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Astronomical formulae

Formulas compiled by Frank Sorensen 2002-2003. Last changed 2004-10-19.

All page- or equation numbers refer to


Carroll & Ostlie: "An introduction to modern astronomy",
Addison-Wesley Publishing Company Inc. 1996
Equations without numbers or references are from my own notes.

Side 1 af 36
Constants

Radiation constant =

The speed of light =


Gravitational constant =
Plancks constant =
Boltzmann's constant =
Luminosity of the sun =
Epoch correction =
Mass of electron =
Mass of Hydrogen atom =
Mass of proton =
Mass of sun =
Absolute bolometric magnitude of the sun =
Epoch correction =
Period of the Earth =
Universal gas constant =
Rydberg constant =
Stefan-Boltsman constant =
Cross section for Thompson electron scattering =

Side 2 af 36
Variables
acceleration
Area
Average distance from the sun
Semimajor axis in ellipse
Semimajor axis of object 1 (known)
Semimajor axis of object 2 (unknown)
Centripetal acceleration
Interstellar extinction coefficient
Semimajor axis of reduced mass
Angle subtended by semimajor axis
Right ascension
Angle subtended by semimajor axis 1 (known)
Angle subtended by semimajor axis 2 (unknown)
Apparent blue magnitude
Semiminor axis in ellipse
Blackbody intensity at wavelength lamda at Temperature T
Bolometric correction
Specific heat at constant pressure
Specific heat at constant volume
Ionization energy
Aperture
Distance [cm]
Distance [AU]
Distance [pc]
Absorptionline spreading
Differential vertical optical depth
Differential optical depth
Declination
Full width of 21 cm line at half maximum
Change in right ascension
Proper motion
Change in declination
Change in wave length
Time interval
Differential intensity

Side 3 af 36
Differential Luminosity
Differential mass interval
Differential mass interval inside star
Differential pressure interval Luminosity gradient
Differential radiation pressure
Differential heat interval
Differential radius interval
Differential distance
Differential entropy interval
Differential temperature interval
Differential time interval
Differential speed interval
Differential volume interval
Differential hydrogen mass fraction
Eccentricity
Total mechanical energy of system
Energy of a photon
Energy generation rate
Energy generation rate due to gravity
Focal ratio
Force
Radient Flux
Flux of object 1 (known)
Flux of object 2 (unknown)
Focal length of eyepiece
Focal length
Focal length of objective
Radiation pressure
Flux at surface
Acceleration of gravity on the surface of star/planet
Ratio of specific heats
Adiabatic limit
Pressure scale height
Projection angle
Initial intensity at wave length lambda
Intensity at wavelength lambda
Emission coefficient
Kinetic energy

Side 4 af 36
Opacity
Opacity at wavelength lambda
Luminosity
Steplength
Luminosity of object 1 (known)
Luminosity of object 2 (unknown)
Maximum radiative luminosity
Approximate ratio of proton potential and kinetic energy
Wavelength
Wavelength of maximum intensity
Observed wavelength
Wavelength at rest
Angular magnification
Bolometric absolute magnitude
Bolometric apparent magnitude
Main quantum state number
Total mass of star/planet/atom/object
Bolometric absolute magnitude of object 1 (known)
Bolometric magnitude of object 1 (known)
Mass of object 1 (known)
Bolometric absolute magnitude of object 2 (unknown)
Bolometric magnitude of object 2 (unknown)
Mass of object 2 (unknown)
Average mass of gas particle
Absolute blue magnitude
Jeans mass
Mass inside radius
Absolute ultraviolet magnitude
Absolute visual magnitude
Mean molecular weight
Proper motion
Reduced mass
Main quantum state number
Number of atoms pr cm^3
Number of illuminated lines in the grating
Number of particles/atoms
Number of steps
Order of diffraction lines

Side 5 af 36
Time difference in years (Epoch)
Total number density pr volume
Column density of neutral hydrogen (in unit 1/cm)
Number of atoms in ionization state i
Index of refraction at wavelength lambda
Number of particles moving at the speed v
Frequency
Momentum
Paralax in arcseconds
Period
Pressure
Pressure of free electrons
Radiation pressure
Nuclear energy generated pr particle
Orbit radius
Radius of/inside star/planet
Distance to center of mass of object 1 (known)
Radius of curvature of surface 1 (known)
Distance to center of mass of object 2 (unknown)
Radius of curvature of surface 2 (unknown)
Distance at aphelion
Jeans radius
Distance at perihelion
Density
Distance traveled
Synodic period
Cross section for bound-free photoionization
Collision cross section
Temperature / Effective temperature (Kelvin)
Free-fall time for a homologous collapse
Optical depth of 21 cm line center
Optical depth
Incident angle
Smallest angular seperation
Apparent ultraviolet magnitude
Inclination of rotational axis
Internal energy
Potential energy

Side 6 af 36
Apparent visual magnitude
Orbital velocity
Speed
Speed of stellar wind
Speed of star 1 (known) in binary system
Speed of star 2 (unknown) in binary system
Velocity at aphelion
Rotational speed at equator
Escape velocity
Most probable speed
Velocity at perihelion
Radial velocity of object 1 (known)
Radial velocity of object 2 (unknown)
Radial velocity
Root mean-squared speed of particles
Tangential velocity
Hydrogen Mass fraction
Helium mass fraction
Metal mass fraction
Redshift
Partition function

Side 7 af 36
Formulas

acceleration
Eq. p0034 Newtons 2nd law

Area

Eq. p0074 (3.13) Radiation pressure (absorption)

Eq. p0073 (3.14) Radiation pressure (reflection)

Eq. p0077 (3.16) Stefan-Boltsman equation

Average distance from the sun

Eq. p0052 (2.35) a Keplers 3rd law

Eq. p0050 (2.30) Orbital velocity at perihelion

Eq. p0051 (2.31) Orbital velocity at aphelion

Semimajor axis in ellipse


Eq. p0028 Phythagorean theorem
Eq. p0030 (2.5) Distance at perihelion
Eq. p0030 (2.6) Distance at aphelion

Eq. p0206 Angle subtended by semimajor axis

Semimajor axis of object 1 (known)

Eq. p0206 a Angle subtended by semimajor axis 1

Eq. p0206 c Semimajor axis of reduced mass

Semimajor axis of object 2 (unknown)

Eq. p0206 b Angle subtended by semimajor axis 2

Eq. p0206 c Semimajor axis of reduced mass

Side 8 af 36
Centripetal acceleration

Eq. p0039 b Radial acceleration

Interstellar extinction coefficient


Eq. p0438 (12.1) Effect of interstellar extinction

Semimajor axis of reduced mass


Eq. p0206 c Semimajor axis of reduced mass

Angle subtended by semimajor axis

Eq. p0206 Angle subtended by semimajor axis

Eq. p0206 (7.2) Mass ratio of double stars

Right ascension
Eq. p0016 (1.2) Change in right ascension by epoch
Eq. p0016 (1.3) Change in declination by epoch

Angle subtended by semimajor axis 1 (known)

Eq. p0206 a Angle subtended by semimajor axis 1

Eq. p0206 (7.2) Mass ratio of double stars

Angle subtended by semimajor axis 2 (unknown)

Eq. p0206 b Angle subtended by semimajor axis 2

Apparent blue magnitude


Eq. p0083 a U-B Color index

Semiminor axis in ellipse


Eq. p0028 Phythagorean theorem

Side 9 af 36
Blackbody intensity at wavelength lamda at Temperature T

Eq. p0081 (3.20) The Planck function

Bolometric correction
Eq. p0083 b Bolometric correction

Specific heat at constant pressure

Eq. p0354 (10.72) Ratio of specific heats

Specific heat at constant volume

Eq. p0354 (10.72) Ratio of specific heats

Ionization energy

Eq. p0234 (8.7) Saha

Aperture

Eq. p0166 (6.6) Reyleigh criterion

Eq. p0173 (6.7) Focal ratio

Distance [cm]
Eq. p0277 (9.23) Random walk displacement

Distance [AU]

Eq. p0064 a Distance in AU from parallax in arc seconds

Distance [pc]

Eq. p0019 (1.4) Proper motion

Side 10 af 36
Eq. p0064 (3.1) Distance from paralax in arcseconds

Eq. p0067 (3.2) Radient Flux

Eq. p0068 (3.6) Distance modulus

Eq. p0206 Angle subtended by semimajor axis

Eq. p0206 a Angle subtended by semimajor axis 1

Eq. p0206 b Angle subtended by semimajor axis 2

Eq. p0438 (12.1) Effect of interstellar extinction

Absorptionline spreading

Eq. Additional 1 Absorptionline spread due to rotation

Differential vertical optical depth

Eq. p0286 (9.36) The radiation field

Differential optical depth


Eq. p0266 (9.13) Optical depth

Declination
Eq. p0016 (1.2) Change in right ascension by epoch

Full width of 21 cm line at half maximum

Eq. p0445 (12.4) Optical depth of 21 cm line center

Change in right ascension


Eq. p0016 (1.2) Change in right ascension by epoch

Proper motion
Eq. p0018 Proper motion

Side 11 af 36
Change in declination
Eq. p0016 (1.3) Change in declination by epoch

Change in wave length

Eq. p0110 (4.39) b Redshift

Eq. p0126 (5.1) a Doppler shift

Eq. p0130 (5.2) Grating resolution

Time interval
Eq. p0018 Proper motion

Differential intensity
Eq. p0280 (9.26) Pure emission
Eq. p0280 (9.27) Emission and absorption

Differential Luminosity

Eq. p0342 (10.45) Luminosity gradient

Eq. p0341 a Energy generation rate

Differential mass interval

Eq. p0319 (10.8) Mass conservation equation

Eq. p0341 a Energy generation rate

Eq. p0409 (11.4) Mass loss rate

Differential mass interval inside star


Eq. p0384 a Mass conservation (10.8)

Differential pressure interval Luminosity gradient

Eq. p0318 (10.6) Radial acceleration

Side 12 af 36
Hydrostatic equilibrium
Eq. p0318 (10.7) Constraints:
Hydrostatic equilibrium

Eq. p0352 (10.26) Pressure scale height

Eq. p0360 (10.87) Condition for convection

Differential radiation pressure

Eq. p0286 (9.36) The radiation field

Differential heat interval

Eq. p0366 (10.95) Energy generation rate due to gravity

Differential radius interval

Eq. p0318 (10.6) Radial acceleration

Hydrostatic equilibrium
Eq. p0318 (10.7) Constraints:
Hydrostatic equilibrium

Eq. p0319 (10.8) Mass conservation equation

Eq. p0351 Temperature gradient

Eq. p0352 (10.26) Pressure scale height

Eq. p0360 (10.87) Condition for convection

Eq. p0342 (10.45) Luminosity gradient

Eq. p0356 (10.81) Adiabatic temperature gradient

Eq. p0384 a Mass conservation (10.8)

Differential distance
Eq. p0266 (9.13) Optical depth

Side 13 af 36
Eq. p0267 (9.15) Optical depth
Eq. p0280 (9.26) Pure emission
Eq. p0280 (9.27) Emission and absorption

Differential entropy interval

Eq. p0366 (10.95) Energy generation rate due to gravity

Differential temperature interval

Eq. p0351 Temperature gradient

Eq. p0360 (10.87) Condition for convection

Eq. p0356 (10.81) Adiabatic temperature gradient

Differential time interval

Eq. p0318 (10.6) Radial acceleration

Eq. p0366 (10.95) Energy generation rate due to gravity

Eq. Additional 2 Hydrogen depletionrate

Eq. p0409 (11.4) Mass loss rate

Differential speed interval

Eq. p0225 Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution


(8.1) function

Differential volume interval


Eq. p0384 a Mass conservation (10.8)

Differential hydrogen mass fraction

Eq. Additional 2 Hydrogen depletionrate

Side 14 af 36
Eccentricity
Eq. p0028 Phythagorean theorem
Eq. p0030 (2.5) Distance at perihelion
Eq. p0030 (2.6) Distance at aphelion

Eq. p0050 (2.30) Orbital velocity at perihelion

Eq. p0051 (2.31) Orbital velocity at aphelion

Total mechanical energy of system

Eq. p0056 (2.46) Total mechanical energy of system

Energy of a photon

Eq. p0131 (5.3) Energy of a photon

Eq. p0133 (5.5) Energy of a photon

Energy generation rate

Eq. p0342 (10.45) Luminosity gradient

Eq. p0341 a Energy generation rate

Eq. Additional 2 Hydrogen depletionrate

Energy generation rate due to gravity

Eq. p0366 (10.95) Energy generation rate due to gravity

Focal ratio

Eq. p0173 (6.7) Focal ratio

Force
Eq. p0034 Newtons 2nd law

Radient Flux

Side 15 af 36
Eq. p0067 (3.2) Radient Flux

Eq. p0074 (3.13) Radiation pressure (absorption)

Eq. p0073 (3.14) Radiation pressure (reflection)

Flux of object 1 (known)

Eq. p0067 (3.3) Flux ratio

Eq. p0067 (3.4) Flux ratio

Flux of object 2 (unknown)

Eq. p0067 (3.3) Flux ratio

Eq. p0067 (3.4) Flux ratio

Focal length of eyepiece

Eq. p0174 (6.9) Angular magnification

Focal length

Eq. p0161 (6.2) Lensmakers formula

Eq. p0173 (6.7) Focal ratio

Focal length of objective

Eq. p0174 (6.9) Angular magnification

Radiation pressure

Eq. p0074 (3.13) Radiation pressure (absorption)

Eq. p0073 (3.14) Radiation pressure (reflection)

Side 16 af 36
Eq. p0287 (9.37) Radiative flux

Eq. p0286 (9.36) The radiation field

Flux at surface
Eq. p0077 (3.18) Surface Flux of a star

Acceleration of gravity on the surface of star/planet

Eq. p0039 (2.12) Acceleration of gravity

Hydrostatic equilibrium
Eq. p0318 (10.7) Constraints:
Hydrostatic equilibrium
Pressure scale height
Eq. p0352 (10.63) Constraints:
Hydrostatic equilibrium

Ratio of specific heats

Eq. p0360 (10.87) Condition for convection

Eq. p0354 (10.72) Ratio of specific heats

Eq. p0356 (10.81) Adiabatic temperature gradient

Adiabatic limit

Eq. p0360 (10.87) Condition for convection

Pressure scale height

Eq. p0352 (10.26) Pressure scale height


Pressure scale height
Eq. p0352 (10.63) Constraints:
Hydrostatic equilibrium

Projection angle

Eq. p0211 The mass function of a binary system m1


(7.8) comparable to m2

Side 17 af 36
Eq. p0210
Sum of masses in a binary system
(7.7)
Mass function assuming m2 << m1
Eq. p0210 Constraints:
(7.8) a m2 << m1 - m2 is negliable compared
to m1

Initial intensity at wave length lambda


Eq. p0267 Intensity of ray travelling through gass from an optical
(9.16) depth

Intensity at wavelength lambda


Eq. p0267 Intensity of ray travelling through gass from an
(9.16) optical depth
Eq. p0280
Emission and absorption
(9.27)

Emission coefficient
Eq. p0280 (9.26) Pure emission
Eq. p0280 (9.27) Emission and absorption

Kinetic energy
Eq. p0056 (2.45) The virial theorem

Opacity
Eq. p0266 (9.13) Optical depth

Eq. p0351 Temperature gradient

Eq. p0463 (12.19) Maximum radiative luminosity

Opacity at wavelength lambda

Eq. p0266 a Mean free path for photons

Eq. p0267 (9.15) Optical depth


Eq. p0280 (9.27) Emission and absorption

Luminosity

Side 18 af 36
Eq. p0067 (3.2) Radient Flux

Eq. p0068 (3.8) Absolute bolometric magnitude of a star

Eq. p0077 (3.16) Stefan-Boltsman equation


Eq. p0077 (3.17) Luminosity of a spherical star

Eq. p0351 Temperature gradient

Steplength
Eq. p0277 (9.23) Random walk displacement

Eq. p0266 a Mean free path for photons

Eq. p0266 b Mean free path for photons

Luminosity of object 1 (known)

Eq. p0068 (3.7) Ratio of luminosities

Luminosity of object 2 (unknown)

Eq. p0068 (3.7) Ratio of luminosities

Maximum radiative luminosity

Eq. p0463 (12.19) Maximum radiative luminosity

Approximate ratio of proton potential and kinetic energy


Approximate ratio of proton potential and kinetic
Eq. p0411 a
energy at radius r0
Eq. p0411
Pressure structure of corona
(11.8)

Wavelength

Eq. p0081
The Planck function
(3.20)

Eq. p0081 Frequency

Side 19 af 36
a

Eq. p0130
Grating resolution
(5.2)
Eq. p0131
Energy of a photon
(5.3)
Eq. p0131
Frequency - wave length
c
Eq. p0135
Balmer lines
(5.7)
Eq. p0135
Lyman lines
(5.8) a
Eq. p0135
Paschen lines
(5.8) b
Eq. p0135 Generalized energylevels in the hydrogen
(5.8) atom
Eq. p0166
Reyleigh criterion
(6.6)
Cross section for bound-free ionization of
Eq. p0270
hydrogen in the n'th quantum state

Wavelength of maximum intensity


Eq. p0076 (3.15) Wiens displacement law

Observed wavelength

Eq. p0126 (5.1) a Doppler shift

Wavelength at rest

Eq. p0110 (4.39) b Redshift

Eq. p0126 (5.1) a Doppler shift

Eq. Additional 1 Absorptionline spread due to rotation

Angular magnification

Eq. p0174 (6.9) Angular magnification

Side 20 af 36
Bolometric absolute magnitude

Eq. p0068 (3.6) Distance modulus

Absolute bolometric magnitude of a


Eq. p0068 (3.8)
star
Eq. p0083 b Bolometric correction
Eq. p0438
Effect of interstellar extinction
(12.1)

Bolometric apparent magnitude

Eq. p0068 (3.6) Distance modulus

Eq. p0083 b Bolometric correction


Eq. p0438 (12.1) Effect of interstellar extinction

Main quantum state number

Eq. p0135 (5.8) Generalized energylevels in the hydrogen atom

Total mass of star/planet/atom/object


Eq. p0034 Newtons 2nd law
Eq. p0039
Acceleration of gravity
(2.12)
Eq. p0043
Escape velocity
(2.17)
Eq. p0050
Orbital velocity at perihelion
(2.30)
Eq. p0051
Orbital velocity at aphelion
(2.31)
Eq. p0225 Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution
(8.1) function
Eq. p0229
Most probable speed of a particle
(8.2)
Eq. p0229 Root-mean-squared speed of
(8.3) thermal particles

Eq. Notes 1 Number of particles

Eq. p0463
Maximum radiative luminosity
(12.19)

Side 21 af 36
Bolometric absolute magnitude of object 1 (known)

Eq. p0068 (3.7) Ratio of luminosities

Bolometric magnitude of object 1 (known)

Eq. p0067 (3.3) Flux ratio

Eq. p0067 (3.4) Flux ratio

Mass of object 1 (known)

Eq. p0052
Keplers 3rd law
(2.35) a

Eq. p0046 Reduced mass

Eq. p0206
Mass ratio of double stars
(7.2)

Eq. p0210 Mass ratio of binary stars


Keplers 3rd law assuming circular orbit
Eq. p0052 Constraints:
(2.35) b
Circular orbit - Radius is constant
Eq. p0211 The mass function of a binary system m1
(7.8) comparable to m2
Eq. p0210
Ratio of radial velocities
(7.5)
Eq. p0210
Sum of masses in a binary system
(7.7)
Mass function assuming m2 << m1
Eq. p0210 Constraints:
(7.8) a m2 << m1 - m2 is negliable compared
to m1

Bolometric absolute magnitude of object 2 (unknown)

Eq. p0068 (3.7) Ratio of luminosities

Bolometric magnitude of object 2 (unknown)

Eq. p0067 (3.3) Flux ratio

Side 22 af 36
Eq. p0067 (3.4) Flux ratio

Mass of object 2 (unknown)

Eq. p0052
Keplers 3rd law
(2.35) a

Eq. p0046 Reduced mass

Eq. p0206
Mass ratio of double stars
(7.2)

Eq. p0210 Mass ratio of binary stars


Keplers 3rd law assuming circular orbit
Eq. p0052 Constraints:
(2.35) b
Circular orbit - Radius is constant
Eq. p0211 The mass function of a binary system m1
(7.8) comparable to m2
Eq. p0210
Ratio of radial velocities
(7.5)
Eq. p0210
Sum of masses in a binary system
(7.7)
Mass function assuming m2 << m1
Eq. p0210 Constraints:
(7.8) a m2 << m1 - m2 is negliable compared
to m1

Average mass of gas particle

Eq. p0323 (10.13) Mean molecular weight

Absolute blue magnitude


Eq. p0083 a U-B Color index

Jeans mass

Eq. p0449 (12.7) Jeans mass

Mass inside radius

Eq. p0318 (10.6) Radial acceleration

Side 23 af 36
Hydrostatic equilibrium
Eq. p0318 (10.7) Constraints:
Hydrostatic equilibrium

Eq. p0356 (10.81) Adiabatic temperature gradient

Absolute ultraviolet magnitude


Eq. p0083 a U-B Color index

Absolute visual magnitude


Eq. p0083 b Bolometric correction

Mean molecular weight


Eq. p0323
Mean molecular weight
(10.13)
Ideal gass law
Eq. p0323 Constraints:
(10.14)
Ideal gas - The ideal gaslaw applies
Eq. p0325
Mean molecular weight for neutral gas
(10.19)
Eq. p0326 Mean molecular weight for completely
(10.21) ionized gas
Total pressure (gas + radiation)
Eq. p0328 Constraints:
(10.26)
Ideal gas - The ideal gaslaw applies
Eq. p0356
Adiabatic temperature gradient
(10.81)

Eq. Notes 1 Number of particles


Internal energy
Eq. p0353 Constraints:
(10.65)
Nonreletavistic gass
Eq. p0449
Jeans mass
(12.7)
Eq. p0449
Jeans radius
(12.8)

Proper motion

Side 24 af 36
Eq. p0019 (1.4) Proper motion

Reduced mass

Eq. p0046 Reduced mass

Main quantum state number

Eq. p0135
Balmer lines
(5.7)
Eq. p0135
Lyman lines
(5.8) a
Eq. p0135
Paschen lines
(5.8) b
Eq. p0135 Generalized energylevels in the hydrogen
(5.8) atom
Cross section for bound-free ionization of
Eq. p0270
hydrogen in the n'th quantum state

Number of atoms pr cm^3

Eq. p0266 b Mean free path for photons

Number of illuminated lines in the grating

Eq. p0130 (5.2) Grating resolution

Number of particles/atoms

Eq. Notes 1 Number of particles

Number of steps
Eq. p0277 (9.23) Random walk displacement

Order of diffraction lines

Eq. p0130 (5.2) Grating resolution

Side 25 af 36
Time difference in years (Epoch)
Eq. p0016 (1.2) Change in right ascension by epoch
Eq. p0016 (1.3) Change in declination by epoch

Total number density pr volume

Eq. p0225 Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution


(8.1) function
Eq. p0409
Mass loss rate
(11.4)

Column density of neutral hydrogen (in unit 1/cm)

Eq. p0445 (12.4) Optical depth of 21 cm line center

Number of atoms in ionization state i

Eq. p0234 (8.7) Saha

Index of refraction at wavelength lambda

Eq. p0161 (6.2) Lensmakers formula

Number of particles moving at the speed v

Eq. p0225 Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution


(8.1) function

Frequency

Eq. p0081 a Frequency

Eq. p0131 (5.3) Energy of a photon

Eq. p0131 c Frequency - wave length

Momentum
Eq. p0133 (5.5) Energy of a photon

Side 26 af 36
Paralax in arcseconds

Eq. p0064 (3.1) Distance from paralax in arcseconds

Eq. p0064 a Distance in AU from parallax in arc seconds

Period

Eq. p0009a Synodic period of an inferior planet

Eq. p0009b Synodic period of superior planet

Eq. p0052
Keplers 3rd law
(2.35) a

Eq. p0039 c Tangential speed


Keplers 3rd law assuming circular orbit
Eq. p0052 Constraints:
(2.35) b
Circular orbit - Radius is constant
Eq. p0211 The mass function of a binary system m1
(7.8) comparable to m2

Eq. p0210
Sum of masses in a binary system
(7.7)
Mass function assuming m2 << m1
Eq. p0210 Constraints:
(7.8) a m2 << m1 - m2 is negliable compared
to m1

Pressure
Ideal gass law
Eq. p0323 Constraints:
(10.14) Ideal gas - The ideal gaslaw
applies
Total pressure (gas + radiation)
Eq. p0328 Constraints:
(10.26) Ideal gas - The ideal gaslaw
applies
Eq. p0352
Pressure scale height
(10.26)
Pressure scale height
Eq. p0352 Constraints:
(10.63)
Hydrostatic equilibrium
Eq. p0360
Condition for convection
(10.87)

Side 27 af 36
Internal energy
Eq. p0353 Constraints:
(10.65)
Nonreletavistic gass
Eq. p0411 (11.8) Pressure structure of corona

Pressure of free electrons

Eq. p0234 (8.7) Saha

Radiation pressure

Eq. p0261 (9.9) Radiation pressure

Nuclear energy generated pr particle

Eq. Additional 2 Hydrogen depletionrate

Orbit radius
Eq. p0028 Phythagorean theorem

Eq. p0039 b Radial acceleration

Eq. p0039 c Tangential speed


Keplers 3rd law assuming circular orbit
Eq. p0052 (2.35) b Constraints:
Circular orbit - Radius is constant

Eq. p0342 (10.45) Luminosity gradient

Radius of/inside star/planet

Eq. p0039
Acceleration of gravity
(2.12)
Eq. p0043
Escape velocity
(2.17)
Eq. p0077
Luminosity of a spherical star
(3.17)
Eq. p0318
Radial acceleration
(10.6)

Side 28 af 36
Hydrostatic equilibrium
Eq. p0318 Constraints:
(10.7)
Hydrostatic equilibrium
Eq. p0319
Mass conservation equation
(10.8)

Eq. p0351 Temperature gradient

Eq. p0356
Adiabatic temperature gradient
(10.81)
Eq. p0384 a Mass conservation (10.8)
Eq. p0409
Mass loss rate
(11.4)
Approximate ratio of proton potential and
Eq. p0411 a
kinetic energy at radius r0
Eq. p0411
Pressure structure of corona
(11.8)

Distance to center of mass of object 1 (known)

Eq. p0206 (7.2) Mass ratio of double stars

Radius of curvature of surface 1 (known)

Eq. p0161 (6.2) Lensmakers formula

Distance to center of mass of object 2 (unknown)

Eq. p0206 (7.2) Mass ratio of double stars

Radius of curvature of surface 2 (unknown)

Eq. p0161 (6.2) Lensmakers formula

Distance at aphelion
Eq. p0030 (2.6) Distance at aphelion

Jeans radius

Eq. p0449 (12.8) Jeans radius

Side 29 af 36
Distance at perihelion
Eq. p0030 (2.5) Distance at perihelion

Density
Eq. p0266 (9.13) Optical depth

Eq. p0266 a Mean free path for photons

Eq. p0267 (9.15) Optical depth


Eq. p0280 (9.26) Pure emission
Eq. p0280 (9.27) Emission and absorption

Eq. p0318 (10.6) Radial acceleration

Hydrostatic equilibrium
Eq. p0318 (10.7) Constraints:
Hydrostatic equilibrium

Eq. p0319 (10.8) Mass conservation equation


Ideal gass law
Eq. p0323 Constraints:
(10.14)
Ideal gas - The ideal gaslaw applies
Total pressure (gas + radiation)
Eq. p0328 Constraints:
(10.26)
Ideal gas - The ideal gaslaw applies

Eq. p0351 Temperature gradient

Pressure scale height


Eq. p0352 Constraints:
(10.63)
Hydrostatic equilibrium
Eq. p0342
Luminosity gradient
(10.45)
Eq. p0384 a Mass conservation (10.8)

Eq. p0409 (11.4) Mass loss rate

Eq. p0449 (12.7) Jeans mass

Eq. p0449 (12.8) Jeans radius

Eq. p0451 Free-fall time for a homologous


(12.16) collapse

Distance traveled

Side 30 af 36
Eq. p0267 (9.15) Optical depth

Synodic period

Eq. p0009a Synodic period of an inferior planet

Eq. p0009b Synodic period of superior planet

Cross section for bound-free photoionization

Eq. Cross section for bound-free ionization of


p0270 hydrogen in the n'th quantum state

Collision cross section

Eq. p0266 b Mean free path for photons

Temperature / Effective temperature (Kelvin)


Eq. p0076
Wiens displacement law
(3.15)
Eq. p0077
Stefan-Boltsman equation
(3.16)
Eq. p0077
Luminosity of a spherical star
(3.17)
Eq. p0077
Surface Flux of a star
(3.18)
Eq. p0081
The Planck function
(3.20)

Eq. p0225 Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution


(8.1) function
Eq. p0229
Most probable speed of a particle
(8.2)
Eq. p0229 Root-mean-squared speed of thermal
(8.3) particles
Eq. p0287
Radiative flux
(9.37)
Eq. p0261
Radiation pressure
(9.9)
Ideal gass law
Constraints:
Eq. p0323

Side 31 af 36
(10.14) Ideal gas - The ideal gaslaw
applies
Total pressure (gas + radiation)
Eq. p0328 Constraints:
(10.26) Ideal gas - The ideal gaslaw
applies

Eq. p0351 Temperature gradient

Eq. p0360
Condition for convection
(10.87)
Internal energy
Eq. p0353 Constraints:
(10.65)
Nonreletavistic gass
Eq. p0366
Energy generation rate due to gravity
(10.95)
Eq. p0411 Approximate ratio of proton potential
a and kinetic energy at radius r0
Eq. p0445
Optical depth of 21 cm line center
(12.4)
Eq. p0449
Jeans mass
(12.7)
Eq. p0449
Jeans radius
(12.8)

Eq. p0234
Saha
(8.7)

Free-fall time for a homologous collapse

Eq. p0451 (12.16) Free-fall time for a homologous collapse

Optical depth of 21 cm line center

Eq. p0445 (12.4) Optical depth of 21 cm line center

Optical depth
Eq. p0267
Optical depth
(9.15)
Eq. p0267 Intensity of ray travelling through gass from an optical
(9.16) depth

Incident angle

Side 32 af 36
Eq. p0074 (3.13) Radiation pressure (absorption)

Eq. p0073 (3.14) Radiation pressure (reflection)

Smallest angular seperation

Eq. p0166 (6.6) Reyleigh criterion

Apparent ultraviolet magnitude


Eq. p0083 a U-B Color index

Inclination of rotational axis

Eq. Additional 1 Absorptionline spread due to rotation

Internal energy
Internal energy
Eq. p0353 (10.65) Constraints:
Nonreletavistic gass

Potential energy
Eq. p0056 (2.45) The virial theorem

Eq. p0056 (2.46) Total mechanical energy of system

Apparent visual magnitude


Eq. p0083 b Bolometric correction

Orbital velocity

Eq. p0039 c Tangential speed

Speed

Eq. p0039 b Radial acceleration

Eq. p0129 a Speed relative to the sun

Side 33 af 36
Eq. p0225 Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution
(8.1) function

Speed of stellar wind

Eq. p0409 (11.4) Mass loss rate

Speed of star 1 (known) in binary system

Eq. p0210 Mass ratio of binary stars

Speed of star 2 (unknown) in binary system

Eq. p0210 Mass ratio of binary stars

Velocity at aphelion

Eq. p0051 (2.31) Orbital velocity at aphelion

Rotational speed at equator

Eq. Additional 1 Absorptionline spread due to rotation

Escape velocity

Eq. p0043 (2.17) Escape velocity

Most probable speed

Eq. p0229 (8.2) Most probable speed of a particle

Velocity at perihelion

Eq. p0050 (2.30) Orbital velocity at perihelion

Radial velocity of object 1 (known)

Eq. p0211 The mass function of a binary system m1

Side 34 af 36
(7.8) comparable to m2

Eq. p0210
Ratio of radial velocities
(7.5)
Eq. p0210
Sum of masses in a binary system
(7.7)
Mass function assuming m2 << m1
Eq. p0210 Constraints:
(7.8) a m2 << m1 - m2 is negliable compared
to m1

Radial velocity of object 2 (unknown)

Eq. p0210 (7.5) Ratio of radial velocities

Eq. p0210 (7.7) Sum of masses in a binary system

Radial velocity

Eq. p0110 (4.39) a Redshift

Eq. p0129 a Speed relative to the sun

Root mean-squared speed of particles

Eq. p0229 (8.3) Root-mean-squared speed of thermal particles

Tangential velocity
Eq. p0018 Proper motion

Eq. p0019 (1.4) Proper motion

Eq. p0129 a Speed relative to the sun

Hydrogen Mass fraction


Eq. p0325
Mean molecular weight for neutral gas
(10.19)
Eq. p0326 Mean molecular weight for completely
(10.21) ionized gas

Side 35 af 36
Helium mass fraction
Eq. p0325
Mean molecular weight for neutral gas
(10.19)
Eq. p0326 Mean molecular weight for completely
(10.21) ionized gas

Metal mass fraction


Eq. p0325
Mean molecular weight for neutral gas
(10.19)
Eq. p0326 Mean molecular weight for completely
(10.21) ionized gas

Redshift

Eq. p0110 (4.39) a Redshift

Eq. p0110 (4.39) b Redshift

Partition function

Eq. p0234 (8.7) Saha

Side 36 af 36