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634 SCIENCE. [N. S. VOL.V. No. 121.

phenomena of memory as a plausible ex- tions of hunger, temperature and the mus-
planation. Stimuli from without and from cular sense of resistance. Hence it is as
within the organism leave a record on the true of the physical basis of mental as of
brain-cells which give the form to con- other functions that the function produces
sciousness, when the latter invades them, the structure, while structure merely spe-
along the guiding lines of associations. cializes or perfects function.
Why should not the germ-plasma be capa-
ble of a similar record of stimuli which is ORGANIC SELECTION.
expressed in the recapitulatory growth of IN certain recent publications* an hypoth-
the embryo? He thought that the evi-
esis has been presented which seems in
dence pointed to such a process. These
some degree to mediate between the two
stimuli affected the soma and'the germ-
rival theories of heredity. The point of
plasma simultaneously in accordance with view taken in these publications is briefly
the doctrine of Diplogenesis, but that the
this: Assuming the operation of natural
soma only records results in each tissue
selection as currently held, and assuming
which are appropriate to the functions of
also that individual organisms through
the same, while the germ-plasma and brain-
cells may record them all. The certainty adaptation acquire modifications or new
of record in both cases he supposed to de- characters, then the latter will exercise a
directive influence on the former quite in-
pend on the frequency and strength of the
dependently of any direct inheritance of
impression, as is known to be the case with
the memory of the mental organism. Hence acquired characters. For organisms which
survive through adaptive modification will
mutilations or single impressions are rarely
hand on to the next generation any ' coin-
recorded, while those due to the constant cident variations' (i. e., congenital varia-
and habitual movements are recorded, and
tions in the same direction as adaptive
form the physical basis of growth and of
evloution of type. modifications) which they may chance to
He further remarked that the belief that have, and also allow farther variations in
the same direction. In any given series of
natural selection originates structure cannot
be entertained, as paleontological evidence generations, the individuals of which sur-
vive through their susceptibility to modifi-
shows that evolution has proceeded by very
* H. F.
gradual additions and subtractions of char- Osborn,Proc. N. Y. Acad. of Sci., meeting
of March9 and April 13, 1896, reported in SCIENCE,
acter, which required long periods to be- April 3 and November27, 1896. C. Lloyd Morgan,
come of any value in the struggle for ex- 'Habit and Instinct,' October,1896, pp. 307 ff., also
istence, sometimes an entire geological printed earlier in SCIENCE, November 20, 1896. J.
period being occupied in the elaboration of MarkBaldwin, discussionbeforeN. Y. Acad. of Sci.,
a character to structural usefulness. meeting of January 31, reported in full in SCIENC]E,
March20, 1896, also Amer.Naturalist,June and July,
Finally he referred to the physical mech- 1896. The following brief statement has been pre-
anism of mental phenomena, and stated pared in consultation with Principal Morganand
that some physiologists require a com- Professor Osborn. I may express indebtedness to
pleted machine for the performance of both of them for certain suggestions which they
The speaker allow me to use and which I incorporateverbally in
special mental functions.
called attention to the fact that the funda- the text. Among them is the suggestion that 'Or-
ganic Selection' should be the title of this paper.
mental sensations do not even require a While feeling that this cooperationgives greater
nervous system for their expression. Thus weight to the communication,at the same time I am
Protozoa appear to experience the sensa- alone responsible
.
for the, publication
~~~.
~~
. ~of it.~. ~~ . ~: ~~~
. ;~ ..
APRIL 23, 1897.] scm ?YGE. 635

cation, there will be a gradual and cumula- the individuals of each generation to the
tive development of coincident variations social environment, whereby the continuity
under the action of natural selection. The of tradition is secured. *
adaptive modification acts, in short, as a It appears desirable that some definite
screen to perpetuate and develop congenital scheme of terminology should be suggested
variations and correlated groups of these. to facilitate the discussion of these prob-
Time is thus given to the species to develop lems of organic and mental evolution; and
by coincident variation characters indis- I therefore venture to submit the follow-
tinguishable from those which were due to ing:
acquired modification, and the evolution of 1. Variation: to be restricted to 'blasto-
the race will proceed in the. lines marked genic or congenital variation.
out by private and individual adaptations. 2. Accomimodation:functional adaptation
It will appear as if the modifications were of the individual organism to its environ-
directly inherited, whereas in rgality they ment. This term is widely used in this
have acted as the fostering nurses of con- sense by psychologists, and in an analogous
genital variations. sense by physiologists.t
It follows also that the likelihood of the 3. Modification(Lloyd Morgan): change
occurrence of coincident variations will be of structure or function due to accommoda-
greatly increased -with each generation, tion. To embrace ' ontogenic variations '
under this ' screening ' influence of modi- (Osborn), i.e., changes arising from all
fication; for the mean of the congenital causes during ontogeny.
variations will be shifted in the direction 4. CoincidentVariations(Lloyd Morgan):
of the adaptive modification, seeing that variations which coincide with or are sim-
under the operation of natural selection ilar in direction to modifications.
upon each preceding generation variations 5. Organic Selection (Baldwin): the per-
which are not coincident tend to be elimi- petuation and development of (congenital)
nated.* coincident variations in consequence of ac-
Furthermore, it has recently been shown commodation.
that, independently of physical heredity, 6. Orthoplasy(Baldwin): the directive or
there is among the animals a process by determining influence of organic selection
which there is secured a continuity of social in evolution.t
environment, so that those organisms which 7. OrthoplasticInfluences (Baldwin): all
are born into a social pommunity, such as agencies of accommodation (e. g., organic
the animal family, accommodate themselves plasticity, imitation, intelligence, etc.), con-
to the ways and habits of that community. * ' Mental Development in the Child and the Race,'

Professor Lloyd Morgan,t following Weis- 1st ed., January, 1895, p. 364, ScIENCE, August 23,
mann and Hudson, has employed the term 1895.
t Professor Osborn suggests that 'individual adap-
'tradition' for the handing on of that tation' suffices for this; but that phrase does not mark
which has been acquired by preceding gen- well the distinction between 'accommodation ' and
erations; and I have used the phrase 'modification.' Adaptation is used currently in a
' social heredity for the accommodation of loose general sense.
f Eimer's 'orthogenesis ' might be adopted were
*This aspqct of the subject has been especially it possible to free it from association with his hy-
'
emphasized in my own exposition, American Natu- potheses of ' orthogenic or determinate' variation
ralist, June, 1896, pp. 147 ff. and use-inheritance. The view which I wish to
t Introduction to Comp. Psych., pp. 170, 210, characterize is in some degree a substitute for these
' Habit and Instinct,' pp. 183, 342. hypotheses.
636. SCIENCE. [N. S. VOL.V. No. 121.

sidered as directing the course of evolution history and its taxonomy rest. It is there-
through organic selection. fore of the greatest importance to learn the
8. Tradition (Lloyd Morgan): the hand- whereabouts of types. The object of this
ing on from generation to generation (in- article, however, is not to point out the
dependently of physical heredity) of ac- great scientific value of type specimens, but
quired habits. to determine what constitutes a type and'
9. Social Heredity (Baldwin): the process what kinds of types exist.
by which the individuals of each generation There is considerable diversity of opinion
acquire the matter of tradition and grow as to what is meant by a type. One writer
into the habits and usages of their kind.* states that " By a type is meant the original
J. MARK BALDWIN. specimen to which any generic or specific
UNIVERSITY,
PRINCETON name was first assigned.'*
March13, 1897. The late Dr. G. Brown Goode writes
that
WHAT IS A TYPE IN NATURAL HISTORY? By a type is meant a specimenwhich has beenused
by the author of a systematic paper as the basis ofe
ALL naturalists concede that type speci- detailed study, and as the foundation of a specific
mens constitute the most important ma- name. In cases where a considerable number of
terial in a museum of natural history. The specimens has been used, it is desirableto separate
true appreciation of this fact, however, is one or more as being the primary types, while the
of recent date, and is shown in the numer- other specimens,which may have been used in the
same study for the purpose of comparison,may be
ous lately published catalogues of types pos- regarded as collateral types.t
sessed by different museums. The greater
A mammalogist further states that " The
number of these publications have appeared
in England and America. This just valua- word ' type' itself, when first intro-
tion of type material in recent years has duced, was meant to refer to the particular
come about through the work of specialists specimen (in the singular) originally de-
in their efforts to monograph groups of scribed, but it was soon naturally applied
to any individual of the original series, if
organisms. In those branches of natural his-
more than one specimen was examined by
tory where original descriptions are usually
the describer."+
accompanied by figures, the value of type
material is not so apparent as where no
These citations clearly show that a type
is not always restricted to a single speci-
figures are given, but in all branches of this
science except bacteriology, it is upon the
men selected by an author, but also applies
to several, or even to all the specimens con-
type material that the entities of natural
tained in the original lot. Moreover, the
* ProfessorLloyd Morganthinks this term unneces-
word type has been applied to specimens
sary. It has the advantage,however, of falling in sent out by the author of a species, but not
with the popularuse of the phrases'social heritage'
and 'social inheritance.' On the other hand, ' tradi- *T. McKennyHughes, Catalogueof the Type Fos-
tion ' seems quite inadequate; as generally used it sils in the WoodwardianMuseum,Cambridge,1891
signifies that which is handed on, the material; while preparedby Henry Woods.
in the case of animals we have to deal mainly with tCircular letter of July lst, 1893, to Curatorsin
the process of acquisition. 'Social heredity' also the U. S. National Museum.
calls attention to the linking of one generationto an- t Suggestions for the moredefinite use of the word
other. However, I think there is room for both 'type ' and its compounds,as denoting specimens
terms. For furtherjustificationof the terms 'Social of a greater or less degree of authenticity, by Old-
Heredity' and 'Organio Selection,' I may refer to field Thomas. Proc. Zool. Soo. London, 1893, pp.
the American Naturalist, July, 1896, pp. 552 ff. 241-2.