. Handover not taking place when the DL signal level of a neighbor is
significantly greater than that of the serving cell
• POC DL activated

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Solution Findings

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Performance Project Assessments &


Solutions
Problems Starts Analysis

Example 1
Solution
Implementations Work orders Priorization
Verification

Are Criteria’s Monitoring /


Fulfilled Analysis Solutions
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

No handover s taking place from a cell towards all its neighbours:


• PLMN permitted not set properly. MML Default value is the NCC of the
BTS. So HOs will not take place towards neighbors with different NCC.

No Measurement reports of
Cell B are sent to BSC. So no
PLMN permitted 0 = No
HOs occur from Cell A to
…. Cell B
PLMN permitted 3 = Yes
PLMN permitted 4 = No Cell A Cell B Set Plmn permitted 4 =
… NCC 3 NCC 4 Yes
PLMN permitted 7 = No

PLMN permitted parameter consists actually of 8 parameters (from 0 to 7) related


to the NCC part of the BSICs of neighbor cells. MS only reports measurements of
cells with NCC permitted (PLMN permitted = YES).

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Solution Findings

More detailed inputs


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Problems Starts Analysis

Example 2
Solution
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Verification

Are Criteria’s Monitoring /


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Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

High handover failures after implementation of a new adjacency plan


• All adjacencies have been implemented with synchronised
parameter set to yes. HOs between cells of different sites will
probably fail.

Synchronized Handover Set SYNC = YES


MS NETWORK only between
sectors of the
ACTIVE CALL
same site.
HANDO CMD Old Channel, Old Cell

HANDO ACC
SYNC = NO
New Channel, New Cell

x
PHYS INFO HANDO COM
ACTIVE CALL
SYNC = YES

Recommendation is to have Sync HO within BTSs in the


same BCF and Non Sync HO between BTSs in different
BCFs.
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Solution Findings

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Performance Project Assessments &


Solutions
Problems Starts Analysis

Example 3
Solution
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Verification

Are Criteria’s Monitoring /


Fulfilled Analysis Solutions
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

No handovers taking place from an interfered cell


• hoMarginQual is set to 0

Ho Margin Qual = -4 PBGT margin = 6dB

B
Ho Margin Qual = 0
(MML Default)

In an interfered cell, despite high signal strength, quality is not good. So HO


Margin Qual should permit HO to a cell that despite its lower signal strength,
may have a better quality.

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Solution Findings

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Performance Project Assessments &


Solutions
Problems Starts Analysis

Example 4
Solution
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Verification

Are Criteria’s Monitoring /


Fulfilled Analysis Solutions
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

100% of handover failures in an adjacency relation


• Co-BCCH declaration (Co-BSIC)

Cell A  Cell B

FREQ=10 FREQ=10
BSIC = 33 BSIC = 33

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Solution Findings

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Example 5
Performance Project Assessments &
Solutions
Problems Starts Analysis

Solution
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Verification

Are Criteria’s Monitoring /


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Data collection

Project
report

Project

High number of handovers:


Ends

hoThresholdsLevUL = hoThresholdsLevDL
Quality 0

Level Ho No Action Needed


hoThresholdsLevUL, 2

high thresholds will 3


anticipate HOs:
-95  -100 4

5
Quality Ho Interference Ho
hoThresholdsLevDL:
6
-95  -90
7 dBm
-110
-108
-106
-104
-102
-100
-98
-96
-94
-92
-90
-88
-86
-84
-82
-80
-78
-76
-74
-72
-70
-68
-66
-64
-62
-60
-58
-56
-54
-52
-50
HoThresholdInterferenceUL/DL

HoThresholdLevUL HoThresholdLevDL

HoThresholdLevUL/
DL
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Solution Findings

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Problems Starts Analysis

Example 6
Solution
Implementations Work orders Priorization
Verification

Are Criteria’s Monitoring /


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Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

Handovers not taking place when DL signal level of neighbor


much greater than that of the serving cell
• Power control DL activated

Power Control

-6dB
-9dB
B
-3dB

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Solution Findings

(E)GPRS Optimization

117 © Nokia Siemens Networks RN20224EN20GLN0

At the end of this learning sub module the participants will:


• understand the impact of GSM performance on (E)GPRS performance
• know the main assessment activities
• know how signaling, throughput and mobility can be optimized

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Solution Findings

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Problems Starts Analysis

GSM Network as the physical layer of (E)GPRS


Solution
Implementations Work orders Priorization
Verification

Are Criteria’s Monitoring /


Fulfilled Analysis Solutions
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

The optimal GSM network from PSW services point of view has:
1. As high signal level as possible
 It means that even the indoor signal level should be high enough to have MCS9 to get
the highest data rate on RLC/MAC layer.
2. As low interference as possible
 The aim of having high C/I is to avoid throughput reduction based on interference.
3. Enough capacity
 Enough BSS hardware capacity (interface and connectivity) is needed to provide the
required capacity for PSW services in time. Both CSW and PSW traffic management
should be harmonized with the layer structure and long term plans.
4. As few cell re-selections as possible
 The dominant cell coverage is important to avoid unnecessary cell-reselections in
mobility. The prudent PCU allocation can help to reduce the inter PCU cell
reselections.
 Dominant cell structure can help to maximize the signal level and reduce interference
5. Features
 All the features should be used which can improve the PSW service coverage,
capacity and quality in general.
6. The GSM network is the physical layer of (E)GPRS, so optimizing the
GSM network can improve the performance of (E)GPRS too.
118 © Nokia Siemens Networks RN20224EN20GLN0

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Solution Findings

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Performance Project Assessments &


Solutions
Problems Starts Analysis

(E)GPRS Optimization –
Solution
Implementations Work orders Priorization
Verification

Are Criteria’s Monitoring /


Fulfilled Analysis Solutions
Data collection

TSL data rate optimization


Project
report

Project
Ends

Timeslot optimization is based on basic optimization techniques


– Interference optimization
– Coverage optimization

RLC/MAC Data Rate (FTP Download on 2 TSLs)

120
Data rate depends
greatly on network 100

quality 80
No Interference
Better quality means C/I 25 dB
kbps

60
 Better throughput C/I 20 dB
C/I 15 dB
40
 Less blocking
20

0
-65 -70 -75 -80 -85 -90 -95 -100 -105
Signal level (dBm)

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Solution Findings

(E)GPRS Optimization –
Network Element and Configuration Assessment
HLR
BSS
BTS • QoS profile
• PCU variant &
• GPRS territory TC HLR/ • GPRS settings
dimensioning
AC/
• BTS HW • PCU strategy in EIR
considerations mixed
(TRX & BB-card) configuration
TCSM SGSN
• BTS SW (EPCR) MSC/VLR
• BSS SW and • Unit capacity
features (PAPU etc.)
• BSS Gb Flow
control
MS/Client
parameters
Gs
• GPRS/EDGE
capability and IP/MPLS/IPoATM -
release backbone
•Multislot support GGSN
BTS BSC 2G
RF Abis Gb SGSN Gn
Gi

Application
Applicatio
RF interface Servers
n Servers
• Coverage (co-
• C/I Gb interface located
• Capacity • Bearer size
Abis interface Server
• Traffic volume • IP vs. FR
• EDAP size / • load
• Mobility dimensioning • Dimensioning
• settings (Linux/Win)
• # of E1/T1s
• GPRS/EDGE
traffic

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Solution Findings

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Performance Project Assessments &


Solutions
Problems Starts Analysis

(E)GPRS Optimization - Introduction


Solution
Implementations Work orders Priorization
Verification

Are Criteria’s Monitoring /


Fulfilled Analysis Solutions
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

(E)GPRS Network Optimization:


• Signaling capacity & resource allocation improvement
• Data Rate
– Connectivity Capacity (MS-SGSN)
– Multiplexing and multislot usage maximization
• Mobility improvement

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Solution Findings

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
INPUTS on assessment

Performance Project Assessments &


Solutions
Problems Starts Analysis

Solution

(E)GPRS Optimization –
Implementations Work orders Priorization
Verification

Are Criteria’s Monitoring /


Fulfilled Analysis Solutions
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

Signaling Capacity & Resource Allocation improvement

• Signaling
– PCH, AGCH, RACH and SDCCH (NMOII)
• Resource Allocation
– Cell (re)-selection
– BTS selection
– Scheduling

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Solution Findings

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
INPUTS on assessment

Performance Project Assessments &


Solutions
Problems Starts Analysis

(E)GPRS Optimization - RF Signaling


Solution
Implementations Work orders Priorization
Verification

Are Criteria’s Monitoring /


Fulfilled Analysis Solutions
Data collection

Paging Measurements (NMO I)


Project
report

Project
Ends

Traffic Volume
• cs_paging_msg_sent (c3058) (CS pagings from Gb)
• ps_paging_msg_sent (c3057) (PS pagings from Gb)

Congestion (CS + PS)


• max_paging_gb_buf (003050)

Paging success ratio on CS


• PAC_PAG_REQ_FOR_CS_PAG (c72083) / (cs_paging_msg_sent) (c3000)

Success ratio of Paging on Gs interface (2G SGSN)

sum(DL_MESSAGES_DISCARDED_IN_GS(11000))
Sgsn_961a = ----------------------------------------------------------------------- * 100
sum(CS_PAGING_MSGS + DL_TOM_MSGS)

Solution for reducing PCH rejection and load


• Usage of combined structure, modifying MFR and PER parameters
• LA/RA re-planning
• Cell splitting

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Solution Findings

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
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Performance Project Assessments &


Solutions
Problems Starts Analysis

(E)GPRS Optimization - RF Signaling


Solution
Implementations Work orders Priorization
Verification

Are Criteria’s Monitoring /


Fulfilled Analysis Solutions
Data collection

AGCH Measurements
Project
report

Project
Ends

Immediate Assignment
Traffic Volume (with Rejection)
• imm_assgn_sent (c3001) - Imm Assign)
• imm_assgn_rej (c3002) - Imm Assign Rejected
• packet_immed_ass_msg (c72084) - P-Imm Assign
• packet_immed_ass_rej_msg (c72087) - P-Imm Assign

Congestion
packet_immed_ass_nack_msg
blck_21b = -------------------------------------------------------------------------
packet_immed_ass_nack_msg + packet_immed_ass_ack_msg

Solution for reducing AGCH rejection and load


• Usage of combined structure, modifying AG and CALC parameters
• Immediate Assignment messages are shared between PCH and AGCH
• PBCCH implementation (in case of high (E)GPRS signaling traffic)

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Solution Findings

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Performance Project Assessments &


Solutions
Problems Starts Analysis

(E)GPRS Optimization - RF Signaling


Solution
Implementations Work orders Priorization
Verification

Are Criteria’s Monitoring /


Fulfilled Analysis Solutions
Data collection

RACH Measurements
Project
report

Project
Ends

Traffic Volume
PACKET_CH_REQ (c072082) (PSW)
CH_REQ_MSG_REC (c003004) (CSW)

Load
RACH_4 = 100 * avg(ave_rach_busy(C3014)/res_acc_denom3(c3015))
avg(ave_rach_slot(c3006)/res_acc_denom1(c3007))

Repetitions of PS channel requests (load and quality)


RACH_9 = UL_TBF_WITH_RETRY_BIT_SET (c072020) / PACKET_CH_REQ (c072082)

Solution for reducing RACH rejection and load


• Usage of combined structure, modifying RET parameter
• PBCCH implementation (in case of high (E)GPRS signaling traffic)
• Reducing high UL interference (and DL interference if the repetition is too high)

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Solution Findings

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
INPUTS on assessment

Performance Project Assessments &


Solutions
Problems Starts Analysis

(E)GPRS Optimization - RF Signaling


Solution
Implementations Work orders Priorization
Verification

Are Criteria’s Monitoring /


Fulfilled Analysis Solutions
Data collection

SDCCH Measurements (NMO II with LA Update)


Project
report

Project
Ends

Traffic Volume
– SDCCH seizure attempts (c1000)
– Average available SDCCH (ava_45a)

Congestion
– Blocking on SDCCH, before FCS (blck_5)
– Time congestion on SDCCH (cngt_2)

Solutions for reducing SDCCH load:


– Increase of Periodic RA update timer (PRAU) / MS Reachable timer (MSRT)
 Drawback: more PAPU capacity is needed and more paging will be generated, if the MS is out of service
– More SDCCH TSL allocation and/or Dynamic SDCCH feature usage
– Combined RAU (NMO-I with Gs for (E)GPRS)
– (Resume feature decreases the amount of RAUs)
– LA and border re-planning

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Solution Findings

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
INPUTS on assessment

Performance Project Assessments &


Solutions
Problems Starts Analysis

(E)GPRS Optimization - Resource Allocation


Solution
Implementations Work orders Priorization
Verification

Are Criteria’s Monitoring /


Fulfilled Analysis Solutions
Data collection

Introduction
Project
report

Project
Ends

RLC/MAC
Basic Allocation related Topics Provide enough capacity to PSW
• PSW Activation traffic in general (find balance
• Territory settings between CSW and PSW)
• Channel preference

Cell-(re)selection
• C1, C2 Allocate the traffic to the most
• C31/C32 appropriate resource
• NCCR

BTS Selection
Separate GPRS and EGPRS
• MultiBCF and CBCCH
and share the resources
• PCU algorithm

User
Channel Scheduling Service and user prioritization
• Priority based QoS

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Solution Findings

More detailed inputs


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Performance Project Assessments &


Solutions
Problems Starts Analysis

(E)GPRS Optimization–
Solution
Implementations Work orders Priorization
Verification

Are Criteria’s Monitoring /


Fulfilled Analysis Solutions
Data collection

Project

GPRS Territory
report

Project
Ends

• Circuit Switched traffic has priority outside dedicated territory


• GPRS dedicated time slots (% of total cell capacity) can be defined. Only
(E)GPRS can use, no CSW
• Dedicated TSL is subset of Default TSL
• Territories consists of consecutive timeslots
• GPRS can be set to favour the BCCH Transceiver -> minimum interference
Extra GPRS capacity Default GPRS capacity threshold
Circuit
Switched
TRX 1 BCCH TS TS TS TS TS TS TS
Territory

TRX 2 TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS Circuit /
Packet
Free time slots in Circuit Switched
Switched territory Territory

Default GPRS Dedicated


Territory upgrade in interval of GPRS
Territory Upgrade Guard Time Capacity (%)
Capacity (%)
Territory downgrade
forced by the Circuit
Switched traffic
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Solution Findings

More detailed inputs


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Performance Project Assessments &

(E)GPRS
Cell (re) -Optimization –
Solutions
Problems Starts Analysis

selection
Solution
Implementations Work orders Priorization
Verification

Are Criteria’s Monitoring /


Fulfilled Analysis Solutions
Data collection

Cell (re) - Selection


Project
report

Project
Ends

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Solution Findings

More detailed inputs


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Performance Project Assessments &


Solutions
Problems Starts Analysis

(E)GPRS Optimization –
Solution
Implementations Work orders Priorization
Verification

Are Criteria’s Monitoring /


Fulfilled Analysis Solutions
Data collection

BTS Selection and TSL Allocation


Project
report

Project
Ends

Initial BTS Selection


Reallocation of TBFs among the BTS
1. BTS Load reallocation
2. Uplink Rx level reallocation
3. Downlink Rx level
reallocation
4. Downlink RX level received
first time reallocation

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Solution Findings

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Performance Project Assessments &


Solutions
Problems Starts Analysis

(E)GPRS Optimization –
Solution
Implementations Work orders Priorization
Verification

Are Criteria’s Monitoring /


Fulfilled Analysis Solutions
Data collection

Resource Allocation - Priority based QoS


Project
report

Project
Ends

TBF1 with SSS=6

Latest Service Time = Current Time + Scheduling Step Size


TBF2 with SSS=1

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 The
scheduling is
127 12 12 12 12 12 13 18 18 18 18 18
time done based
on latest
service time,
7 8 9 10 11 12 12 13 14 15 16 17 one TBF at a
time is served
Latest service time
by the RTSL

t i t i

52 TDMA frames = 240 ms= 12 blocks

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Solution Findings

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Performance Project Assessments &


Solutions
Problems Starts Analysis

(E)GPRS - Throughput Optimization


Solution
Implementations Work orders Priorization
Verification

Are Criteria’s Monitoring /


Fulfilled Analysis Solutions
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

• Connectivity Capacity (MS-SGSN)


• TSL data rate improvements and multislot usage
maximization (BSS)
• End-to-End data rate (applications)

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Solution Findings

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Performance Project Assessments &


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Problems Starts Analysis

(E)GPRS Optimization
Solution
Implementations Work orders Priorization
Verification

Are Criteria’s Monitoring /


Fulfilled Analysis Solutions
Data collection

Connectivity Planning – Maximized Capacity


Project
report

Project
Ends

• Connectivity optimization for maximum capacity is based on


the proper set of CDEF and DAP size.
• To provide enough capacity for territory upgrade, 75 %
utilization in the connectivity limits is recommended by NSN
• PCU Connectivity capacity limits can be seen below

Outputs Max limit* Utilization Limit unit


Abis channles (radio TSLs) 256 75% 192 TSLs
EDAP pools 16 75% 12 pcs
BTS (cell, segment) 64 75% 48 pcs
TRXs 128 75% 96 pcs
*PCU & PCU-S handle 128 radio TSLs only with S11.5
*PBCCH is not implemented

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Solution Findings

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Problems Starts Analysis

(E)GPRS Optimization
Solution
Implementations Work orders Priorization
Verification

Are Criteria’s Monitoring /


Fulfilled Analysis Solutions
Data collection

Connectivity in different PCUs


Project
report

Project
Ends

BSS11.5
PCU variant BSC Type BSS11 ownwards
PCU BSCE, BSC2, BTS 64 64
BSCi, BSC2i TRX 128 128
Radio TSLs 256 128
Abis 16 kbps channels 256 256
Gb 64 kbps channels 31 31
PCU-S BSCE, BSC2, BTS 64 64
BSCi, BSC2i TRX 128 128
Radio TSLs 256 128
Abis 16 kbps channels 256 256
Gb 64 kbps channels 31 31
PCU-T BSCE, BSC2, BTS 64 64
BSCi, BSC2i TRX 128 128
Radio TSLs 256 256
Abis 16 kbps channels 256 256
Gb 64 kbps channels 31 31
PCU2-U BSCE, BSC2, BTS N/A 128
BSCi, BSC2i TRX N/A 256
Radio TSLs N/A 256
Abis 16 kbps channels N/A 256
Gb 64 kbps channels N/A 31
PCU-B BSC3i BTS 2 x 64 2 x 64
TRX 2 x 128 2 x 128
Radio TSLs 2 x 256 2 x 256
Abis 16 kbps channels 2 x 256 2 x 256
Gb 64 kbps channels 2 x 31 2 x 31
PCU2-D BSC3i BTS N/A 2 x 128
TRX N/A 2 x 256
Radio TSLs N/A 2 x 256
Abis 16 kbps channels N/A 2 x 256
Gb 64 kbps channels N/A 2 x 31
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Solution Findings

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Performance Project Assessments &


Solutions
Problems Starts Analysis

(E)GPRS Optimization
Solution
Implementations Work orders Priorization
Verification

Are Criteria’s Monitoring /


Fulfilled Analysis Solutions
Data collection

Connectivity Planning – Cells / PCU


Project
report

Project
Ends

The following configuration types were


defined:
Extra small (CDEF→1 RTSL, DAP → 3 TSL)
The following table shows the number Small (CDEF → 2 RTSL, DAP → 4 TSL)
of (E)GPRS cell / PCU calculations Medium (CDEF → 4 RTSL, DAP → 6 TSL)
for the different configuration types. Large (CDEF → 4 RTSL, DAP → 8 TSL)
Extra large (CDEF → 4 RTSL, DAP → 11 TSL)
Data monster (CDEF → 4 RTSL, DAP → 16 TSL)
EGPRS BSS Configuration extra small small medium large extra large Data
data monster
monster
Portfolio (ETSI) (XS) (S) (M) (L) (XL) (DM)
(DM)
lowest cost
per EGPRS
Use case cell: maximize low cost: high
Data hot spot
EGPRS cells EGPRS cells per High data volume Extra high data
per PCU PCU ratio Basic EGPRS site EGPRS site volume site
site)
Data hot spot site
Parameters
CDEF 1 2 4 4 4 4
DAP 3 4 6 8 11 16
# of cells / PCU with utilization
cells per DAP 2 2 2 2 2 2
#DAPs per PCU 16 11 7 5 4 3
#EGPRS cells per PCU 32 22 14 10 8 6
PCU Abis ch utilization 88% 86% 88% 78% 81% 84%
average cells per DAP 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5
#DAPs per PCU 15 10 6 5 4 3
#EGPRS cells per PCU 37 25 15 12 10 7
PCU Abis ch utilization 85% 82% 80% 81% 84% 86%
cells per DAP 3 3 3 3 3 3
#DAPs per PCU 15 10 6 5 4 3
#EGPRS cells per PCU 45 30 18 15 12 9
PCU Abis ch utilization 88% 86% 84% 86% 88% 89%
Performance figures (kbps) (n+n+n)
single user peak RLC/MAC (#RTSL in DL) 186 237 237 237 237 237
cell peak RLC/MAC (gross) 354 325 373 597 748 829
areas for medium
area for low areas for low+ EGPRS traffic,
EGPRS traffic, EGPRS traffic, supports 4 & 5
no support 4 RTSL RTSL MS Hot spot site
135 © Nokia Siemens Networks RN20224EN20GLN0
performance MS FTP max FTP/HTTP max areas for high areas for extra hot spot site for
notes fo applying commitments throughput throughput EGPRS traffic For EGPRS
high EGPRS traffic EGPRS

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Solution Findings

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Performance Project Assessments &


Solutions
Problems Starts Analysis

(E)GPRS Optimization - KPIs


Solution
Implementations Work orders Priorization
Verification

Are Criteria’s Monitoring /


Fulfilled Analysis Solutions
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

• DL MCS selection limited by EDAP (dap_7a)


– Similar formula for DL (dap_8c)

Target values:
Good: < 75 min/GByte
Bad: > 150 min/GByte

– DL_TBFS_WITH_INADEQ_EDAP_RES (c076008)
 c76008 includes lack of PCU resources (c76020
DL_MCS_LIMITED_BY_PCU ) as one reason.
 If c76008 is updated but peak EDAP usage is less than 100%, reason
is that c76008 has been updated because of lacking PCU resources,
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Solution Findings

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
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Performance Project Assessments &


Solutions
Problems Starts Analysis

(E)GPRS Optimization - KPIs


Solution
Implementations Work orders Priorization
Verification

Are Criteria’s Monitoring /


Fulfilled Analysis Solutions
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

• DL MCS selection limited by PCU (dap_9)


– Similar formula for UL ( dap_10)

Target values:
Good: < 15 min/GByte
Bad: > 30 min/GByte

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Solution Findings

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
INPUTS on assessment

Performance Project Assessments &


Solutions
Problems Starts Analysis

(E)GPRS Optimization - Multiplexing


Solution
Implementations Work orders Priorization
Verification

Are Criteria’s Monitoring /


Fulfilled Analysis Solutions
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

Channel Allocation Algorithm tends to separate EDGE TBFs and GPRS


TBFs on different RTSLs to avoid multiplexing when there is only one PS
Territory in the cell or there is high load.
• UL GPRS USF on DL EGPRS TBF
• TSL sharing - GPRS/EGPRS TBFs’ multiplexing on a TSL
The algorithm checks the need for re-allocation every
TBF_LOAD_GUARD_THRSHLD, in order to separate sessions.
The max amount of TBFs per TSL can be limited:

Parameter Name Abbreviation Description Range and Default

Maximum Number of DL TBF MNDL maximum number of TBFs that a radio time slot can 1..9, default:9
have in average, in a GPRSterritory, in the downlink
direction.

Maximum Number of UL TBF MNUL maximum number of TBFs that a radio time slot can 1..7, default:7
have in average, in a GPRS territory, in the uplink
direction.

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Solution Findings

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
INPUTS on assessment

Performance Project Assessments &


Solutions
Problems Starts Analysis

(E)GPRS Optimization –
Solution
Implementations Work orders Priorization
Verification

Are Criteria’s Monitoring /


Fulfilled Analysis Solutions
Data collection

Multiplexing – Measurements (KPIs)


Project
report

Project
Ends

Amount of TBFs / TSL


Uplink TBFs pr timeslot tbf_37d
Downlink TBFs pr timeslot tbf_38d

GPRS TBF multiplexed with EGPRS TBF


8PSK coding scheme downgrade due to GPRS multiplexing rlc_61

DL EDGE TBFs in GPRS territory tbf_60


UL EDGE TBFs in GPRS territory tbf_59
Ratio of DL GPRS TBFs in EDGE territory tbf_58a
Ratio of UL GPRS TBFs in EDGE territory tbf_57a

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Solution Findings

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
INPUTS on assessment

Performance Project Assessments &


Solutions
Problems Starts Analysis

(E)GPRS Optimization - Multislot usage


Solution
Implementations Work orders Priorization
Verification

Are Criteria’s Monitoring /


Fulfilled Analysis Solutions
Data collection

Territory Downgrade and Upgrade


Project
report

Project
Ends

The territory downgrade heavily depends on the size of dedicated and


default territory.
• Territory downgrade due to CSW traffic rise
• Downgrade request below Default territory because of rising CSW (c1179)
• Territory downgrade due to less PSW traffic
• Downgrade request back to the Default territory when there is no need for
additional channels anymore (c1181)

• Territory upgrade request rejection beyond default territory


• Upgrade request beyond Default territory for additional resources (c1174),
which can be rejected because of:
1. No (E)GPRS capable resource left (No (E)GPRS enable TRX or the maximum (E)GPRS capacity reached)
2. PCU and EDAP capacity limitation (256 Abis TSL per PCU)
3. High CSW load
Default territory

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

1174 1179

1181

1180

140 © Nokia Siemens Networks RN20224EN20GLN0

New RG20 Feature: DL DC Territory Procedures

•Enhances the Territory Handling procedure such that by default an operator is able
to maintain a smaller PS Territory, which may then be extended upon request - when
a Downlink Dual Carrier (DL DC) capable terminal enters the packet transfer state
•Currently the default PS Territory (across the two TRX) may be downgraded due to
CS traffic loading, but it cannot be automatically upgraded for the DL DC MSs
•The operational aspect of the Dual Carrier feature is simplified through this
enhancement to the territory handling procedures
•The territory extensions are now managed dynamically, on an as required basis

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Solution Findings

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
INPUTS on assessment

Performance Project Assessments &


Solutions
Problems Starts Analysis

(E)GPRS Optimization -
Solution
Implementations Work orders Priorization
Verification

Are Criteria’s Monitoring /


Fulfilled Analysis Solutions
Data collection

Free TSL Size (after CS Upgrade and Downgrade)


Project
report

Project
Ends

When a downgrade or upgrade procedure is requested


following parameters can reduce or increase the border
between CSW and PSW territories:

TSL number after CS downgrade


TRX number 1 2 3 4 5
70 0 0 0 1 1
free TSL for CS downgrade (%)
95 1 1 1 2 2
(CSD)
99 1 1 2 2 3

TSL number after CS upgrade


TRX number 1 2 3 4 5
1 0 1 1 1 2
free TSL for CS upgrade (sec) 4 1 2 2 3 4
(CSU) 7 1 2 3 4 5
10 2 3 4 5 6

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Solution Findings

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
INPUTS on assessment

Performance Project Assessments &


Solutions
Problems Starts Analysis

(E)GPRS Optimization
Solution
Implementations Work orders Priorization
Verification

Are Criteria’s Monitoring /


Fulfilled Analysis Solutions
Data collection

Multislot Usage – Measurements (KPIs)


Project
report

Project
Ends

Actual Territory
• ava_44
• Peak PS territory (c2063)
Recommendation: Ava_44 and c2063 can be compared with the CDEF settings. If
the difference is high, then CDEF should be changed or more capacity should be
added to the cell.

Multislot Blocking
• UL / DL multislot allocation blocking – hard (tbf_15a, tbf_16a)
• DL multislot blocking – soft (blck_33a)
Recommendation: High TSL blocking shows that the territory is not enough.

It is also interesting to see how many timeslots are requested (helpful in determining
the size of the default territories)
• Requested timeslots for GPRS TBFs c72039-c72149, c72040-c72150, c72041-
c72151, c72042-c72152
• Requested timeslots for EDGE TBFs c72149, c72150, c72151, c72152

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Solution Findings

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
INPUTS on assessment

Performance Project Assessments &


Solutions
Problems Starts Analysis

(E)GPRS Optimization - Mobility Optimization


Solution
Implementations Work orders Priorization
Verification

Are Criteria’s Monitoring /


Fulfilled Analysis Solutions
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

The aim of mobility optimization is to reduce the cell outage time during cell
re-selection.

Cell outage can be reduced by:


• Providing enough signaling capacity for cell re-selection (the RACH, PCH,
AGCH and SDCCH channel are not limiting the signaling flow)
• Rebalancing BCFs among PCUs properly (the important neighbors are
allocated to the same PCU)
• Reallocating LA/RA borders properly
• Enabling Network Assisted Cell Change (NACC) feature

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Solution Findings

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
INPUTS on assessment

Performance Project Assessments &


Solutions
Problems Starts Analysis

(E)GPRS Optimization –
Solution
Implementations Work orders Priorization
Verification

Are Criteria’s Monitoring /


Fulfilled Analysis Solutions
Data collection

Outage Definition Used in Measurements


Project
report

Project
Ends

Three delays can be calculated


from logs:
MS GERAN

Cell outage:
• In one-phase access: the time
between the last EGPRS Packet
Downlink Ack / Nack message and
the first Packet Uplink Ack /Nack. Last IP packets Application Outage

• In two-phase access: the time EGPRS Packet Downlink Ack/Nack


between the last EGPRS Packet Routing Area Update Request Cell
Downlink Ack / Nack message and Outage
the first Packet Uplink Assignment. Data Packet Uplink
Outage Assignment
Data outage: Routing Area Update Accept

Routing Area Update Complete


The time between the last and the first
EGPRS Packet Downlink Ack / Nack EGPRS Packet Downlink Ack/Nack
message.
First IP packets

Application outage:
The time between the last and the first
successfully received FTP packets.

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Solution Findings

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
INPUTS on assessment

Performance Project Assessments &


Solutions
Problems Starts Analysis

(E)GPRS Optimization -
Solution
Implementations Work orders Priorization
Verification

Are Criteria’s Monitoring /


Fulfilled Analysis Solutions
Data collection

Network Assisted Cell Change (NACC)


Project
report

Project
Ends

• The existing Network Assisted Cell Change (NACC) capability supports


Cell Changes executed amongst cells controlled by a single BSC
• RG20 Release now extends this functionality by providing support for:
– Inter BSC NACC
– Inter System NACC
– Inter System NACC for LTE
• The reduction in cell reselection time supports services requiring either
short delays or higher throughputs, and applications can now operate with
shorter data buffers
• The performance achievable with NACC can now be realised Network-
wide or across RATs (Radio Access Technologies)
• RIM (RAN Information Management) support is required from the Core
Network

145 © Nokia Siemens Networks RN20224EN20GLN0

RG20 NACC Benefits:


• The NACC performance improvement that is achievable for a single BSC
NACC scenario can now be realised across the entire RG20 (BSS) GSM/EDGE
Network - providing a network wide and consistent improvement (IB NACC)
• The NACC performance improvement is now also extendable across Radio
Access Technologies (RATs), enabling a wider reach improvement (IS NACC)
• The Data Transfer Outage Time - the time between the last (Source Cell) and
the first (Target Cell) EGPRS Packet Downlink Ack/Nack Message - is reduced
typically by around 1s (on average)
• Leading to:
– An increased data throughput and QoS
– Increased revenues through the improved use of resources
– And an enhanced End User service experience
• Further, applications can now operate with shorter data buffering

Description of Inter-BSC NACC:


• Once the MS determines the target cell it delays cell reselection and sends a
PCCN message to the BSC
• The BSC responds with PNCD message(s) that include the SI1, SI3 and SI13 of
the target cell, and then sends the PCCC message, signalling that all SI details
have been sent
• If the BSC does not have the necessary SI details, it sends a PCCC message
without the prior sending of the PNCD

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Solution Findings

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
INPUTS on assessment

Performance Project Assessments &


Solutions
Problems Starts Analysis

(E)GPRS Optimization–
Solution
Implementations Work orders Priorization
Verification

Are Criteria’s Monitoring /


Fulfilled Analysis Solutions
Data collection

CS Traffic vs. PS Traffic


Project
report

Project
Ends

CS and PS peak values at the


same time (BSC level data)
 Bad for PS timeslot allocation
 Lots of downgrading

Exercise:
146
How can we optimize PS performance on an area level?
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Solution Findings

Alarms

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Solution Findings

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
INPUTS on assessment

Performance Project Assessments &


Solutions
Problems Starts Analysis

Alarms - Introduction
Solution
Implementations Work orders Priorization
Verification

Are Criteria’s Monitoring /


Fulfilled Analysis Solutions
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

Alarm analysis is the first action in worst cell troubleshooting!

Do not use perform optimization when there is a HW problem!

Poor cell performance could be caused by faulty equipment.


• Check that there are no performance affecting alarms in the cell and in its
neighbours
• Alarms are usually transferred to the NetAct database
• Monitoring can be done through MML Commands & NetAct’s Top Level User
Interface

Note! 24/7 monitoring is needed in order to avoid critical alarms in any


network element.

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Solution Findings

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
INPUTS on assessment

Performance Project Assessments &


Solutions
Problems Starts Analysis

Alarms – Groups
Solution
Implementations Work orders Priorization
Verification

Are Criteria’s Monitoring /


Fulfilled Analysis Solutions
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

Numbers
Disturbance Failure Diagnosis Base T ransmission reserved for
Notices
Alarm number in: printouts printouts reports station equipment possible
(NOT ICE)
(DIST UR) (ALARMS) (DIAGN) alarms alarms external
alarms
2000–2799
switching equipment 0–799 1000–1799 4000–4799
3000–3799
2800–2899
O&M equipment 800 - 899 1800–1899 4800–4899
3800–3899
transmission 2900–2999
900 - 999 1900–1999 4900–4999
equipment 3900–3999
diagnosis report
3700–3999
number
base station/
transmission 7000–7999 8000–8999
equipment alarms
power equipment 5000–5499
external equipment 5500–5999

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Solution Findings

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
INPUTS on assessment

Performance Project Assessments &


Solutions
Problems Starts Analysis

Alarms – Printout Fields


Solution
Implementations Work orders Priorization
Verification

Are Criteria’s Monitoring /


Fulfilled Analysis Solutions
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

• Alarm Number
• BCF number, BTS number, TRX number, Alarm Object, Unit, Date, Time, Alarm
Number
• Urgency level Note:

* Low Priority The urgency level is


output in all alarm
** Med Priority printouts except notices
(NOTICE).
*** High Priority The urgency levels of
• Printout type terminated alarms are
ALARM fault situation indicated by dots (.)
instead of asterisks (*).
CANCEL fault terminated
DISTUR disturbance
NOTICE notice
• Event type
COMM communication failure
QUAL quality of service
PROCES processing failure
EQUIPM equipment failure
ENVIR environmental failure

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Solution Findings

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
INPUTS on assessment

Performance Project Assessments &


Solutions
Problems Starts Analysis

Alarms - Alarms in MML


Solution
Implementations Work orders Priorization
Verification

Are Criteria’s Monitoring /


Fulfilled Analysis Solutions
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

Alarms in BSC Level:


– ZAHO: PRINT ALARMS CURRENTLY ON
– ZAHP: PRINT ALARM HISTORY Verify if BCF, SEG, BTS,
Alarms in BTS Level: TRX and RTSL are
LOCKED or UNLOCKED;
– ZEOL: LIST ALARMS CURRENTLY ON WO (working), BL- USR
– ZEOH: LIST ALARM HISTORY (blocked by user) or
Restarting.

BCF, SEG or BTS configuration and status


– ZEEI: OUTPUT RADIO NETWORK CONFIGURATION
TRX and RTSL configuration and status
– ZERO: OUTPUT TRANSCEIVER PARAMETERS

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Solution Findings

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
INPUTS on assessment

Performance Project Assessments &


Solutions
Problems Starts Analysis

Alarms - Alarms in MML


Solution
Implementations Work orders Priorization
Verification

Are Criteria’s Monitoring /


Fulfilled Analysis Solutions
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

HW Tests:
• ZUBK: HANDLE ABIS LOOP TEST
(Parameters: BTS, TRX, RTSL, Fixed or Dynamic Abis connection and
Abis TSL and Sub-TSL, looping time)
• ZUBS: START TRANSCEIVER TEST
(Parameters: BTS, TRX, RTSL, test mode, RTSL,test selection, diversity
path selection,test connection, RF test signal attenuation,BTS RX
level,STM antenna attenuation,BS TX power attenuation, loop duration)

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Solution Findings

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
INPUTS on assessment

Performance Project Assessments &


Solutions
Problems Starts Analysis

Alarms - Examples
Solution
Implementations Work orders Priorization
Verification

Are Criteria’s Monitoring /


Fulfilled Analysis Solutions
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

• 2993: BTS AND TC UNSYNCHRONIZATION CLEAR CALLS ON


ABIS INTERFACE
– Transcoder and transmission alarm. Abis test is needed.
• 7045: TRX/FU DATA TRANSFER ERROR BETWEEN FU AND CU16
– Base Station alarm. Observed when TCH failure rate is very high. A possible
solution can be to change the TRX.
• Example of a BTS alarm printout:

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Solution Findings

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
INPUTS on assessment

Performance Project Assessments &


Solutions
Problems Starts Analysis

Alarms - Top Level User interface


Solution
Implementations Work orders Priorization
Verification

Are Criteria’s Monitoring /


Fulfilled Analysis Solutions
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

• The Top-level User Interface contains graphical views of the network, in


which network elements are represented hierarchically with symbols
• One of the main functions of the Top-level User Interface in network
monitoring is to show the alarm situation in all managed objects

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Solution Findings

Implementation / Documentation

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Solution Findings

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
INPUTS on assessment

Performance Project Assessments &


Solutions
Problems Starts Analysis

Implementation / Documentation
Solution
Implementations Work orders Priorization
Verification

Are Criteria’s Monitoring /


Fulfilled Analysis Solutions
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

• The optimization process is an iterative process, so there is no need to


create a troublesome final report after every circle. Main items must still be
written down after every circle.

• All the activities/ findings should be listed


– What should be done and when
– “recommendation for the changes to be done" and "working orders".

• All improvements should be shown


– Implementation time should be shown
with improvements
Network Report
Tasks And
Results

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Solution Findings

Solution Verification

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Solution Findings

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
INPUTS on assessment

Performance Project Assessments &


Solutions
Problems Starts Analysis

Solution Verification
Solution
Implementations Work orders Priorization
Verification

Are Criteria’s Monitoring /


Fulfilled Analysis Solutions
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

• The purpose is to verify that the solution succeeded


– Is the trend positive or negative after the implementations?
– Verify that collected data is valid

EGPRS RLC Throughput kbit/s/TSL


BSC KRASNODAR

60

50
• Parameter changes
40 were done on 20.11
• Throughput after
kbit/s

30
changes was improved
20

DL
10
UL

0
.

.
0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

1.

1.

1.

1.

1.

1.

1.

1.

1.

1.

1.
11

11

11

11

12

12
.1

.1

.1

.1

.1

.1

.1

.1

.1

.1

.1

.1

.1

.1

.1

.1

.1

.1
2.

4.

6.

8.

2.

4.
19

21

23

25

27

29

31

10

12

14

16

18

20

22

24

26

28

30

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Solution Findings

Monitoring

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Solution Findings

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
INPUTS on assessment

Performance Project Assessments &


Solutions
Problems Starts Analysis

Monitoring – Introduction
Solution
Implementations Work orders Priorization
Verification

Are Criteria’s Monitoring /


Fulfilled Analysis Solutions
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

The basic idea behind network monitoring is to see how


the optimization project is ongoing and how the network
is performing

• KPI monitoring
• Testing & post processing

• Alarm monitoring

• Schedule monitoring

• Investments checking

• Resource monitoring

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Solution Findings

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
INPUTS on assessment

Performance Project Assessments &


Solutions
Problems Starts Analysis

Monitoring – Reporting Suite


Solution
Implementations Work orders Priorization
Verification

Are Criteria’s Monitoring /


Fulfilled Analysis Solutions
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

• Before Reporting Suite


can be started,
connection to NetAct
must be established

• Reporting Suite can be


used for KPI monitoring

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Solution Findings

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
INPUTS on assessment

Monitoring – Reporting Suite


Performance Project Assessments &
Solutions
Problems Starts Analysis

Solution
Implementations Work orders Priorization
Verification

Are Criteria’s Monitoring /


Fulfilled Analysis Solutions
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

• Different KPI groups can


be seen here

• Example of a final KPI report

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Solution Findings

Tools to be used

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Solution Findings

Tools to be used

Example of tools to be used when finding solutions:


Statistics Planning tools Configuration tools Drive test tools (Nemo
(Reporting Suite, (NetAct Planner, (Plan Editor, RAC tools, Optimizer Outdoor. TEMS, Actix
Metrica etc.) Asset etc) etc) etc)

Performance optimization x x x
Traffic and Capacity optimization x x x
Coverage Optimization x x x x
Frequency Optimization x x x x x
Neighbor Optimization x x x x x
HO Optimization x x x x
(E)GPRS Optimization x x x x x

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