Approved August7,1997
ABSTRACT
This standard outlines the basic practices for the design and selection of components, other than gearing, for
use in commercial and industrial enclosed gear drives.
Published by
ISBN: 1555896839
Contents
Page
Foreword ............................................................... iv
1 scope .............................................................. 1
2
Definitionsandsymbols ............................................... 1
Designconditions
3 .................................................... 1
4 Shafts .............................................................. 4
Keys
5 .............................................................. 19
6 Bearings ........................................................... 20
Housings
7 .......................................................... 21
8Threadedfasteners .................................................. 22
9Miscellaneouscomponents ........................................... 22
iii
Foreword
r h e foreword,footnotes,andannexes, if any, in thisdocumentareprovidedfor
informational purposes only and are notconstrued as a part of ANWAGMA Standard
to be
60014 9 7 , Design and Selection of Components for Enclosed Gear Drives.]
AGMA 260.02 was approved by the AGMA membership on February 1,1973, and in issued
January of 1974. It consolidatedwith minor revision, information contained
in the following
superseded AGMA Standards:
AGMA 255.02 (November 1964),Bolting (Allowable TensileStress) for Gear Drives;
AGMA 260.01 (March 1953),Shafting Allowable Torsional and Bending Stresses;
,
AGMA 260.02 also incorporated allowable stresses for keys;
AGMA 265.01 Bearings Allowable Loads and Speeds.
The purposeof AGMA 6001 C88, as a replacement for AGMA 260.02,to was establish a
common base for the design and selection of components for the different types of
commercial and industrial gear drives.
AGMA 6001C88 was expanded to include a generalized shaft stress equation which
includedhollowshafting,miscellaneousComponents,housings,andkeywaystress
to allow for 200 percent
calculations. A l l design considerations were revised peak load for
helical,spiralbevel,spurandherringbonegearing,and 300 percentpeakload for
wormgearing. The bearing section was gpdated to include consideration life
of adjustment
factors, bearing lives other than 5000 hours andreliability levels other thanL1O.
During the preparation of AGMA 6001 C88, a considerable amount of time was spent on
the shaft design section
in an effort to include the most recent theories on shaft stresses and
material characteristics. The standard included the existing practice for shaft design, and
forreferencepurposes,appendix C includedadescriptionof,andexcerptsfrom,
ANSVASME B1 06.1 M, Design of Emsmjssjon Shafting, published in 1985.
AGMA 6001 C88 was approved by the membership in May 1988 and approved as an
American National Standard on June 24, 1988.
This revision, AGMA 6001D97, has been expanded to include more recent theories on
shaft design and analysis.Also, equations for shaft deformation were added.
AGMA 6001 D97 was approved by the membership
in October 1996 and approved as an
7, 1997.
American National Standard on August
Suggestionsfor improvement of this standard be
willwelcome. They shouldbe sent to the
AmericanGearManufacturersAssociation, 1500 KingStreet,Suite201,Alexandria,
Virginia 22314.
ACTNE MEMBERS
ASSOCIATE MEMBERS
vi
Enclosed Gear Drives The symbols and definitions used in this standard
may differ from those in other AGMA standards. The
user should not assume that familiar symbols can be
used without acarefulstudy of theapplicable
semon(s) and equation(s).
1 Scope
2.1 Definitions
This standard provides an acceptable practice for The terms used, wherever applicable, conform
to the
the design and selection of componentsfor enclosed following standards:
gear drives. Fundamental equations provide for the AGMA 904496, Metric Usage
proper sizingof shafts, keys, and fasteners based on
stated allowable stresses. Other components are ANSI Y10.31968, Letter Symbols for Quantities
discussed in a manner to provide an awarenessof
Used in Mechanics of Solids
their function or specific requirements. This stan ANSI/AGMA 1012F90, Gear Nomenclature,
dard applies to the following typesof commercial and Definitions of Terms with Symbols
industrialenclosed geardrives,individuallyorin 2.2 Symbols
combination: spur, helical, herringbone, bevel and
worm. The symbols used in this standard are shown in table
1.
1.1 Exceptions
SI units of measure are shown in parentheses in
The equations in this standard are not applicable table 1 and in the text. Where equations require a
when gear drives are subjected to vibratory condi different format or constant for use with SI units, a
tionswheretheremaybeunpredictablefatigue second expression is shown after the first, indented,
failure. in smallertype, and with 'M" included in the equation
The procedure for design or selection of the specific number.
gearcomponentsisvariedandcomplexand is Example:
beyond the scope of this standard. Designers must
referto thespecificrating or encloseddrive Wf FP
standards for this aspect of drive design.
Ste = 2 ...(70)
0.785 (D  F)
1.2 Intended use
 Wf FP
Theequationsandvaluespresentedprovidea Ste  2 ...(70M)
0.785(0  0.9382P)
generalapproach to design.Deviationsfromthe
methods and values statedin this standardmay be The second expression uses SI units.
made whenjustified by experience, testing, or more
specific
analysis. It is intended
for
useby
experiencedgeardesignerscapableofselecting 3 Design conditions
reasonable values based on their knowledge of the
performanceof similar designs and the of effect
such This standard should be used in conjunction with
items as lubrication, deflection, manufacturing toler appropriatecurrentAGMAstandards.Whenthe
operating conditions are known, each component of directions and rotations producing the most unfavor
the drive shall be designed to meet those conditions.able stresses unless more specific information is
When operating conditions are not known, all load available. Due allowances must be made for peak
carrying components of the drive shallbe designed loads.
to support the stated mechanical rating of the drive Forencloseddrivesdesigned to operateunder
for continuous dutybased on a unrty service factor specific conditions suchas load, speed, duty cycle
(1.O). Externalloads must be consideredas acting in and l i , components maybe selected accordingly.

Table 1 Symbols used in equations
First
Term Units referenced
Coefficient  Fig 4
Compressive areaof key in keyway in2 (mm? Eq 68
Shear area in2 (mm? Eq 69
Cross sectional area ni2 (mm? Eq 63
Distance from supportto concentrated load in (mm) Eq 46
Coefficient  Fig 4
Coefficient  Eq 37
Fastener nominal diameter in (mm) Eq 70
Shaft diameter adjacent to section being analyzed in (mm) Fig 8
Shaft inside diameter in (mm) Eq 6
Shaft outside diameter in (mm) Eq 6
Modulus of elasticity Ib/ir? (N/mm2) Eq 46
Concentrated load Ib (NI Eq 46
Peak load factor  Eq 5
Fatigue safety factor  Eq 1
Peak load safety factor  Eq 2
Allowable stressto yield strength factor  Eq 5
Modulus of rigidity Ib/i$ (N/mm? Eq 41
Brinell hardness number H6 Eq 30
Radial step in (mm) Fig 8
Second area momentof cross section in4 (mm4) Eq 46
Second polar moment of area in4 (mm4) Eq 41
Second polar moment of area of nth section of shaft in4 (mm4) Eq 44
Constant  Eq 8
Theoretical stress concentration factor in bending  Eq 38
Fastener torque coefficient  Eq 71
Fatigue strength modification factor  Eq 34
Surface finish factor  Es 35
Size factor  Eq 35
Reliabiltty factor  Eq 35
Temperature factor  Eq 35
Life factor  Eq 35
Modrfying factor for stress concentration  Eq 35
Miscellaneous effects factor  Eq 35
Length of shaft in (mm) Eq 41
Length of the nth section of shaft in (mm) Eq 44
Bending moment Ib in (Nm) Eq 7
Coefficient  Eq 37
Number of stress cycles  Eq 37
(contin&,
Table 1 (continued)
First
Term Units referenced
Permissible number of momentary peak load cycles  Eq 39
Fastener threads per inch in’ Eq 70
Fastener thread pitch (mm) Eq 70M
Axial force Ib (N) Eq 10
Notch sensitivrty  Eq 38
Reliability (survival rate)  Eq 36
Surface finish Pin (Pm) Fig 4
Notch radius, fillet radius, hole radius in (mm) Fig 7
Average radius alongthe key length in (mm) Eq 69
Average radius at compressive load area in (mm) Eq 68
Allowable compressivestress lb/ir? (N/mm2) Eq 66
+ at I 06 stress cycles lb/in2 (N/mm2) Eq 37
Modified fatigue strength (endurance limit) lb/i$ (N/mm2) Eq 3
Basic fatigue strength (endurance limit)of polished, unnotched lb/ir? (N/mm2) Eq 32
test specimenin reverse bending
Fastener proof loadstress lbhr? (N/mm2) Eq 72
Allowable shear stress lbhr? (N/mm2) Eq 67
Ultimate tensile strength lb/i$ (N/mm2) Eq 30
Tensile yield strength Ib/in2 (N/mm2) Eq 3
Calculated compressive stress Ib/in2 (N/mrn2) Eq 68
Calculated key shear stress Ib/in2 (N/mm2) Eq 69
Calculated tensile stress in fastener Ib/in2 (N/mm2) Eq 70
Torque Ib in (Nm) Eq 6
Fastener torque Ib in (Nm) Eq 71
Transverse shear force Ib (NI Eq 8
Applied tensile load on fastener Ib (NI Eq 70
Fastener tensile preload Ib (NI Eq 71
Distance from support to cross section in (mm). Eq 46
Deflection of shaft in (mm) Eq 46
Elongation in (mm) Eq 63
Angular position of shaft element radians Fig 3
Shaft slope radians Eq 47
Critical stress angle radians Eq 28
Angle of twist radians Eq 41
Poisson’s ratio  Eq 9
Alternating componentof stress Ib/in2 (N/mm2) Eq 12
Alternating axial normal stress Ib/i$ (N/mm2) Eq 13
Alternating radial normal stress Ib/in2 (N/mm2) Eq 13
Alternating tangential normal stress Ib/in2 (N/mm2) Eq 13
Axial normal stress due to bending Ib/i$ (N/mm2) Eq 7
Mean componentof stress Ib/in2 (N/mm2) Eq 11
Maximum stress Ib/ir? (N/mm2) Fig 2
Minimum stress Ibhr? (N/mm2) Fig 2
Mean axial normal stress Ibh$ (N/mm2) Eq 14
Mean radial normal stress Ibh? (N/mm2) Eq 14
Mean tangential normal stress Ib/i$ (N/mm2) Eq 14
Axial normal stress due to tension or compression lblir? (N/mm2) Eq 10
(continued)
Table 1 (wncludet?)
First
Term Units referenced
Total axial normal stress Ib/W (N/mmz) Eq 15
Total radial normal stress Ib/ir? (N/mrn2) Eq 15
Total tangential normal stress lbhn2 (N/md) Eq 15
Von Mises alternating stress IbAr? (N/mm2) Eq 3
Von Mises mean stress Ibb$ (N/mm2) Eq 3
Equivalent uniaxial stress under peak loading Ibb$ (N/mm2) Eq 39
Von Mises total stress Ib/i$ (N/mm2) Eq 5
Alternating torsional shear stress Ibhr? (N/mm)2 Eq 20
Alternating radial shear stress Ibbr? (N/mm2) Eq 13
Alternating axial shear stress Ibbr? (N/mm2) Eq 13
Alternating tangential shear stress IMr?(Nhnrn2) Eq 13
Mean radial shear stress Ibbr? (Nlmm2) Eq 14
Mean axial shear stress Ibbn2 (N/mm2) Eq 14
Mean tangential shearstress Ib/ir? (N/mm2) Eq 14
Maximum torsional shear stress Ib/ir? (N/mm2) Eq 19
Minimum torsional shear stress Ib/in2 (N/mm2) Eq 19
Mean torsional shear stress IbbG (N/mm2) Eq 19
Total radial shearstress Ib/ir? (N/mm2) Eq 15
Total axial shear stress lb/ir? (N/rnd) Eq 15
Total tangential shear stress Ib/in2 (N/mm2) Eq 15
Torsional shear stress Ib/in2 (N/mm2) Eq 6
Shear stress dueto shear force lb/ir? (N/rnm2) Eq 8
Test shear stressto find 0, Ib/in2 (N/mm2) Eq 27
STDAGMA
COPYRIGHT American b001D77ENGL
Gear Manufacturers L777
Association, Inc. 9
Licensed by Information Handling Services
AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD ANSI/AGMA 6001D97
torsional stiffness to limit deflections to acceptable considerably greater than unity shall be used. If the
levels andto avoid unwanted vibratory motion. consequence of failure is minimal, a safety factor
closer to unity maybe used.
4.1 Designcriteria
4.2 Fatigue safetyfactor
Shafts must pass two stress analysis tests to be
considered adequately designed. First, they must The elliptic equation has been selected for analysis
be designed to resist fatigue failure due to cyclic of the fatigue failure mode.It is foundin references
loading over their intended life.A l l operating loads, [3], [lo] and [15].*This equation is:
including momentary peak loads, must be consid
ered,andaMiner'sRuleanalysis(see IS0 TR
10495) maybe required to properly account for the
(9) (?)* (L)
2
+ = Fsf
2
...(3)
states.
different
stress See 4.6.8. where

Fsf L 1.O ...(1) a, is VonMises
alternating
stress,
Ib/in2
where (N/mm2);
Fsffatigue
safety
isfactor. S,

is modified
fatigue
strength,
Ib/in2 (N/mm2);
Second, they must be designed to withstand mo q,, is Von Mises mean stress, Ib/in2 (N/mm2);
mentarypeakloadswithoutdistressorpermanent J; istensileyieldstrength, Ib/in2(N/mm2);
deformation. factor. safety fatigue Fsf is
Fsp 2 1.0 ...(2) This equation canbe rewritten to solvefor the fatigue
where safety factor.
[($F (?r]
Fsp is peak load safety factor. 1
FSf = 0.5
both
requirement
The
for to of
iscriteria
these ...(4)
compare the
stress
condition
for
the
given
shaft +
geometryandloadingtopropertiesoftheshaft
material.EachstressconditionappliedtotheshaftForthedesigntobeconsideredacceptablefor
mustbecheckedwithequation 1 andequation 2 fatiguecondition,theresuMngfatiguesafetyfactor,
suchthatFsfL 1.o L 1.o. Seefigure 1. WhereFsf,must be equaltoorgreaterthan 1.O.
nominal or estimated material properties are used, a
factor ofsafety,Fsf,greaterthan1.0isrecom 4.3 Peak load safety factor
nalysis
uation
loadpeak
following
The
mended. to used is
solve forthe peak load safety factor:
In selecting a value for safety factor, the conse
quence
failure
ofshall
considered.
be theIf  FYasY
...(5)
consequence of failure high,
is safety
a factor FSP 
v)
v)
al
v \
Stress curve associated
with equation5
,associated
Stress
curve
 0 Mean stress

Figure 1 Design criteria
P, isaxialforce, Ib (N). the shaft. If all loads are treated as positive values
All of these stresses can have alternating and meanand aretherefore additive, the critical locations to be
components. See figure 2. examined are at positions
A (e = O ) and B (O = d2)
and at positions 8 between them. Depending on the
Therefore: relationships between the four stresses, any position
U,,, = 0.5 (omax+ Omin) = mean componentof of 8 between O andmay be thelocation of
stress ...(11) maximum stress.
U, = 0.5 (Omax  Omin) = alternating componentof
stress ...(12)
(Equations 11 and 12 are generalized for a normal Tension
stress, but also apply to shear stresses.) (+I
Thecase of completelyreversedstress,where
, = am, and U,,, = O, occurs for the axial normal
U
bending stress,ub, and the shear stress,q,, (due to
transverse shear force) when the shaft is rotating
and is subjected to a constant direction load. This is
a common loading condition.
The location of the maximum and minimum stress
intensities due to these loads varies as the stress
element being analyzed orbits with the rotating shaft. (1
Compression
See figure 3. In this figure, the loads are fixed and
only the shaft element under analysis is rotating with 
Figure 2 Cyclic loading
Element at
position A
and ,T, arecompletelyalternating, whereas t+ is This represents the maximum value of stress at any
entirely mean. The torsional shear stress, q,often point of the shaft surface at that location for the
has both a mean (hr) and an alternating component general case. The results of equations 25,26 and29
(%r). are usedin equations 3 through 5.
tnr = 0.5 (trmax + t min) ...(19) properties of steel
4.5 Mechanical
Tzt = 05 (Pmax "4 min) ...(20) Mechanicalpropertyvalues,determined from test,
If such is thecase,
at
position 8, of
the
specified
grade of steel
in its processed
and
heattreatedconditionshould be Üsedwhenever
Mean stresses: available.
%Lx=% ...(21) 4.5.1 Estimated propertiesof steel
tnzr=tttl ...(22)
It is important to note that the estimated material
Atternating stresses: properties may deviate significantly from actual test
o,=abcos8 (maxat8=0) ...(23) values. Thus, an appropriate factor of safety should
be used.
h=q,sin8+ht x
(maxatO=)
2
...(24)
In the absence of test data, the following properties
Themeancomponentsofstresshave m asthe of forged or rolled s t e e l shafting material may be
firstsubscript (%, h)whilethealternating used. For through hardened steel
shafts,
the
components haveU as the first subscript ,o
(, h). ultimate tensile strength can be based on the Brinell
For standard catalogued gear drives that are not hardness of the shaft, near the outer surface, at the
subjected to torque reversals, alternating torques in diameter under consideration. For s t e e l shafts that
the rangeof 25% to 50% are suggested. If no data are case hardened by processes as such
carburizing
exists, a worst case50% alternating torque (that is and nitriding, the ultimate tensile strength is based
betweenzeroandthemaximumtorque,where on the Brinell hardness of the shaft underneath the
k t= Gr) should be used. A value lower than 25% hardened case unless a detailed analysis or experi
may be used if experienceshowsthatreduced ence indicatesthat a different tensile strength should
torque fluctuations exist. be used. See sample problem 3 in annex E. The
yield strength and modified fatigue strength can be
If frequent torque reversals are present, consider calculated based on the ultimate tensile strength.
setting G, =,,,T and = O (100% alternating The following equations have been developed by
torque). curvefitting
representative test
results
from
Von Mises alternating stress for the simplified case: references (3 1,[18] and [19].
 Ultimate tensile strength:
= [om2+ 3hzx2]05 ...(25)
Von Mises mean stress for the simplified case:
Su = 500 HB ...(30)
 S,, = 3.45 HB ...(30M)
U ,= [h2
,
, + 3b2]0.5 ...(26) where
Calculate equations 23 through 25 for 8, depending Su isuttimatetensilestrength,Ib/in2(N/mm2);
on qeSt and G r :
HB isBrinellhardnessnumber,HB.
..(27) NOTE: The value of 500 in equmon 30 is a typical
value. in reference [15], 450 is mentioned as a
minimum value.
Tensile yield strength:
,. (28) 
S;, = 0.94 S, 12 500 ...(31)
S; = 0.94 S,  86.2 ...(31M)
If xar 2 ctesr, 8  E! radians where
c  2
where S;, is tensile yield strength, Ib/ir? (N/mm2).
0, is thecriticalstressangle,deg. Basic fatigue strength:
+e = 0.5 S, if& 5 200 O00 Ib/in2 ...(32)
and
use
the
components U
, and
for
the
maximum value of 0, to calculate Von Mises total
sfe = 0.5 S, if S, 5 1380 N/mm2 ...(32M)
stress for the simplified case:
NOTE: The value of 0.5 in equation32 is an average
 value. The values can rangefrom 0.4 to 0.6 depending
~ t o t a l =[ ( 4 n +
~ + 3(* + ha)210.5 ..(29) upon heat treatment.See [15] for detailed information.
60 80 100 140
120 160 180 200 220 240 lOOOIb/ir?
r I I I I l I 1 I I I I I t
400 500 600 700 800 900 lo00 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700N/mm2
S,
Ultimate tensile strenmh.

Figure4 Surface finishfactor, 4, [lo]
10
O 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 in
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 l 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I
o 50 250
200
150
100 350
300 400 450 500mm
Shaft diameter,(I,

Figure 5 Size factor,& [lo]
1.o0
0.98
0.96
0.94
0.92
A
? 0.90
$ 0.88
c
8
r 0.86

3 0.84
5

.
m 0.82
0.80
0.78
0.76
0.74.
0.5 0.99 0.999
Reliability, R
For normal distribution where the standard deviation is 8% of the distribution mean.
Figure 6  Reliabilityfactor, k, [3] [lo]
11
For applications outside this temperature range, theshoulder, c)r other discontinuity where the effective
fatigue properties should be determined by actual stresses have been amplified. The effect Of Stress
tests [3].. concentration on the fatigue strength of the shaft is
representedbythe m o d i n g factorforstress
4.6.5 Life factor, ke
concentrabion, 4,
Life factor, t ,is taken as unrty (1.O) at lo6 stress 1 " ...(38)
cycles. At greater than lo6 stress cycles, should kf  1 I q ( &  1 )
be taken as unlty, but in fact may be continually
where
decreasing with increasing number ofstress cycles
at an unknown (lesser) rate. q is notch sensitivity;
k, is greater than unlty between 1@ and 1 stress & is theoreticalstressconcentrationfactorin
cyclesand in thisrangemay be calculatedas bending.
follows: A single fatigue stress concentration factor, that in
bending (A;), is utilizedasrepresentativeofany
stress condition. For many applications, aonly small
where error will result from this assumption because the
other stress concentration factors are very close to
m is '/3 loglo [ O e 8 &/Se]; that inbending.However, if adifferentstress
c is loglo ((0.8 &J2/&}; concentration factor (other than bending) is required
&, a modification
and it is significantly different than
se is sf at 106stresscycles(where = 1.O); to this analysismay be necessary.
N is number of stress cycles (between
1@and
Notch sensitivity, q, accounts for the phenomenon
106). that low strengthsteels are less sensitive to fatigue
Below 1 6 stress cycles, the value of
k, obtained at at notches than are high strengthsteels. Valuesfor q
16cycles shouldbe used. are shown in figure 7 for ductile (¡.e., elongation 1
10%) throu!gh hardened steel shafts.
4.6.6 Modifyingfactor for stress Concentration,
The theoreltical stress concentration factor in bend
9 ing, &, as shown in figures 8 through 10 are taken
Experience has shown that a shaft fatigue failure from reference 13. These values for 4 represent
almostalwaysoccursat a notch,hole,keyway, some of the more commoncases.
1 .o
0.9
0.5
0.4 I I I I I I r I I
60 80 1 O0 120 140 160 180
200 220 240 260 1 O00 lb/n2
I I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I I
12
5.0
4.5
4.0
3.5
$ 3.0
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.o I I I I I I
0.0 o. 1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 d.6
214
 in bending fora circular shaft with a square
Figure 8 Theoretical stress concentration factor
shoulder, k; (nominal stressis calculated at diameter $)[13]
5.0
4.5
4.0
3.5
* 3.0
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.o
Utfd,
Figure 9  Theoretical stress concentration factor in bending for a circular shaft with a unotch,
1Fr;
(nomlnal stress is calculated at diameter$) [13]
13
4.0 3
 4/43
K, = K, + K2($) + + &(E) 0.9
 0.8
3.8 where
For dj/d, 5 0.9 and */do S O 3  0.7
KI 3.000
 0.6
3.6' Kr 6.69(tl.6ZOdi/d0 + 4.432(dJd0)2 f 83
solid
14
published data, it is advisable to conduct fatigue tion, a mechanical design text or similar reference
tests that closely simulate the shaft condition and its
should be consutted.
operating environment. Use published data or test
Deformationisthedeviationofashaftfromits
data when available.If none of the above conditions
original or ideal shape.A l l shafts deform when they
orothermiscellaneouseffectscontribute to the
are subjectedto stress. For a particular application,
endurance of the shaft being analyzed, $ may be set the deformation may be so small that it cannot be
to 1.0. If anyoftheseconditionsreducethe
measured with usual techniques, or it may be large
endurance strength, consider setting$ to less than enough to be observed with the unaided eye.
1.0; if any
of these
conditionsincrease
the
endurance strength,k, may be greaterthan 1.O. Deformationcancausemisalignmentofcompo
nentsmountedontheshaft,reducesealperfor
4.6.8 Permissible number of peak load cycles mance, and alter bearing and gear tooth load contact
patterns. A l l shafts should be designed so that shaft
If the number of momentary peak load (Fp x the
deformation is withinsuitablelimitsforreliable
unity service factor load) cycles are significant, they
operation of gears and other components that are
canbecomethedominantfactorinthestress
affected by shaft deformation.
analysis. If a Miner’s Rule analysis has not been
performedincludingtheseloads,thepermissible Only homogeneous isotropic cylindrical shafts sub
number of momentary peak load cycles,Nf,, to avoid jectedtoelasticstrains will beconsideredhere.
excessive fatigueis determined as follows: Design conditions such as varymg material proper
ties, inelastic strains, complex loading conditions, or
If 1.0 L F sc~Fp, then noncylindrical shapes may require a more detailed
analysis.
Finite elementanalysis
andphysical
Nfo= (E) I/m
, ..(39) testing may be appropriate alternative methods of
 obtaining deformation information.

(J,
= (J,
1/ 2 While the equations presented in this section cannot
...(40) predict exact deformations, calculated deformations
can often indicate the suitabiltty of a shaft for its
application.
where
4.7.1 Torsion
4.7 Deformation
Thissectionisintendedtogiveanoverviewof
deformation of steelshaftswithinenclosedgear
drives.Deformationofbearings,housings,and
other
components is beyond
scope
the of this T
standard.Foramoregeneraltreatment of deforma 
Figure 11 Torsionaldeformation
15
...(44M)
For a homogeneousshaft which consists of n
different diameters and is subjected to a constant
torque:
16
Forx < a and (L a) > a: The equations for deflection and slopefor a simply
supported shaft subjected to an concentrated over
F(x)(L  u)(xZ  2aL, + a2) ...(46)
Y = hung load are different depending upon the relative
6EE position of the sectionof interest to the supports.
F(L  a)(3x2  2aL + a2)
e, = 6ELL
...(47) Ifx<L
1 ...(53)
upward as shown in figures 12  15);
F isconcentratedload,Ib (N), (positivedown
ward as shown in figures12  15);
4.7.2.3 Intermediate concentrated moment
L is length of shaft between supports, in (mm);
Figure 14 is a diagram of a simply supported shaft
U isdistancefromsupport to concentrated with a concentrated moment applied between the
load, in (mm); supports. The reactions are assumed to act at right
x is distance from support to cross section of angles to the shaft. Zero deflection atthe reactions
interest, in (mm); (bearings) is assumed.
E isshaftmaterialmodulusofelastictty,lb/in2
(N/mm2);
I = "(&
64
 df) ...(50)
1
4.7.2.2 Overhung concentrated load

Figure 14 Bending deflection intermediate
Figure 13 is a diagramof a simply supported shaft concentrated moment
subjected to a concentrated overhung load. Forces
The equations for deflection and slope for a simply
and reactions are assumedto act at right angles to
supported shaft subjected to an intermediate con
the shaft. Zero deflection at the reactions (bearings)
centrated moment are different depending upon the
is assumed.
relative position of the load to the shaft section of
interest.
Y Ifx5a
17
Ifx>a Ifx>L

Figure 15 Bending deflection overhung
concentrated moment
a = 4.24 x 108PxL
...(60) ...(65)
4
...(60M) ,.(65M)
5 Keys ...(68M)
where
Keysaredetachablecomponentswhich,when
assembled into keyways, provide a positive means s, calculated
is compressive
stress,
lb/n2
for transmitting torque between the shaft and hub. (N/mm2);
Four commontypes of keys are square, rectangular, T isshafttorque, Ib in(Nm);
tapered, and Woodruff. Tac is average radius at compressive load area,
5.1 Sizes and tolerances in (mm) (see figure 17);
is cornpressive area of key in contact with
Standard key and keyway sizes, tolerances
and fits shaft or hub, in2 (mm2);
may be obtainedfrom ANSI 617.1, Keys and
Keyseats, ANSI 017.2, Woodruff Keys and Key is peak load factor
seats, or AGMA 9002A86, Bores and Keyways for
= 2.0 for spur, helical, herringbone and bevel
gear drives
Flexible Couplings (InchSeries).
= 3.0 for worm gear drives.
5.2 Allowable compressive stress NOTE: Each component shallbe evaluated basedon
the allowable stress for its material and hardness.
Theallowablekey,shaftandhubcompressive
stresses are commonly based on70 percent of the
component material yield strength.
Scu = 0.7$
!.. ...(66)
where
Scu is allowable
compressive
stress,
Ib/in2
(N/mm2);
J; is tensile yield strength of key, shaft or hub
at the keyway section, Ib/in2 (N/mm2).
ofand5.
See annexA, tableA.l for typical valuesScu
NOTE: Theallowablestress for surfacehardened 
Figure 17 Averageshaft and hub radius
components shallbe based on thecore hardness ofthe
material except when a detailed analysis justifies a
5.5 Shear stress calculation
higher allowable stress.
Theshear stress in a keyresultingfromthe
5.3 Allowable shear stress
transmitted torque may be calculated using equation
The allowable key shear stress shall
be based on50 69. The calculated key shear stress, &k, should not
percent of the allowable key compressive stress. exceed the allowable shear stress,
S,,.
19
20
Bearingmaterial. A bearing’sdynamicrating is
based upon hardened, good quality bearing steel.If
premium steels are used, the life may be adjusted
due to the reduction of impurities in steel.
the
o
which is considered detrimental to the performance $
of the gear drive maybe a usable life criterion.
s
NOTE: The life calculation methods used by bearing
manufacturers are based upon subsurface originated
fatigue damage which leads to spalls. Other types of
bearing damage which may reduce beering life include,
but are not limitedto, surface originated spatting due
to Lubricant Rubbing
bruises from contaminantsin the lubricant, plastic
yielding or brinelling dueto overload, retainer damage
and scoring or scuffing dueto lack of lubrication.
Bearing
parameter

ViSCOSitV x Speed
Projected area pressure
Figure 18 Variation of coefficient of friction
)
Consult the bearing manufacturer for specific life versus the bearing parameter
adjustment factors.
Operating temperature. In general, for tin based
6.2 Sleeve bearing selection criteria babbitt, metal temperature does not exceed 260°F
(127°C).
Sleeve bearings operatein three basic regimes: NOTE: The criteriaabovemay be exceededwhen
sophisticatedanalyses are performedonbearing
 boundarylubrication; materials,construction,clearance,eccentriuty ratio,
 mixedfilmlubrication; shaft slope, length
to diameter ratio,lubricant viscosity,
and operating temperature.
 fullfilmhydrodynamiclubrication. Hydrodynamicbearingssubjected toinfrequent
Figure 18 illustratesthetypicalvariation of the momentary peak loads shallbe designed such that
coefficient of friction as a function of the bearing theyieldpoint ofthebearingmaterials is not
parameter for the three lubrication regimes. exceeded.
For
specific
informationrefer to the
bearing
6.2.1 Boundary and mixed film regimes manufacturer, or [4],
21
22
Oil seals are used with rotating shaftsto retain the 9.8 Grease retainers
lubricant andto exclude contaminants. Considera Grease retainers are generally located between the
tions concerning oil seal selection include but are not cavrty and oil sump to retain greasein the
bearing
limited to hardness, material, pressure at the seal, bearings.
shaft
finish,
roundness,concentricrty,
bearing
endplay,speed,minimumambientandmaximum 9.9 Dowels and pins
operatingtemperaturesattheoilseal,lubricant, Many different types of dowels and pins are used to
outside environment and expected life. provide positive location or to prevent movement
CAUTION: Oil seals shouldbe selected in accordance between two or more parts under load.
with the seal manufacturer’s recommendations. Con
tact type seals should be consideredwearableand 9.9.1 Dowels and pinsused for positive location
replaceable items overthe life of the gear drive.
These devices are generally used to return parts to
9.4 Breathers the exact position required
if disassembly is neces
sary.Careshouldbetaken toassurethatthe
Breathers maintain pressure balance between the required holes are the proper size.
inside of the drive and the external atmosphere,
whileexcludingenvironmentalcontaminants.The 9.9.2
Dowels
and
pins used to prevent
location should be such that oil leakage through the movement
breather is prevented. When the pressure dlfferen Thesedevicesshallbeselectedbasedonthe
tia1 is less than the acceptable component sealing maximum design loads. Generally two or more of
limits, a breather may not be required. these devices are used. Care should be taken to
9.5 Expansion chambers assure that the required holes are the proper size.
CAUTION: In the abovecases, the dowel and pin
Expansionchambersaredevicesthatmaintain manufacturers’ recommendations for fit and strength
pressure balance between the inside of a gear driveshould be followed.
23
24
Annex A
(informative)
Allowable stresses for typical key and keyway materials
if any, are provided for informational purposes only and should not be construed
r h e foreword, footnotes, and annexes, as
a partof ANSIIAGMA 6001D97, Design and Selection of Components for Enclosed Gear Drives.]
26
Annex B
(informative)
Allowable stresses fortypical threaded fasteners
if any, are provided for informational purposes only and should not be as
vheforeword, footnotes, and annexes, construed
a partof ANSI/AGMA6001D97, Design and Selection of Components for Enclosed Gear Drives.]
B.l Purpose
The purposeof this annex isto provide reference information required for fastener calculations.
Table B.l  Allowable tensile stress for typical inch threaded fasteners
Grade
designation Products Nominal diameter, in
SAE 1 Bolts,
Screws,
Studs
1/4 through 11/2 33 006) I 750
24 I
I
19800
___
Bolts,
through
1/4 1 120 O00 90 O00 72 O00
NOTES:
')The fastener tensile preload stress values in the table are based on torquing oi
the fastener to produce atensile preload
75% of its proof load to avoid fastener breakage. Other values of percentage of proof load may be used, based on testins
or experience.
2,The allowable stress values in the table are based80% on ofthe fastener tensile preload stress in order to ensure join{
' integrity.
3, Proof load test: Requirements in these grades apply onlyto stress relieved products.
4, Grade S E 2 requirements for sizes 1/4 through3/4 inch apply onlyto botts and screws 6 inches and shorter in length
and to studs of all lengths. For botts and screws longer than 6 inches, Grade SAE 1 requirements shall apply.
5,GradeS E 7 bolts and screws are roll threaded after heat treatment. Reference: Fastener Standards, Cleveland, Ohio
Industrial Fasteners Institute, 1988, Sixth Edition.
27

Table B 2 Allowable tensllestress for typical metric threaded fasteners
28
...(C.1)
J S, istangentialstressattheinterfaceouter
member, Ibht? (N/mm2);
T torque
capacity
is resulting
from
interference fit, Ib in (Nm);
For similar metalsE = Ei= E, and =h
6 isdiametralinterference,in(mm);
(c2  B Z ) ( B ~ ~ 2 ) is Poisson’s ratio inner member;
PC =  ...(C.2)
2B3 (C2  A 2 ) 
is Poisson’s ratio outer member.
...(C.3) member
Outer
member
Inner
....(C.4)
xB2PcLf
T= ...(CS)
2
zB2PcLf
T= ,..(CSM)

2000
where
A is inside diameter  innermember,in(mm);
B
C
nominal
is outside
is
diameter
member, in (mm);
outside
diameter  outer
member,
in
 inner
I
* c 
(mm); Figure C.l  Calculation terminology
29
30
Annex D
(informative)
Previous method  shaft design
if any, are provided for informational
pheforeword, footnotes, and annexes, purposes only and should not
be construedas
a part of ANSIIAGMA 6001D97,Design and Selection ofComponents for Enclosed Gear Drives.]
The purpose of this annex is to include the previous Nominal shaft stresses are calculated as follows.
shaftdesignsectionofANWAGMA 6001C88 The applicability of equations D.1 and D.2 to the
(formerly AGMA260)for reference purposes. design of thin wall shafts where the (di&)
ratio > 0.9
has not been established.
D.2 Shafting
16 Td,
Thegeneralequationsfortorsionalandbending ,.(Dl)
stress are shown in equations D.1 and D.2. While the
allowablestressesshown in figure D.l donot ...(D.1M)
separately consider the effects of such things as
shaftsize,surfacefinish,operatingtemperature,
corrosion,residualstressesandreliabilrty, this ...(D.2)
.((ill
method was the accepted practice for shaft design
that has been included in AGMAstandards and used Sb = " V
...(D.2M)
successfully for many years.  G)
(U
E
E
t
175 
150 
125
v)
100 
v)
m
L
I
v)
a 75
ñ
6
3
g 50'
ã
25 
'O
160
200
240
280 320 360 400 440
Brinell hardness
8'0 I
100
120
I I
140
160
180
I
For solid shafting, equationsD.l and D.2 simplify to: When designing a shaft for a specific number of
rotating cyccles, the allowable bending stresses of
16 T
ss =  figure D.l may be multiplied by the factorsin table
R d:
...(D.3)
D.1.

s, = 16000T
d; A
...(D.3M) Table D.l  Allowable stress multipliers for
32 M shatting
Sb = 
R dz
...(D.4)
Cycles Factor
Sb 
= 32000M
A dz
...(D.4M) up to 1000 cycles 2.4
Over 1O00 to 1O O00 cycles 1.8
D2.2 Allowable stress Over 1O O00 to 1O0 O00 cycles 1.4
For steel shafts the calculated stress due to bending 000to 1 million cycles 1.1 Over 100
and the calculated stress due to torsion shall not Over 1 million cycles 1.o
exceedthevaluesshown in figure D.l. These D9.5 Deflection
stresses may exist simultaneously.
Deflection (lateral, torsional and axial)
is a functionof
Theallowablestressforsteelshaftsthatare the loading on the shaft, modulus of elastic@ and the
hardened by processes such as case carburizing or size ofthe slhaft, andis independent the
of hardness.
nitriding should based
be on the core hardness ofthe Damage to bearings, gear teeth or other compo
material unless a detailed analysis or experience nents may clccurif deflection is excessive.
indicates thata different allowable stress be used.
D.2.6 Peak loads
0.2.3 Stress concentration
Bending and torsional stresses resulting from peak
Shaft stresses concentrate near a change in the loads
musl: be
analyzed to
assure
that
the
shaft or where a load is applied to theshaft. Typical mechanical properties ofthe shaft material are not
stress concentrators include but are not limited to exceeded.
32
Annex E
(informative)
Sample problems transmission shaft design
rheforeword,footnotes, and annexes,
if any, are provided for informational purposes only andshould not be construed as
a part of ANSIJAGMA6001D97, Design and Selectionof Components for Enclosed Gear Drives.]
4 = 0.94in;
k, = 0.512Qn1/O.99)0.l1 + 0.508 = 0.817
(99% reliability)
4 = 0.0 in;
= 1.0
4 = 1.25 in (as shown in figure 8);
= 1.0 (106 cycles)
r = 0.12 in (as showninfigure 8).
The criticalsectionis at a radiusadjacentto a
4 = 1/[1 + 0.93(1.6  l)] = 0.64
shoulder. where
33

E.3 Sample problem number2 = {[O
atotal + 6487 COS (31.8')]' + 316577
+ 2204 sin (31.8') + 2192]2}05= 18 061 Ib/in2
An AlSI 4140 steel worm gearshaftthrough
hardenedto 360 HB is subjectto 10 O00 peak load The calculationof the fatigue (endurance) limit of the
cycles @?300% operating load and has the followingshaft isas follows:
loads imposed onit at the shaft's critical section: Su = 500 (360 HB)= 180 O00 lb/in2
T = 152 751 in Ib (25% alternating); J;i 
= 0..94(180OOO) 12 500 = 156 700 Ib/in2
M = 56 498 in Ib (100% alternating  shaft is sf, = 05 (180 OOO) = 90 O00 lb/in2
rotating); the fatigue limit modification factors
Listed below are
V = 28 O00 Ib (100% alternating  shaftis for this example:
rotating); = 313.3(180 000)0315 = 0.670
Px =o. NOTE: Shaft is machined to a 125 & surface finish.
The sectional properties the
of shaftat this point are: = 0.869(4.46)O.@" = 0.752
4 =4.46 in; kc = 0.512(ln1/0.99)o.11 + 0508 = 0.817
(!99% reliability)
4 = 0.0 in.
kd = 1.0
Thiscriticalsectionhasakeywayandagear
pressed onto it with an interference fit ($ taken as = 1.0 (106 cycles)
0.33). 4 = 0.33
The stresses are: kg =la
k = 0.1670 (0.752)(0.817)(1.0)(1.0)(0.33)(1.0)
? = = 8769 ]b/in2
= O. 136
II (4.46Q
sf = 0.136 (90 OOO) = 12 240 lb/in2
For a 25% alternating torque (torque is fluctuating
between
the
maximum
value
and
onehalf The resultinig safety factors for the fatigue failure
maximum value): analysis and the peak load failure analysis are as
follows:
hl = 914 = 2192 Ib/in2
'F =1/{(8008/12 240)2+(11392/156 700)2}05
kt = 3t14 = 6577 Ib/in2 = & = 152
U. ,.
Therefore,
1

a, = {[6487 cos (31.8')12 + 3[2204 sin (31.8') Nfo = 
24(
106.229
 617) 03569
= 140 329cycles
+ 2192]2}0.5= 8008 lb/in2 As Nfois greater than the 10 O00 peak load cycles

= {G+ 3 (657v}05= 11392 lb/in2 expected in service, this is acceptable.
34

E.4 Sample problem number 3 o,, = ((15 646)2 + 3(2607)2}05= 16 285 lb/in2

A carburized and hardenedAlSI 931O steel helical o,,, = {(OY + 3(7823)2}0.5= 13 550 Ib/in2
300 HB and a 63
pinion shafthas a core hardness of 
atotal = {(O + 15 646)2 + 3(7823 + 2607)'}0.5
5 surface finish at the shaft's critical section. Only = 23 899 Ib/in2
100 O00 cycles are required during service,
and no
peak loading is present. The loading is: For a surface hardened part,it is usually conserva
tivetoanalyze it at its corehardness.For this
T = 4000 Ib in (25% alternating);
example, 300 HB is arbararily chosen. This particu
M = 3000 in Ib (100% alternating  shafl is lar part has a surface hardness of greater than
600
rotating); HB and also some residual compressive stress at
V = 1000 Ib (100% alternating  shaft
is the surface, whose beneficial effect is beyond the
rotating); scope ofthis standard.
Px =o. The calculation of the fatigue (endurance) limit
the at
The sectional properties are: 300 HB core hardness is as follows:
C& = 1.25 in; Su = 500 (300)= 150 O00 Ib/in2
4 = 0.0 in;
J; 
= 0.94 (150 OOO) 12 500 = 128500 lb/in2
4, = 1.75 in (asshown in figure 8);
s/, = 0.5 (150 OOO) = 75 O00 lb/in2
r = 0.06 in (asshown in figure 8).
Thecriticalsectionis at aradiusadjacenttoa k =kukbk,kdtk/kg
shoulder. & = 14.2 (150 000)4*244 = 0.775
The stresses are: h = 0.850
= 0.869 (l.Z)0.w7
k, = 0.817 @ 99%reliability
t = = 10lb/in2
430
n (1.25)3 b = 1.0 @ 100°F
For a25% alternating torque; k/ = 1/{1+0.87(2.141)) = 0.503
br = q/4 = 2607lb/in2 kg = 1.0
ht = 3q/4 = 7823 Ib/in2 = h TocalculateSe,set~=1.0,k=0.271;Se=kSf,=20304
lb/in2.
Ob = 32 (3000) = 15 646lb/i$
x (1.25)3 For this example, the part will only be1O0runO00
for
cycles. Therefore,twil be calculated
at 1O5 cycles.
r,
Up =o=%
x (1.25)'
m = 1/3 log,o 0.8 [ (W)]
0.257 =
35
36
Annex F
(informative)
Sample problems deflection 
[The foreword, footnotes, and annexes,
if any, are provided for informational purposes only and should
be construed
not as
a part of ANSIIAGMA 60014 9 7 , Design and selection of Components for Enclosed Gear Drives.]
“A”
90 in
R1 R2
Figure F.l
80 Ib Shaft Diameter= 2 in
,b 30 in J”60 4
in 
r 70 in
I
R1 R2
Figure F.2.
37
I is moment of inertia = (da)&= 0.7854 in4; Since x < L, use equation 51 for determining the
E isYoung'smodulus = 30 x lo6 Ib/in2; deflection rand equation 52 for slope.
F is load = 80 Ib.
Since x > a, use equation 48 for determining the Substituting in the above equations, we get:
deflection and equation49 for slope. 120,(20)(30)(902 302)
Y= = 0.0407in
F(=)@  x ) ( x +
~ a2 U X ) ...(48) (1O6)(O.78S)(9O)
6 (30) ...(F.5)
Y = 6EIL
120(20)[902  3 (3O2)]
F(u)(6Lx  3x2  2L2  02) 8, =  = 0.0010 rad
eb = ...(49) 6(30)(106)(0.7854)(90) ...(F.6)
6ElL
Substituting in the above equations, we get: F.5 Sample problem number4
80(30)(90  70)[702 + 302  2(9O)(7O)] The steel plinion shaft presented above in figure F.4
Y = will be analyzed. The slope of the shaft about its
6 (30)( 106)(0.7854)(90)
...(F.3) neutral axis; at point A and F will be determined for
= 0.0256 in (minus sign indicates deflection further bearing analysis.
is downward)
The shear ;and moment diagrams for this problem
 80(30)[6(90)(70)  3(702) 2(902) 3021 are illustrattd in figureF.5.
H 
"b  1O6)(O.7854)(9O)
6(30)(
= 0.0011 rad
...(F.4)
The deflection and slope of the simply supported
beam wil be calculated at the points indicated
in the
F.4 Sample problem number3 figure.
NIJmeriCal
integration will be
used to
of the shaft at
Determine the slope and the deflection determine these values[14].
a point A as shownin figure F.3. The followingtwo successive integralswill be used:
U is distance from support to the concentrated X
load = 30 in.
...(F.7)
Solution: Refer to 4.7.2.2.The various parameters
are: O
X
L is length of shaft between supports = 90 in;
X is distancewheredeflectionand
required = 30 in;
slope are ,=\W ...(F.8)
O
II is distance from support to the concentrated
load = 20 in; l h e slope is calculated from:
X
I is moment of inertia = (464)&= 0.7854 in4; r
F
R1
30 in ~d
"A"
90 in
Figure F.3
T4 R2 20 in
38
A B C D E
9298 Ib
1.75 in
v A~
I F
7
3.5 in Y"
c '   5.0 in 5.38in .
t
2.5 in
P" T
" "
X
Dia Dia
 I~
5.0 in "
"
V
5.0 in + 4
W V
7.75 in  1.31 in

Figure F.4 Shaft geometry and loading
X
2439
X
(inlb) I I
Figure F.5  Shear and moment diagrams
Where C1 and C2 are determined by the values of x Applying Simpson's rule, equation F.8 produces:
and ty at thesupports where deflection is zero:
c, = VxAF 

VA
XF
.(F.ll)
39
Table F.l
=T
c"
X OD I M 9 Q
Station (in) i (in) (in4) (inlb) WEI "
(rad)
O O O O O OI
A 1 3.50 7.366 O Ol O O o 0.000 28
0.875 2 3.50 7.366 6 W 2 27.16 l
40
Annex G
(informative)
References
and not be construed as
[The foreword,footnotes, and annexes, if any, are provided for informational purposes onlyshould
a part of ANSIIAGMA 6001D97, Design and Selection of Components for Enclosed Gear Drives.]
41
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