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OHM'S LAW

LAB REPORT BY

Nichaporn Nattawut

Witchayut Ngarmpornchai

Vanessa Rujipatanakul

Mahidol University International

Demonstration School

OBJECTIVE

Determine the

mathematical relationship

between current, potential

difference, and resistance

in a simple circuit

Law is applicable for

different circuits.

INTRODUCTION

Ohm’s law is the description of the relationship between

three important electrical identities: current, voltage, and

resistance. It was the result of investigation by a German

physicist named Georg Simon Ohm, who the law got its name

after. The amount of steady current (I) through a large number

of materials is directly proportional to the potential difference,

voltage (V), across the materials. Therefore, if the voltage

between two ends of a wire made from one of these materials

is tripled, the current also triples. In that case, the quotient V/I,

which is the resistance (R), remains constant. Ohm’s law may

be expressed mathematically as V/I = R.

be difficult to perceive. For a better understanding, some

people make a comparison between the electrical circuit and

the water flowing in pipe. Current, a measure of the flow of the

charge in the circuit with the unit of Ampere (A), can be

compared with the amount of water flowing in the pipe.

Voltage or potential difference, a measure of the energy

difference per unit charge between two points in a circuit with

the unit of Volt (V), can be compared with the water pressure

that help the water to flow through the pipe. Resistance, a

measure of how difficult it is for current to flow in the circuit

with the unit of Ohms (Ω), can be compared to restriction in

the pipe.

MATERIALS

2 multimeters used

as voltmeter and

ammeter

labquest

2 resistors of 100

ohm and 1000 ohm

power amplifier

accessories

PROCEDURE

1. With the power amplifier turned off, connect the circuit as shown in figure.

Then set current range and voltage range as instructed in the table below.

Note: Attach the red connectors electrically closer to the positive side of the

power supply.

2. Have Lab Tech/ TA check the arrangement of the wires before proceeding

3. Turn on the switch. Adjust and increase the output voltage of the power

amplifier from 2.0 V to 10.0 V in step of 2.0 V as indicated in Table 1. Record the

corresponding reading of the voltmeter and ammeter on 2nd 3rd column

respectively.

4. Repeat the process until you finish all of the 5 runs.

5. Compute for the value of the resistance by dividing the voltmeter reading to

the ammeter reading.

6. Compare this computed value of the resistance with the true value of the

resistor used in the circuit.

7. Turn the power amplifier off then replace the first resistor with the second

resistor.

8. Ask Lab Tech/ TA to recheck your circuit connection before proceed,

9. Turn on the power amplifier again and repeat steps 1-6 using the second

resistor

Caution: Change the ammeter’s current range accordingly.

SET UP

DATA AND

RESULT

CALCULATION

GRAPH

ANALYSIS

As the graph shows, it can be noticed that the two

lines on the graph are reasonably straight, which mean

that the same constant is used and multiplied by other

numbers. When the voltage increases throughout the

experiment, the ammeter can measure an increase in

the current in a circuit. We already expected this result

as the Ohm’s law we studied before stated that the

quotient between the voltage and the current always

remains constant.

Even though, the result of this experiment is quite

what we expected, there is a slight error occurred. The

possible cause of the error was the inaccuracy when

we were reading the data of the voltage and the

current from the multimeter, which was due to human

error. The possible way of minimizing this error is to

obtain data several times and compare them so that

we would get a more precise data.

CONCLUSION

From the experiment, it can be

concluded that the value of current is

directly proportional to the value of voltage.

If the voltage increases, the current of that

same circuit will increases with the same

rate. It can also be seen that the quotient

between the voltage and the current always

remains constant. The formula V/I = R can

be applicable to circuits with different value

of electrical identities.

RECOMMENDATION

From doing this experiment, it can

be said that it is quite hard to identify

the exact value of the current in a

circuit as the number is moving pretty

fast. So, the value that we read might

not be that accurate which means

that in next time, it is better to obtain

information more than one time and

compare to get more precise data. In

addition, it is better to spend more

time on each trial to be more careful

in each process as this time, we are

quite rush during the experiment and

that might create some errors.

QUESTIONS AND

ANSWERS

1) Differentiate the devices in each group by giving their specific use in

an electric circuit.

a) Ammeter, Galvanometer, Voltmeter

b) Rheostat, Resistor, Switch

c) Cell, Battery

Ammeter = use to measure the magnitude of the current. The ideal

ammeter will have very low amount of resistance or zero ohm because

it need to connect in series with the circuit so if it have resistance then

the value of current might be inaccurate

Galvanometer = use to measure very small amount of the current and

voltage of the circuit

Voltmeter = use to measure the volt that the resistor use so in need to

connect parallel to the resistor. By connect parallel with the circuit it

need to have very high amount of resistance or infinity ohms. Normally

the current will choose to go to less resistance path so if the the

voltmeter connected parallel to the circuit it need infinity ohm to block

the current to measure accurate amount of volts.

Rheostat = it is a adjustable resistance so it will control amount of the

current.

Resistor = use to reduce the current flow

Switch = use to stop the current flow or bond the circuit together

Cell = supply power and it convert the chemical reaction energy to the

electrical energy. Make the current flow from the cathode side to the

anode side. (Cathode + ,anode -)

Battery = use to convert the chemical reaction energy to electric energy.

QUESTIONS AND

ANSWERS

2) A 14 ohm coffee maker and a 16 ohm frying fan are connected in

series across a 120 volt source of voltage. A 23 ohm bread toaster is

also connected across the 120 volt source and is in parallel with the

series combination.

a) Draw a circuit diagram.

b) Find the total current applied by the source of voltage.

REFERENCES

The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica.

(2018). Ohm’s law. Retrieved from

https://www.britannica.com/science/Oh

ms-law

Ohm’s Law. Retrieved from

https://www.allaboutcircuits.com/textbo

ok/direct-current/chpt-2/analogy-ohms-

law/

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