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You are on page 1of 36

Carroll & Ostlie: "An introduction to modern astronomy",

Addison-Wesley Publishing Company Inc. 1996

Equations without numbers or references are from my own notes.

Side 1 af 36

Constants

Radiation constant =

Gravitational constant =

Plancks constant =

Boltzmann's constant =

Luminosity of the sun =

Epoch correction =

Mass of electron =

Mass of Hydrogen atom =

Mass of proton =

Mass of sun =

Absolute bolometric magnitude of the sun =

Epoch correction =

Period of the Earth =

Universal gas constant =

Rydberg constant =

Stefan-Boltsman constant =

Cross section for Thompson electron scattering =

Side 2 af 36

Variables

acceleration

Area

Average distance from the sun

Semimajor axis in ellipse

Semimajor axis of object 1 (known)

Semimajor axis of object 2 (unknown)

Centripetal acceleration

Interstellar extinction coefficient

Semimajor axis of reduced mass

Angle subtended by semimajor axis

Right ascension

Angle subtended by semimajor axis 1 (known)

Angle subtended by semimajor axis 2 (unknown)

Apparent blue magnitude

Semiminor axis in ellipse

Blackbody intensity at wavelength lamda at Temperature T

Bolometric correction

Specific heat at constant pressure

Specific heat at constant volume

Ionization energy

Aperture

Distance [cm]

Distance [AU]

Distance [pc]

Absorptionline spreading

Differential vertical optical depth

Differential optical depth

Declination

Full width of 21 cm line at half maximum

Change in right ascension

Proper motion

Change in declination

Change in wave length

Time interval

Differential intensity

Side 3 af 36

Differential Luminosity

Differential mass interval

Differential mass interval inside star

Differential pressure interval Luminosity gradient

Differential radiation pressure

Differential heat interval

Differential radius interval

Differential distance

Differential entropy interval

Differential temperature interval

Differential time interval

Differential speed interval

Differential volume interval

Differential hydrogen mass fraction

Eccentricity

Total mechanical energy of system

Energy of a photon

Energy generation rate

Energy generation rate due to gravity

Focal ratio

Force

Radient Flux

Flux of object 1 (known)

Flux of object 2 (unknown)

Focal length of eyepiece

Focal length

Focal length of objective

Radiation pressure

Flux at surface

Acceleration of gravity on the surface of star/planet

Ratio of specific heats

Adiabatic limit

Pressure scale height

Projection angle

Initial intensity at wave length lambda

Intensity at wavelength lambda

Emission coefficient

Kinetic energy

Side 4 af 36

Opacity

Opacity at wavelength lambda

Luminosity

Steplength

Luminosity of object 1 (known)

Luminosity of object 2 (unknown)

Maximum radiative luminosity

Approximate ratio of proton potential and kinetic energy

Wavelength

Wavelength of maximum intensity

Observed wavelength

Wavelength at rest

Angular magnification

Bolometric absolute magnitude

Bolometric apparent magnitude

Main quantum state number

Total mass of star/planet/atom/object

Bolometric absolute magnitude of object 1 (known)

Bolometric magnitude of object 1 (known)

Mass of object 1 (known)

Bolometric absolute magnitude of object 2 (unknown)

Bolometric magnitude of object 2 (unknown)

Mass of object 2 (unknown)

Average mass of gas particle

Absolute blue magnitude

Jeans mass

Mass inside radius

Absolute ultraviolet magnitude

Absolute visual magnitude

Mean molecular weight

Proper motion

Reduced mass

Main quantum state number

Number of atoms pr cm^3

Number of illuminated lines in the grating

Number of particles/atoms

Number of steps

Order of diffraction lines

Side 5 af 36

Time difference in years (Epoch)

Total number density pr volume

Column density of neutral hydrogen (in unit 1/cm)

Number of atoms in ionization state i

Index of refraction at wavelength lambda

Number of particles moving at the speed v

Frequency

Momentum

Paralax in arcseconds

Period

Pressure

Pressure of free electrons

Radiation pressure

Nuclear energy generated pr particle

Orbit radius

Radius of/inside star/planet

Distance to center of mass of object 1 (known)

Radius of curvature of surface 1 (known)

Distance to center of mass of object 2 (unknown)

Radius of curvature of surface 2 (unknown)

Distance at aphelion

Jeans radius

Distance at perihelion

Density

Distance traveled

Synodic period

Cross section for bound-free photoionization

Collision cross section

Temperature / Effective temperature (Kelvin)

Free-fall time for a homologous collapse

Optical depth of 21 cm line center

Optical depth

Incident angle

Smallest angular seperation

Apparent ultraviolet magnitude

Inclination of rotational axis

Internal energy

Potential energy

Side 6 af 36

Apparent visual magnitude

Orbital velocity

Speed

Speed of stellar wind

Speed of star 1 (known) in binary system

Speed of star 2 (unknown) in binary system

Velocity at aphelion

Rotational speed at equator

Escape velocity

Most probable speed

Velocity at perihelion

Radial velocity of object 1 (known)

Radial velocity of object 2 (unknown)

Radial velocity

Root mean-squared speed of particles

Tangential velocity

Hydrogen Mass fraction

Helium mass fraction

Metal mass fraction

Redshift

Partition function

Side 7 af 36

Formulas

acceleration

Eq. p0034 Newtons 2nd law

Area

Eq. p0028 Phythagorean theorem

Eq. p0030 (2.5) Distance at perihelion

Eq. p0030 (2.6) Distance at aphelion

Side 8 af 36

Centripetal acceleration

Eq. p0438 (12.1) Effect of interstellar extinction

Eq. p0206 c Semimajor axis of reduced mass

Right ascension

Eq. p0016 (1.2) Change in right ascension by epoch

Eq. p0016 (1.3) Change in declination by epoch

Eq. p0083 a U-B Color index

Eq. p0028 Phythagorean theorem

Side 9 af 36

Blackbody intensity at wavelength lamda at Temperature T

Bolometric correction

Eq. p0083 b Bolometric correction

Ionization energy

Aperture

Distance [cm]

Eq. p0277 (9.23) Random walk displacement

Distance [AU]

Distance [pc]

Side 10 af 36

Eq. p0064 (3.1) Distance from paralax in arcseconds

Absorptionline spreading

Eq. p0266 (9.13) Optical depth

Declination

Eq. p0016 (1.2) Change in right ascension by epoch

Eq. p0016 (1.2) Change in right ascension by epoch

Proper motion

Eq. p0018 Proper motion

Side 11 af 36

Change in declination

Eq. p0016 (1.3) Change in declination by epoch

Time interval

Eq. p0018 Proper motion

Differential intensity

Eq. p0280 (9.26) Pure emission

Eq. p0280 (9.27) Emission and absorption

Differential Luminosity

Eq. p0384 a Mass conservation (10.8)

Side 12 af 36

Hydrostatic equilibrium

Eq. p0318 (10.7) Constraints:

Hydrostatic equilibrium

Hydrostatic equilibrium

Eq. p0318 (10.7) Constraints:

Hydrostatic equilibrium

Differential distance

Eq. p0266 (9.13) Optical depth

Side 13 af 36

Eq. p0267 (9.15) Optical depth

Eq. p0280 (9.26) Pure emission

Eq. p0280 (9.27) Emission and absorption

(8.1) function

Eq. p0384 a Mass conservation (10.8)

Side 14 af 36

Eccentricity

Eq. p0028 Phythagorean theorem

Eq. p0030 (2.5) Distance at perihelion

Eq. p0030 (2.6) Distance at aphelion

Energy of a photon

Focal ratio

Force

Eq. p0034 Newtons 2nd law

Radient Flux

Side 15 af 36

Eq. p0067 (3.2) Radient Flux

Focal length

Radiation pressure

Side 16 af 36

Eq. p0287 (9.37) Radiative flux

Flux at surface

Eq. p0077 (3.18) Surface Flux of a star

Hydrostatic equilibrium

Eq. p0318 (10.7) Constraints:

Hydrostatic equilibrium

Pressure scale height

Eq. p0352 (10.63) Constraints:

Hydrostatic equilibrium

Adiabatic limit

Pressure scale height

Eq. p0352 (10.63) Constraints:

Hydrostatic equilibrium

Projection angle

(7.8) comparable to m2

Side 17 af 36

Eq. p0210

Sum of masses in a binary system

(7.7)

Mass function assuming m2 << m1

Eq. p0210 Constraints:

(7.8) a m2 << m1 - m2 is negliable compared

to m1

Eq. p0267 Intensity of ray travelling through gass from an optical

(9.16) depth

Eq. p0267 Intensity of ray travelling through gass from an

(9.16) optical depth

Eq. p0280

Emission and absorption

(9.27)

Emission coefficient

Eq. p0280 (9.26) Pure emission

Eq. p0280 (9.27) Emission and absorption

Kinetic energy

Eq. p0056 (2.45) The virial theorem

Opacity

Eq. p0266 (9.13) Optical depth

Eq. p0280 (9.27) Emission and absorption

Luminosity

Side 18 af 36

Eq. p0067 (3.2) Radient Flux

Eq. p0077 (3.17) Luminosity of a spherical star

Steplength

Eq. p0277 (9.23) Random walk displacement

Approximate ratio of proton potential and kinetic

Eq. p0411 a

energy at radius r0

Eq. p0411

Pressure structure of corona

(11.8)

Wavelength

Eq. p0081

The Planck function

(3.20)

Side 19 af 36

a

Eq. p0130

Grating resolution

(5.2)

Eq. p0131

Energy of a photon

(5.3)

Eq. p0131

Frequency - wave length

c

Eq. p0135

Balmer lines

(5.7)

Eq. p0135

Lyman lines

(5.8) a

Eq. p0135

Paschen lines

(5.8) b

Eq. p0135 Generalized energylevels in the hydrogen

(5.8) atom

Eq. p0166

Reyleigh criterion

(6.6)

Cross section for bound-free ionization of

Eq. p0270

hydrogen in the n'th quantum state

Eq. p0076 (3.15) Wiens displacement law

Observed wavelength

Wavelength at rest

Angular magnification

Side 20 af 36

Bolometric absolute magnitude

Eq. p0068 (3.8)

star

Eq. p0083 b Bolometric correction

Eq. p0438

Effect of interstellar extinction

(12.1)

Eq. p0438 (12.1) Effect of interstellar extinction

Eq. p0034 Newtons 2nd law

Eq. p0039

Acceleration of gravity

(2.12)

Eq. p0043

Escape velocity

(2.17)

Eq. p0050

Orbital velocity at perihelion

(2.30)

Eq. p0051

Orbital velocity at aphelion

(2.31)

Eq. p0225 Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution

(8.1) function

Eq. p0229

Most probable speed of a particle

(8.2)

Eq. p0229 Root-mean-squared speed of

(8.3) thermal particles

Eq. p0463

Maximum radiative luminosity

(12.19)

Side 21 af 36

Bolometric absolute magnitude of object 1 (known)

Eq. p0052

Keplers 3rd law

(2.35) a

Eq. p0206

Mass ratio of double stars

(7.2)

Keplers 3rd law assuming circular orbit

Eq. p0052 Constraints:

(2.35) b

Circular orbit - Radius is constant

Eq. p0211 The mass function of a binary system m1

(7.8) comparable to m2

Eq. p0210

Ratio of radial velocities

(7.5)

Eq. p0210

Sum of masses in a binary system

(7.7)

Mass function assuming m2 << m1

Eq. p0210 Constraints:

(7.8) a m2 << m1 - m2 is negliable compared

to m1

Side 22 af 36

Eq. p0067 (3.4) Flux ratio

Eq. p0052

Keplers 3rd law

(2.35) a

Eq. p0206

Mass ratio of double stars

(7.2)

Keplers 3rd law assuming circular orbit

Eq. p0052 Constraints:

(2.35) b

Circular orbit - Radius is constant

Eq. p0211 The mass function of a binary system m1

(7.8) comparable to m2

Eq. p0210

Ratio of radial velocities

(7.5)

Eq. p0210

Sum of masses in a binary system

(7.7)

Mass function assuming m2 << m1

Eq. p0210 Constraints:

(7.8) a m2 << m1 - m2 is negliable compared

to m1

Eq. p0083 a U-B Color index

Jeans mass

Side 23 af 36

Hydrostatic equilibrium

Eq. p0318 (10.7) Constraints:

Hydrostatic equilibrium

Eq. p0083 a U-B Color index

Eq. p0083 b Bolometric correction

Eq. p0323

Mean molecular weight

(10.13)

Ideal gass law

Eq. p0323 Constraints:

(10.14)

Ideal gas - The ideal gaslaw applies

Eq. p0325

Mean molecular weight for neutral gas

(10.19)

Eq. p0326 Mean molecular weight for completely

(10.21) ionized gas

Total pressure (gas + radiation)

Eq. p0328 Constraints:

(10.26)

Ideal gas - The ideal gaslaw applies

Eq. p0356

Adiabatic temperature gradient

(10.81)

Internal energy

Eq. p0353 Constraints:

(10.65)

Nonreletavistic gass

Eq. p0449

Jeans mass

(12.7)

Eq. p0449

Jeans radius

(12.8)

Proper motion

Side 24 af 36

Eq. p0019 (1.4) Proper motion

Reduced mass

Eq. p0135

Balmer lines

(5.7)

Eq. p0135

Lyman lines

(5.8) a

Eq. p0135

Paschen lines

(5.8) b

Eq. p0135 Generalized energylevels in the hydrogen

(5.8) atom

Cross section for bound-free ionization of

Eq. p0270

hydrogen in the n'th quantum state

Number of particles/atoms

Number of steps

Eq. p0277 (9.23) Random walk displacement

Side 25 af 36

Time difference in years (Epoch)

Eq. p0016 (1.2) Change in right ascension by epoch

Eq. p0016 (1.3) Change in declination by epoch

(8.1) function

Eq. p0409

Mass loss rate

(11.4)

(8.1) function

Frequency

Momentum

Eq. p0133 (5.5) Energy of a photon

Side 26 af 36

Paralax in arcseconds

Period

Eq. p0052

Keplers 3rd law

(2.35) a

Keplers 3rd law assuming circular orbit

Eq. p0052 Constraints:

(2.35) b

Circular orbit - Radius is constant

Eq. p0211 The mass function of a binary system m1

(7.8) comparable to m2

Eq. p0210

Sum of masses in a binary system

(7.7)

Mass function assuming m2 << m1

Eq. p0210 Constraints:

(7.8) a m2 << m1 - m2 is negliable compared

to m1

Pressure

Ideal gass law

Eq. p0323 Constraints:

(10.14) Ideal gas - The ideal gaslaw

applies

Total pressure (gas + radiation)

Eq. p0328 Constraints:

(10.26) Ideal gas - The ideal gaslaw

applies

Eq. p0352

Pressure scale height

(10.26)

Pressure scale height

Eq. p0352 Constraints:

(10.63)

Hydrostatic equilibrium

Eq. p0360

Condition for convection

(10.87)

Side 27 af 36

Internal energy

Eq. p0353 Constraints:

(10.65)

Nonreletavistic gass

Eq. p0411 (11.8) Pressure structure of corona

Radiation pressure

Orbit radius

Eq. p0028 Phythagorean theorem

Keplers 3rd law assuming circular orbit

Eq. p0052 (2.35) b Constraints:

Circular orbit - Radius is constant

Eq. p0039

Acceleration of gravity

(2.12)

Eq. p0043

Escape velocity

(2.17)

Eq. p0077

Luminosity of a spherical star

(3.17)

Eq. p0318

Radial acceleration

(10.6)

Side 28 af 36

Hydrostatic equilibrium

Eq. p0318 Constraints:

(10.7)

Hydrostatic equilibrium

Eq. p0319

Mass conservation equation

(10.8)

Eq. p0356

Adiabatic temperature gradient

(10.81)

Eq. p0384 a Mass conservation (10.8)

Eq. p0409

Mass loss rate

(11.4)

Approximate ratio of proton potential and

Eq. p0411 a

kinetic energy at radius r0

Eq. p0411

Pressure structure of corona

(11.8)

Distance at aphelion

Eq. p0030 (2.6) Distance at aphelion

Jeans radius

Side 29 af 36

Distance at perihelion

Eq. p0030 (2.5) Distance at perihelion

Density

Eq. p0266 (9.13) Optical depth

Eq. p0280 (9.26) Pure emission

Eq. p0280 (9.27) Emission and absorption

Hydrostatic equilibrium

Eq. p0318 (10.7) Constraints:

Hydrostatic equilibrium

Ideal gass law

Eq. p0323 Constraints:

(10.14)

Ideal gas - The ideal gaslaw applies

Total pressure (gas + radiation)

Eq. p0328 Constraints:

(10.26)

Ideal gas - The ideal gaslaw applies

Eq. p0352 Constraints:

(10.63)

Hydrostatic equilibrium

Eq. p0342

Luminosity gradient

(10.45)

Eq. p0384 a Mass conservation (10.8)

(12.16) collapse

Distance traveled

Side 30 af 36

Eq. p0267 (9.15) Optical depth

Synodic period

p0270 hydrogen in the n'th quantum state

Eq. p0076

Wiens displacement law

(3.15)

Eq. p0077

Stefan-Boltsman equation

(3.16)

Eq. p0077

Luminosity of a spherical star

(3.17)

Eq. p0077

Surface Flux of a star

(3.18)

Eq. p0081

The Planck function

(3.20)

(8.1) function

Eq. p0229

Most probable speed of a particle

(8.2)

Eq. p0229 Root-mean-squared speed of thermal

(8.3) particles

Eq. p0287

Radiative flux

(9.37)

Eq. p0261

Radiation pressure

(9.9)

Ideal gass law

Constraints:

Eq. p0323

Side 31 af 36

(10.14) Ideal gas - The ideal gaslaw

applies

Total pressure (gas + radiation)

Eq. p0328 Constraints:

(10.26) Ideal gas - The ideal gaslaw

applies

Eq. p0360

Condition for convection

(10.87)

Internal energy

Eq. p0353 Constraints:

(10.65)

Nonreletavistic gass

Eq. p0366

Energy generation rate due to gravity

(10.95)

Eq. p0411 Approximate ratio of proton potential

a and kinetic energy at radius r0

Eq. p0445

Optical depth of 21 cm line center

(12.4)

Eq. p0449

Jeans mass

(12.7)

Eq. p0449

Jeans radius

(12.8)

Eq. p0234

Saha

(8.7)

Optical depth

Eq. p0267

Optical depth

(9.15)

Eq. p0267 Intensity of ray travelling through gass from an optical

(9.16) depth

Incident angle

Side 32 af 36

Eq. p0074 (3.13) Radiation pressure (absorption)

Eq. p0083 a U-B Color index

Internal energy

Internal energy

Eq. p0353 (10.65) Constraints:

Nonreletavistic gass

Potential energy

Eq. p0056 (2.45) The virial theorem

Eq. p0083 b Bolometric correction

Orbital velocity

Speed

Side 33 af 36

Eq. p0225 Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution

(8.1) function

Velocity at aphelion

Escape velocity

Velocity at perihelion

Side 34 af 36

(7.8) comparable to m2

Eq. p0210

Ratio of radial velocities

(7.5)

Eq. p0210

Sum of masses in a binary system

(7.7)

Mass function assuming m2 << m1

Eq. p0210 Constraints:

(7.8) a m2 << m1 - m2 is negliable compared

to m1

Radial velocity

Tangential velocity

Eq. p0018 Proper motion

Eq. p0325

Mean molecular weight for neutral gas

(10.19)

Eq. p0326 Mean molecular weight for completely

(10.21) ionized gas

Side 35 af 36

Helium mass fraction

Eq. p0325

Mean molecular weight for neutral gas

(10.19)

Eq. p0326 Mean molecular weight for completely

(10.21) ionized gas

Eq. p0325

Mean molecular weight for neutral gas

(10.19)

Eq. p0326 Mean molecular weight for completely

(10.21) ionized gas

Redshift

Partition function

Side 36 af 36

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