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Chemical Reaction Engineering (Homework 1: Chapter 1)

4. What assumptions were made in the derivation of the design equation for

a) The batch reactor?

Assume that the reaction mixture is perfectly well mixed. There is no variation in the rate of
reaction throughout the reactor volume. Therefore, dCa/dt =0.

b) the CSTR?

The assumptions were the CSTR operated at steady state which mean inlet flow rate is
equal to outlet flow rate and perfectly well mixed system.
c) the plug -flow reactor (PFR)?
First assumption was reactants are continually consumed as they flow down the length of
the reactor. The second assumption is the reactants and products concentration varies
continuously in the axial direction through the reactor. The final assumption is the reaction
rate except for zero-order reactions, will vary axially.
d) the packed-bed reactor (PBR)?
To derive the design equation in PBR, the volume coordinate, V is replacing with the catalyst
weight coordinate, W. Same assumptions with PFR, the reaction rate of PBR only axial
gradients and there are no radial gradients in temperature, concentration or reaction rate.
5. Prepare the table below and fill it in with answers.

Type of Characteristics Kinds of Use Advantages Disadvantages


reactor phases
present
Batch Reactor is charged Gas phase, Small scale High High labour
via two holes in the liquid operations, conversion cost, variable
top of the tank while phase and manufacture due to long products from
reaction is carried liquid expensive reaction time batch to batch
out, nothing else is solid products and and can be and difficult
put in or taken out phase. testing new charged for large scale
until the reaction is process. (filled) production.
done, tank easily through the
heated or cooled by holes at the
jacket. top.
CSTR The reactor run at Liquid When agitation is Continuous Lowest
steady state with phase, required and operation, conversion
continuous flow of gas-liquid series good per unit
reactants and rxns and configurations for temperature volume and
products. The feed solid- different control by-passing
assumes a uniform liquid concentration and easily and
composition rxns. streams. adapts to two channelling
throughout the phase runs. possible with
reactor, exit stream poor agitation.
has the same
composition as in
the tank.
PFR Arranged as one Primarily Run at large High Undesired
long reactor or many gas phase. scale, fast conversion per thermal
short reactors in a reactions, unit volume, gradients may
tube bank. There is continuous low operating exist, poor
no radial variation in production and labour cost, temperature
reaction rate and can operate at continuous control and
concentration high temperature. operation and shutdown and
changes with length good heat cleaning may
down the reactor. transfer. be expensive.

PBR Tubular reactor that Gas phase/ Used primarily in High Undesired
is paced with solid solid heterogeneous has conversion per thermal
catalyst particles. catalysed phase reactions unit mass of gradients may
and gas- with a catalyst. catalyst exist and poor
solid rxns. and low temperature
operating cost. control.