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Chapter 6 Pretest

Across racial and ethnic groups, a pattern emerges illustrating that MOST Americans get MOST of their
news from which of the following? Answer: TV broadcast

As of 2014, 7 in 10 Americans were digital citizens, individuals who Answer: possess high-speed Internet
at home.

By representing a wider range of political views than traditional news sources are able to, ______ have
created a more democratic press. Answer: online media

In 1997 the Supreme Court ruled that the _____ was an unconstitutional infringement of the right to
freedom of speech as guaranteed by the First Amendment. Answer: Communications Decency Act

_____ is a type of reporting in which the media adopts a skeptical or even hostile posture toward the
government and public officials, such as occurred during the Vietnam War. Answer: Adversarial
journalism

___ is the disclosure of confidential information to the news media. Answer: leak

____ is the type of journalism that includes news reporting and political commentary by ordinary
citizens and even crisis coverage from eyewitnesses on the scene. Answer: Citizen journalism

The media's intensive focus on terrorism and security in the wake of the September 11, 2001, terrorist
attacks and the resulting focus on President Bush's performance through that lens is an example of
Answer: priming

Misinformation about political issues is highest among which of the following? Answer: blog readers

____ of adults get their political news from Facebook and Twitter. Answer: 60%

___ refers to the power of the media to bring public attention to particular issues and problems.
Answer: Agenda setting

The power of the media to decide how the American people interpret political events and results is
called Answer: framing

The release of confidential government documents by ____ revealed information about the Iraq War
that Reuters had been unable to obtain through FOIA requests. Answer: WikiLeaks

The tendency to focus news coverage on only one aspect of an event or issue, avoiding coverage of
other aspects, is known as Answer: selection bias

What is one of the reasons that many news sources today tend to be more partisan than they
used to be? Answer: There are so many news sources that not many can aim for a broad-based
national audience.
What media in the United States are essentially free from government interference? Answer: print
media

Which of the following has risen over the last decade as traditional print media has declined? Answer:
niche journalism

Which of the following is true of media consolidation in the United States? Answer: The 1996
Telecommunications Act accelerated the pace of consolidation.

Which of the following statements about the use of the Internet for obtaining news and political
information is accurate? Answer: Formats for obtaining news on the Internet are becoming more
diverse and interactive

Which of the following was a federal regulation executed by the Federal Communications Commission
but that is no longer maintained? Answer: fairness doctrine

Chapter 7 Pretest

States hold ___ to select their delegates to the Democratic and Republican national
conventions.
a) Primaries

The term___ refers to the number of of parties competing for power, the organization of
the parties, the dominant form of campaigning, the division between the parties, the
balance of power between and within party coalitions, social and institutional bases, and
the issues around which party competition is organized.
a) Party System

The ___ is a candidate running for re-election to a position that he or she already holds.

a) incumbent

Funding from politically active nonprofits whose donors and amounts contributed do not have to made
public is called

a) dark money

The speaker of the house is actually selected by

a) the party that holds the majority of seats in the house

What was George Washington's relationship with political parties in early America?

a) the thought political parties were a terrible idea

In order to win the presidency, a candidate must receive ___ of electoral college votes
a) a majority

___ primaries only allow registered members of a political party to vote to select that party's candidate,
whereas ___ primaries allow all registered voters to choose which party's primary they will participate in

a) Closed ; open

The first "party system" in the U.S. consisted of 2 parties, the...

a) Federalists and the Jeffersonian Republicans

The republican party was originally formed

a) as a coalition of antislavery

In 2010 the U.S. supreme court, in Citizens United V. Federal Election Commission

a) ruled that the government cannot restrict independent expenditures by corporations or unions
to political campaigns

Suffrage refers to the

a) right to vote

___ are the hallmark of democracy

a) elections

one of the most common reasons given for why U.S. citizens don't participate in elections is

a) the registration process

___ are organizations that seek influence over govt. by nominating candidates and electing its members
to office, whereas ___ do not control the operation of govt. and its personnel but rather try to influence
govt. policies, often through lobbying elected officials.

a) political parties ; interest groups

political action committees (PACs) are organizations established

a) by corporations, labor unions, or interest groups to channel the contributions of their members
into political campaigns

which of the following is an example of direct democracy in practice in the U.S. today?

a) Referendum
the president of the U.S. is selected

a) through the electoral college

a type of party formation in which political conflict prompts officials and competing factions within govt.
to mobilize popular support is called

a) internal mobilization

in the 18 states that have legal provisions for recall elections, the recall process generally begins with

a) a petition campaign

Chapter 8 Pretest

which type of interest groups make up the highest percentage of those registered to lobby in
Washington?
a) economic groups
___ are the MOST widespread and important category of selective benefits offered to group
members.
a) informational benefits
How do netroots associations differ from traditional interest groups?
a) they are quicker to adapt to changes in politics
Super PACs differ from regular political action committees in that they
a) can raise and spend unlimited amounts of money
Which person is MOST likely to join an interest group?
a) a doctor
which of the following is true of the Bipartisan Campaign Reform act of 2002?
a) it ultimately failed to restrict PACs in any significant way
What change did Wal-Mart make starting in 1999, with respect to lobbying?
a) it increased its direct lobbying efforts, becoming a seasoned political player
Universities are classified as which type of interest group?
a) public sector
Mutual cooperation among an executive agency, a legislative agency, and an interest group
exemplified by defense contractors acting in concert with congressional committees and
executive agencies, is an example of
a) an iron triangle
what is the primary purpose of institutional advertising?
a) to create a positive image of an organization
benefits that are broadly available and cannot reasonably be denied to others is the definition of
___ goods.
a) collective
The Sierra club urges its members to contact their senators about a bill currently being
considered in congress. This is an example of
a) grassroots mobilization
a type of interest group that is known for serving the general good rather than its own particular
interest is known as
a) citizen group
a mechanism originally promoted by Populist, many ___ campaigns today are actually sponsored
by interest groups seeking to circumvent legislative oppositions to their goals
a) initiative
one example of a contemporary and infamous organization that epitomizes grassroots
mobilization by going public in an attempt to prioritize internet freedom and that has mounted
protest against anti digital piracy campaigns as well as promote the rights of gays and lesbians is
a) anonymous
The solutions to the idea that organized interest, or "factions" could suppress liberty was
provided in which document?
a) Federalist papers no.10
the "new politics movement" is composed of
a) upper-middle-class professionals and intellectuals that participated in the 1960s social
change movements.
a free rider is
a) person who enjoys the benefits of a collective good, action, or service without any effort
on their part.
in which type of interest group does the organization employ professionals who conduct MOST
of the group's activities while members are called on largely to pay dues and make other
contributions
a) staff organization

the supreme court's landmark decision in ___ dramatically increased the flow of money from interest
groups, 527s, and super PACs into politics and electoral campaigns

a) Citizen United V. FEC

Chapter 9 Pretest

In order to allow new faces in Congress more frequently, advocates of change in incumbency
rates suggest implementing which of the following changes?
term limits, or legally prescribed limits on the number of terms an elected official can serve

In which of the following ways does Congress exercise the power of oversight?
Committees or subcommittees of the Senate or the House conduct hearings and investigations.

A pocket veto occurs when


Congress adjourns during the 10-day period a president has the bill and the president has taken no
action.

The leader of the majority party in the House of Representatives is the

a) Speaker of the House.


Which type of legislation specifies a project to be funded within a particular district to help a legislator
with reelection even though that project is likely not essential?

pork-barrel

A party ___ is elected for each party in each chamber and is responsible for coordinating the party's
legislative strategy, building support for key issues, and counting votes.

whip

when members of Congress are making voting decisions, which interest groups are the MOST
likely to be influential?

those that have some connection to constituents in the Congressional members' districts.

Congress is a _________ legislature with _________ members.

bicameral; 535

The Constitution gives the power of advice and consent

solely to the Senate.

After the 2010 census, it was determined that Texas would gain four seats in the House of
Representatives, that Oklahoma would lose one, and Ohio would lose two. This scenario is an example
of

apportionment.

Real power in the Senate is in the hands of the

majority and minority leaders.

Which sort of representation takes place when representatives have the same racial, gender,
ethnic, religious, or educational backgrounds as their constituents, with the assumption that this
similarity helps to promote good representation?

sociological representation

Under the Hastert Rule, the speaker of the House does not allow any bill to reach the floor
unless

it has the support of a majority of Republican members of the House.

Conference committees serve to

highlight or investigate a particular issue, or address an issue not within the jurisdiction of existing
committees.
A presidential veto can be overridden by

two-thirds vote in both houses of Congress.

An agreement between two or more members of Congress who have nothing in common except the
need for support is called

logrolling.

The House Select Committee on Benghazi, established to investigate the 2012 terrorist attack
on the U.S. embassy in Benghazi, is a type of select committee, which is

usually temporary and normally does not have the power to present legislation to the full Congress
but is set up to highlight or investigate a particular issue not within the jurisdiction of existing
committees.

Within each committee, hierarchy has usually been based on

seniority.

_____ is/are the amount of money approved by Congress in statutes that each unit or agency can spend.

Appropriations

The rule that allows a three-fifths majority of the Senate to set a time limit on debate on a given bill is
called a(an

cloture.

Chapter 10 Pretest

As "head of state," the president is the leading actor in

Answer: foreign policy

As the institutional presidency has grown in size and complexity, MOST presidents of the past
25 years have sought to use their vice presidents as

Answer: management resources after an election

The Cabinet is made up of

Answer: the heads of major federal government departments

A contemporary example of a president using military powers in a domestic environment would


be which of the following?
Answer: President George W. Bush deploying some 22,000 federal troops after
Hurricane Katrina to restore order and offer aid

How has the role of the vice presidency changed since the 1970s?

Answer: The vice president's influence has increased

In the case of a ____, a bill is automatically rejected if the president does not act on a given piece
of legislation passed during the final 10 days of a legislative session.

Answer: pocket veto

The "Kitchen Cabinet" refers to

Answer: an informal group of less than a dozen people that advises the president

Of the following, the President typically has the MOST limited influence over

Answer: the state of the national economy

Powers given to the president by Congress are known as _____ powers.

Answer: delegated

President Obama has been a technological innovator for the presidency, specifically concerning
the use of the Internet and the presidential tactic of "going public," now known as

Answer: going public online

Presidents often use _____ to announce their interpretations of legislation they sign into law

Answer: signing statements

The president's power to issue pardons can be categorized as a _____ power.

Answer: judicial

Specific powers granted by the Constitution specifically to the president, for instance, to make
treaties, grant pardons, and nominate judges and other public officials are known

Answer: expressed powers

Taken together, the three tactics of enhancing reach and power of the Executive Office of the
President (EOP), increasing White House control over the federal bureaucracy, and expanding
the role of executive orders are known as a(n)
Answer: administrative strategy

To override a presidential veto, which of the following is required?

Answer: a two-thirds vote in both the House and Senate

What change in the presidency occurred in the 1830s that strengthened the presidency?

Answer: the development of a national convention system of nominating presidential


candidates

What is the name of the department that has greatly enhanced presidential power and through
which all legislation originating in the White House and all executive orders goes?

Answer: the Office of Management and Budget

Which Article of the Constitution establishes the presidency?

Answer: II

Which of the following is a category of the president's expressed powers, as defined by Sections
2 and 3 of Article II?

Answer: diplomatic

Which of the following statements about impeachment is not true?

Answer: The president is the only official who can be impeached by Congress

Chapter 11 Pretest

The federal merit system was created by the

Answer: Civil Service Act of 1883

Privatization is

Answer: When a formerly public service is provided by a private company, but paid for
by the government.

In 2010, Congress and the president created the ___ to identify systemwide risks to the financial
sector.
Answer: Financial Stability Oversight council

The ___ is a system of 12 Federal Reserve banks that facilitates exchanges of cash, checks, and
credit; regulates member banks; and uses monetary policies to fight inflation and deflation.
Answer: Federal Reserve System

In contrast to presidents Reagan, Clinton, and George W. Bush, President Obama has

Answer: not criticized big government as a problem or a thing of the past.

Which of the following is an example of a government corporation?

Answer: Amtrak

A recent example of a high-profile Congressional oversight hearing includes which of the


following?

Answer: the attack on the American mission in Benghazi, Libya

As the authors of the textbook note, when bureaucrats fill in the blanks to determine how a rule
should be implemented, they are in effect engaged in

Answer: Rule making

Which of the following statements about the Department of Defense is accurate?

Answer: The largest number of career government professionals working abroad are
under the authority of the Department of Defense.

Which agency has authority over the interest rates and lending activities of the nation's MOST
important banks?

Answer: the Federal Reserve System

Which of the following is true with respect to reducing the size of the bureaucracy through the
process of termination during the twelve years of the Reagan and George H.W. Bush
administrations?

Answer: Not a single national government agency or major program was terminated.

Taxing and spending policies are called

Answer: Fiscal policy

Created in 2002, the ____ joined the Justice Department as the major bureaucracy charged with
domestic security.

Answer: Department of Homeland Security

An example of an independent agency, that is, an agency that is not part of a cabinet department,
would be which of the following?
Answer: The Central Intelligence Agency

President Carter’s "zero-base budgeting" called for

Answer: each agency to rejustify its entire mission rather than merely its next year’s
increase

After Congress makes laws, bureaucracies are in charge of _____ them.

Answer: implementing

To ensure a working merit system, MOST government employees are hired

Answer: On the basis of open, competitive exams

Which of the following is a contemporary example of bureaucratic imposed rules?

Answer: The EPA imposing new emission standards for automobiles

Agencies responsible for collecting taxes, both domestic and external, include the IRS for
income taxes, the U.S. Customs Service for tariffs and other taxes on imported goods, and the
Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives for the collection of taxes on the sale of
those particular products. Together, they are called

Answer: Revenue agencies

A pattern of stable relationships between an agency in the executive branch, a congressional


committee or subcommittee, and one or more organized groups of agency clientele is the
definition of a(an)

Answer: Iron Triangle

Chapter 12 Pretest

What are legal precedents?

Answer: prior cases whose principles are used by judges as the basis for their decision in
a present case

Jurisdiction refers to

Answer: A court’s area of authority


The overwhelming majority of criminal cases are heard at a _____, in front of a judge and
sometimes a jury, who will determine whether the defendant violated state law.

Answer: State Trial Court

In deciding court cases, courts apply statutes (laws) and legal

Answer: precedents

Although the Supreme Court has had a conservative majority for the past 45 years, Chief Justice
Roberts has angered Republicans by joining the liberal bloc in several important cases, most
recently in the case of ____, which upheld the constitutionality of Obamacare.

Answer: King v Burwell

The United States is currently, by congressional statute, divided into ___ judicial districts.
Answer: 94

The doctrine of stare decisiswould be used to


Answer: apply the ruling from a precedent to a current case

The country is divided into ____ regional judicial circuits and the D.C. circuit, each of which has
a U.S. Court of Appeals.
Answer: 11

The Constitution specifies the number of Supreme Court justices to which of the following?
Answer: It does not specify the number

The federal courts have the authority to assert that presidential actions are subject to judicial
scrutiny and that the Court could place constraints on the president's power as demonstrated in
the 2004 case of ___, where the Court ruled against President's George W. Bush's denial of civil
rights to a Taliban solider with U.S. citizenship.
Answer: Hamdi v. Rumsfeld

Judicial review refers to the


Answer: power of the judiciary to examine the constitutionality of state and federal laws

In general, the chief justice of the Supreme Court


Answer: assigns opinions when voting with the majority

A criterion used by courts to screen cases that no longer require resolution is known as
Answer: mootness

Appellate jurisdiction is
Answer: the authority to hear appeals from a lower court’s decision

Which of the following is a constitutional requirement for being a Supreme Court Justice?

Answer: There are no constitutional requirements for serving on the Supreme Court

____ is the judicial philosophy that posits that the Court should go beyond the words of the
Constitution or a statute to consider the broader societal implications of its decisions.
Answer: Judicial activism

What is a writ of habeas corpus?


Answer: a court order that an individual in custody be brought into court and shown the
cause for detention

Justices who agree with the majority decision but disagree with the legal reasoning will likely
file a(n) Answer: special concurrence

The member of the justice department who screens all appeals to the Supreme Court for the U.S.
government is the Answer: solicitor general

Historically, the federal courts' MOST important decisions were those that

1. Answer:
protected the freedoms of those whose beliefs or race made them unpopular.

Chap 13 Pretest

The welfare state supplies a measure of economic security as well as


Answer: equality of opportunity

Economists who believe that the government can stimulate the economy by increasing public
spending or by cutting taxes are known as
Answer: Keynesians

There are three federal government programs that assist the working poor: the Earned Income
Tax Credit (EITC), SNAP (formerly known as food stamps), and
Answer: the Affordable Care Act

Social security is a ____________ program.


Answer: Contributory

The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 was designed to


Answer: help recover American jobs after the 2008 economic recession

What inspired the national government to first take a large role in elementary education in the
United States?
Answer: Competition with the Soviet Union

Which groups receive the MOST benefits from the government?


Answer: The elderly and the middle class

In the 2015 case of ____, the Supreme Court upheld the Affordable Care Act, siding with the
Obama Administration that Congress intended to make subsidies available to all who qualified.
Answer: King v Burwell

In 1996, Congress abolished the noncontributory program called Aid to Families with Dependent
Children and replaced it with the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families, whose eligibility is
determined by
Answer: means testing

Subsidies and contracts are examples of which type of policy?


Answer: Promotional

Noncash goods and services that would otherwise have to be paid for in cash by the beneficiary"
is the definition of
Answer: in-kinds benefits

_____ refers to a law, a rule, a statute, or an edict that expresses the government's goals and
provides for rewards and punishments to promote those goals' attainment.
Answer: Public Policy

Government grants of cash or other valuable commodities are known as


Answer: Subsidies

Which program required children in grades three through eight to be tested yearly for proficiency
in math and reading?
Answer: No Child Left Behind

Known for being banker's banks, these banks make loans to other banks, clear checks, and
supply the economy with currency and coins.
Answer: Federal Reserve banks

The primary source of cash assistance for the nonworking poor is


Answer: TANF

Social Security redistributes wealth from


Answer: young workers to elderly retirees

One of the main triggers of the global recession in 2007 was a crisis in which sector of the
American economy?
Answer: housing

_____ policy is the name given to the government's taxing and spending powers.
Answer: Fiscal

The interest rate that member banks of the Federal Reserve System charge each other is known
as the
Answer: Federal Funds Rate

Chapter 14 Pretest

Terrorist groups are an example of a _____ that threatens American security.


Answer: Non-State Actor

In a commencement address at the U.S. Military Academy at West Point in June 2014, President
Obama said that American military policy under his administration would be based on
Answer: collective action and restraint.

Executive ___________ have the force of treaties but do not require the "advice and consent" of
the Senate in the form of a two-thirds majority approval.
Answer: Agreements

What was the primary stated justification for the U.S. military action in Iraq?
Answer: Iraq was perceived to be a threat, and the United States needed to take
preemptive military action to eliminate this threat.

The Department of ______ was created in the wake of the 9/11 terrorist attacks.
Answer: Homeland Security

The purpose of ___ is to promote national values or interests by peaceful means.


Answer: Diplomacy

NATO involved primarily which countries?


Answer: Canada, the United States, and Western Europe

Which two rivals have been in a struggle for bureaucratic control of the U.S. intelligence
community since 1949?
Answer: The CIA and the Department of Defense

The strategy of opposing Soviet expansion with military forces, economic assistance, and
political influence was known as
Answer: Containment
George W. Bush's foreign policy can best be described as utilizing which doctrine?
Answer: Preemption

The three main goals of foreign policy are


Answer: Security, Prosperity, and the creation of a better world

The term Cold War refers to the


Answer: period of struggle between the United States and the Soviet Union between the
late 1940s and the late 1980s.

Which of the following was part of President Obama's foreign policies or foreign policy actions?
Answer: working through NATO to bring an end to the Libyan dictatorship

The World Trade Organization is mainly concerned with


Answer: Free trade

Which treaty was designed to lower tariffs among the United States, Canada, and Mexico?
Answer: NAFTA

The United States Congress has officially declared war how many times?
Answer: Five

How is voting power apportioned in the UN General Assembly?


Answer: Each state has one vote of equal weight

Which international institution currently provides loans and facilitates monetary exchange?
Answer: IMF

The Senate has which special power in foreign relations?


Answer: The ability to ratify treaties

Which group within the White House is responsible for overseeing and coordinating foreign
policy?
Answer: National Security Council

TEXTBOOK – 10

Which article of the Constitution describes the basic powers of the presidency and the means of
selecting presidents? (p. 315)
b) Article II

2. The Founders chose to select the president through an indirect election in order to (p. 315)
d) make the president responsible to state and national legislators
3. Which of the following military and war powers does the Constitution not assign to the
president? (pp. 317–18)
b) the power to declare war

4. Executive agreements are exactly like treaties except that (p. 319)
c) executive agreements do not require the Senate’s “advice and consent.”

5. What are the requirements for overriding


a presidential veto? (pp. 319–20)
b) two-thirds vote in both houses of
Congress

6. When the president issues a rule or regulation that reorganizes or otherwise directs the affairs
of the executive branch, it is called (p. 321)
b) an executive order.

7. The War Powers Resolution of 1973 was an act passed by Congress that (p. 324)
e) stipulated that military forces must be withdrawn within 60 days in the absence of a
specific congressional authorization for their continued deployment

8. Approximately how many people work for agencies within the Executive Office of the
President? (p. 326)
c) 1,500 to 2,000

9. The Office of Management and Budget


is part of (p. 326)
a) the Executive Office of the President.
10. Which of the following statements about vice presidents is not true? (p. 327)
c) The vice president also serves as an honorary member of the Supreme Court.

11. What are two ways that presidents can expand their power? (pp. 328–29)
b) using popular appeals and bolstering
their control of executive
agencies

When the president makes an announcement about his interpretation of a congressional


enactment that he is signing into law, it is called (p. 334)
a) a signing statement.

Textbook Chapter 11:

1. Which of the following statements about Congress and the bureaucracy is not true?
d) Congress banned rule making by the federal bureaucracy in 1995.

2. State and local laws similar to the Civil Service Act of 1883 require that appointees to public
office (p. 347)
b) be qualified for the job to which
they are appointed.

Which of the following best describes the size of the federal service? (p. 348)
b) The size of the federal service has changed very little since 1980.

4. Which of the following is an example of a government corporation? (p. 351)


b) Amtrak

5. A stable relationship between a bureaucratic agency, a clientele group, and a legislative


committee is called (p. 354)
e) an iron triangle

6. The State Department’s primary mission is (p. 355)


c) engaging in diplomacy.

7. Which of the following statements about the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) is most
accurate? (pp. 356–57)
d) The range of information deemed sensitive has been greatly expanded in response to the
threat of terrorism.

8. Americans refer to government policy about banks, credit, and currency as (p. 358)
a) monetary policy.

9. Which of the following is an example of a revenue agency? (p. 358)


d) the Internal Revenue Service

10. Which president instituted the bureaucratic reform of the National Performance Review?
d) Bill Clinton

11. The concept of oversight refers to the effort made by (pp. 361–62)
a) Congress to make executive agencies accountable for their actions.

12. Devolution refers to (p. 363)


d) a policy to remove a program from one level of government by passing it down to a
lower level of government.

Textbook Chapter 12

1. What is the name for the body of law that deals with disputes not involving criminal penalties?
(p. 374)
a) civil law

2. The doctrine that previous court decisions should apply as precedents in similar cases is
known as (p. 374)
c) stare decisis
3. Where do most trials in the United States take place? (p. 374)
a) state courts

4. The term writ of habeas corpus refers to (p. 374)


d) a court order that an individual in custody be brought into court and shown the cause
for his or her detention

5. Which of the following is not included in the original jurisdiction of the Supreme Court? (p.
377)
c) cases involving challenges to the
constitutionality of state laws

6. The size of the Supreme Court is determined by (p. 379)


d) Congress.

7. The Supreme Court’s decision in Marbury v. Madison was important because (p. 382)
e) it established the power of judicial
review

8. Which of the following play an important role in shaping the flow of cases heard by the
Supreme Court? (pp. 387–89)
b) the solicitor general and federal
law clerks

9. Which government official is responsible for arguing the federal government’s position in
cases before the Supreme Court? (pp. 387–88)
b) the solicitor general

10. Which of the following is a brief submitted to the Supreme Court by someone other than one
of the parties in the case? (p. 388)
a) amicus curiae

11. A dissenting opinion is written by (p. 392)


c) a Supreme Court justice who disagrees with the majority decision.

12. If a justice favors going beyond the words of the Constitution to consider the broader societal
implications of the Supreme Court’s decisions, he or she would be considered an advocate of
which judicial philosophy? (p. 393)
b) judicial activism

Textbook Chapter 13:

1. Which of the following is not a type of regulatory policy? (pp. 407–9)


e) redistribution
2. Monetary policy seeks to influence the economy through (p. 409)
c) the availability of credit and money.

3. The most powerful institution in determining America’s monetary policy is (p. 409)
d) the Federal Reserve Board.

4. Government attempts to manipulate the economy by using its taxing and spending powers are
called (p. 410)
d) fiscal policies.

5. The United States’ welfare state was constructed initially in response to (pp. 412–13)
d) the Great Depression.

6. Which of the following is an example of a contributory program? (pp. 413–14)


b) Medicare

7. In 1996, as part of welfare reform, Aid to Families with Dependent Children was abolished
and replaced by (p. 415)
e) Temporary Assistance for Needy
Families.

8. Means testing requires that applicants for welfare benefits show (p. 415)
c) a financial need for assistance.

9. Which of the following are examples of in-kind benefits? (p. 415)


a) Medicaid and the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program

10. Which of the following was not part of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001? (p. 419)
d) a requirement that a national test
be used to evaluate every student
around the country

11. Who are the chief beneficiaries of the


“shadow welfare state”? (p. 428)
e) the middle class

12. Which of the following statements


about poverty in the United States is
most accurate? (pp. 430–31)
c) Latinos have a higher poverty rate
than non-Hispanic whites.

Textbook Chapter 14:

1. Which of the following terms best describes the American posture toward the world prior to
the twentieth century? (p. 441)
b) isolationist

2. Which of the following terms describes


an effort to forestall war by giving
in to the demands of a hostile
power? (p. 442)
a) appeasement

3. Cold War refers to (p. 442)


d) the period of struggle between the
United States and the Soviet Union
between the late 1940s and the
late 1980s.

4. Bush Doctrine refers to (p. 449)


c) the idea that the United States should take preemptive action against threats to its
national security

5. The Constitution assigns the power to declare war to (p. 450)


e) Congress.

6. An agreement made between the president and another country that has the force of a treaty
but does not require the Senate’s “advice and consent” is called (p. 451)
c) an executive agreement

7. The making of American foreign policy during noncrisis moments is (p. 453)
e) highly pluralistic, involving a large mix of both official and unofficial players.

8. Which of the following statements about the United Nations is not true? (pp. 454–55)
a) It has a powerful army to implement
its decisions.

9. Which of the following were founded during the 1940s in order to create a new international
economic structure for the postwar world? (p. 455)
c) the International Monetary Fund
and the World Bank

10. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization was formed in 1949 by the United States, (p. 456)
d) Canada, and most of Western
Europe

Which of the following statements


is not true about newspapers? b) They are still read on a daily basis
by almost all Americans.

The vast majority of daily print news-


papers are owned by
a) large media conglomerates.

Digital citizenship requires


b) high-speed Internet access and
the technical and literacy skills
to evaluate and use information
online.

News reporting devoted to a targeted


portion of readers based on content
or ideological presentation is called
e) niche journalism.

Which of the following is not a reason


that many Americans appear to prefer
online news?
d) the accuracy and objectivity

The media's powers to determine what


becomes a part of political discussion
and to shape how political events are
interpreted are known as
b) agenda-setting and framing.

The tendency of the media to


focus news coverage on only one
aspect of an event or issue is
called
e) selection bias.

Most leaks originate with


b) senior government officials,
prominent politicians, and political
activists.

Adversarial journalism refers to


c) an aggressive form of journalism
that attempts to expose and
antagonize the status quo.

In general, FCC regulations apply only


to
a) over-the-air broadcast media.
In Red Lion Broadcasting Company v.
Federal Communications Commission,
the Supreme Court ruled that a radio
station
c) was required to provide a liberal author with an opportunity to respond to a personal attack
broadcast by
one of the station's conservative
commentators.

The now-defunct requirement that


broadcasters provide time for opposing views when they air programs on
controversial issues was called
b) the fairness doctrine.

A political party is different from an


interest group in that a political party
a) seeks to control the government by
nominating candidates and electing
its members to office.

Which party pledged to ban slavery


from the western territories in the
1850s?
a) Republican

The so-called New Deal coalition was


severely strained
a) during the 1960s by conflicts over
civil rights and the Vietnam War.

The periodic episodes in American


history in which an "old" dominant
political party is replaced by a "new"
dominant political party are called
a) electoral realignments.

Third parties have influenced national


politics mainly
a) promoting specific issues and
taking votes from one of the two
major parties.

Which of the following is not a form


of traditional political participation?
a) visiting the Democratic Party's website
Which of the following factors is not
currently an obstacle to voting in the
United States
a) literacy tests

If a state has 10 members in the U.S.


House of Representatives, how many
votes in the electoral college does that
state have?
a) 12

The main difference between a


527 committee and a 501c(4)
committee is that
a) a 501c(4) is not legally required to
disclose where it gets its money,
while a 527 is legally required to
do so.

In the 2016 presidential election,


public funding
a) was declined by both major-party
candidates.

In Buckley v. Valeo, the Supreme Court


ruled that
a) he right of individuals to spend
their own money to campaign is
constitutionally protected.

The theory that competition among


organized interests will produce
balance, with all the interests regulating one another is called
a) Pluralism

Groups that claim to serve the


general good, rather than their own
particular interests, are referred to
as
a) citizen groups

To overcome the free-rider problem,


groups
a) prove selective benefits
Discount purchasing and health
insurance are examples of
a) material benefits

Friendship and networking are


examples of
a) solidary benefits

Which of the following is an important


reason for the enormous increase in
the number of groups seeking to influence the American political system?
a) the increase in the size and activity of government during the last few decades

Which types of interest groups are


most often associated with the New
Politics movement?
a) public interest groups

Which of the following is not an activity


in which interest groups frequently
engage?
a) starting their own political party

A loose network of elected leaders, public officials, activists, and interest groups drawn together by a
public policy issue is referred to as
a) an issue network

Which of the following best describes


the federal government's rules
regarding lobbying?
a) federal law requires all lobbyists to disclose the amounts and sources of small campaign
contributions they collect from clients and "bundle" into large contributions, as well as the funds
they use to rally voters

Which of the following is a way that


interest groups use the courts to
influence public policy?
a) filing amicus briefs

Which of the following are examples


of the "going public" strategy?
a) institutional advertising, grassroots advertising, and protests and demonstrations
Which of the following is a way in
which the House and the Senate are
different?
a) Members of the House are more interested in doing what their constituents want right now,
while Senators have more time to consider "new ideas" and to bring together new coalitions of
interests.

Which type of representation is


described when constituents have
the power to hire and fire their
representative?
a) agency representation

Which of the following statements best


describes the social composition of
the U.S. Congress?
a) The legal profession is the dominant career of most members of Congress prior to their election.

Which of the following is an advantage


that incumbents have in winning
re-election?
a) Incumbents can provide constituency services during their tenure in office

The Supreme Court has ruled that


a) Race cannot be the predominant factor in drawing congressional districts

An "earmark" is
a) Language inserted into a bill by a member of Congress that provides special benefits for the
member of Congress's constituents

Which of the following types of committees includes members of both the


a) Conference Committee

Which of the following is a technique


that can be used to block action on
legislation in the Senate?
a) filibuster

Members of Congress take their constituents' views into account because


a) They worry that their voting record will be scrutinized at election time.

Which of the following is not a


resource that party leaders in
Congress use to create party
discipline?
a) party unity votes

An agreement between members of


Congress to trade support for each
other's bills is known as
a) logrolling

Congressional polarization
a) has increased since the mid 1970s

When Congress conducts an investigation to explore the relationship


a) oversight

Which of the following statements


about impeachment is not true?
a) The president is the only official who cannot be impeached by Congress?
Key Terms:

Chapter 6
agenda setting
the power of the media to bring public attention to particular issues and problems

citizen journalism
news reported and distributed by citizens, rather than professional journalists and for-
profit news organizations

digital citizen
a daily Internet user
with high-speed home Internet access and
the technology and literacy skills to go online
for employment, news, politics, entertainment,
commerce, and other activities

equal time
the requirement
that broadcasters provide candidates
for the same political office equal
opportunities to communicate their
messages to the public

fairness doctrine
a Federal
Communications Commission (FCC)
requirement for broadcasters who air
programs on controversial issues to
provide time for opposing views; the FCC
ceased enforcing this doctrine in 1985

framing
the power of the media
to influence how events and issues are
interpreted

media
print and digital forms
of communication, including television,
newspapers, radio, and the Internet,
intended to convey information to large
audiences

niche journalism
news reporting
devoted to a targeted portion (subset) of
a journalism market sector or for a portion
of readers or viewers based on content or
ideological presentation

priming
process of preparing the
public to take a particular view of an event or
political actor

right of rebuttal
a Federal
Communications Commission regulation
giving individuals the right to have the
opportunity to respond to personal
attacks made on a radio or television
broadcast

selection bias (news)


the tendency
to focus news coverage on only one aspect
of an event or issue, avoiding coverage of
other aspects

social media
web-based and
mobile-based technologies that are used to
turn communication into interactive dialogue
between organizations, communities, and
individuals; social media technologies take
on many different forms including blogs,
Wikis, podcasts, pictures, video, Facebook,
and Twitter

Chapter 7
Chapter 10:
Cabinet (p. 325) the secretaries, or chief
administrators, of the major departments of
the federal government; Cabinet secretaries
are appointed by the president with the
consent of the Senate
commander in chief (p. 317) the role of
the president as commander of the national
military and the state National Guard units
(when called into service)
delegated powers (p. 316) constitutional
powers that are assigned to one governmental
agency but that are exercised by another
agency with the express permission of
the first
executive agreement (p. 319) an agreement,
made between the president and another
country, that has the force of a treaty but
does not require the Senate’s “advice and
consent”
Executive Office of the President
(EOP) (p. 326) the permanent agencies
that perform defined management tasks
for the president; created in 1939, the EOP
includes the OMB, the CEA, the NSC, and
other agencies
executive order (p. 321) a rule or regulation
issued by the president that has the effect
and formal status of legislation
expressed powers (p. 316) specific powers
granted by the Constitution to Congress
(Article I, Section 8) and to the president
(Article II)
inherent powers (p. 322) powers claimed
by a president that are not expressed in the
Constitution but are inferred from it
Kitchen Cabinet (p. 326) an informal group
of advisers to whom the president turns
for counsel and guidance; members of the
official Cabinet may or may not also be
members of the Kitchen Cabinet
legislative initiative (p. 321) the president’s
implied power to bring a legislative agenda
before Congress
pocket veto (p. 320) a presidential veto that
is automatically triggered if the president
does not act on a given piece of legislation
passed during the final 10 days of a
legislative session
signing statements (p. 334)
announcements made by the president when
signing bills into law, often presenting the
president’s interpretation of the law
veto (p. 319) the president’s constitutional
power to prevent a bill from becoming
a law; a presidential veto may be overridden
by a two-thirds vote of each house of
Congress
War Powers Resolution (p. 324) a
resolution of Congress that the president
can send troops into action abroad only
by authorization of Congress or if American
troops are already under attack or serious
threat
White House staff (p. 326) analysts
and advisers to the president, each of
whom is often given the title “special
assistant

Chapter 11:
bureaucracy (p. 345) the complex structure
of offices, tasks, rules, and principles of
organization that are employed by all largescale
institutions to coordinate effectively
the work of their personnel
department (p. 350) the largest subunit of
the executive branch; the secretaries of the
15 departments form the Cabinet
devolution (p. 363) a policy to remove a
program from one level of government by
delegating it or passing it down to a lower
level of government, such as from the
national government to the state and local
governments
Federal Reserve System (p. 358) a
system of 12 Federal Reserve banks that
facilitates exchanges of cash, checks, and
credit; regulates member banks; and uses
monetary policies to fight inflation and
deflation
fiscal policy (p. 358) the government’s use
of taxing, monetary, and spending powers to
manipulate the economy
government corporation (p. 351)
government agency that performs a service
normally provided by the private sector
implementation (p. 346) the efforts of
departments and agencies to translate laws
into specific bureaucratic rules and actions
independent agency (p. 351) agency that is
not part of a cabinet department
iron triangle (p. 354) the stable, cooperative
relationships that often develop among a
congressional committee, an administrative
agency, and one or more supportive interest
groups; not all of these relationships are
triangular, but the iron triangle is the most
typical
merit system (p. 347) a product of civil
service reform, in which appointees to
positions in public bureaucracies must
objectively be deemed qualified for those
positions
oversight (p. 361) the effort by Congress,
through hearings, investigations, and other
techniques, to exercise control over the
activities of executive agencies
privatization (p. 361) the transfer of all or
part of a program from the public sector to
the private sector
regulatory agency (p. 352) a department,
bureau, or independent agency whose
primary mission is to impose limits,
restrictions, or other obligations on the
conduct of individuals or companies in the
private sector
revenue agency (p. 358) an agency
responsible for collecting taxes; examples
include the Internal Revenue Service for
income taxes, the U.S. Customs Service for
tariffs and other taxes on imported goods,
and the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms
and Explosives for collection of taxes on the
sales of those particular products
Chapter 12:
amicus curiae (p. 388) literally, “friend of
the court”; individuals or groups who are not
parties to a lawsuit but who seek to assist
the Supreme Court in reaching a decision by
presenting additional briefs
briefs (p. 389) written documents in which
attorneys explain, using case precedents,
why the court should find in favor of
their client
chief justice (p. 379) justice on the
Supreme Court who presides over the
Court’s public sessions and whose official
title is chief justice of the United States
civil law (p. 374) the branch of law that
deals with disputes that do not involve
criminal penalties
court of appeals (p. 375) a court that hears
the appeals of trial court decisions
criminal law (p. 373) the branch of law that
regulates the conduct of individuals, defines
crimes, and specifies punishment for acts
defined as illegal
defendant (p. 373) the one against whom
a complaint is brought in a criminal or
civil case
dissenting opinion (p. 392) a decision
written by a justice in the minority in a
particular case in which the justice wishes
to express his or her reasoning in the case
due process of law (p. 376) the right of
every citizen against arbitrary action by
national or state governments
judicial activism (p. 393) judicial philosophy
that posits that the Court should go beyond
the words of the Constitution or a statute to
consider the broader societal implications of
its decisions
judicial restraint (p. 393) judicial philosophy
whose adherents refuse to go beyond the
clear words of the Constitution in interpreting
the document’s meaning
judicial review (p. 382) the power of the
courts to review and, if necessary, declare
actions of the legislative and executive
branches invalid or unconstitutional; the
Supreme Court asserted this power in
Marbury v. Madison
jurisdiction (p. 376) the sphere of a court’s
power and authority
opinion (p. 391) the written explanation
of the Supreme Court’s decision in a
particular case
oral argument (p. 391) the stage in
Supreme Court procedure in which attorneys
for both sides appear before the Court to
present their positions and answer questions
posed by justices
original jurisdiction (p. 377) the authority
to initially consider a case; distinguished
from appellate jurisdiction, which is the
authority to hear appeals from a lower
court’s decision
plaintiff (p. 373) the individual or
organization that brings a complaint in court
plea bargain (p. 376) a negotiated
agreement in a criminal case in a which
a defendant agrees to plead guilty in
return for the state’s agreement to reduce
the severity of the criminal charge the
defendant is facing
precedent (p. 374) prior case whose
principles are used by judges as the basis
for their decisions in present cases
senatorial courtesy (p. 380) the practice
whereby the president, before formally
nominating a person for a federal judgeship,
seeks the indication that senators from
the candidate’s own state support the
nomination
solicitor general (p. 387) the top
government lawyer in all cases before the
Supreme Court in which the government is
a party
stare decisis (p. 374) literally, “let the
decision stand”; the doctrine that a previous
decision by a court applies as a precedent in
similar cases until that decision is overruled
supremacy clause (p. 385) Article VI of the
Constitution, which states that laws passed
by the national government and all treaties
“shall be the supreme Law of the Land” and
superior to all laws adopted by any state or
any subdivision
supreme court (p. 375) the highest court
in a particular state or in the United States;
this court primarily serves an appellate
function
trial court (p. 374) the first court to hear a
criminal or civil case
writ of certiorari (p. 386) a decision of
at least four of the nine Supreme Court
justices to review a decision of a lower
court; certiorari is Latin, meaning “to make
more certain”
writ of habeas corpus (p. 376) a
court order that the individual in custody
be brought into court and shown the
cause for detention; habeas corpus is
guaranteed by the Constitution and can
be suspended only in cases of rebellion

Chapter 13:
contracting power (p. 407) the power of
government to set conditions on companies
seeking to sell goods or services to
government agencies
contributory programs (p. 414) social
programs financed in whole or in part by
taxation or other mandatory contributions by
their present or future recipients
cost-of-living adjustments (COLAs) (p. 414)
changes made to the level of benefits of a
government program based on the rate of
inflation
Federal Reserve System (p. 409) a system
of 12 Federal Reserve banks that facilitates
exchanges of cash, checks, and credit;
regulates member banks; and uses monetary
policies to fight inflation and deflation
fiscal policy (p. 410) the government’s use
of taxing, monetary, and spending powers to
manipulate the economy
indexing (p. 414) periodic process of
adjusting of social benefits or wages to
account for increases in the cost of living
in-kind benefits (p. 415) noncash goods
and services provided to needy individuals
and families by the federal government
means testing (p. 415) a procedure by
which potential beneficiaries of a publicassistance
program establish their eligibility
by demonstrating a genuine need for the
assistance
Medicaid (p. 415) a federally and statefinanced,
state-operated program providing
medical services to low-income people
Medicare (p. 414) a form of national health
insurance for the elderly and the disabled
monetary policies (p. 409) efforts
to regulate the economy through the
manipulation of the supply of money and
credit; America’s most powerful institution in
this area of monetary policy is the Federal
Reserve Board
noncontributory programs (p. 414) social
programs that provide assistance to people
based on demonstrated need rather than any
contribution they have made
public policy (p. 405) a law, a rule, a
statute, or an edict that expresses the
government’s goals and provides for rewards
and punishments to promote those goals’
attainment
redistribution (p. 410) collecting revenue in
such a way as to reduce the disparities of
wealth between the lowest and the highest
income brackets
Social Security (p. 414) a contributory
welfare program into which working
Americans contribute a percentage of their
wages and from which they receive cash
benefits after retirement or if they become
disabled
subsidies (p. 405) government grants of
cash or other valuable commodities, such
as land, to individuals or an organization;
used to promote activities desired by the
government, to reward political support, or to
buy off political opposition
Supplemental Nutrition Assistance
Program (SNAP) (p. 415) the largest
antipoverty program, which provides
recipients with a debit card for food at
most grocery stores; formerly known as
food stamps
tax expenditures (p. 428) government
subsidies provided to employers and
employees through tax deductions for
amounts spent on health insurance and
other benefits

Chapter 14:
appeasement (p. 442) the effort to forestall
war by giving in to the demands of a hostile
power
bilateral treaties (p. 456) treaties made
between two nations
Bush Doctrine (p. 449) foreign policy based
on the idea that the United States should
take preemptive action against threats to its
national security
Cold War (p. 442) the period of struggle
between the United States and the former
Soviet Union lasting from the late 1940s to
about 1990
containment (p. 442) a policy designed to
curtail the political and military expansion of
a hostile power
deterrence (p. 442) the development and
maintenance of military strength as a means
of discouraging attack
diplomacy (p. 454) the representation of a
government to foreign governments
executive agreement (p. 451) an
agreement, made between the president
and another country, that has the force of
a treaty but does not require the Senate’s
“advice and consent”
General Agreement on Tariffs and
Trade (GATT) (p. 445) international trade
organization, in existence from 1947 to
1995, that set many of the rules governing
international trade
International Monetary Fund (IMF)
(p. 455) an institution established in
1944 that provides loans and facilitates
international monetary exchange
isolationism (p. 441) avoidance of
involvement in the affairs of other nations
nation-states (p. 443) political entities
consisting of people with some common
cultural experience (nation) who also
share a common political authority
(state), recognized by other sovereignties
(nation-states)
non-state actors (p. 441) groups
other than nation-states that attempt
to play a role in the international system;
terrorist groups are one type of non-state
actor
North American Free Trade Agreement
(NAFTA) (p. 445) trade treaty among the
United States, Canada, and Mexico to
lower and eliminate tariffs among the
three countries
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
(p. 456) an organization, comprising the
United States, Canada, and most of
Western Europe, formed in 1949 to
counter the perceived threat from the
Soviet Union
preventive war (p. 443) policy of striking
first when a nation fears that a foreign foe is
contemplating hostile action
United Nations (UN) (p. 454) an organization
of nations founded in 1945 to be a channel
for negotiation and a means of settling
international disputes peaceably; the
UN has had frequent successes in providing
a forum for negotiation and on some
occasions a means of preventing international
conflicts from spreading; on a number of
occasions, the UN has supported U.S. foreign
policy goals
World Trade Organization (WTO)
(p. 445) international organization
promoting free trade that grew out
of the General Agreement on Tariffs
and Trade

ballot initiative
(p. 228) a proposed law or
policy change that is placed on the ballot by
citizens or interest groups for a popular vote
caucus (political)
(p. 227) a normally
closed political party business meeting of
citizens to select candidates, elect officers,
plan strategy, or make decisions regarding
legislative matters
closed primary
(p. 227) a primary election
in which voters can participate in the
nomination of candidates but only of the
party in which they are enrolled for a period
of time prior to primary day
divided government
(p. 216) the condition
in American government wherein the
presidency is controlled by one party while
the opposing party controls one or both
houses of Congress
electoral college
(p. 229) the electors from
each state who meet after the popular election
to cast ballots for president and vice president
electoral realignment
(p. 215) the point in
history when a new party supplants the ruling
party, becoming in turn the dominant political
force; in the United States, this has tended
to occur roughly every 30 years
501(c)(4)s
(p. 236) politically active
nonprofits; under federal law, these nonprofits
can spend unlimited amounts on political
campaigns and not disclose their donors as
long as their activities are not coordinated
with the candidate campaigns and political
activities are not their primary purpose
527 committees
(p. 236) nonprofit
independent groups that receive and
disburse funds to influence the nomination,
election, or defeat of candidates; named
after Section 527 of the Internal Revenue
Code, which defines and provides tax-exempt
status for nonprofit advocacy groups
general election
(p. 227) a regularly
scheduled election involving most districts
in the nation or state, in which voters decide
who wins office; in the United States, general elections for national office and most state
and local offices are held on the first Tuesday
following the first Monday in November in
even-numbered years (every four years for
presidential elections)
incumbent
(p. 206) a candidate running
for re-election to a position that he or she
already holds
majority party
(p. 208) the party that holds
the majority of legislative seats in either the
House or the Senate
minority party
(p. 208) the party that holds
the minority of legislative seats in either the
House or the Senate
mobilization
(p. 222) the process by which
large numbers of people are organized for a
political activity
nomination
(p. 206) the process by which
political parties select their candidates for
election to public office
open primary
(p. 227) a primary election in
which the voter can wait until the day of the
primary to choose which party to enroll in to
select candidates for the general election
party identification
(p. 218) an individual
voter's psychological ties to one party or
another
political action committee (PAC)
(p. 205)
a private group that raises and distributes
funds for use in election campaigns
political parties
(p. 205) organized groups
that attempt to influence the government
by electing their members to important
government offices
primary elections
(p. 227) elections
within a political party to select the party's
candidate for the general election
proportional representation
(p. 217)
a multiple-member district system that
allows each political party representation
in proportion to its percentage of the
total vote
recall
(p. 228) a procedure to allow voters
to remove state officials from office before
their terms expire by circulating petitions to
call a vote
referendum
(p. 228) the practice of
referring a measure proposed or passed by
a legislature to the vote of the electorate for
approval or rejection
socioeconomic status
(p. 222) status in
society based on level of education, income,
and occupational prestige
suffrage
(p. 221) the right to vote; also
called franchise
third parties
(p. 216) parties that organize
to compete against the two major American
political parties
turnout
(p. 221) the percentage of eligible
individuals who actually vote
two-party system
(p. 209) a political
system in which only two parties have a
realistic opportunity to compete effectively
for control of the government

citizen groups
(p. 250) groups that claim
they serve the general good rather than only
their own particular interest
collective goods
(p. 252) benefits, sought
by groups, that are broadly available and
cannot be denied to nonmembers
free riders
(p. 252) those who enjoy the
benefits of collective goods but did not
participate in acquiring them
grassroots mobilization
(p. 261) a lobbying
campaign in which a group mobilizes its
membership to contact government officials
in support of the group's position
informational benefits
(p. 253) special
newsletters, periodicals, training programs,
conferences, and other information provided
to members of groups to entice others to join
institutional advertising
(p. 261) advertising
designed to create a positive image of an
organization
interest group
(p. 247) individuals who
organize to influence the government's
programs and policies
iron triangle
(p. 259) the stable, cooperative
relationships that often develop among a
congressional committee, an administrative
agency, and one or more supportive interest
groups; not all of these relationships are
triangular, but the iron triangle is the most
typical
lobbying
(p. 257) a strategy by which
organized interests seek to influence the
passage of legislation or other public policy
by exerting direct pressure on members of
the legislature
material benefits
(p. 253) special goods,
services, or money provided to members of
groups to entice others to join
membership association
(p. 252)
an organized group in which members
actually play a substantial role, sitting
on committees and engaging in group
projects
netroots
(p. 251) grassroots online
activist organizations that have redefined
membership and fund-raising practices
and streamlined staff structure
New Politics movement
(p. 256) a
political movement that began in the
1960s and '70s, made up of professionals
and intellectuals for whom the civil
rights and antiwar movements were
formative experiences; the New Politics
movement strengthened public interest
groups
pluralism
(p. 247) the theory that all
interests are and should be free to compete
for influence in the government; the outcome
of this competition is compromise and
moderation
political action committee (PAC)
(p. 248) a private group that raises and
distributes funds for use in election
campaigns
purposive benefits
(p. 254) selective
benefits of group membership
that emphasize the purpose and
accomplishments of the group
solidary benefits
(p. 254) selective
benefits of group membership that
emphasize friendship, networking, and
consciousness-raising
staff organization
(p. 252) type of
membership group in which a professional
staff conducts most of the group's
activities

agency representation
(p. 276) a type
of representation in which a representative
is held accountable to a constituency if
he or she fails to represent that constituency
properly; this is incentive for the representative
to provide good representation when his
or her personal backgrounds, views, and
interests differ from those of his or her
constituency
apportionment
(p. 281) the process,
occurring after every decennial census,
that allocates congressional seats among
the 50 states
appropriations
(p. 302) the amounts of
money approved by Congress in statutes
(bills) that each unit or agency of government
can spend
bicameral
(p. 275) having a legislative
assembly composed of two chambers or
houses; distinguished from unicameral
bill
(p. 291) a proposed law that has been
sponsored by a member of Congress and
submitted to the clerk of the House or
Senate
cloture
(p. 293) a rule or process in a
legislative body aimed at ending debate on
a given bill; in the U.S. Senate, 60 senators
(three-fifths) must agree in order to impose a
time limit and end debate
conference
(p. 286) a gathering of House
Republicans every two years to elect
their House leaders; Democrats call their
gathering the caucus
conference committees
(p. 288) joint
committees created to work out a compromise
on House and Senate versions of a piece of
legislation
constituency
(p. 275) the residents in the
area from which an official is elected
filibuster
(p. 293) a tactic used by
members of the Senate to prevent action
on legislation they oppose by continuously
holding the floor and speaking until the
majority backs down; once given the floor,
senators have unlimited time to speak,
and it requires a vote of three-fifths of the
Senate to end a filibuster
gerrymandering
(p. 282) the apportionment
of voters in districts in such a way as to give
unfair advantage to one racial or ethnic group
or political party
impeachment
impeachment (p. 303) the formal charge
by the House of Representatives that
a government official has committed
"Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes
and Misdemeanors"
incumbency
(p. 280) holding the political
office for which one is running
joint committees
(p. 288) legislative
committees formed of members of both
the House and Senate
logrolling
(p. 299) a legislative practice
whereby agreements are made between
legislators in voting for or against a bill;
vote trading
majority leader
(p. 286) the elected
leader of the majority party in the House
of Representatives or in the Senate; in the
House, the majority leader is subordinate
in the party hierarchy to the Speaker of
the House
minority leader
(p. 287) the elected leader
of the minority party in the House or Senate
oversight
(p. 302) the effort by Congress,
through hearings, investigations, and other
techniques, to exercise control over the
activities of executive agencies
party unity vote
(p. 296) a roll-call vote
in the House or Senate in which at least
50 percent of the members of one party take
a particular position and are opposed by
at least 50 percent of the members of the
other party
patronage
(p. 284) the resources available
to higher officials, usually opportunities to
make partisan appointments to offices and
to confer grants, licenses, or special favors
to supporters
pocket veto
(p. 294) a presidential veto that
is automatically triggered if the president
does not act on a given piece of legislation
passed during the final 10 days of a
legislative session
pork-barrel legislation (or pork)
(p. 284)
appropriations made by legislative bodies
for local projects that are often not
needed but that are created so that local
representatives can win re-election in their
home districts
private bill
(p. 286) a proposal in Congress
to provide a specific person with some kind
of relief, such as a special exemption from
immigration quotas
redistricting
(p. 282) the process of
redrawing election districts and redistributing
legislative representatives; this happens
every 10 years to reflect shifts in population
or in response to legal challenges to existing
districts
roll-call vote
(p. 296) a vote in which each
legislator's yes-or-no vote is recorded as
the clerk calls the names of the members
alphabetically
select committees
(p. 288) (usually)
temporary legislative committees set up to
highlight or investigate a particular issue or
address an issue not within the jurisdiction
of existing committees
seniority
(p. 289) the ranking given
to an individual on the basis of length
of continuous service on a committee in
Congress
sociological representation
(p. 276) a type
of representation in which representatives
have the same racial, gender, ethnic,
religious, or educational backgrounds as
their constituents. It is based on the
principle that if two individuals are similar
in background, character, interests, and
perspectives, then one can correctly
represent the other's views
Speaker of the House
(p. 286) the
chief presiding officer of the House
of Representatives; the Speaker is
the most important party and House
leader and can influence the legislative
agenda, the fate of individual pieces of
legislation, and members' positions within
the House
standing committee
(p. 287) a permanent
committee with the power to propose and
write legislation that covers a particular
subject, such as finance or agriculture
term limits
(p. 281) legally prescribed limits
on the number of terms an elected official
can serve
veto
(p. 294) the president's constitutional
power to prevent a bill from becoming a law;
a presidential veto may be overridden by a
two-thirds vote of each house of Congress
whip
(p. 287) a party member in the House
or Senate responsible for coordinating the
party's legislative strategy, building support
for key issues, and counting votes