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Become a Hazard Knocker

ACHIEVE ZERO

Educate, Enforce, Excel
Educate for diligence
Enforce for compliance
Ensure Safety Excellence

LRK Hareekirishnan
Become a Hazard Knocker

From the Author’s Desk
ACHIEVE ZERO by Education and Enforcement to Excel is a synopsis of my
2-decade journey in managing workplace safety using A to Z of safety
management techniques in practice, presented in combination with theory
intended to be shared with colleagues & fellow peers in the industry to
drum up and back them in their journey to develop Hazard Knockers to
ACHIEVE ZERO.

Hazard knockers are personnel who chip in with positive ideas to improve
safety performance like proactive ideas to knockout, reduce its risk making
it acceptable and take action to prevent incidents.

I thank all the researchers, columnists, universities, training institutes, associations for being kind to permit to
quote, use part of their work & research results in this free book aimed to be an eyeopener to serve mankind from
the grave sufferings they could possibly go through due to incidents. Most of the photographs presented are from
activities from the workplace managed by me.

I thank all my managers and colleagues for their active support in my journey to ACHIEVE ZERO mainly

Mr. K Lakshamanan, L&T-ECC, India
Mr. N. Ravi, L&T-ECC, India
Mr. T. Alaguvel, L&T-ECC, India
Late Mr. Alawi Shubber, OSHO, Bahrain
Mr. Hussam Aweis, CANAR Constructions, Kuwait
Mr. Awni Farah, KEO, Kuwait

Safety as a habit makes you a Hazard Knocker.

LRK Hareekirishnan
Author

......1 What constitutes accident costs? ....7 HAZARD CONTROL ............................................................................................................................. HAZARD CONTROL ....................3...............22 2............................2 Unsafe condition ..................................................................2 Injury Rates in construction ........................................................7 Maintaining a Positive safety climate ...................................................49 4................................1 Unsafe acts ...............................................................5 Using Cost of accidents for inciting interest towards safety .....................51 4..........................................................................................3......................2 Safety culture & Safety climate ...................................................................................................... Capture Attention for Loss Prevention ................................................3......................................................................................59 4.................................36 3.Preface ................................................................... Controlling Accidents ................4 Safety Hazard’s ....47 4.................................1 Safety Management............................................................4 Hazard Identification and Assessment ..............21 2....................................................................................................................39 3............................................................................................................................................................................................................3 Hazard Knocking to ACHIEVE ZERO: The real challenge ...............5 Assessing the safety culture............................5 1..................................................3 Hazard Classification .................................50 4......................................................................................................................................................................................3 Utility of Safety ............................................................................. Safety Culture & Safety Climate ......9 HAZARD KNOCKING .........63 1 ..........................................................................................................................12 1.............3 Elements of a safety culture .................................................................................................................18 2.......................................................................31 3............................47 4..........................................................................................3............................................................................44 4.....................34 3...4 6 M’s of Safety .........................2 Safety saves a Crash........................................21 2..................................................8 OSHA HAZARD AWARENESS ADVISOR ..........................................................6 Job Safety Analysis .......................................4 Achieving excellence..54 4................4 Case study.....................................................28 3..........2 Hazard Classification ...........8 1..............3 Hazard Exposure ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................47 4.................................................................6 Sustaining the safety culture .....................................................................................................38 3........................................11 1......................49 4.....................30 3............................................49 4...................................................56 4..25 2.............................................1 Types of Hazards ......................1 Introduction ...............................9 1..................................................32 3....62 4........................10 1.......................................................................................................................................5 Risk Assessment ...55 4..............

................................3 Regulations – The requirements of regulations are mandatory.................................................................82 7..................3 Inspection Principles .................................................................................88 9...............................................4 Safety Induction Room .............................................. Safe Working Procedures .........................................................86 8....... Safety Education & Training Program (SET Program) .......................87 8................................................................79 7................82 7...........................................66 4..............................................................................................89 2 ..... Safety Induction...................................................................................................................1 Philosophy of SET Program .................1 Planning and Conducting Periodic Inspections ..................75 6......................................................2 Code of Practices (COP) ...............................................3 Induction training .........................2 Advantages of Induction training ....6 Show how to identify a hazard ...........7 Action after inspections ...................................................................................................................................................................83 8.......................................................................7 Site Induction Record ...................................................................80 7.................1 Who should we focus and the importance of orientating them? .......75 6...................................................................87 9...................2 Housekeeping advantages ...............................85 8..............................................................3 Training Plan............................................................................................................................5 Induction Language ...............81 7...87 8..................7 Training Evaluation ..........................2 Types of Training ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................69 5..............................67 5...........................4 Common reasons for failures in inspections ...................77 7........69 6......................................................................................................................6 Observations .....81 7.............5 Inspection reports ........................10 Be aware of false protection .......................................................................................................5 Documentation of Training.. Safety Inspections .....................89 9..............88 9.82 8..........................................1 Guidance Notes .............................................................76 6.................................73 6............................................................71 6........4 Tips for Effective Safety Training..........................68 5...............3 Applying the 5S concept to Housekeeping ..................................87 8...............................................................69 5.........................................................................................................6 Measuring the effectiveness of training .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................1 Accidents ......................................... 4.........................................73 6......71 6...................................11 Exercise: Identify the hazards to be knocked out from the scaffold .....................................................................................79 7........2 Types of Inspection .................. Housekeeping – a tool for Accident Prevention .........................................................................................................87 8..........................................................

.......... Accident Prevention – Sharing Experience ............................1 Ergonomics will improve Health & Safety at work .........................................................101 12...............................5 Work with smart techniques ................................ Ergonomics ...............................................8 Encouraging safe behaviors – BBS in action..6 CONTROL OF WORKING CONDITIONS.......4 Changing attitudes .........................................................................................................................2 Inspection Principles & Areas to Focus ....................1 My experience in promoting safe behaviour at work .....................................2 Production governs the Safety attitudes ............................ an Accident Prevention tool .....................................................................................................haree74@gmail.7 Mechanical aids Reduce fatigue ....................99 11......... Safety observations............................................................................................109 13...........7 Root cause analysis.....91 11..... Fatigue reduction tool for Accident Prevention ..................................................................................133 Wanna’ reach the penner............................................................. Pareto Analysis for Accident prevention .................................................1 Behavior Based Safety Process .95 11......107 12.............9 Pareto Analysis.................................... send an email to ................114 15.......................113 14........................ Analyze the trend in violations ...............3 Overcome the Brain Barrier resistance to change to Safety .........................118 15.........................................1 Developing SWP for Operating Overlapping Multiple Tower Cranes ...................................................117 15......................................................131 15.....................92 11...............................................8.......3 Fall protection .................................................................91 10.................................................................99 11....................126 15..................112 13.............................6 Regular review of work procedures .........................................3 Identify Ergonomic Problems .........4 Housekeeping – Sorting & Storing of Gas cylinders...97 11..............................112 13...........94 11........................... 9...............................................................................................1 Purpose of Safety Observations .................................................... Work Permit System ........................................................................4 Examples of good housekeeping initiatives & practices ...........2 Benefits of Ergonomics .......101 12.......................2 Checking the Supports required for formwork ...................................................................104 12.............95 11...........................................................................................129 15.................4 Ergonomic principles for reducing the risk factors .............................5 Ergonomics....................................................................................... Positive Performance Indicators ....6 Effective Lifting Techniques........125 15...........................103 12......123 15..............................103 12................................130 15......Safety Net required during construction .................. Behavior Based Safety (BBS) ..................................................................99 12..................................................127 15...................................................5 Encourage Safe behaviors ............................com Font used: Bahnschrift 3 .....................122 15........

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Preface

Why choosing the path of education and enforcement can give excellence in safety?

Experts emphasize substantial loss control will also be achieved by applying Health & Safety systematically
in addition to saving lives and injuries. Organizations with fewer resources are flouting work safety
regulations largely as they don't invest in improving them, especially small & medium scale companies in the
contracting sector and the solution is to instil safety knowledge by education and enforce to practice it.

Researches done by Heinrich, DuPont, Bird Lukens, Bird Insurance Company and many others has
established the fact that around 88-95% of the accident causatives are unsafe acts due to ignorance and poor
understanding of the safe work practices. It’s difficult to recognize and correct them as they involve human
factors and all our actions is not be related to our skill level. Studies has proved that some of the most skilled
employees might actually display some of the most dangerous behaviours. In fact, more skilled a worker
becomes, the more likely they are to develop unsafe behaviour patterns due to lack of safety knowledge.

Safety education plays an important role to spin the prevailing attitudes for safety and a tendency to integrate
safety in all activities leads to a revolution from production to safe production. Unsafe acts will be better
understood and avoided as preventive attitude is successfully instilled through safety education and training.
According to Mr. Alawi Shubber, OSHO, Bahrain a pioneer in safety training, having a good safety policy
cannot stop ill-health or accidents but educating & empowering people who implement the policy with
training, motivation and recognition can stop it as risks will be identified and reduced probably to zero such
that it can be forgotten forever by adopting appropriate high-quality control measures. National Irish Safety
Organization (NISO) has recognized that no amount of legislation or penalties will be effective unless people
can be convinced of the need to avoid hazards and risks in the workplace. As hazards and risks coexist, a good
health and safety performance is achieved only when they are effectively managed.

The strategy to improve must always start from the top management and not created in the middle such that
it has to fight its way in both the directions. When it starts from the top, then and only then it will percolate
down everywhere and practiced in such a way that even after proper planning, if production comes down
(sometimes it will), we will forgo production to do the work safely as per the safe work procedure, as a job
that is done sacrificing safety is a bad job, no matter how quickly done or how much money is saved. Unless
they lead by example with visible commitment no amount of effort will take the safety culture forward. Safe
behaviours are contagious and reinforcing one safe behaviour with recognition will certainly lead to another
uplifting the work culture.

Supervisory staff can transform the safety culture positively with focus on training that develops attitude and
competency of the employees to plug the huge losses that are caused by wilfully bypassing safety to increase
productivity.

Effectively combining the two elements - Education and Enforcement, educating to give proper knowledge
and enforcing corrective action when men fail to follow rules will reduce accidents. Training is vital to make
people act and behave safely even when no one is looking and this book will guide to understand hazards and
efficient ways to manage them. With proper training positive behaviours will be displayed by men certainly
leading others to display, with all hands becoming effective Hazard Knockers.

LRK Hareekirishnan
Hazard Knocker

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TEAMWORK ensures safety excellence – Few feats achieved in my 2-decade career

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Similarly.” In addition to loss of lives and production. classified as the indirect costs.1 What constitutes accident costs? The humanitarian and economic issues resulting from accidents demand that accident prevention be given importance in every phase of activities. The alarming costs of accidents make it necessary to control them to make business profitable. An accident can contribute to huge losses other than loss of life. just do the job in the way it should be done as required by safety management systems. we can find lot of violations. Accidents and ineffective use of resources can turn a profitable business into loss. Safe way is the best way – is a well-known safety slogan. Accident costs can be grouped as direct and indirect costs. direct costs account for 10 to 20 %. some causing serious accidents and losses. The Loss “Berg” . it is of utmost important to control these types of losses. Profits can increase by preventing accidents as the cost of accidents is much higher than what most think.1. Proactive efforts to estimate the accident costs prior hand. Capture Attention for Loss Prevention The main motive of the management is to run a business profitably. Controlling accidents is very simple. The objective is to prevent accidents by reducing or eliminating the unsafe acts or conditions that cause accidents. 1. It’s like an Iceberg most part of it is hidden than what appears on the surface. 1. there are various costs associated with an accident that are unrecoverable can affecting the financial stability of the company. on an average 80% is hidden underwater. a management consultant states “The first duty of business is to survive and the guiding principle of business economics is not the maximization of profit – it is avoidance of loss. 80% of accident costs are also hidden. Hence. Of the total accident costs. 1. Often.1 Direct Costs • Loss or damage to equipment & assets • Loss of production • Medical cost • Compensation • Legal costs Cost of accident prevention • Insurance cost • Loss of life and limbs is far less than the • Man-days lost for injured employees Cost of an accident as 1. pain and suffering.Peter Drucker.2 Indirect Costs Businesses without profits • Production loss of linked departments Don’t last long • Loss in earning power of injured To prolong • Economic loss to injured’s family • Lost time by fellow workers ACHIEVE ZERO • Cost of bringing in new worker 9 .1. will essentially capture management’s attention for loss prevention. The balance costs are hidden. Direct costs’ being small is like the tip of an iceberg when compared with the huge indirect costs that account for the balance accident costs which is normally overlooked.

buy better machines to control downtime to improve production and profits. • Spoiled work • Failures and delays to fulfil orders • Overhead cost • Lowered employee morale • Increased labour conflict • Cost of Investigations • Unfavourable public relations • Cost of processing reports • Time lost from work by Managers. Engineers and supervisors. 10 . • Product spoiled by accident • Man-hours spent in cleaning up spoiled area • Loss of functions and of operations income • Loss of prestige • Loss of bonuses. Neglecting or evading spending a mearge amount for safety. even though the services of the accidentee may be worth only half of their normal value for a time • Penalties for failure to take actions to correct hazards or defects or conditions that violate statues • Cost of meetings with statuary authorities • Cost of training a new employee for the position falling vacant • Time spent on repairs • Punitive damages • Rehabilitation of the injured employees • Settlement of dependents • Transport costs 1. companies lose. Companies devise new work methods. they do not gain. payment of forfeits • Expenditure of emergency equipment • Cost of time spent on the case by the first aid attendant and Occupational Health Services. after his return.2 Safety saves a Crash Corporates do business amidst stiff competition with narrow Profit margins. To improve the profit margin. lot of cost restrictions are applied to produce products at the lowest possible cost as the basic question of survival rises. • Recovery and salvage of damaged equipment and vehicles • Corrective actions to prevent recurrence of an accident • Obsolescence of parts and equipment destroyed • Loss of public confidence and therefore of revenue • Slowdown/ stopping operations while accident causes are determined and corrective action taken • Loss of skilled manpower • Funeral expenses • Social costs and liabilities • Degradation of efficiency of operations because of loss of experienced and trained personnel • Cost to employer under employee’s welfare and benefit scheme • Cost of employer of continuing to pay the wages of the injured employee in full. Implementing safe working practices controls costs and maximize profits by avoiding unnecessary expenses.

Once we practice safety at par with other functions the desired results can be achieved by optimum use of the 6 main elements involved in every business. Money and Market.1.3 Utility of Safety Safety's utility can be comparable with any other section like Quality. The six elements that govern business are Men. Methods. A management that can do away with quality control. Aligning the characteristics of these 6 elements with safety principles will bring positive results to the business & will be one of the best guiding principles for avoidance of loss and maximizing profit. Machine. Materials. Production Planning or Internal Audit in an organisation. That's the difference between having safety and not having it. Worthy resource leads to ACHIEVE ZERO 11 . It’s their choice. Limiting resource leads to safety neglects. internal audit can also ignore safety. Without Internal Audit/Quality control an organisation can run but with these it runs better.

Think and plan ahead to ACHIEVE ZERO. Right MAN for the right job is the criterion that becomes a limiting factor on which they are selected based on competence. skill and availability. our customers and the committees in which we operate Right men Ensure HSE is right Alert are they to Avoid accidents to ACHIEVE ZERO 12 .4.4 6 M’s of Safety 1. Men must be made aware of the hazards through orientation and safe work training making them alert at work. Total Loss Control principles emphasize men selected must be both physically and mentally fit to work. our contractors. 1.1 Men You are at most risk in your first days at site. our fellow employees. Pep Talks Men are the most valuable asset a company needs to preserve as they can plan & achieve the product production programme. Once aware about the hazards they will establish a positive safety climate. With experience they can devise work methods with a safer technique most suited to ACHIEVE ZERO. our visitors. Every task must be performed with a concern for safety for ourselves.

ACHIEVE ZERO depends on the adequateness of the control over the modifications and redesign of equipment for special purposes. Collapse of the boom of a Mobile crane due to Improper lifting procedure Put safety on the top of your list Work safely all the while ACHIEVE ZERO Go home with a smile. noise mufflers. exposed parts guarded. losses can be attributed to equipment failure to one type (or) other.1. a common practice in the industry. Machines must be handled/ used in the right way with dangerous.4. rollover protection. ACHIEVE ZERO requires selection of equipment must be done on the basis of its suitability. ease of operation. capacity and the availability of protective devices like operator safeguards. Proper guarding and control must be present as many catastrophic accidents.2 Machine Piling Rig Distribution Board Periodical inspection & maintenance helps in reducing the machine’s down time & improves the output. operator protection from emissions like heat/ dust. 13 . The machine will be operating in its maximum efficiency all the time while preventing accidents.

Job of any kind Assess risk Plan with JSA Perform safely every time ACHIEVE ZERO 14 . with new design improvements like fitting gears with easy changeability the effort required for biking has been considerably reduced making it - “Effortless Biking”. Facilitates Effortless working (Or) Facilitates Effort. economical & the most efficient way of doing the job. safest. This method breaks down the job into steps & helps us in analyzing the job and arrives at the easiest. It also eliminates the unnecessary steps in doing the job.1. “If you don’t know what is going to happen. Take the case of bicycles. Biking can be done in all terrains effortlessly with ease and the ergonomic design of the cycle ensures body positions are normal reducing chances of pain.3 Methods Safe work procedures ensure we ACHIEVE ZERO by simplifying and eliminating unnecessary steps resulting in reducing the probability of incidents and improving quality of work.4. The most important factor is it can reduce the effort involved. less working strain It means that the effort applied in doing a work will be reduced if not completely eliminated. there is no way to stop it” The broadly used method of hazard analysis is JOB SAFETY ANALYSIS.

gas cylinders in the right environmental condition. trip or a fall events. collapses.1. Material loss will be a costly issue as it accounts for 35 to 40% of the project cost and with proper storage of chemicals. serious fire and explosion incidents can be avoided.4. Proper storage and handling Works best in joint action Prevents incidents with a good intention to Achieve Zero 15 . contaminations or a slip.4 Materials Proper storage and handling of materials ensures we ACHIEVE ZERO losses & damages due to fire & explosion.

5 Money Observing Safety improves the value of the organisations assets and equipment’s in good working condition reducing maintenance costs and maintaining efficiency.) earning more with same/ lesser investment. Invest in safety as Safety Pays & Losses Achieve Zero 16 . ACHIEVE ZERO costs in reinvestment for purchase and maintenance of assets and machinery is adding to the profit (i.e.4. Consider a drilling machine with a lifetime of 10 years.1. With regular Inspection and maintenance its efficient working time can be extended beyond its normal lifetime reducing the investment cost in purchasing a new machine or costly spare parts.

training and monitoring like • Implementation of loss control policy • Audits and inspections • Accident reporting and investigation • Communications Development and review of emergency and contingency plans • Housekeeping • Process controls to avoid rework and reduce wastage • Preventive maintenance The benefits are: • Protects assets while minimizing loss to equipment and property • Minimize frequency and severity of accidents • Reduces expenditures of insurance claims • Provides a safe environment for employees 17 . The characteristic of the product like 100% protection will add value to the product.1.offers 100% protection against germs. Safety in production process Gives quality products Guarantees Loss markets Achieve Zero TOTAL LOSS CONTROL is achieved when safety is in action Total Loss control in any organization is achieved through commitments of all personnel to support and provide resources in implementing safety procedures and practices.6 Market Safe working methods in the production process guarantees quality products are available at a lower cost with improved sales and profits shooting sky high. improve its market capitalization like Dettol soap .4. a deciding role in winning projects while earning a good reputation. Safety performance plays a big role in an organizations reputation in the market.

e.5. * links to definitions of those injuries and illnesses. are accidents with huge losses that cost your life and huge property damage. Using this money lost in various types of accidents can be calculated and used to educate employees during induction. Safety Pays Program OSHA's "SAFETY PAYS" program is interactive software developed by OSHA to assist employers in assessing the impact of occupational injuries and illnesses (with Lost Work Days) on their profitability. Chance only favours the prepared mind to ACHIEVE ZERO Always prepare to ACHIEVE ZERO.5 Using Cost of accidents for inciting interest towards safety After every accident. The System: * prompts users for information to do the analysis. OSHA’s Software “Safety Pays “can do it.1 Knowing the accident costs before an accident Creating awareness about the cost likely to be incurred in an accident i. A damage report along with accident report will help to implement safety with involvement and prevent it from recurring. the AVERAGE costs of an injury or illness and an indirect cost multiplier to project the amount of sales a company would need to generate in order to cover those costs. tool box talks. or 800x600 with Small Font. Understanding of the accident costs can change attitudes for safety. making safety an everyday habit. and * runs on monitors set for 640x480. lost must be calculated to turn out more interest & involvement in safety. the cost involved i. It uses a company's profit margin. The simple way of estimating the accident costs prior hand is by using the Safety Pays Program from OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration). 1. so users can view and print their reports. 18 . * pulls up Notepad.e. 1. * offers choices from a set of Lost Work Day injuries and illnesses. crane collapse etc. Highlighting the money and resources lost in an accident will support in accident prevention. Knowledge of what will be lost will alert employees to work with involvement. lost will grab everyone’s attention towards accident prevention. A fall through a scaffold. * writes a report of the costs and the sales needed to cover those costs.

determined the accident ratio .00 %.Follow fire safety procedures). what appears to be lost is just like the tip of an iceberg and actually what is lost is never felt as damages in an accident are hardly analyzed. Machines getting damaged. Frank bird. there will be 30 property damage incidents.5.gov 1. rework. are the other main losses. The ADDITIONAL sales necessary . In reality. Scott Geller says.2 A Sample Report ==================================================== $AFETY PAYS ==================================================== Estimated Costs of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses and Estimated Impact on Profitability Report for Year: 2003-04 Employer: XYZ Company Prepared by: Mr. Also focusing on property damage highlights the seriousness of an incident.To cover Total Costs are: $520080 • The extent to which the employer ultimately pays the direct costs depends on the nature of the employer's workers' compensation insurance policy. Losses of skilled manpower. ABC on November 20. Reporting near misses help to identify the accident causes and take suitable precautions to nullify the chances of an accident. it can spread & destroy adjoining areas and displaying a poster as below near a fuel storage area will ALERT everyone the impact of the fire incident and spread the safety message .For every 600 near misses. • The employer always pays the indirect costs.5. Even a small fire can make everything zero 19 . Investigating property damages in an accident will make all safety conscious and for sure develops a positive safety climate nullifying the chances of an accident from occurring/ recurring. removing the individual blame from an accident investigation. medical. ability are some losses which cannot be recovered. Dissemination of knowledge regarding the property damages from an accident alerts and instils energy to get involved in safety to all.1. Research done by safety specialist. and one major injury. 2003 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- The injury or illness selected: Fracture. though nobody is injured in the accident. Take the case of a fire. Dr. downloaded from www. This report is produced by OSHA's Safety Pays software. compensation etc.3 Investigate Damages from the Accident: The Economic Impact Focusing on property damages from an accident will make employees realize that much can be lost than that judged by us.To cover Indirect Costs are: $272420 . Average Direct Cost: $12383 Average Indirect Cost: $13621 Estimated Total Cost: $26004 The net profit margin for this company is 5.osha. makes people proactive in reporting a near miss case or minor accident. 10 minor injuries.

“has the power to transform his thoughts into physical reality can dream and make his dreams come true” can ACHIEVE ZERO 20 . Fire in this workshop Calculating the accident costs likely to be incurred in can cost the company the event of an accident shall promote a positive $ 50000. Dream with a Vision to ACHIEVE ZERO ACHIEVING ZERO is our Dream Vision This Vision with a HSE Mission Transforms workplace into a New Version With Safety observation For Hazard Elimination To ACHIEVE ZERO. safety climate. The American speaker Napoleon Hill says that Man alone.

better safety records than b. Not wearing the required PPE. Living with your mistakes is harder than you think. This does not mean that you are safe the first 299 times that you commit an unsafe act. unknown causes at the workplace. It is something an employee does or fails to do that contributes to the accident also termed undesirable behaviour. Trying to service moving machinery. By chance occurrences i. conditions an unsafe act can lead to a tragedy. Disabling safety devices. Controlling Accidents Accidents happen as preventing accidents is extremely difficult in the absence of an understanding of accident causes. The probability that you will be hurt is the same every time. Unsafe acts b. Working unsafely such as throwing materials or tools. another worker. Educate to ACHIEVE ZERO wilful violations Just because you always did it that way. they are caused as a result of a. 21 ..e. d. There are many researches done and the ratios are mentioned below. Safety experts have analysed the accidents that occurred over a period of years and have worked out the ratio of the causes for an accident. remembering safe working habits and practicing all that you’ve learned. at conditions. doesn't make it right. Operating equipment without authority/ training.. accidents do not just happen. f.1 Unsafe acts Unsafe acts are wilful violations of the standard safe work practices. 2. An unsafe act does not necessarily result in an injury or accident every time. work groups who focus on c. Unsafe conditions c. eliminating unsafe e. Most accidents can be prevented by paying attention to your surroundings. or unnecessary Even in the safest of haste. Jumping from vehicles and platforms. Still accidents happen. Heinrich analysed the accidents and formulated that there are 300 unsafe acts committed for each one that results in an injury. Sometimes a combination of the above causes like unsafe acts and conditions. wear your safety gear. 2. Some common unsafe Work groups who focus on acts are: eliminating unsafe acts have a..

DuPont’s concept . Slippery walking surfaces The commonly accepted result of the analysis of accident cause is surprising - • Unsafe acts – 88% • Unsafe conditions . In the last 3 decades. Bird Lukens analysis . Developing Safe systems of work has made accident free a reality in many organizations and to ACHIEVE ZERO a paradigm shift in efforts must be religiously put to educate and enforce safety at work and reduce the risk of an incident or dangerous occurrence as it involves property damages that are huge losses draining profits. Using defective tools b. there are many barriers for achieving this goal. The common ones are: a. The term “ACHIEVE ZERO” can be often misunderstood. by which an accident can happen.12% • Unknown causes . safety is catching up with all industries and “Accident free workplaces” has become a reality and this has been achieved by many organizations with continuous development of their safety management systems through audits. Lack of guards c.2 Unsafe condition Unsafe condition is absence of the protective tools that leaves the actual physical working condition/ equipment unsafe. 500: 100: 1 (Property damage: Minor: Major) d. 600: 30: 10: 1 (Near miss: property damage: Minor: Major) Achieving Zero is the ultimate goal in workplace safety management. 30. 22 .2%.000: 3. and the results of various analyses done by experts on accident causes are a. Accident free means work place had no accidents but not hazards and there is always a chance for an accident with dare consequences. Unsafe clothing e. Ineffective warning and alarm systems d. Many say that it is unreasonable to expect workers to go uninjured. Bird Insurance Co .000: 300: 30: 1 (Unsafe acts/conditions: Near-Misses/first aid: Recordable injuries (Medical Treatment): Lost Time Injuries (Majors): Fatal c.2. 300: 29: 1 (Near miss: Minor: Major) b. In this sense it might be but like all words there is frequently more than one meaning. reviews. therefore it is a misnomer. adding experience to update work methods managing the hazards arising from activities at work. Disabling limit switches/ ineffective protective devices f. human attitude being the worst one as lots of chances are taken based on the belief that “it won’t happen to me” or “it won’t happen here” and humans continue to work unsafe taking chances. Heinrich analysis . However.

it is unacceptable and people act accordingly. injury or illness can be achieved and cost of worker injury can be reduced. the term “ACHIEVE ZERO” represents a position taken by the management in the interest of the workers .Properly defined as now used. Safety of workers becomes primary.Any injury/ hazard is unacceptable on its face and management is committed to “eliminate injury/ hazard from the workplace” demonstrated with visible involvement by the managers in the safety arena. When all understand this. It is a commitment to work as many hours as you possibly can without another injury/ hazard. This “ACHIEVE ZERO” concept does not mean another incident or injury will never occur. In the event of an injury/ hazard. it is then when a “ZERO” incident. 23 .

Requirements to ACHIEVE ZERO: • A safety policy • A review and improvement in the Safety culture • A safety induction programme • A systematic training programmes • A workplace Inspection and monitoring programme • A scheme for promoting safety with the use of positive performance indicators • An attitude to learn from experience • A proper use of behavioural safety methods to promote safety 24 . conditions of the work environment. While other factors determining the impact on safety culture are worker’s perception on first day at work. schedule delays and short notice before work to be performed. total safety training provided to develop competence. work procedures and the equipment’s used.Paradigm Progress in the safety goal Safety culture varies from one workplace to another and is directly related to the depth of safety in practice.

Workplaces are made inherently safer while setting up a good safety system with training to educate and enforce HSE. Zero hazards. “A Successful individual typically sets his next goal somewhat but not too much above his last achievement. This can be possible by eliminating the direct and indirect causes of an accident – Unsafe acts and Unsafe conditions. Follow HSE ACHIEVE ZERO 25 .” KURT LEWIN Hazards All Accidents are avoidable. The best way of eliminating accidents is to eliminate unsafe conditions and zeroing on unsafe acts made effective by developing a positive safety culture and climate. It appears that Zero hazard is practically impossible and can only be on paper but putting on a persistent approach with consistent efforts it can be made possible. Accidents have a far-flung chance of occurring when the workplace is made hazard free i.2. In this way he steadily raises his level of aspiration. avoid it.3 Hazard Knocking to ACHIEVE ZERO: The real challenge Accepting accidents as a part of doing business is mismanagement and eliminating the direct (or) indirect cause work place accidents are zero’ d. Develop attitude.e.

They must be made to understand that Accidents never happen Safety and accident prevention programs are designed to protect them. by themselves but are caused by people.2 Unsafe Acts – Reduce it provokes workmen to Safety is based on the fundamental truth that elimination of cause unsafe acts unsafe acts will eliminate 90% of all injuries. Regardless of the degree of safety built into a job. Develop your Skill Strengthen your Will Achieve Zero 26 . Developing safety knowledge and skills. It is the hazards. unsafe actions on part of human beings will also cause Even in the safest accidents. safety in each work activity and implementing safety precautions as recommended in the risk assessments. the risk involved 2.2. These unsafe acts resulting in an accident. b. c. This can be made effective by integrating previous unsafe act. An unsafe condition does not cause accidents by Create sufficient safety awareness about what causes an accident and what is needed to remove exposure to such themselves. People often behave unsafely because they have never been hurt before while doing their job in an unsafe way. Accident studies. conditions an unsafe act Overlooking a safety precaution is the most common unsafe act. Improving attitudes towards safety by conducting behavioral programs.1 Unsafe Condition – Eliminate it At work. can cause an accident. Unsafe acts can be reduced by a. Workmen must be trained to stay focused on the job in hand and avoid taking shortcuts. Taking shortcuts to save time and money. It must be identified before starting an activity and inaccurate perception of eliminated before they cause work interruption and injury.3. manufacturer’s data sheets etc. Heavy workloads. c. Inaccurate perception of risk & feelings of invulnerability “it won’t happen to me”. are associated with behavior and actions – Human errors on the job. b. an unsafe Eliminating unsafe conditions is the first line of defence from the hazards at the workplace and the most effective way to condition is the result of a prevent incidents. demonstrate that workers often engage in unsafe acts due to the following reasons: a. Effective supervision and supervisor training.3.

) 100% Elimination of unsafe conditions. A strict reinforcement of safety practices is necessary.2. French Author 27 .3 Managing Accidents Zero accidents can be achieved by managing the causes by a. Attitudes are a secret power working 24 hrs a day. It becomes a passion for them to violate the safety standards. Moving labor especially in construction is the biggest challenge for this.e. Many behavioral safety programs have resulted in reduced accident rates like STOP work programme of DuPont.3. Accident causes can be effectively controlled with • Education • Enforcement Accidents can be prevented with education & training. It is of paramount importance that we know how to harness and control this great force. Total Elimination (i. b. These programs aim at reduction by refining the risk-taking attitude and promoting safe behavior at work for accident reduction. Putting persistent effort in training employees can improve their competency. backed by prompt corrective action to discipline the violators. Tom Blandi. However. Unsafe acts can be reduced by tuning the minds of workmen to have a safe attitude through safety training programmes. there are some people who fail to comply with accepted safety standards. This enforcement will be required to make an accident program successful because in most cases violation of the safety rules will be the direct causes for an accident. Our attitudes control our lives. Reducing the number of unsafe acts to zero by safety education & training programs to promote safe behavior. for good (or) bad.

Just as productivity is valued. Supervisors and Workmen must be educated not to underestimate hazards.3 Slips/ Trips/ fall: (Unsafe acts & unsafe conditions) 46% of the injuries that occur in the construction industry are due to slips/ trips/ falls accidents.) the 20 to 34-year-old group yield nearly half of the construction industry’s injuries.4. Research done by the insurance companies reveal the fact that lesser age group (i.2 Lack of Effective Supervision: (unsafe acts increase) Well-trained supervisors will manage the jobs as planned. Especially for achieving the construction schedule there will be a sudden increase of labour within a short period of time.4 Case study A study done by US insurance companies to identify the causative factor for the increase in unsafe acts and unsafe conditions causing accidents in the construction industry are 2.4. Engineers. These problems can be controlled by a. Safety Orientation Programs for Workmen Prior to employment workmen must be given safety induction elaborating the site safety rules and procedures followed in the site. the worker is generally out less than a month. Regular training programmes Engineers and Supervisors must be trained well before they take higher positions. almost half the injuries are caused this way. Make safety a part of every supervisor’s performance appraisal. 2. how much minor it may be. A slip and fall at the ground level may not be hurting much and the consequences does not matter much in majority of the cases. takes time to recover 28 . Make employees accountable for working safely. the accident rate is higher for employees who have less than one year of service. This does not mean that he or she is ready for the human relation’s challenges of getting people to work safely and productively. but a slip and fall from height makes it memorable.4. Research indicates many are promoted into supervisory positions because of their technical ability or productivity. The Shock after a fall from height.1 High Unskilled Labour Turnover rate (unsafe acts increase) High turnover of unskilled labour is routine in this industry. As a result. b. It is necessary to break the belief “Safety Measures are a barrier to completing a task quickly”. 2.e. a. When an accident occurs that is severe enough to cause a lost time injury. Training of new joiner’s is a must for creating safety awareness. 2. Screening of Workmen c. Workmen must be screened to judge their skills on the job and assess their suitability by their supervisor for job skills and safety engineer for safety awareness. if not for you atleast for others. It makes them more disciplined at work and aware of the company’s rules leading to a positive safety climate. so should safe work environments. produce safe & profitable projects. b. In this situation the normally followed safety practices are by passed.

Housekeeping hazards effectively managed will significantly reduce these types of accidents. This last-minute decision to increase the manpower abruptly for maintaining construction schedules and lack of communication is the main cause for shortage in PPE.5 Improper Material handling (unsafe act) Many workers are injured during loading and unloading process. To avoid potential injuries. Allowing an unsafe condition to exist is an act of negligence. c. a. Use appropriate body positioning and follow ergonomic guidelines during manual handling. 2. Dedicated drivers sometimes feel an obligation to complete the job and will load or unload without proper assistance. scaffolds. Not lift heavy or bulky objects. In 90% of these cases it was observed that personnel protective equipment (PPE) was not in use (or) was improperly used (or) workmen men improperly trained to use PPE for limiting exposure to hazard (or) PPE were not available. b. An Enforceable fall protection policy must be at place. forklifts etc. With regular training. this sudden increase barely gives time for training and safety orientation. Anyone who is in a position to fall 6 feet or more should use fall protection equipment 100 percent of time. 2.4. and walkways. c.4.4 Inadequate personnel protective equipment (unsafe act) Injuries to construction laborers account for 26% of all industry injuries. employers should require workers to a. Items are sometimes too heavy or too bulky for safe lifting. Use material handling equipment’s like cranes. Maintain proper access at work areas through careful and routine maintenance of access equipment such as ladders. an unsafe act causes an incident. b. the last reason causing the most. The use of proper tools and equipment are all important in significantly reducing injuries. Even in the safest working conditions. Too often customer loading/ unloading sites are not safe. 29 . Also. or proper machinery is not available. superman syndrome vanishes to reduce unsafe acts to ACHIEVE ZERO.

To find out how effective is the safety culture at your workplace. Safety climate can be defined as the conditions prevailing in the workplace at a particular time that is determined by the attitude of the workforce and the level of control one has towards implementation of the occupational health and safety management system. considerable research has been done on this subject and numerous definitions for safety culture and safety climate has been formulated based on the industry. Developing a safety culture needs contribution from all levels in the organisation where as a safety climate develops in the way an individual is tuned to have control on adopting the safety precautions. just enter the workplace and ask anyone – “who is responsible for safety?” You may get a wide range of answers. It becomes a practice to overlook the safety procedures and work violating the safety procedures. Safety climate depends on individual actions and is very important to reduce to unsafe acts. the Bureau of Labour Statistics reported that no industry has more deaths than construction. Depending on the depth of the safety culture. This is the direction everyone must be oriented and trained to follow. For ease of understanding let us state it as “safety culture of an organisation is the existence of a formal and well documented HSE management system and procedures covering all aspects of work that are reviewed & updated periodically to suit the changes in the operational requirements and legislations”. there was no indication of the work procedures being reviewed and updated to correct the faults experienced during operation. a suitable safety climate shapes up in the workplace. Yes. Also. as the consequences of a mistake (in many cases) are small relative to the benefit of violating the safe work procedures. 30 . It is important to develop a positive safety culture as it forms the context within which individual safety attitudes develop and safe behaviours are promoted. It’s a fact that. it is part of the working culture that safety rules and work procedures affecting the progress of work is disliked.3. everyone working in the workplace is responsible for safety. The rightest answer is – “I”. The huge cost of accidents has a direct impact on the profits. the more money it costs. The Longer the employee is away from work. leaving lots of room for innovation. Accident Investigations exposed the poor safety systems existing in the plant with lots of errors and violations of operating procedures. In the last 2 decades. This is not true safety as none of us wants to live with (or be hurt by) the marks of an accident that could have been avoided. Safety Culture & Safety Climate The concept of safety culture has fundamentally developed a lot after the major disasters in the nuclear industry like the Chernobyl disaster in Soviet Union. The person who tells ‘I’ am responsible for safety has the right attitude. In 2003. The brink of implementation of safety culture in effect shapes the safety climate existing in the workplace.

Management has to make public a high level of commitment with involvement for the smooth percolation of the safety principles down through the entire organization. First Part – is to form the necessary HSE structure within an organization. This forms the framework over which a Safety culture develops. It improves each Lifeday andwith theare limb persistence efforts than more precious put in by the management to implement the safety policy and effectively anything managing the safety else. we require to build a culture that encourages setting and maintaining high standards of safety. This involvement sends in a positive signal to the workforce for adopting safety. E. When management’s action speaks louder than their words they will ACHIEVE ZERO 31 .1 Safety Management a.g. When management walks their safety talk with a visible involvement in safety activities. A good gauge of safety culture is "how we do things here. safety issues at the workplace. Culture changes do not happen overnight. effortlessly. 3. identifying and resolving problems and deficiencies etc. Second part – is to promote safety by developing the attitude & competency of the entire work team in responding to the requirements of the health and safety management system. system. A well-documented and certified Health and Safety Management system is the foundation for this. It’s obvious that Safe and healthy workplaces are A good safety culture is created good for workers and employers as it is more when the managers are profitable and competitive. This is formed and certified to confirm with Standards.: Organizing behaviour-based safety training program. This is the most active and essential element for deriving the benefits of implementing the HSE system. in their approach to developed. Positive management commitment is the vital ingredient for developing an effective safety culture. The importance of the safety culture in preventing accidents should be proactive rather than being realized and a positive safety culture must be reactive. an attitude to sustain the positive safety culture & climate developed after considerable efforts silently walks into the minds of the entire workforce." The way work is done around the workplace pinpoints the on-hand Safety Culture. Employees will start owning the responsibility for safety. For achieving continuous improvement. This helps in creating an atmosphere for forming a Good Safety climate and to sustain it. b.

2 Safety culture & Safety climate Safety culture and safety climate are often used but puzzling terms. Everyone in an organization has an immediate superior to report and monitor his work. Superiors play a vital role in setting up safety climate in the working area. A questioning attitude must be developed with all in the organization to improve the safety culture and climate. what exactly is it? The conceptual aspects of these two areas should be clearly understood to differentiate and bring them together to improve safety performance. In these situations. Communication is an important driver of safety climate. An employee’s attitude towards safety is in turn governed by their perception of the importance given by the management to safety and risk of a particular place at a particular time. the changes that were made in the aftermath of an accident do not last long and the old culture Climate changes more often than the culture. workplace. It is the condition of the safety culture at a particular point of time created by the attitudes of employees towards safety. Every time after such an incident everyone is conscious about safety. So. This triggers a strengthening of the safety climate.e. The top management lays the foundation of the safety culture by developing policies and goals. If the workplace is unorganized. Learn. The employee picks up the lack of emphasis in safety and starts neglecting safety and concentrates only on production. Safety is given lot of attention and safe work practices get implemented without much persuasion. it is usual to expect him to side-line the safety requirements. creeps up with other pressures like depending on the situations prevailing at the production. doesn’t sit on training classes. will power of the employee in responding to the safety requirements. The most striking example is the impact on safety immediately following after an accident with serious injury or fatality. It can be simply described as “how people think and feel about safety issues”. This questioning attitude develops the safety consciousness and awareness influencing the attitudes for a positive safety climate. the employee will quickly come to a conclusion that safety isn’t important to the supervisor. on achieving the production targets he gets the required growth and rewards. never asks about it. it affects the attitude of the workmen. If the supervisor never says anything about safety. But in practice. Gradually he concludes. Work procedures and method statements are developed and streamlined by their guidance to substantiate the safety culture.3. “Who wants to be an odd man in the group?” 32 . Teach and Practice Safety The existing safety climate has an influence on the interest i. Safety climate is the pop up of the safety culture in place.

Keep in mind – Do the right thing. is it not better to do the right thing promptly and enjoy the fruits later. Understanding and managing both climate and culture is critical to achieving and maintaining excellence in safety performance. under all circumstances favourable (or) unfavourable. It can change frequently. right now Instead of doing the job hurriedly in a wrong way and repenting after accidents/ major damages. A positive safety climate is the outcome of the positive safety culture. The efforts made to enhance their safety culture have immensely benefited their plant. It’s difficult to change the safety culture and still more difficult to stop the changes in safety climate” . as done by companies like DuPont. Swami Vivekananda in his book “Will Power and its development” states that will power is that power of mind which enables us to do what we know to be right and not to do what we know to be wrong.Anonymous 33 . vice president – development. Developing the safety culture is a proven way of enhancing the workplace safety to improve safety performance. It takes a long time to earn a mishap free milestone and only seconds to lose “Individual actions determine the Safety climate. Higher management forms the Safety culture while the lower management plays a major role in developing the safety climate. almost every shift depending on the attitude of persons as every individual has control over the Safety climate around him. In an expert opinion given by Rosanne Danner. Creating a safety culture is a long and challenging journey. engineering and work process. known (or) unknown. 3 to 5 years is a good rule of thumb for instituting a safety culture change. something that cannot be done overnight but can be done over a period of time. We should realize that our actions shape the safety climate in our workplace. we can break the barrier between safe and unsafe working and decidedly do things in a Safeway thereafter. A positive safety climate is the outcome of the positive safety culture developed to ACHIEVE ZERO. DuPont Safety Resources. By doing things safely once.

However. Dudley Daniel. Top management personnel must become "safety VIPs" (visible – Mr. safety and wellbeing of all its employees. Motivate personnel to actively participate in safety related issues. Effective leadership is more than just words. empowerment. It safety team give a good culture. Management’s actions must be felt lead by example.3.3 Training & Education Impart necessary knowledge and develop competent An integral part of safety culture personnel through Effective Safety Training and Instruction. planning is to ensure that people Safety Induction. 3.3. the employee perceptions of management’s commitment to safety and shall be the key driver to determine the safety climate in the workplace. manpower.1 Make a Safety Policy with Management commitment & Involvement decisions about capital. it should mention that this concern shall be Employees will follow your safety demonstrated by eliminating hazards by training employees leadership. 3. Assess the readiness of the individuals to respond to the requirements of the HSE management system.3. 3. Creating a safety culture begins with a written safety policy. meaningful and practicable to Alan C. inspections. Saudi Arabian Chevron This visible participation of management will change for Source: 3rd Annual Contractor safety forum of JO.NSC for the health. 34 . Further. The policy must be clear. Getting safety culture concepts across to frontline supervisor’s needs continuous assessment and reinforcement. but to keep the working safety climate. environment safely.3 Elements of a safety culture A company’s commitment to safety & health is reflected in its 3. Working together we can make hazards disappear. making it obvious that safety is important. audits to review work practices. tool to improve safety performance. 3.3. organizational A well-developed HSE policy forms the base over which a structure and employee safety culture develops. involved – participative). Ensure that everyone is made aware that they are responsible for their Whatever be your position you safety and for the safety of others.3. Mc Millan achieve. Accountability is a useful have got a role to play for safety. by them. Tool Box Meetings etc. These policies must be reviewed from time to time to suit the working environment.2 Role Clarity & Accountability Clearly define the roles and responsibilities. you should in safe working practices. Senior VP. Kuwait certain. who hold critical positions have 3. It should express the concern of the management President and CEO .5 Encourage Participation Everyone must be made aware of the importance of safety. Safety activities managed by a Promote safety to improve the level of safety participation.4 Inspection the knowledge & understanding to develop an environment that Supervise the work of individuals through regular safety supports safety. can be defined as the voluntary involvement in identification Safety activities managed by and correction of unsafe situations that do not directly everyone give a safety conscious contribute to an individual’s safety.

3. the road to a positive safety climate has already been laid” 35 .6 Measuring and improving the safety culture environment that rewards After setting down the necessary framework for forming a positive behaviour’s and more positive safety culture. Planning for a positive safety culture needs reducing the obstacles & providing an 3. offers no excuse for implementation shall be monitored to bring in the benefits of not undertaking appropriate the newly formed safety culture. actions. the progress and direction of importantly. “When an organizations commitment to safety is going beyond just compliance.

By integrating safety into all Instead safe production is our policy (or) Safety always is operations. A statement from the CEO of DuPont: “We will never compromise our core values – Safety and Environmental excellence. If not. Herman Miller Co. Priorities keep managers condone unsafe changing from time to time. he pointed out himself. at times Safety first (or) Safety is our top priority may sound good but in practice it is difficult to maintain. production capacity." –Max DePree. asking whether the supervisor thought it was a hazard. At times to meet production acts. DuPont When Safety is a part of every management decision. Site safety inspections were conducted along with the supervisors and they were asked to point out the hazards as they walked around. Safety must be built into everything in such a way that it cannot be compromised at any time. quality. Abeytunga did not project himself as a safety person. integrity. Considering safety aspects during purchase will confirm safety is building into a core value in your organisation. vs. Abeytunga. Accepting the hazards as inevitable (this acceptance makes people to take more risk) 5. maintenance cost. "Understand that what we believe precedes policy.it’s fine to produce as fast as leaving no room for unsafe possible as long as it can be done safely without shortcuts. to avoid supervisors projecting a false impression on Safety. Holiday Jr. always. Safety) 4. cost of training etc. easily. When “safety is first”. Safety perspectives will get integrated into our systems easily and employees perform safely as they believe safety is important to the success of the business. Charles O. risk factor. Incompatible demands (Production. lifetime. safety excellence can be achieved with continual improvement as its easy to manage HSE when it is established as a core value. When selecting to purchase a machine various factors like efficiency. past CEO. procedure and practice. When Abeytunga saw a hazard which the supervisor has not pointed out. acts. undefined) 3. They are 1. Inc.” . sending conflicting schedules it becomes tough to give safety the number 1 messages to employees about priority and it becomes second priority or next time first the management commitment and safe working procedures are bypassed increasing the for safety. safety will develop into a core value. a safety analyst studied the perceptions of 70 worksite supervisors of the hazards present on the worksite. 2.3. Social climatic influences (Work force Pressure & Low efficiency supervision) 36 . Chairman & CEO. why it was not a hazard? From these Abeytunga identified some common factors.. Limited resources to remove the hazard. anytime. cost etc. every time” underlining the idea . it is “Safety our policy will stress the need to follow safety always. high ethical standards and treating people with fairness and respect.4 Achieving excellence By making safety a core value. Beyond supervisory duties (limited & attributed to others.

unexpected breakdown of equipment. If he succeeds in setting the safe habits then 1. Production trouble Accident trouble (Cause) This is lost because materials are not stored properly Slip and Fall type accidents This is lost because components are not readily Fall from heights available. Production increases – by using proper and efficient methods 3. A supervisor must work hard to set safety as a core value. machinery and products. Money is saved. human suffering and death are prevented. delay in arrival of material and personnel. The major causes of accidents and production troubles are same. changes needed to remove hazards would not be acceptable) 7. as accidents can also result in damage to equipment. It should be understood that the safe working procedure insists on the proper working procedure without shortcuts. “Success in Safety depends on will and the ability to hold on to the will. Job is made easier – less job interruption 2. risk taken to cope). we can tell that the essentiality of the supervisor in a site is to get the people do the jobs in the way that should be done. Struck by/ Hit by a flying object This is lost because wrong methods are adopted No hazard analysis Accidents due to improper This is lost because rework is necessary. The supervisor must be properly oriented and educated about the safety principles.Author 37 . High morale and discipline are maintained. This is lost because aisles are blocked with materials. hazards seen to be under specialists control) 9. 5. Lack of technical competence to remove the hazard 8. 4. Industrial tradition (accept certain hazards. making safety as a habit. Improper Housekeeping This is lost because wrong tools are used. lighting If the supervisor’s concern is only elimination of accidents that result in personnel injuries. Injury.6. it must be changed. unclear authority structure) 10. Lack of authority to do anything (Authority surrendered to others achievement of work goals. Therefore. loss of time and interference with planned procedures. Contingency situations (Rapid planning required.” . Dependence upon individual worker (skill of others. Making safety as a core value can change the concerns of all.

an accurate assessment can be done and will be based on the Safety policy or the areas with room for improvement can be identified. Actions performance. Training 3. Teamwork 7. Communications 38 . Facilities 5. Compliance 4.3. Commitment 8. When they are used in culture and then determines the action conjunction with Positive performance indicators for safety necessary to effect the change. Safety and systematic process. Leadership 2. By assessing its safety culture. These perception surveys are very useful tools in determining the effectiveness of the safety efforts and identify the strengths and weaknesses of the safety elements. The main elements of the questionnaire used for a safety survey are 1. Safety awareness 6. It is a means of measuring and comparing improvements or decrements in safety culture. an organisation can determine where the efforts need to be focused for developing safety. Surveys are the quickest way to gain the most information about employee’s perceptions of the current culture. Goals set the management. Excellence 9.5 Assessing the safety culture Now we have seen the tangibles involved in setting up a Improving safety culture is something safety culture. It starts with questionnaires and surveys are very useful tools to assess an initial assessment of the existing the safety culture and safety climates. After we set up the culture it needs to be which should be seen as a long term assessed continuously for developing the culture.

while the fourth wall was of comparatively flimsy wood construction. DuPont studied explosive production techniques along with the famous chemist Antoine Lavoisier. thereby reducing the risk of total destruction of the facility in the event of an explosion. year 2006 saw the global Giant DuPont presented this award in recognition of their emphasis on safety. safety shifts from a value to a priority. DuPont’s emphasis on safety goes back to its roots. Something more was needed to prevent an explosion. and horses were fitted with rubber-like boots that were placed over their horseshoes. The redesign of the gunpowder plant was with significant changes than other contemporary plants.6. The falling water on the lower Brandywine could drive the machinery of a large mill and ensure year-round production. the founder of the company. he built many small buildings suitably spaced apart that contained different phases of the process.6 Sustaining the safety culture The requirements to preserve the safety culture developed is 3. reinforced stone walls. This made the company take safety practices very seriously.1 Continuous commitment of Management Top management sets the tone to the development of the entire safety program. unless of course you happened to be boating on the river at the wrong moment. To promote safety. The operations were plagued with explosions that killed lot of people and causing huge damages. Presented annually. E. The smaller buildings were built with three heavy. As a result. However. Let me present a case study on how a company plagued with accidents has established itself as a leader in safety by developing its safety culture and preserving it. Organizational commitment 39 .I. in most cases we can find a decrease in commitment with time with the obstacles faced during implementation. Safety measures were adapted to eliminate the chance of a spark being produced that can trigger an explosion. To stop this. This redesign of the plants was sought to reduce the effects of an explosion. Even then explosions occurred. It was very close to the Brandywine River. a highly volatile substance. This award is to recognize corporations that has made safety a central part of its value system. The industry continued to be plagued with explosions and worker deaths.I. This represented a substantial safety advance. That is an organizational and individual commitment. On average 3 persons were killed in each explosion that occurred in an interval of 14 months. management must review their level of commitment from time to time such that everyone feels their commitment driving the implementation of the safety program. He located a site to suit the new design and purchased it to build his new gun powder mill. Eleuthere Irenee DuPont (E. DuPont was founded in 1802 in the Brandywine Valley in Delaware and was the first manufacturers of gun powder. The fourth wall faced the river so that. Rather than building one large structure to house the entire manufacturing process. the wooden wall would be blown out and the energy released from the blast would be directed over the river. rather than at the other adjacent buildings. Gradually. DuPont) redesigned his gunpowder plants to improve the quality of gunpowder and devised measures to enhance safety. National safety council has instituted a “Green Cross Award” since 1999. in the event of an explosion. workers wore clothing with brass buttons and shoes with soles that had brass tacks. All tools were made out of wood. 3.

This won them the “Green Cross Award” for the year 2006 given by the National Safety Council. Further. Priorities change. c. this would have been an early example of a corporate decision to ensure management’s total commitment to safety. Know the operation a. the STOP program was developed. Always wear personal protective equipment (PPE) where required. Process data to find and track trends. who in turn inspire the attitudes of the Engineers and supervisors. If true. c. DuPont was one of a few companies to hire a physician for employees. Holiday Jr. the major design change when redesigning the gun powder plants in the early 1800’s was that the manager’s offices were located just above the rooms where the gun powder was made. pay progression and career promotions. This means department leaders should educate officers and set the example by applying the proven elements of leadership. In 1935. This STOP program addresses both the safe and unsafe behaviours of people in the workplace.2 Felt Leadership is critical in achieving a safety culture Safety is first and foremost about leadership.” Further. 3. We can learn that – “Safety culture change is hard but rewarding work”. b. they also helped DuPont to retain its more experienced and safety-conscious workers – men better able to recognize tell-tale signs of danger and prevent disaster. Leadership is felt only when leaders in the organization act according to the values of the company. 2. Discuss some aspect of safety with employees every day. is required to develop a safety culture and individual commitment to follow the safety culture for a positive Safety climate. in 1805. While these initiatives limited costly damage and minimized injuries. The message from the CEO & Chairman Charles O. not a priority. This is a perfect example of “Achieving Safety excellence” through culture change and sustaining it. you have to have safety as a value. To have a good strong safety culture. b. According to legend. Everyone has an immediate boss whom you are reporting to. The 12-point checklist of DuPont helps its leaders put their beliefs into action: 1. it established one of the world’s first industrial medicine facilities. Understand how and why the safety rules apply to the work you supervise. is “Safety is more than a priority – that is a value. Understand the entire process or operation for which you are responsible. A worker’s attitude is usually controlled by his supervisor.6. We try to weave safety into everything – performance evaluations. Observe all safety rules. 40 . to achieve their safety targets. Set a good example a. Felt leadership is all about people communicating safety to their lower line. His attitude is going to control your actions. This continued commitment of management to safety saw a drastic fall in the injury rates and environmental incidents. Who is your leader? The Chairman or CEO is the ultimate leader but not the immediate leader for everyone. They are highly visible leaders and must maintain a positive attitude toward safety to inspire this attitude in Managers.

Every walkthrough should be an impromptu inspection tour. b. Detect unsafe acts. involve the entire organization. 9. Correct the deficiencies and poor practices you see. b. Present investigation findings as opportunities to learn. Take effective corrective actions a. Always incorporate safety into your meetings. d. c. let it be felt. Identify key factors. b. d. Communicate extensively and foster involvement through auditing and teaming. Encourage your employees to discuss work hazards. c. Remember that accident prevention leads to better operations. d. 10. Eliminate unsafe practices. 8. DuPont has set up a safety consulting division. Be alert for unsafe conditions a. Investigate all injuries and accidents. Correct. c. 6. No job should proceed where a question of safety remains unanswered. Hold line management accountable. a. Make safety a part of your operation. Make corrections promptly. DuPont Safety resources are the safety consulting division of the global DuPont Corporation. b. b. Apply discipline consistently and equitably. Encourage and be receptive to the ideas of your workers. d. Discipline as necessary. c. e. DuPont Safety Resources: Further to assist all the operating units and customers in safety. b. 5. Observe people and inspect conditions. Know your employees a. Inspect often and inspect intelligently a. c. Follow up 7. c. c. Take employee capabilities into account when planning a job. Make safety a prime obligation. 12. e. Address unsafe actions immediately. Discuss hazards a. b. Make the main objective of discipline to improve performance. Mentor employees. 11. It was founded 30 years ago to build on the world class safety principles 41 . Encourage employees to report all events. Maintain discipline a. Anticipate risks 4. Be aware that employees’ ability depends upon their education. Correct hazards on the spot. d. Demonstrate your level of safety as a leader. don’t reprimand. b. training and experience. Investigate accidents a. Audit often. Track your performance.3.

3 Measuring safety performance Traditionally safety has been measured by the number of accidents and the days lost due to injuries sustained from them. For every major accident happening there are a number of incidents/ dangerous occurrences happening where the outcome is nil i. The key is action. chance to learn a lesson on accident prevention. the best. Accidents are a measure of the number of times the safety systems fail. and best practices employed throughout DuPont. the fact that every unsafe act/ You can’t manage what unsafe condition does not result in an accident. the safety system is perfectly functioning.6. Drucker This technique of measuring the safety performance through the number of times an accident has happened is called as lagging indicators. To will is to select a goal. Measuring the number of times. It can be easily understood. This case study of DuPont demonstrates the successful transformation of a company plagued with accidents to become a safety leader will substantiate the need for a continuum development of safety culture. On the long run it can make people complacent about their safety functions. 42 . and to assist client organizations in their efforts in achieving similarly excellent safety performance. we have mentioned the various accident ratios developed by safety leaders based on their research. We do we use failures as the will identify the areas for improvement only after an measure of our accident occurs. A common belief exists that when there are no accidents are happening. One of them is Aggregate Industries. Aggregate industries had set a goal of – Zero Incidents and engaged professionals from DuPont Safety Resources to develop and implement new initiatives. easiest way to prevent accidents is to prevent them from happening. need to work out a method to improve the implementation of the safety system. the goal of Zero incidents becomes achievable. proactive action plans and preventive activities in place. we you can’t measure. When the dangerous occurrences success?” go unreported/ unnoticed we are deprived of the Rose. It gives no clue about the actual safety activities done. why gives a false impression on the actual scenario. This may be due to sheer luck & goes unnoted. Michael Hanson 3. and then hold to that action till the goal is reached. There are many organizations that have benefited from DuPont Safety Resources. These lagging indicators do not measure the effective implementation of the safety programs. no injuries/ losses. the system has “If we are in the business failed will hold-up the development process as this of promoting OHS. Keeping on mind.e. In the chapter on controlling accidents. determine the course of action that will bring one to that goal. As their safety culture continues to strengthen.

Percentage of hazards rectified. ix. vi. Lagging Indicators i. Severity rate iv. iv. 100%. tool box talks etc. the data from the leading indicators enables effective intervention to address or reverse a negative trend before it results in an injury. To ACHIEVE ZERO. Percentage attendance in safety committee meetings. Commitment of managers towards safety will also improve for safety related activities like workmen nominated for training. xi. Indicators chosen must represent the area/ item which is of concern for developing a positive safety culture and climate. Project walk-through conducted by executive management and supervisors. Percentage of incidents reported and investigated. It can vary based on the industry type. Leading Indicators i. attendance of managers in safety meetings. They are an effective tool to correct unsafe behaviours and promote safe practices like % times work permits are taken before work. measures of success called as leading indicators. Percentage of actions implemented as suggested in Safety reports. Number of safety communications vii. Indicators selected must measure safety related activity. When measured and monitored effectively. Quality of observations during safety audits and inspections. Accident rate ii. Everyone likes to be perfect i. These PPI’s can be used as a tool to reduce accidents. 43 . viii. They are used to drive and measure activities carried out to prevent and control injury. We will have to measure the frequency & effectiveness of the activities that help to develop safety. Commonly used indicators are A. ii. The main advantage of this leading indicator is it helps in developing a positive safety climate. Percentage of training given x. Always. v. Implementation of site safety action plan. This leading indicator hints at where your activities are now and what is required to achieve 100%. Restricted work cases B. Using the activities that promote a safety culture and climate as Positive performance indicators is a perfect and powerful tool to ACHIEVE ZERO. iii. Percentage of JSA done. Degree of commitment to health and safety. People will take initiative to fulfil the requirements and a positive safety climate surfaces up automatically. Frequency rate iii. measure what leads to improvement.e.

e. Anonymous feedback is solicited so that employees can express concerns without fear of reprisal. c. b. In addition to their regular duties. some of the prominent features to promote a safety-conscious culture are: a. e. Conduct training programs focussing largely on personal attitudes towards safety to obtain “Employee ownership of Safety culture”. Management Commitment b. which has many determinants. Various researches done during the 1990’s identifies the main constructs that determine the safety climate is a. 3. An Unusual Job plan identifies and mitigates hazards before unusual jobs are performed. They have the required education and training to decide on the safe way of working. Conducting regular safety celebrations and lunches when safety milestones are achieved. d. Personal appreciation of risk g. Supportive and Supervisory environments e.4 Safety Professionals in high numbers Safety professionals are specialists in safety. Conducting Safety Pauses or Safety Stand downs (i. These safety professionals play a main role in forming a work culture that is Safety conscious. Monetary incentives and Recognition for employees showing exemplary safety awareness.7 Maintaining a Positive safety climate Safe behaviours are the consequences of the existing Safety climate.3. Worker’s involvement f. work pressure and competence 44 .6. Communication c. discussion forums) when a hazardous situation is identified that requires a strong emphasis. f. Rules and Procedures d. Appraisal of work environment.

Site engineers. safety engineers and workers which has improved our safety performance over the last one decade. Reality: Management “action” is the sole requisite for safety success. In our journey to be a global player the culture of “Safety First” is an important requirement. Year Frequency Rate 1995 – 1996 3. hydel projects. “They watch your feet not your lips” says Tom Peters. There has been continuous reduction in frequency rate of reportable accidents (i. 2004 Zonal Heads BU Heads RMs Culture of "Safety First" At the outset I would like to appreciate the good work being done by our Construction Managers. CSP. Cement Plants. In order to benchmark our safety performance with the best in the world and to raise our safety performance to the level of MNCs we need to improve further in the area of safety. Also. I feel the following steps will help in bringing about the change. Refineries. Commitment without action only produces “cynicism”. Power Plants. Myth on Management Commitment by Larry Hansen.80 However. it is essential to establish the culture of "Safety First" at our sites. etc. 45 . Top Management of India’s largest construction company ensuring positive action from PROJECT MANAGEMENT in HSE BREAKING THE MYTH ON MANAGEMENT COMMITMENT L&T-ECC Office of President (Operations) & Deputy Managing Director Chennai January 17. ARM Myth: Management “commitment” is the key to safety success. fatalities continue to be a serious concern for Management.79 2002 – 2003 0. LPG Cavern. Harbours/Jetties. Only active involvement can overcome the corporate inertia which impedes an organization from attaining higher levels of safe performance.e. with more and more high-risk jobs like high rise buildings. number of accidents per million man-hours worked) as shown below..

.➢ During weekly co-ordination meeting at sites. they will review safety performance of site first. ➢ Any unsafe act/condition observed during site visit by executives. ➢ During all above reviews. they should make it a point to review safety first. when senior executives/BU heads from HQ visit site. knowledge. (A. Each one of us needs to contribute to achieve this goal. internal/external audits must be attended to promptly. ➢ In case of fatality the concerned PM/CM/RE shall be called to Regional Office and will have to explain to Zonal Heads. ➢ It shall be the responsibility of PMs/CMs/REs to enforce safety at site and they will be held accountable for the same. ➢ Similarly. competence and resource to achieve world class safety performance and I do not see any reason why this cannot be achieved. The accident investigation report will be discussed threadbare during this meeting and action plan prepared which will be implemented to ensure that similar incidents do not reoccur. emphasis should be on all proactive measures and implementation of safety systems & procedures. ➢ All required support should be provided to site by Zonal Heads/BU Heads/RMs/SPMs/RPMs/RPLMs and Safety Engineering Department. RAMAKRISHNA) cc: EVPs VPs GMs JGMs RPS It’s difficult to change the safety culture and still more difficult to stop the changes in safety climate. RM. ➢ When Zonal Heads / RMs / SPMs / RPMs visit site. I am sure the above steps will translate our goal of establishing the Culture of “Safety First" and achieving world-class safety performance into reality. inspection by safety engineer/site engineer.Author 46 . ➢ No compromise shall be made on safety under any circumstances. followed by other discussions. With best wishes & regards. safety should be discussed/reviewed first. There is no doubt and you will agree with me that we have all the skill. monthly co-ordination meeting in Regions and in operations committee meeting at HQ. Let us start the New Year with the resolution that we shall soon establish the Culture of “Safety First” at our sites. SPM and RPM as to why such an accident took place.

HAZARD CONTROL "Accidents don't happen by accident. which are specific to the sector.2 Injury Rates in construction The working conditions of equipment’s. 2018) 47 . Yes. they tell us that our operations are out of Control” Dr. (WSH bulletin. Zero accident rates can be attained by implementing proper safety systems. The Construction Industry employs more than 8. In fact. excavation work (use of explosives.5 million workers. diseases. which has the highest injury rate of 17. It is second only after mining/quarrying.6% of fatalities.2% of partial disabilities and about 7. with an injury rate of 9. 4. February. A specific approach to occupational safety and health in this industry is required as a result of its temporary character of workplace and everyday workmen take more and more chances at worksite. the construction industry is one of the most dangerous occupations in the world and no construction is 100% safe. Earl Blair 4. 12.000 employed personnel. (2003) Even after 2 decades in 2017 the construction industry still ranks second with an injury rate of 417 for every 100.4% of temporary disability. will go wrong at least 1 time” With rapidly changing technologies. tools. hoists) and so on. Undesirable events like accidents are something that occurs unexpectedly but the belief that accidents occur due to misfortune is misleading as in most cases the accidentee knows he is taking chance neglecting safe practices. work on roofs). majority of them being illiterate (In India. 2003).1% of the total occupational accidents.1 Introduction Even with best efforts. he took his chance and failed like when using a ladder. materials and working methods in the construction industry continually cause injuries. 4. earthmoving machines). lifting of materials (use of cranes. Construction work involves a series of occupational risks. 9. The building and construction industry is second among the risky trades. This industry is responsible for about 10. he reaches out too far and falls instead of taking time to reposition the ladder? he took his chance and failed. gangways and ladders.7(per 1000 workers). supervisors and workers are provided training. such as work at heights (use of scaffoldings. but accidents and fatalities can be avoided if Project engineers. things do go wrong. Proof for the technology development should be in the form of decreasing accident rates and subsequent reduction in losses. This satisfies the Murphy’s Law – whatever can possibly go wrong. machines. industry faces the challenge of demonstrating by action its desire and ability to improve the safety record.9(per 1000 workers). fatalities and damage.

According to OSHA. General Requirement Ladders Electrical Wiring Methods. Equipment 1529 Excavations. Training Requirements 1356 Scaffolding. the top 10 most violated standards in the Construction Industry in 2003 are Standard Violations Scaffolding 9476 Fall Protection 5870 Excavations. Requirements for Protective systems Head Protection Health and General Safety Provisions Mobile ladders & scaffolds Horseplay – intent is innocent. General Requirement 2121 Ladders 2063 Electrical Wiring Methods. Requirements for Protective 1505 systems Head Protection 1474 Health and General Safety Provisions 1454 Mobile ladders & scaffolds 1420 Fall Protection. Equipment Excavations. results extremely serious 48 . 35% Scaffolding Fall Protection Excavations.

which threatens physical harm to employees. 4. pressure.light.1 Types of Hazards Safety Ergonomic Hazards Chemical Physical Psychological Biological 4.3 Hazard Classification Before listing the hazards at the workplace.2 Hazard Classification Safety Ergonomic Chemical Physical Psychological Biological Repetitive Injestion / Falls motion Radiation Stress Animals absorption (toxicity) Slips & Trips Postural Magnetic Field Behaviour Birds (leading to a fall) Working Environment Extremes of Violence Insects .3. workmen” 4.3. temperature temperature Struck Plant (by a moving object) Bacteria Caught (inside of/ between two different objects) Virus Hit (by flying objects/ against a stationery object) Collapse (of temporary structures) Fire Electrocution 49 . air. let’s define hazard: “A danger.

3. Persons exposed to flying objects while working with concrete breakers. If any part can be injured as a result of the proximity to a danger zone. Direct Exposure is the case when the person is normally at an arm’s length to the hazard and usually involved in the job. To ACHIEVE ZERO.4. exposed to radiation during X-ray (NDT) testing of weld joints are typical indirect exposures. It must be put into practice to protect employees & machines giving it the foundation to ACHIEVE ZERO. then direct exposure exists. Indirect Exposure is the case when the person exposed to the hazard is far away (or) no involved in doing the job. Exposure Direct Indirect i.3 Hazard Exposure Accidents are a result of the employees exposed to these hazards at work. The exposure may be Direct or Indirect. ii. based on the condition being exposed or the position relating to the hazard. a written safety plan is just a good idea. Removing guards during maintenance (or) passing by the work area are typical direct exposures. 50 .

4. it is quite essential to understand the nature of the hazards classified under this category. Falls from trips occur when the motion encounters an unexpected obstacle causing a loss of balance. The severity of injuries sustained depends on the type of exposure and other characteristics.4 Safety Hazard’s In construction industry. Slip. a. Trip and fall According to OSHA. the risk and consequences are more severe. Slips result in falls when there is not enough friction between the walking surface & the person’s foot. It is essential to understand the nature of the hazard to take corrective measures to prevent losses. Fall of Persons (or) Materials This hazard accounts for almost 50% of the fatalities in the construction industry. b. causing a loss of balance. This is a very critical hazard as a fall from around 2 meters has resulted in a fatality. Slip. Fall of materials is another leading cause for severe injuries from accidents in construction sites. A broken bone is the most common outcome of a fall due to slip/trip incident. The type and severity of injuries depends on the height of fall and safety measures in place.3. Severity is determined by its mass and height from which it falls. Trip and fall may be on the same level or onto a lower level and can happen almost anywhere. The items that fall can range from small objects like spanners to objects weighing hundreds of tons during erection. NEVER OVER MOUNTAINS Emile Cady 51 . slip & trips resulting in falls is the second leading cause of deaths in the general industry and is the major cause for temporary disabilities. Heavier the object. MEN SLIP OVER PEBBLES.

Sometimes workers carry objects that obscure their vision and are a real threat to them and their co-workers. d. 52 . A typical situation observed is when workers carry objects too long for them to handle. sliding (or) shifting objects like side collapse of trench/excavation. equipment (or) being compressed (or) crushed between rolling. Hit by (a Moving Object) Probably the most unpredictable type of accident is being hit by a moving object. Caught in (or between) Caught in hazards occur when a worker (or) part of his body could be caught inside of (or) in between different objects.c. This hazard roots from poor design practices. a slight change of direction by the carrier can cause the object to swing into someone else. This hazard is more prominent when working with machinery like being pulled into (or) caught in machinery. because it is usually out of routine. The severity of the injury depends on the speed at which the impact has occurred. e. Struck by (against a stationery object) A struck by injury is caused by a forcible contact (or) impact between the injured person and an object (or) piece of equipment. lack of concentration at work (or) lack of warning signs. A crush injury is the effect of getting caught between two objects.

Also. weakening of the structure leading to its collapse and loss of life. formwork due to poor design. shoring. It can result in conflagration (uncontrolled burning) which has the capacity to cause lot of physical damage. Injuries can be serious. travels very fast and can be lethal making it a very critical one. Scaffolding (or) crane collapse during operation/ erection is due to violation of the safe working procedures and has huge property damage associated with it. from severe from burns to death.f. h. Fire mainly depends on fuel. overlooking/ ignoring to provide proper supports is common. electricity has been the root cause for a significant number of fire accidents. The outcome of an accident due to this hazard is always catastrophic with severe loss of lives and property. The damage to the body caused by electrical hazard can vary depending on the amount of current and how long the current flows inside the body. g. fire often proves to be a catastrophic hazard. Collapse (of temporary Structures) Failure of temporary structures used in the construction process like scaffolding. false work. Once started and if not controlled in the early stages. temperature and ignition source. Electrocution This is silent killer hazard that is neither visible nor audible. 53 . Fire “Fire easy to start but difficult to control” is a commonly used slogan to stress the nature of fire hazard.

4 Hazard Identification and Assessment Constructive change and improvement starts with an examination of where we are and where we want to go. The most commonly used method for hazard identification and assessment is the “Job Safety Analysis”. Also. This is a simple tool that allows the staff to logically examine a job so that all hazards associated with that job can be identified. It also eliminates unnecessary steps and activities. Sometimes people are also required to work alone with no supervision. 54 . Abraham Lincoln Hazard Find Assess Manage Accident prevention is based on Risk information. Analyse & Use accident data to prevent accidents. “Are we prepared to face the hazards at our workplaces? In workplaces. hazards are rampant.4. Given this reality we need a list of Safety procedures being pursed simultaneously to ensure the safety. The magnitude of the impact of the hazard at a particular instance must be evaluated to develop the best way to control the risk. Some are more likely than others to cause an accident. “Hazard Identification” is the process of recognizing the existing hazards and defining its characteristics. assessed and documented. health and wellbeing of employees. making the job easier. Every hazard identified must be assessed for the consequences in case it causes an accident at work. which can be got from Risk Assessment & Real Accident data. In case of a fall hazard – The impact of falling from a height of 2 feet is less considered to the impact of falling from a height of 20 feet or 200 feet. This also allows us to determine the appropriate control measures based on the risk rating. This method is proved to be the best for planning the safest way to perform any task (Holt 2001). making it very unsafe to work. If I had 8 hours to chop down a tree. the degree of harm/ damage varies with the hazard. This method identifies the hazards existing in the workplace and the results can be used to develop safe work practices to eliminate injuries & illnesses and accident related losses. It should concern the whole organization. I will spend 6 sharpening my axe. All hazards are important.

additional risk assessments must be undertaken to understand the risks better and determine the most practicable control that could be implemented. assessment shall be used in the JSA. The result of risk from a height of 20 feet or 200 feet. For hazards with a magnitude above 10. This also allows us to & from an activity. Risk management is necessary before incidents occur. 55 . and can increase net profits. determine the level of risk i. This method identifies the hazard existing in the workplace and the results can be used to develop safe work practices. Hazards with highest rating must be completely eliminated to prevent catastrophic losses. Also. in your work. the degree of harm. It also eliminates unnecessary steps and activities. reduce damage and loss. magnitude using the risk matrix provided. so that you can weigh up whether you have taken enough precautions or should do more to prevent harm”. Magnitude of a hazard is determined by the product of its frequency and severity ratings. the potential impact of all the risks to assessed and documented.4. determine the appropriate control measures based on the risk rating.e. Good safety precautions reduce employers’ risk. All hazards are Risk mitigation measures are important. damage varies with the hazard. The magnitude of the as low as reasonably practicable. Assessing the risk assists in selection of suitable solutions to manage the hazards identified. After identifying the hazards. Risk ranking of hazards let’s companies prioritize the hazard and focus on the action required to manage it. making the job easier. The impact of falling from a height of 2 feet is less considered to the impact of falling involved. Risk assessment is the overall This is a simple tool that allows the staff to process of identifying & assessing logically examine a job so that all hazards associated with that job can be identified. cost the risk. Some are more likely to cause an developed to keep the residual risk accident. could cause harm to people. This prioritization will determine where controls are needed first and level of resources. severity above 4. The impact of the hazard at a particular instance must mitigation measures are selected be evaluated to develop the best way to control based on the ease of application.5 Risk Assessment HSE defines risk assessment as “simply a careful examination of what.

According to Chao and Henshaw 2002. safest way to perform Assessment involves evaluating the level of risk involved with any task (Holt 2001). breaking it into a JSA is proved to be the sequence of stages and then identifying all possible hazards best for planning the that arise during work. JSA includes three main stages – Identification. 56 . Identification involves choosing a specific job. evaluating and control risks in industrial process.6 Job Safety Analysis Job safety analysis is a practical method for identifying. 1 Remotely possible 2 Known to have happened in the past 3 Strong possibility of it happening 4 Has happened before within the company 5 Happens all the time Risk Assessment Chart: Severity 4 3 2 1 Frequency 5 20 15 10 5 4 16 12 8 4 3 12 9 6 3 2 8 6 4 2 1 4 3 2 1 Risk = Frequency X Severity 4. Assessment and Action. the hazards identified in the previous step. Severity Rating: Degree of the injury or illness that could occur 1 Negligible 2 Minor 3 Major 4 Fatality Frequency Rating: how likely is the injury or illness will occur.

climate.... could it be avoided? • Who is going to execute the job. combustibles. could it be done at a better time? • Is it covered by a procedure or a job instruction? • Is there any safety related concurrency with other jobs? • Are different parties involved simultaneously? • What specific tasks can be identified? Step 2: Identify the potential hazards: Look at each step carefully and identify all of the hazards that are present in each of the job step. Step 1: Select the Job Select & Break the Job down into basic steps. toxics. preferred. sparks. The steps must not be too general or too detailed.) • Are there any environmental related hazards? (Spillage. It is important to keep the jobs in proper sequence. then break the job into 2 parts and then do JSA for each part separately. hot work.. JSA is a four-step process. In this stage the following questions may be raised: • Are there any incidents known on similar activities? • Are the workmen doing the job the first time? • What materials are we dealing with? (Chemicals. control measures required to eliminate or minimize those risks. are people involved capable and skilled? • Where is the job executed. high voltage…) • Are there any health-related hazards? (Chemicals. noise..) • Are there any activity related hazards? (Heavy lifting. Inhibit F&G detection. pollution…) • Will the job affect other people in adjacent areas? • Will other activity in adjacent areas affect the job? Step 3: Document the control measures For each assessed and described risk. Too many steps make the JSA too complicated and too few steps make the analysis too complicated.) • Are there any location related hazards? (at height..Action involves application of the best suitable method to control the hazard such that the effect of the risk is eliminated or minimized. document the most practicable. This should be based on the hierarchy of control measures.. hot surfaces. mercury. In this stage the following questions may be raised: • What is the purpose of the job..) • What tools and equipment will be used? • Under what circumstances will the job be performed? (Day/ night time. The jobs should be broken down into a minimum of 5 steps and a maximum of 10 steps. confined spaces. grinding. etc. H2S. If further breaking down is required. The success of the JSA depends on the ability of the staff to identify all the hazards present. dust. obstruction of sight. could it be on a safer place? • When is the job executed.) • Are there any safety systems by-passed? (Disconnect Tripping and warning systems. obstruction of escape routes. It is also called as Job Hazard Analysis (JHA). While considering preventive action consider the following 4 main areas: 57 . protection frame removed…) • Are there any installation related hazards? (Vessels containing hydrocarbon. done by a team of engineers/ foreman along with the safety personnel. Care should be taken when breaking the job into steps.

that isn’t always possible. Also we manually carry loads that are less than half of our body weight. MATERIALS • Is elimination or substitution possible? • Are the (potential) hazards understood by everyone? • Can the hazard potential be reduced? d. Ideally. However. Why not we? 58 . we would like to eliminate every hazard. When we can’t eliminate a hazard. we try to control it and reduce the risk to an acceptable level. terrain it does carry to its destination safely. what ever be the path.a. MACHINE • What are the potential hazards? • Can the hazard potential be reduced? • Is back-up of equipment required? c. …) Step4: Monitor and review Ensure supervision of the job to confirm the documented process is followed. job instruction and training? • What are the needs for specific supervision? • What are the communication means / protocol? Is positive confirmation applied? • Are other people at risk and is protection needed? • Can presence of people in the area be reduced / eliminated? • Is the safety status of the area communicated to the next shift? b. When an ant can do. An ant can carry many times its own load is a proven fact. process and personnel or after a particular period of time say 12 months. Firefighting. We use cranes to carry loads. breathing apparatus. we tend to meet with accidents. MEN • What are the needs for rules. Review the JSA if there are any changes to the job. METHOD & THE WORKING ENVIRONMENT • Is there a threat by adverse weather conditions? • Is good housekeeping possible during the job? • Is interaction with other jobs possible? • Is the area properly cordoned off? • Are emergency response measures available? (Escape routes.

workplace etc. it’s we who decide how to do the job.e. Structures. they do not think of alternative options. be it safe/ unsafe.Elimination. Hazards anticipated and identified are easy to manage as it prepares our mind and preparation is the key to success. Administrative controls & Use of PPE. Before work Hazard's must be During work managed After work 4. Substitution/ Engineering the risk out.9. Machines. At critical times a combination of these methods may be required to control the hazards.7 HAZARD CONTROL The last step is to control them.1 Principle in selecting the Hierarchy of Control It is always better to create a Safe place than to rely on people wearing protective clothing or "behaving safely". when planning for a new site/ modifying the existing site.e. Ultimately the control options selected must aim at making the site a safer place and the assessment of risk must be carried out with care if it has to be effective. 59 . they do not change on their own i. Various hazard control methods are adopted to safeguard from the hazards and accidents .4. Isolation. Some control options are better than others. For certain situations all methods can give a common solution. hazards must begin during the initial planning stages itself. Assessing and controlling risk i. does not change by itself.

Substitution / Engineering the risk means changing the work procedure i. 60 . Risk The Chance i. Hazard A danger which threatens physical harm to employees. Elimination involves changing or modifying the procedure of working which 1 Elimination exposes us to the hazard. Isolation involves separating the hazardous job from the people or work 3 Isolation area either by distance or using barriers to prevent exposure. workmen. the probability that the hazard results in an accident.e.e. Substitution/ 2 replacing a method/ equipment with more hazards with a one having lesser Engineering the risk out hazard potential. Elimination of hazards must be the top priority simply because this is the most effective way of making the workplace safe.

e. Corrective action rectifies the hazardous situation Preventive action prevents it from recurring. etc. Safety shoes. 5 Use of PPE gloves. Hazards must be prioritised based on the severity of the consequence. This relies on full cooperation of employees and depends on adequate supervision and training. This is the least effective way to control the risk like use of Helmet. Controlled Access Zones. (Use of PPE is compulsory) Silly people take chances Sensible people take precautions Risk perception is very important to effectively manage it and characterize the risk both quantitatively & qualitatively before tolerating (or) accepting them. Fall arrestor. 4 Administrative Controls housekeeping. changing purchase process etc. job rotation. These are safe work practices which help to reduce employee exposure to the hazard like restricting access i. goggles. 61 .

customized report that briefly describes the likely hazards and the OSHA standards which address those hazards. materials etc. This advisor is an introduction to hazard recognition but it is not able to identify all the hazards. This software when run asks a series of questions about the site characteristics and it briefly describes OSHA regulations that may apply to your situation to make the site safe. equipment.4.gov/ Every time a Hazard is predictable. policies etc. OSHA's Hazard awareness advisor is powerful. and follow up questions depending on the previous answers. This Hazard awareness advisor uses the answers to determine the hazards that are likely to be present. It will ask a series of questions about the activities. practices. interactive and an expert software. Then. The Hazard Awareness Advisor • Asks questions about workplace activities. • Alerts people in general industry to common occupational hazards • Explains briefly the nature of those hazards • Points out applicable OSHA standards This software can be downloaded from OSHA website: www.8 OSHA HAZARD AWARENESS ADVISOR This Software introduced by OSHA can be downloaded and installed in our computer.osha-slc. It is mainly for beginners. it prepares a unique. • Analyses the answers with expert decision-logic. equipment. its’ preventable Remember: One hazard can initiate another hazard 62 . materials. It helps us to identify and understand common occupational safety and health hazards in the workplace.

In this basic frame.e. but the fall needs to be prevented. the damaged structural members were removed and rebar's welded to complete the scaffold. one hazard leads to another. When applying excess force during dismantling. The best way to manage the hazard is by knocking them out i. He may be saved by the safety belt. all the situations appear to be safe as such i. the scaffolder can lose his balance and fall. it can cause problems. It is dangerous to use these scaffolds as missing parts and unauthorized design changes alter the load bearing capacity. Scaffolding with damaged parts (bent coupler) has been used.in short. Somehow this has been erected but when dismantling the scaffold. Application of excess force or cutting the pipe may be required to dismantle it. This is what exactly hazard knocking requires. Use of proper scaffolding materials is a must for safe working. eliminating them from the workplace.4.e. The scaffolding must be repaired as per the manufacturer’s recommendations and by competent persons. By avoiding use of these types of scaffolds. we knock out the hazard – collapse of scaffolding.9 HAZARD KNOCKING Hazard knocking is the application of hazard control procedures to manage the hazard by either eliminating them or reducing their risk to an acceptable level as described in the chapter for Hazard Control. eliminate the possibility of a fall. 63 . no immediate hazard is foreseen but there is always a hidden hazard that needs to be identified and knocked out. Missing and Damaged parts in a scaffold make it a menace. A collapse cost us lives and money. Let us explain Hazard Knocking through examples .

injuring him and the workers below. width. These must be dismantled immediately after use knocking out the hazard of collapse when struck by a vehicle or material handled. The tread. 64 . Connecting all the planks as shown will integrate it.This wooden staircase has been built with pipes and wooden planks. the corresponding plank becomes unstable as there is no binding and probably gets displaced or falls down. Access towers or scaffolds must not be left lying in the workplace. Stability of the structure is best when it is combined into a single unit rather every part being independent. You get the level of safety that you are prepared to walk past. after use. The planks were individually tied by binding wires with the pipe supports (refer photo below) The stair is not integrated to make single unit. Can this not be brought down by a reversing vehicle or by a swinging load on the crane (human error is always there). This is adjacent to the roadway and loading/ unloading bay where incoming materials are handled by the tower crane. height of the access stair is as per standards and was in full use. Even if one binding wire gets cut. Here we can observe a partly dismantled access tower placed near the base of the tower crane. Express your commitment to safety through participation. ruling out the hazard of the planks getting displaced/ misaligned which increases the potential and frequency of fall of men & material from height.

thus reducing the risk of a fall.94 m In the above access ramp. Providing a handrail parallel to the angle of the ramp i. 65 .e. handrails are not provided.94 m fulfils the requirement of a handrail (dotted line).e. The horizontal members of scaffold structure are used as handrails. The prime requirement of a hand rail is it must be provided at a height of 3 feet and parallel to the ramp throughout its length. handrail is not available within the immediate reach at every instant. Provide handrail as shown (dotted line) Existing handrail 0. at a height of 0. The height of the handrail keeps varying i. as its height is varying with every step we take.

The DB has been placed unsafely. Fig 2 Hazards All Accidents are avoidable. These systems are well below the standards and cannot prevent or protect in the event of an incident. 1 The sub-DB as shown in fig 2 is best suited as it offers real protection against all hazards in all weather conditions. In fact. in a wrong place & it appears that it is protected but what is the quality of protection provided. 66 . This will minimize the risk of an incident from occurring.4. More over a tarpaulin sheet is used to cover the sub-DB. In fact. These tarpaulin sheets are combustible and cannot prevent rainwater from causing short circuits. Fig.10 Be aware of false protection These are protective system that offers no protection (or) increases the risk of an incident. Hence this is a Sub-Standard Protection provided in the workplace. this increases the risk of an accident. This kind of protective systems are called as Sub-Standard Protection. The Site sub-DB is placed behind a Porto-cabin and exposed to all weather conditions. it poses the risk of a situation with greater damage is case the incident occurs.

11 Exercise: Identify the hazards to be knocked out from the scaffold 67 .4.

The SWP’s must be compulsorily reviewed and updated when an accident or dangerous occurrence occurs. Safe Working Procedures Safe working procedures (SWP) are a set of written instructions that identifies the health and safety issues that may arise from the jobs and tasks that make up a system of work. It must be the norm. It assist’s in understanding and implementing a systematic risk management approach to workplace health and safety. Machine. They are written documents used to train and guide workers in performing their jobs safely. Factories act. These procedures shall be periodically reviewed and updated regularly particularly in situations where new machines are introduced. It is also recommended to consult with Environmental Medicine. Materials and Methods that are used in these tasks • The control measures that have been built into these tasks • The personal protective equipment to be worn Health and Safety Executive. Li L. SWP’s are written for the complete job or for a particular hazard/ situation encountered when doing the job. • The tasks that pose risks • The 4 M’s . Working Unsafe “Once you get used to working in The practices and procedures that are developed for safe an environment that is unsafe working must include the hazards involved in the job and and you get used to working possibly list the others that can arise when executing a job. The written safe working procedure should identify: • The responsible person for the task. Code of Practices 3. A safe working procedure should be written when • Designing a new job or task • Changing the existing working method of a job or task • Introducing new equipment or substances etc. Patterson D. Regulations. Use of equipment and machinery that involve carpenters by potential risk provides a focus for developing safe work procedures for operating the equipment or machinery.5. Supervisor for the task or job and the employees who will undertake the task. UK (HSE) suggests three references for writing health and safety procedures to work and ACHIEVE ZERO by 1. Cameron – Journal of Occupational and manufacturers. SWP’s written for particular situations are also known as Safe working practices. Guidance Notes 2. Dement JM. Falls in Residential Carpentry and drywall installation: A job safety analysis can be used to ensure that potential Findings from active injury hazards are identified and are included in the safe working surveillance with union procedures. unsafe.” written with hands that have good experience in doing the job safely. Regulations and acts governing the health and safety at work in that country/ state. 68 . It should also mention the training requirements and the competence level required to perform the task.Men. The SWP’s written and developed shall comply with the Local Labour Law. Ideas Lipscomb HJ. employees and use their experience and ideas to develop safe working practices. then being unsafe is not They provide the tools for teaching how to work consistently unsafe to you anymore. work methods are changed etc. Nolan for developing the SWP’s can often be obtained from equipment J. It’s just with a maximum degree of efficiency and safety.

Safety Organizations. Employer is free to follow an alternative action 69 . a COP can illustrate what this requires in a particular situation. approved by the parliament. It also lays emphasis on prevention of injuries and illness. by the government. Greater knowledge about how to optimize the efficiency & performance of work. When the Minister or the Local regulatory authority for Occupational Safety and Health (like Labour Law. The language used is more accessible and the advice easier to understand and follow. The main purposes of guidance notes are • To interpret – helping people to understand what the law says • To give technical advice that complies with the law. if regulations use words like “suitable and sufficient”. The act places certain duties on employers. These guidance notes do not have a legal status and employers are free to take other action. COP states ways to manage exposure to risks. special interest groups. suppliers etc. workers and employers. Some advantages are a. form groups and develop these codes of practice in consultation with the representatives from industry. Representatives from Trade Unions. Industry groups. Safety Associations and government agencies. They give advice on how to comply with the law.2 Code of Practices (COP) Code of practice gives practical guidance on how to achieve a certain standard of safety and comply with legal requirements of specific regulations for a particular area of work. designers. For example. d. These are usually made under the Health and Safety at work Act/ Labor Law/ Factories rules etc. It is best recommended to follow the ACOP’s unless there is an alternative action that achieves the same or better results. 5.5. Factories act) approves the COP. manufacturers. Commissions for Occupational Safety and Health. c. COP gives Practical ways of reducing injury and illness at work 5. employees. These are also called as Advisory standards. Reduced losses due to accidents & injury costs. It should always be followed unless there is another solution that achieves the same or a better standard of health and safety in your workplace. they attain semi-legal status and are called as Approved Code of Practices. Fewer absences from work and less disruption. The guidance notes and Code of practices give course of action for controlling hazards in the workplace. It is not mandatory to follow them. Advisory Committees etc. which is better for everyone. by providing a practical guidance to achieve what is “reasonably practicable” ways of complying with the regulations. Safer work practices.3 Regulations – The requirements of regulations are mandatory Regulations are law. b. It contains explanatory information and the preventive strategies outlined do not represent the only acceptable means of achieving a standard.1 Guidance Notes Guidance notes are specific to the health and safety problems of an industry or of a particular process used in number of industries. The main aim of a code of practice is to provide practical guidance and to improve the level of safety implementation in the work place. Guidance provides additional useful information to assist in complying with the law.

g. Employers usually go for the actions that cost them less. Regulations identify these risks and set out specific action that must be taken to control these hazards. To ACHIEVE ZERO. it would not be appropriate to leave it to the employer’s discretion in deciding what to do about them. we must apply Willing to follow SWP’s is not enough. we must do it safely To ACHIEVE ZERO Cutting down safety costs is like Robbing Peter to Pay Paul. that achieves the same or better results. Employment of Juveniles for hazardous jobs. Knowing SWP’s is not enough. As experienced in the past with some major industry disasters where some risks are so great. Everything in the Regulations is law and must be followed. E. Factory Inspectors & Ministry officials are empowered to take legal action against employer’s when the regulations are violated.: Bhopal gas disaster. 70 . Some proper control measures will be very costly and there is always a chance that these control measures are bypassed and replaced with alternative control measures that claim to provide the same control. Always tell yes to safety procedures.

New employees will be made aware of the requirements and become familiar with procedures. workers who have been in the workplace for up to two years are at higher risk for injury and illness than experienced workers. The new workmen joining a construction site must be given Safety induction and thoroughly oriented on the requirements and practices adopted in the site fire safety. Experienced hands also have accidents and everyone is at increased risk in times of change. When we think of safety orientation. to ensure that the people working for them are informed of worksite hazards. trade and category. Re-orientation of workmen is required from time to time irrespective of their experience. Real induction allows the new member of staff to settle down into the job quickly and respond effectively to its demands. Safety Induction is a planned. but after the initial period they assume the new worker is competent and no longer in need of close supervision. we think immediately of only new workers. with an improvement in technology.000 new workers were injured in the first Three months on the job. and a further 4. A research done in the year 1996/97 in Australia. Statistically.1 Who should we focus and the importance of orientating them? Everybody needs safety orientation. Employers have the responsibility. to follow safe working procedures for knocking out the hazards. A worker’s experience in the first few days on the job will play a main role in shaping their attitudes to their work. shows that over 3. Cases where a reorientation is a must are 71 . inducting staff tends to be a good investment of time. systematic process. the prime reason being that in the first few months supervisors and co- workers are more likely to watch over and assist a new worker. risks. We can observe that the injuries are more in the next six months. Induction should be seen as an important part of any line management responsibility. rules associated with their job. It may also be that the workers become over confident and pay less attention to the hazards around them. Working conditions has improved a lot. Another research indicates that approximately 40% of fatalities on construction worksites occur to workers that have been on the job for less than 3 months. But they are not the only people at risk. Statistics indicate that there are two danger periods for a worker. Safety induction is a good investment of time as it is effective in increasing the belongingness and commitment of employees at work. These have reduced the accident rates drastically over the last few decades. It is not enough to send a new member of staff/ worker into the workplace and hope that in time they will have absorbed the main components of the job and come to terms with the complexities of the job. a new worker is three times more likely to be injured or become ill at work than other workers. As a Rule of thumb.000 new workers suffered an injury in their second six months.6. Technology can reduce accident rates and changing attitudes to safety can eliminate them 6. It is important so that individuals gain the necessary knowledge to allow them to perform their role with confidence. Therefore. Effective induction will also increase the chances of staff and workmen feeling a sense of belonging and commitment for the Safety performance of the organisation and is a tool for encouraging to follow organisational values for achieving their goals. Safety Induction SI is the first step in framing the minds of employees. They are the first three months and the second six months.

If his department head. New Workers between the age group 18-24 and starting their first job. fellow employees appear to be unconcerned about accident prevention. his boss. 6. . 6. Workers must be told that unsafe workers will not be tolerated and that he will be required to obey safety rules and instructions. He must be made aware of what is expected of him by the new company or site management in his capacity of operating a heavy construction machinery (or) company vehicle. This does not automatically exempt him to start the operations right away e. • New equipment is commissioned • New materials or chemicals are introduced • Change in the production process • New or revised safety rules are imposed As a new entrant to a place of work. and employees. and attend safety Safety is a Frame of meetings in order to continue as an employee of the company. the new employee must be impressed by everyone's concern with the prevention of accidents at the time he starts to work. Any tendency to overlook safety procedures should bring a prompt and vigorous warning or other appropriate action. and reminded of safe practices. It will never be taken for granted that previous experience and apparent qualifications mean that the new employee has work experience and he is "somewhere along the way". If possible. 72 . . To form good safety attitudes. what is expected from him. everyone needs safety orientation any time .1. and fellow employees. irrespective of their qualification & experience.3. supervisor. Get the Picture right.2.: a newly hired vehicle operator from being thoroughly instructed in safe driving practices.1. he Everyone’s concern for immediately begins to learn things and form safety impresses new attitudes about the job. Induction training help’s new recruits or employees who change jobs or locations to fit in quickly and easily onto their present job. (Workers changing jobs must be treated as new employees to their present organization and must be oriented).1. the new employee should be assigned to work with a safety minded employee during the first few weeks.site are also to be considered as new workers The safety supervisor will review safety rules and procedures with the new employee to the company/ site. Workers re-entering after an absence.1. Workers changing jobs and employers within the same worklocation.g. wear protective equipment whenever required. asked about any problems that may have arisen. Mind. The new employee should be checked at frequent intervals. and he must be checked to assure that he understands. pointing out the possible hazards involved in doing the job. he will most probably believe that safety is unimportant. When a new employee comes to work. 6.

Clients & Contractor b. Myths Facts I am lot experienced. Hazards are present everywhere. 6. Unsafe acts Nothing will ever happen to me.Your Family is waiting for you. This will have a good impact as any project employs the local labour to the maximum.3 Induction training 6. Profits in safety. new or temporary on the job. with minimum wastages and without accidents. process guiding principles and safe work practices. such as its health. 73 . Reduces the high-risk potential of injuries to young employees. safety and environment policy statement. Follow safe practices.2 Advantages of Induction training a. Behavioural Safety in brief to Mould their Attitude Accidents at work are not inevitable. Following procedures are a hurdle for By following safe work procedures. vi. Helps to make the employees more efficient. ii. iv. The following themes can be used to shape the attitude of the workmen. 6. we can the job progress. b. Makes the employee aware of the health and safety hazards of the job and how violations of these affected the safety of others. are a recurring problem. Accidents cause delays that are losses and completing a job as early as possible will develop the nation and living condition.Your unsafe act may kill your friend. Introduction Project Details & Safety Policy of the Owners.You should go back the same way as you came for the Job. Hazards may appear small. Completing the project fast will develop the nation and improve the living condition by reduced power cuts in the surroundings.3. v. but they can strike big. Drive away the false belief’s prevailing among workmen regarding implementing safety. ensure the job is completed in time. Things can go wrong. The Staff and workmen must be explained this and the cause of majority of the accidents is Human Error. Any job done without safety is a bad job. I will not get injured. i. a.1 General Orientation A basic industry safety orientation program should be supplemented with any information that would be company-specific. I am strong. Take the case of power plant under construction. Accidents occur because of the lapse in the attitude to adhere to Safety Rules and Work Procedures. iii. specific site hazards. c.

Dining Lipscomb HJ. surveillance with union carpenters. Cameron W. Hazards Environmental Medicine ix. Jewellery etc. environment that is unsafe. General Housekeeping. Employee Concerns x. This is very much important “Once you get used to working in an when working in large projects with multiple contractors.g.: Fall. then iv. Electricity. xii. Yellow: Caution required. trip and fall. electrocution etc. • To wear the correct PPE. • Labelling systems/ warning signs/ MSDS • Housekeeping procedures • Safe stacking of materials. xvii. Explain the types of Safety signs. Work within defined boundaries. Smoking areas.) xvi. ii. Discipline to be maintained in the site – No fighting in the site and installation: findings from active injury misbehaviour with female coolies. • To follow the site rules. xi. being unsafe is not unsafe to you v. Self-medication is not safe for any injury. c.” Carpenter’s apprentice quoted in: their locations . • To work safely – both for yourself and other people. the most common ones should be introduced (e.3. Explain the Employee Welfare Facilities available in the site and anymore. It's just the norm. Workmen should not carry any arms. Rest Rooms. (Red: Imminent danger. Electrical etc. Off the job accidents. hit against/ by etc. • Maintenance of Access and egress. slip & fall.2 Job Specific Orientation Principles of hazard recognition. residential carpentry and drywall vi. Gates pass for entering the site and hours of work. xv. Dement JM. Do’s and Don’ts: xviii. i. its colour and what they mean. xiii. • Not to interfere with safety equipment. slip. fire. 6. Fire and Emergency Procedures. • What to do in an emergency. Falls in facilities etc. get used to working unsafe. First aid Patterson D. and you iii. Procedure for reporting: Journal of Occupational and viii. xiv. Mechanical. Unauthorized operation of P&M.namely Drinking water. • Main Hazards associated with common jobs in Civil. General Safety Rules Working Unsafe i. Green: Safety instruction to be followed. Worker’s Responsibilities • To follow the safe systems of work and site rules. Li L. Nolan J. Safety Awards. vii. • Basics of Manual Material Handling. While it might not be possible to cover all the hazards that could be encountered. 74 . evaluation and control must be introduced.) • Use of Correct hand tools. Smoke only in designated areas. Room. General Hazards – Loose clothing. Toilets and washing rooms.: fall from height.

The Preferred size of the Safety Induction Room: i. • Display all Personnel Protective equipment and explain how to use them. • How to extinguish a fire. • When to stop work: Stop Work If … ✓ You face unsafe conditions. Proper ventilation and sufficient Lighting. More than 500 workers: 12 m x 12 m (With seating arrangement for 50 persons at a time) b. 75 . • Safety Poster’s and what they mean. emergency telephones etc. fire buckets. A brief description on the usage of facilities is recommended. ✓ DG room.5 Induction Language Construction industry employs migrant workforce with a majority A safety message in from developing and underdeveloped countries. emergency shower and first aider.4 Safety Induction Room Minimum requirements are: a. • Defective or inappropriate tools. Blackboard d. Demonstrate & Show • How to carry a person in case of emergency. f. dangers threatening life ✓ You face an imminent danger situation ✓ The scope of work changes from the safety briefing ✓ You find bodies or body parts ✓ You find unknown chemicals or potentially hazardous objects or materials lying around near your work area Vital to the continued success of the orientation is a 30-60-day follow-up. Workmen must be grouped in an attempt to teams and inducted. c. store. • Display Map showing: ✓ Location of first aid facilities and related personnel such as first aid box. ✓ Location of emergency facilities such as Emergency assembly point. Boards on the walls of the Safety induction room for displaying safety posters. A Colour Television with a video player. Make modifications based on their suggestions. 6. e. Welding yard. eye wash. Safe way and unsafe way of working etc. fire extinguishers. and keep the training alive and pertinent. Safety Induction must be given mainly in the local language and the language the a local language is majority of the workforce understands. fuel depot and refilling where fire risk is more. The inductor must be well conversant with the improve safety induction language. Go out and ask employees how the orientation met their needs. Table/ Rack with all the Personnel Protective equipment displayed. compressed gas storage areas. fire alarms. • Examples of Hazardous situations. 6.ii. 1 .500 workers: 8m x 8m ii. awareness of the workforce.

Language must not be allowed to be a barrier for safety implementation at work. 6. When fatalities and serious injuries are occurring at work. if communicated with their local language (possibly their mother tongue). Thorough. Safety orientation is for everyone to make working safely a habit but habits change neither those new to the job nor veterans are immune from the consequences of an unsafe act. Display hazard poster’s showing the right way and wrong way of doing a job. it indicates that the safety messages are going over worker’s head and they do not understand the safety messages. Workmen receive the safety message well.6 Show how to identify a hazard Encourage workmen to ask questions as to ACHIEVE ZERO No Question is Too Small When It Concerns Health and Safety Workmen learn better when they see what they are told. think safety before you start work to Achieve Zero 76 . Hazard Knockers always do the do's not the don’ts. but easy to understand induction is vital for workmen to stay safe and healthy at work.

7. Machinery & Tools – Use guards at all times – Use the right tool for the job – Do not improvise. Accident reporting – Report all accidents to safety officer no matter how small. 8. 77 . Signed: Date: Your attitude affects everyone. Personal Protective Equipment – To be worn at all times in the workplace. 4. Strictly No Smoking at Site. 1. 11. Detailed below are the topics that have been conveyed. 14.7 Site Induction Record Company/ Sub Contractor: Name of Employee: Trade: Card No. Horseplay – A danger to all – Instant Dismissal I acknowledge that I have been instructed in the H S E requirements of BFCC and I agree to conduct myself in a compliant with these requirements. 13. Implementation of Safety measures is a collective responsibility. call an electrician. He/ she has been issued with the appropriate personnel protective equipment and been made aware of his/ her safety obligations to him/ herself. 10. Cranes & Lifting appliances – To be operated and controlled by trained banks men only. Safety performance is the responsibility of all. Electrical Equipment – Do not interfere with cables. Alcohol and Drugs – Not allowed in the site – A danger to all – Instant Dismissal and Complained to police. 3. Safety and Environmental requirements prior to commencing work on the project. It just makes sense to have a good safety attitude. 6. 2. Everyone in your workplace and at home is affected by your attitude toward safety.6. 12. Housekeeping – Keep access clear – dispose rubbish carefully – keep canteens and toilets clean. Fire Prevention & Protection – Do not mess with extinguishers – know their location. boxes etc. Scaffolds & Working at height – Ladders – Edge Protection – Safety nets – Housekeeping.: Date Commenced: Inducted by: Name: Signature: The above employee has been inducted on the Health. 5. his/ her colleagues and the company. Abrasive Wheels – Wear goggles at all times – wheels to be changed only by trained personnel. Location of First aid facilities – know where facilities are and who the first aiders are. 9.

78 . Interactive induction sessions give better understanding to employees to be active in the way to ACHIEVE ZERO. Learn from the accidents of the past. do not create history as failure to learn from Near misses & Accidents will cause more accidents as experience is a good school but the fees are very high… HAZARD KNOCKERS ACHIEVE ZERO by learning from history of incidents and near misses not by being part in that history. Overall message Orientation program should stress that all employees & workmen must take responsibility for their personal safety as well as the safety of those with whom they work.

where. transferable to different situations. At work. 7. why and the consequences that result from a particular job. Preventing accidents and ill health caused by work is a key priority for everyone at work. Safety Education and Safety Training are similar terms which are used interchangeably. This is considered to be successful even if the learners cannot do anything new or different at the end of the program. Safety Education & Training Program (SET Program) How do we make workplaces safer. but they are different. new disability injuries and claims death and empowers men to got reduced by 47% and active lost time incidents & claims ACHIEVE ZERO. Safety education and Safety training are commonly referred by the phrase . Safety training deals with ‘How’ of a particular job. behind safety precautions as it can communicate with. Every organization forms HSE programs to improve their job performance. to programmes must be aimed to make improve the job performance. It imparts high level knowledge and skills. supervisors need safety education on safety policies. It is the key for making workplaces safer. 100’s killed and Millions injured every year. 7. when.1 Philosophy of SET Program Safety Education and Training program is one of the most positive ways by which a company can change the attitudes of their employees toward health and safety. Safety training is about mastering skills such as performing a task. According to the research everyone understand the LOGIC done by the Liberty Mutual Research Institute for safety. 79 . Safety education is about gaining knowledge rather than practicing a skill & can be accomplished in a classroom sitting.Safety training. SET program at the workplace is the most critical element Safety Education and Training for effective implementation of the HSE programs. engineers. Providing the required SET to the workforce is the main key element for getting prompt and positive results from the HSE programs. Combine SAFETY EDUCATION AND TRAINING to eliminate dangers of improvisations to ACHIEVE ZERO. healthier and more productive? Today’s industry. After the training programme the learners will be able to do something new or better than before. Safety education deals with who. were reduced by 18%. when supervisors are trained to properly respond to. requires people with a high degree of skills spanning all aspects of their trade which can be recognized and transferable throughout the industry. Training should be given by live demonstrations and by people with hands on practice. On the other hand. and solve employees’ work-related make the difference between life and health & safety concerns. operating a piece of equipment (or) using a tool. with changing technology and complexity. healthier and more productive. what. In practice. Most managers. standards and safety training in specific areas like wearing a PPE.

Safety training demonstrates how to do the job. In today’s world.2 Types of Training a. employee. i. periodicity. These workers may have a thorough technical/ theoretical background of the operation but require additional training to ensure that they understand the specific details of an operation. e. Safety education gives an understanding of the job.It develops the safety culture of the organization. demonstrations. electricians etc. injuries and illness. Each and every type has got their own pros and cons. On-the-job Training – This is done for workers who are new to an area/ task. The best results are obtained when both safety education and safety training are combined together. Classroom Training – These classes typically involve an instructor using a stand-up lecture format. Each and every Safety training is needed by both new training programme must have an objective. Conferences – This is done by calling employees from different branches and discussing the best practices adopted to improve the performance throughout the organization. The participants and old employees because it serves must be made aware of what they will learn at the end of the as a reminder that dangers always training programme. When both are done simultaneously it reduces the chances the workforce takes by doing improvisations on the job. videotapes and exercises. Equipment Operators. training must provide value and benefit both to the learner and to the organization. The training must be tailored for the specific hazards that exist in the workplace. shows the worker how to perform it better than anything else. d. 80 . Hands on training – some courses require two sessions. The training plan must cover the health exist and accidents can occur no and safety training needs of workers and supervisors. It is one of the keys to iii. Many matter how experienced the workers safety professionals conduct training to meet regulatory are at their jobs while targeting to requirement or create cultural change.It motivates and improves production and profits. riggers. Demonstrating the technique causes also improves the safety performance. ACHIEVE ZERO. c. control costs and improving iv. b. Tool Box Meetings – These are usually conducted with groups of workmen (trade based) at the workplace with a short lecture by the foreman or the safety officer. often with interactive discussions. place and time available. and crashes occur and how we prevent v. Teaching people the facts and causes of accident them. Determining which method to use is based upon the type of industry and the hazards faced on day to day basis. Well-trained employees are more efficient and profitability by learning why accidents productive. These are required for workers who perform certain jobs like Scaffolders. benefiting both the employer and ii. One class room session and then a demonstration of the skills developed during the classroom session known as ’practical’s’. It shall be supervised by a competent person to avoid errors. They are selected based on level of participants.Reduced accidents. 7. Training guarantees the development The advantages of training the workforce are of necessary skills required for the job. welders. requirement of specialists etc.

7.3 Training Plan
Everyone in the organization must get trained & attend periodic refresher courses to get
exposed to the Law Changes, Technology Change, hazard change etc. A yearly training plan can
be made to train the entire workforce. Everyone needs to be trained in the following topics:
• Role and responsibilities at work
• trade based/ occupation
• the common type of hazards identified during an inspection of your workplace
• The various types of accidents that can happen and preventive measures
• Health problems that can occur
Training of supervisors and foremen is the key for any Safety program. They in turn train their
group of workmen for implementing the safe work practices. They are vital for implementing
safe work practices. Their act in turn motivates their team of workmen and it’s essential to
motivate them to follow the safe work practices. Depending on their education, experience and
background we are bound to find various levels of commitment from them. It is quite essential
that they are trained from time to time to maintain their competency and level of motivation.

7.4 Tips for Effective Safety Training

a. Know the audience – the skill and level of the participants and prepare training aids like course
material, practical demonstrations. The training is much more effective if supplemented with
safety videos and pictures.
“Training is the most vital contributor to health & safety. Proper training influences human behaviour”

b. First, define the goal or problem - purpose and need of the training programme. The training
should be directed at a defined problem. Employees may not want to know the solution until they
know and understand the problem. The first part of the training should explain the problem or
issue in a manner where the employee will perceive his or her personal benefit. Make it clear –
What they will learn at the end of the training programme.
“Knowing how to work safely is just as critical as coming to work on time or selecting the right
equipment”

c. Suffice your course material with case studies of accidents in the past, papers presented in
technical forums, research reports from various Safety organizations especially with facts. This
helps the trainees to grasp the message better. Employees should be able to immediately
practice, apply new knowledge and skills.
“It is very important to provide safety training at the basic level to all employees. Neglecting the
so called minor safety issues account for more accidents than major causes”

d. Use attention grabbing statistics, stories, immediately and throughout the session.
“Training involves two-way communication between the trainer and the person learning – one
of you will listen, perform, think, ask questions, explain”

e. Interact with the trainees. Make them get involved both physically and mentally. Ask them to
come forward and explain the team with their experiences. This increases their attention and
retention of what they learn.
“Training does not mean sitting in a room listening to a person talk or simply watching a video.”

f. Keep the presentation simple, easy for the common man to understand.

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7.5 Documentation of Training
The person performing the training shall ensure that appropriate records are completed and
stored to document that such training has been provided.

7.6 Measuring the effectiveness of training
After attending a training programme, the trainees learn how to carry out a task/ procedure or
practice. These trainees are required to demonstrate the use of the knowledge gained and skills
in the working environment. The trainees must be assessed to find the
a. Effectiveness of training programme in terms of knowledge gained and skills developed.
b. Identify the room for improvement of the training programme.

7.7 Training Evaluation
a. Assessments i.e. Tests – written exam after training.
b. Practical demonstration of skill - after you explain the right way to perform a job, get the worker
to show you how to perform it. With a practical demonstration, trainees can’t hide what they had
absorbed and didn’t. This also helps the trainer to find ways to improve his training technique
such that better results are got. Many times, the trainees tell they have understood what is being
told even if they didn’t just to avoid embarrassment. These failures can be eliminated by practical
demonstration of skills learnt.
c. Oral questions or a Post-Training quiz.
d. Changes in behaviour
e. Observations during routine inspections and audits – employees should be able to demonstrate
skills learned, perform their job functions safely and competently. The only sure way to
determine the effectiveness of training is to observe what the trainees do when they get back to
work. A week after training electricians in Lockout tag out procedures if it is followed it’s a sign
of them remembering the lessons learnt in the training program. If the same is followed
continuously thereafter the training program is considered to be Effective as noted by safety
consultant Mr Barry Weissman.
f. Feedback from employees for suggestions to improve the training programme.

Evaluation also analyzes the quality of the training program, trainer and training materials. The
evaluation should offer an opportunity for the trainees to tell the trainer how to revise and
improve the program. Also, by analyzing the injury statistics we can determine whether the
purpose of the training program has been achieved.

ACHIEVE ZERO by enhancing competency with a SET program as
people cause unsafe acts and incidents can kill people – Change minds,
reduce incidents to ACHIEVE ZERO.

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test and verify the characteristic of the workplace and compares findings with specified requirements to determine conformity. these inspections will reduce the risk of accidents and injuries. processes. An inspection can save the time and money wasted e. corrective actions must be recommended to correct the hazards identified. It also forms the core of a comprehensive safety and health program. spare parts.8. wastages. it’s underlying causes • Identify existing and potential hazards associated with buildings. They must have a good knowledge of the impact of the hazards. This familiarity can sometimes lead to objections and complacency during inspections. and with sufficient frequency. These Health and Safety Inspections are needed to critically examine all factors (equipment. If performed correctly. the consequences of an accident and rate them. During an inspection. • Where appropriate. Follow up shall be done to ensure the corrective actions are in place. Regular Inspections even saves lives. materials. It plays an important role in developing a safe and proactive attitude in the workplace. examine.g.: avoiding breakdown of equipment’s. environment. the workplace is examined to: • Identify existing and potential hazards in the workplace. Planning will increase the effectiveness of the inspection. After the inspection. and to identify where action is necessary to control hazards. buildings. and practices • Monitor the existing hazard controls are functioning adequately and recommend new hazard controls based on the performance of the previous assessments. Safety Inspections A workplace safety inspection consists of a series of safety-related checks for various systems and areas of the work place. 84 . equipment. All members of the inspection team must understand that the inspections are done for fact finding and not fault finding. procedures) that have the potential to cause injury or illness. Based on the rating they must specify the time required for correcting the hazards and follow up for correction. Conducting an inspection before the work begins is the best way of preventing accidents. These inspections are done periodically as per the approved guidelines/ checklists. recommend corrective action The person inspecting the workplace must have a good Inspections knowledge about the hazards associated with the are workplace and the equipment. processes. Supervisors must be actively involved in inspections as they are familiar with Preventions the work equipment and the environment. to ensure the safety factors in the workplace are adopted and followed correctly. Inspections are an effective way of identifying potential workplace hazards before they cause a health and safety problem as Inspections measure. maintenance and accident damage costs.

both conditions and work practices should be observed. • The unsafe conditions and acts that are found in previous inspection reports. During the actual inspection. PPE Regular 3 Monday 1. 85 . Fire safety 2. If an unsafe condition. Plant & Machinery 1. Weekly hoist Inspection The primary role of a checklist is to assist in recognizing the ‘expected’ hazards in the workplace. maintenance reports. Welding & Gas Cutting saves time 5 Wednesday 1. preventing mistakes. Portable Power tools 2. Day Type of Inspection No 1 Saturday 1. If unsafe work practices are observed.8. Electrical reduce costs & 2. Weekly site safety inspection inspections 4 Tuesday 1. is discovered. Work at height 2. preventative measures must be initiated right away. For example: 1 = immediately dangerous to life & health --requires immediate action 2 = High --requires action in a day 3 = Medium --requires action within 2-3 days 4 = Low – requires action within a week Sl. accident investigations. Scaffold 2 Sunday 1.1 Planning and Conducting Periodic Inspections A schedule of planned inspections is an essential element of a health and safety program in which standards are established and compliances are monitored. find out if there is an established safe work procedure that should have been followed. which poses an immediate threat. Housekeeping 2. Tower Cranes 6 Thursday 2. Plan inspections with the following safety documents for it to be effective. Mobile cranes 3. Planning and conducting workplace inspections periodically ascertain that every safety factor and possible hazards in the work area are given due attention and corrections made as suggested. ACHIEVE ZERO with regular inspections using checklists and manage observations effectively to ACHIEVE ZERO. Assign a priority level to the hazards observed to indicate the urgency of the corrective action required. • Safety committee minutes serve as a guideline for safety inspections.

ii. iii. equipments to find out the hazards associated with the workplace.2 Types of Inspection a. Depending on the item being inspected periodicity can vary from daily to monthly. iii. These are done with the help of detailed checklists covering all aspects related to safety in the workplace. E. These are done by safety personnel/ inspectors accompanied by the site engineers/ equipment operators etc. Done yearly or half yearly.g. These are rigours inspections done with the help of standard checklists. by Safety practitioners (or) specialists. Identify the hazards that are immediately visible to the eye during inspection. Basic Inspections i.8. These inspections are almost similar to Standard Inspections. E. Access c. Fuel storage etc. Preferably. ii.g.: Safety Audits 86 . Through Inspection i. Standard Inspections i. equipment. chemical storage etc. Daily Weekly Equipment guards and shields Scaffolds Use of PPE Portable power tools Hand tools Heavy machinery Hoists and Lifting cradles etc. these inspections are carried out by a team either weekly (or) monthly. listing the common safety features associated with the workplace. This is done by trained and competent person consisting of the safety professional accompanied by the engineer/ supervisor for doing the inspection. In general. Safety engineers and specialists do these inspections. iii.: Walk down Survey’s/ Safety surveys b. ii. iv. all members of the survey team must have the minimum basic knowledge in safety and must be able to identify the common hazards associated with the workplaces.

for future reference. Follow-ups are required to confirm the corrective action taken on the hazards identified and preventive measures suggested in the inspection reports. If remedial action cannot be taken within a reasonable period of time the reason should be stated.7 Action after inspections If during the course of an inspection a condition is noted that may result in serious personal injury the condition must be rectified immediately. Available/ working & audible. 8. down. 8. This helps them to take prompt action. Be methodological and thorough. People chosen to inspect are not trained properly. say at 7 m radius – (Qualitative and Quantitative characteristic of hazard) iii. working – (Qualitative observations) ii. When inspecting the machines. Complacency ii. 87 . It depends on the item/ hazard being observed. identified during inspections must be communicated in the right way such that the exact characteristic of the hazard/ violation is understood by the engineers. specify who is to complete the corrective action and by what date. iv. Quantity combined with quality gives the exact picture & helps in maintaining safety to the highest standards like i. An example of the report form is given and distributed as mentioned. The engineers must be verbally informed and an inspection report with recommendations must be made for corrective action. Follow-up action on that date is important. ii. Limit Switches .8. Do not spoil the inspection by having a light approach. Never ignore any item because you do not have the knowledge to make an accurate judgment. unsafe acts.5 Inspection reports The observations . vi. Ask questions. All other unsatisfactory conditions should be rectified as soon as is reasonably practicable. 80% Covered – indicates 20% balance to be covered – (Quantitative observation) 8. Draw attention to the presence of immediate danger. People over familiar with the workplace. Look up. consider the static (stop position) and dynamic (in motion) conditions of the part you are inspecting. Careful notes specifying details of the hazard. iii.unsafe conditions. Ask the accompanying supervisor or the operator to demonstrate how to operate the equipment. Reverse horns . v. Available. poor working practices. but do not unnecessarily disrupt the work activities. should be made. Floor Openings . areas for improvement etc. iii. around and inside. 8. including the location. When completing the inspection report. Take a photograph if you are unable to clearly describe or sketch a particular situation. These observations can be either qualitative or quantitative. unhealthy conditions. tend to miss a variety of key safety issues.4 Common reasons for failures in inspections i. If remedial action is not considered appropriate this should be stated on the form along with the reasons.3 Inspection Principles i.6 Observations The observations must be noted such that the exact characteristic of the hazard is expressed.

9. then we don’t have order. accidents are related to poor housekeeping. When addressing a presentation ceremony on Safety award scheme on workplace can eliminate “Good Housekeeping for the construction Industry”. Housekeeping housekeeping means promoting order in the workplace. paint saturated clothing or rags. Striking against projecting and poorly placed or piled materials iv. housekeeping is just clear the clutter and rubbish from the workplace and after removing them it is considered that housekeeping has been accomplished. Good Labor commissioner Mr. ORDER. In short. which is commonly called as a “Place for Everything and Everything at its place”. Injuries due to nails or sharp objects lying on floors v. Poor housekeeping creates all types of hazards. grease vi. Removing of clutter and brooming to remove the rubbish makes the workplace “Clean”. In a common workers parlance. Many accidents and injuries charged to other causes are actually caused by unsafe conditions due to poor housekeeping. housekeeping practices can prevent many accidents and Matthew Cheung Kin Chung also greatly reduce the potential injury & loss for many types of accidents like slip. ranging from mild to very serious. Cleaning is a part of Housekeeping. Tripping over the objects haphazardly placed on floor. fall of materials shows that 70% of site etc. A study done by Hong Kong’s Labor commissioner Mr.1 Accidents A variety of accidents can result from poor housekeeping A study done by Hong Kong’s practices. he majority of the hazards (or) points to the downward trend in the accident figures of the reduce their potential in case construction industry is down by 11% in one year. Increased risk of fire – many industrial fires are the direct results of the accumulation of oil soaked. Good housekeeping is more than the practice of general cleanliness. The best way to define housekeeping is – “ORDER”. stairways & platforms ii. Slip’s from spilled oil. 88 . Being hit by falling objects iii. The number of accidents could be effectively reduced by adopting Effective housekeeping in the good housekeeping practices. 9. of an incident. Cleaning Order A work area is in ORDER when there are no unnecessary objects in the area and when all necessary items are in their proper places. accidents are related to poor Matthew Cheung Kin Chung shows that 70% of site housekeeping. once achieved must be maintained by putting continuous effort all the time. fire. trip & fall. Orderliness is arranging everything in such a way that it can be readily accessed. (1999 was 19% compared to 30% in 1998). Housekeeping – a tool for Accident Prevention Good housekeeping will form a strong foundation for accident prevention as the relationship between accidents & poor housekeeping is very close as poor housekeeping creates hazards for everyone. Yes. Some of the common ones are i. Even if one unnecessary item is lying in an area or if it’s not in its proper place.

to formulate the way in which their workplace was organized to improve morale and efficiency. Less Janitorial work ix. 5S involves the principle of waste elimination through workplace organization. As previously stated housekeeping involves organizing & organizing. In this step clearly distinguish required materials from unneeded items and eliminate the latter. Seiketsu (Standardize) & Shitsuke (Sustain). x. thus aligning with ergonomics and lowering the risk of musculo-skeletal disorders or cumulative trauma disorders. The first two S of the 5S is sorting and Setting in order which relates to the first part of Housekeeping (i. More effective use of space viii. Better Hygienic conditions for working – no dust. This type of sorting will guide us to remove all the unnecessary materials from the workplace which are not identifying & needed for current operations leaving only the bare essentials. Improved Productivity xii. They are derived from the 5 Japanese words – Seiri (Sort). This involves required within a week. Air borne dust like wood causing respiratory and eye irritation hazards ix. The third S is Sweep/ Clean which relates to the next part of housekeeping (i. vapors from chemical spills iv. ii. wire or steel strapping. including inventory & supplies. Seiton (Systemize – set in order). Though some items may have a future value. this shows eliminating all where to store and how to store the materials. Reduced property damage by improving preventive maintenance xi.1 Seiri – Sort – Sort all the materials/ items in the workplace Sort materials based on their time of requirement like immediately required. vii. while the last 2 are sustaining & progressive actions. Decreased fire hazards iii. The first 3 are shop floor actions. Better control of tools and materials.) organizing the workplace.e.) cleaning.3.2 Housekeeping advantages i. month and so on. 5S is an effective tool to enhance the level of housekeeping in the workplace. 89 . 9. Also. Cutting. v.3 Applying the 5S concept to Housekeeping 5S was started by the Japanese. More efficient equipment cleanup & maintenance vii. Improved morale encourages better working habits. Reduces the motion required by employees. Fewer tripping & slipping accidents in clutter-free and spill free work areas. Puncturing or tearing the skin of hands or other parts of the body on projecting nails. overhanging or protruding objects viii. storing items these materials away in a separate area will facilitate productivity. 9. Reduced handling to ease flow of materials vi.e. Unnecessary items can be tagged unnecessary “Red”. Struck by or Collisions (hit against a stationery object) against poorly stored materials. Seiso (Sweep or Clean). ORDER workplace to ACHIEVE ZERO 9.

job cycle cards etc. donate or sell at a good price Items requiring special Look for an inexpensive disposal safe way for disposal 9.3.3.e.3. Sorting Action required No value Throw away immediately Unnecessary items Some value Relocate. proper manner for easy putting in order retrieval to promote work flow like constructing a spaghetti diagram. 90 .2 SEITON – Systematize – Set in order This involves This relates to arranging the necessary items in a neat. all necessary items from step 1 Sorting Action required Used Constantly Must be placed nearby Necessary items Used Occasionally Can be placed further away Items not used Must be stored separately frequently but still in a designated place needed 9. dust & wiping the machinery. are made such that a work structure Making is formulated & housekeeping is a part of daily work. dust & clutter 9.3 SEISO – Cleaning the workplace This involves This relates to cleaning the floors in the workplace from trash/ clutter (i. happens. tools & equipment from dust and shoveling out unused material on a daily basis.4 SEIKETSU – Standardize In this step Checklists.) removing scrap. so that it never practice. This is intended to generate housekeeping a maintenance system for the first three “S” such that everyone does the things in the same way to maintain a high standard of housekeeping and a uniform a continuous pattern in the workplace. All actions are focused on prevention.

Providing sufficient facilities iii. orderly way on racks. Storing materials & storing-stacked in a neat.lean.state. Zoning of the work area & setting up teams to carry out housekeeping on daily basis ii. demarcations iv.9. by developing commitment. ACHIEVE ZERO Source: www. Mass housekeeping exercise is organized & conducted regularly v.5 SHITSUKE .us 9. Promotional activities & awareness to instill a good housekeeping culture among staff & workers to make them aware of what is required.Sustain Training for a committed This conveys the need to train & educate people to ingrain the above 4 steps into everyone for maintaining impeccable standards of safe and efficient effort to housekeeping from day to day & year to year. 91 .4 Examples of good housekeeping initiatives & practices i.mn.3.

any limitation on the work and the time allowed for it. the employer. that personnel carrying out the work clearly understand the nature of job.g. Permits systems along with safe working practices help in eliminating the hazards identified during risk assessment and requires coordination from a competent person. By continuously performing our daily work even with little deviation from the body’s 92 . 11. Routine production and process activities like operation start-up. The work permit system clearly identifies the person responsible for work and increases accountability. Hazardous activities that have a probability of causing a serious/ major (or) fatal accident every time the work is done requires to adopt a permit system. Ergonomics We spend almost half of the day at work and the work activities pose innumerable chances of getting injured from accidents & damaging the body parts with loss of blood. equipment involved. WPS provides a mechanism to document. with the necessary safety legislation and maintenance procedures”. shutting down. The Permit-to-Work requires the following details and supporting documents - • Details the work to be done. According to BIS. • When to stop/ Cancel work.10. These accidents are sometimes with permanent or temporary disability and shall prove to be very devastating. Competent person as defined by “The Health and Safety at Work Regulations” – is that when a person “Has sufficient training and experience or knowledge as to enable him to assist in securing compliance. the hazards involve. its location. Even doing light manual tasks in the wrong way can cause injuries due to stress in the associated body parts. This when integrated with safe working practices forms an excellent system to mitigate the hazards and improve the safety performance of the system. during the work and after completion of the work to be taken together with likely hazards to be encountered. • Details the precautions to take through safe operating procedures. • Identifies all the foreseeable hazards through a job safety analysis. if any. • States the control measures to be implemented. personnel involved. Safe work permit is essentially a document that categorically spells out the task. WPS ensures the work is done in accordance with safe working practices. time limitations. This makes a formal control system for prevention of accidents and property damage incidents where a foreseeable hazardous work is carried out. and periodic maintenance activities do not require a permit to work. Competent Persons is a prime requirement of the Permit-to-Work system. changing the operation mode. It helps to see that proper considerations are given to the job. its hazards and precautions. employees and the contractor and assign responsibilities. to ensure safe operation. These are visible injuries due to an accident. Work Permit System A work permit system is a formal written procedure used to plan and control work. It ensures adequate communication with all concerned personnel e. on the part of the employer. precautionary measures before the work starts.

stress and pain. Normal fatigue is a normal response to physical & mental exertion. For the unfortunate it can cause even life altering injuries. exhausted. Many times. to perform a task. lack of energy mentally exhausted by etc. swelling. These injuries do not happen overnight. The stress from our job keeps accumulating inside the bucket. The 2 most common cause of fatigue are medical illness and work. The best way to imagine the occurrence of fatigue is to think of our body as a Fatigue bucket. In normal cases this lactic acid gets drained from the muscles during rest. Manual tasks consume lot of energy thus resulting in muscle fatigue. Stress & strain start building up in the body silently. add up over time resulting in fatigue. Again. disk injuries. The other ways of describing by hard work & fatigue are weary. Also. Muscles are built in our body to perform work.e. They are a series of at work. In medical terms. Workers exert themselves beyond their capacity and work continuously without adequate breaks to achieve the production targets. stress. the cause of many accidents related to manual tasks like manual material handling. boredom (or) lack of sleep & can become Physically exhausted abnormal with extreme exposure. and again work is completed successfully without any accident. numbness etc. given enough time to rest and to recuperate.natural posture will cause stress to the associated body parts. Rarely. tired. The most common injuries due to physical stress are back pain. Depending on the nature of work this exhaustion causes fatigue either mental or physical. listless. In situations like continuous work. exhausted etc. then our body will be 93 . The main symptoms of this type of injury are pain. impairing their ability to work. When the body does not get sufficient pauses to drain this excess lactic acid from the muscles producing them it causes pain in the respective muscle and gives a feeling of tiredness. They protest in the form of pain when they stay contracted too long or too often without time to heal and recuperate. strains. also known as Repetitive Fatigue stress deteriorates the concentration injuries (RSI). During this process lactic acid is secreted by the muscles. Manual tasks when performed continuously especially without maintaining the correct body posture causes fatigue and in the long run gives way to musculoskeletal injuries (MSD). excess lactic acid is secreted. Fatigue a condition that Fatigue has been defined as the failure to maintain a required force or output of power during sustained or repeated muscle contraction results when he body (Stokes. neck & shoulder injuries. the energy in the body comes down & we start feeling exhausted. This exhausted feeling in called as fatigue. 1988) (or) as the time-related cannot provide enough deterioration in the ability to perform certain mental tasks energy for the muscles (Broadbent. After some time. emotional stress. production pressures take over and workmen are pressurized to achieve the targets. performing a job continuously in postures that do not congregate with the body anthropometry causes pain. we feel pain in the body. 1971). tiredness. loss in body capacity. Cooper & Edwards. physical stresses thatto cause accidents. our muscles constantly elongate & shrink to perform a task. These injuries are invisible and gets accumulated to a certain level when start realizing the effects of the injury. malaise. They do great when they are able to meet the energy demands of the job. In these types of injuries there is no blood loss but less blood circulation will be there in the affected organs restricting i. The bucket has a healing valve that drains the stress from the body (The healing valve is the Rest period required to overcome the stress) If the rate of stress buildup and the amount of rest period matches. over work etc.

94 . The best way to prevent fatigue is to design the work in a way that it simplifies the movements. Lack of knowledge and training on basic things at work causes physical stresses that unknown to the employees.1 Ergonomics will improve Health & Safety at work All tasks demand energy & can often cause muscle (or) mental fatigue. the best solution is to prevent this physical stress from occurring & accumulating in the body. commit errors by taking risks and end up with accidents. But if the rate of stress buildup is more than the rest period available. Of course. insidiously accumulate overtime. It’s mainly concerned with fitting the task to the man. especially if it is done manually. They continue to accumulate until one day when they are not even able to perform a simple routine task. It goes beyond considering your comfort. results in the form of impaired movement or a disabling injury in the worst case. reduces the energy requirements. Less energy means lesser fatigue and production will be more without accidents. Stress Stress Stress accumulates & over flows in the form No of injuries after a Stress certain period of time Injury Rest Rest Stress = Rest (Recovery time) Stress > Rest (Recovery time) Ergonomics is the Science of fatigue reduction in the workplace to maximize productivity. Using ergonomics to simplify the work methodology can reduce the potential for accidents. Ergonomics is the science of designing machines and work environments to suit human needs. ACHIEVE ZERO by preventing accumulation of ergonomic risk factors that cause internal injuries or disorders. 11. then stress starts accumulating in our body till it overflows i. injury & ill health improving productivity and performance. This fatigue builds up in the body and makes workmen lose concentration on the job. free of fatigue. Man has his own limitations and capabilities and the way we work must be modified to suit the men at work.e.

) effort required to work. repeated errors at work and recurring complaints of discomfort for employees.3. across all industries for which data were available. Stages of an ergonomic injury Fatigue Output remains constant over years Performance Performance Discomfort Output Pain decreases over time Injury Time Time Without ergonomic design of tasks With ergonomic design of tasks output decreases over time output remains constant over time Proper application of ergonomics creates better working conditions by reducing the stress & strain (i. they commit lesser errors and waste. Exerting large amounts of force can result in fatigue & physical damage to the body. sense. Many researchers have attempted to examine the relationship between musculoskeletal disorders and productivity. When the task methodology suits men. ergonomic checklists. Less wastage. Reduced absenteeism iv. This increase is because of the workers becoming more efficient because of lack of injuries and working without danger of physically breaking down from awkward movement. Ergonomics input does not necessarily manufacturing plants to improve involve high costs and can save money in the long term by reducing injuries and absence from health. 11. risk assessments. Improved efficiency – better posture. less exertion.2 Benefits of Ergonomics Application of ergonomics in Good ergonomics sense makes good economic industries like workshops. called Industrial Ergonomics. Less fatigue 11. Higher productivity ii. lower MSD rates were significantly correlated with higher productivity increases (p53).3 Identify Ergonomic Problems Ergonomic problems at work can be identified through work observations.1 Forceful exertions . reduced maintenance downtime iii.force is the amount of muscular work spent to perform work. safety and productivity is work. They are 11. In a study by Conway & Svenson (2001) for the period 1992-99. Improved morale of workers v. 95 . This is referred to as Working smart. The main ergonomic risk factors are the actions at work & workplace environmental conditions that may cause (or) aggravate an MSD. fewer motions vi. The main benefits of ergonomic interventions are i.29).e. repetitive stress injuries (or) violent impacts on the body (p.

exposures to excessive vibration cause pain to muscles. Operators and drivers of heavy machinery like excavators. tendons (or) joints. Hence. 11.3. This may result in employees assuming awkward postures to accomplish work/ tasks & can result in a loss of product quality.3. nibblers. chain saws etc. The working posture determines which muscle groups are active during a physical activity. pneumatic wrenches. pneumatic chippers.e. 11. grinders. This occurs when using power tools like pneumatic hammers. Humidity & Vibration can significantly contribute to ergonomic injuries. dump trucks. tingling are the starting symptoms of vibration disorders. Tingling. (Source: OSACH) 11. Numbness. loss of color. less flexible. 11. wheel loaders. Extreme temperatures – Heat & cold. Pace of work.5 Exposures to environmental risk factors like Light. Pain & Swelling are the main symptoms of injury. Vibration affecting the whole-body results in the Whole-Body Vibration Syndrome. Vibration poses a bigger threat as can restrict blood supply to the hands and fingers reducing their load carrying capacity to work. Vibration is the mechanical oscillations of an object around an equilibrium point. joints & internal organs.6 Personnel risk factors like size. causing fatigue. Vibration is the byproduct of transmitting energy after converting it from one form to another form. A job is considered to be repetitive when the duration of a task (or) group of tasks (a cycle) is less than 30 seconds. certain syndromes 96 .3.4 Twisting the wrists & other joints beyond the natural limits can cause undue stress and injure them. Posture is defined as position of a body part. Heat & Cold can cause stress resulting in fatigue due to fluid loss or making the muscles tighten i.3. in relation to nearby body parts during an activity. the recovery time (i. routers. Vibration can affect the whole body or the exposed parts.11. chain saws. smaller muscles may take more load that its capacity. During wrong postures.2 Body Postures – Awkward & prolonged static postures.e. number & length of breaks) & the amount of variety in work tasks are the main risk factors involved in repetitive stress injuries. Operators standing close to conveyors. When a vibration that enters the body (through a seat (or) floor) affects the entire body (or) a number of organs in the body it is a called as a whole-body vibration syndrome. Segmental Vibration in where the vibration affects only the exposed or holding part it is a segmental vibration syndrome like Hand arm vibration syndrome (HAVS).3 Repetitive exertion – same type of motions is performed over & over again using the same muscles. When cycles are longer than 30 seconds the task is considered repetitive when the worker is performing the same motion for more than 50% of the cycle. vibrating floors are exposed to whole body vibration as their whole body is inside (or) very close to the operating machinery.3. forklifts. Lighting in the workplace may be too dark or too bright for work/ task.

• Wrists in line with the forearm. body parts can deviate from the neutral zone. holding. At work. It is neither bent up nor bent down. shoulders face straight ahead to avoid twisting the torso. This drains the energy from the body. reaching. with elbows close to the body.4. Workers with restricted movement cannot complete tasks or can complete them only by putting their bodies in awkward positions increasing the risk of musculoskeletal injury and the probability of accidents.2 Avoid physical exertion on the Job Carrying. • Palms face in towards each other on the centerline of the body. balanced such that no pain is felt. twisting. Pulling. • Back normally assumes an ‘S’ curve. rotating. Anyone with weak muscles may struggle to perform manual tasks or may not be able to perform them at all. subsequently reducing the blood flow to the exerted parts & placing higher loads on the muscles. In this position to errors and injuries body will be able maintain its natural curves and is perfectly ACHIEVE ZERO. bending. tendons & ligaments. 11. standing. Sitting.1 Always maintain the body in neutral posture As early as the 18th century. • Pelvis. • Elbows are not bent more than 90 degrees. leading to different types of pain. • Body tilted not more than 15 degrees either forward or backward. kneeling are some common actions at work. Striking. ligaments & joints.4. Tight muscles can pull the body out of correct posture. • Arms hang normally at the side. Stretching. • Torso bend not more than 10 to 20 degrees. in natural resting position. Holding. The following limits are the allowable deviations from the neutral zone to work stress free. Spine must not be rotated to the left or right. back or to either side. neither fully extended nor tightly curled. It is not tilted forward. It is not rotated to the left or right. They are not spread apart. accidents. Increasing force means increasing the body demands for greater force. • Body turned not more than 30 degrees in either side (left/ right). Crossing the limits of the neutral zone will cause pain & weaken the muscles due to stress. • Knees are bent. Neutral posture is the posture body assumes to achieve a natural stress-free position with production time lost due proper alignment of muscles. 11. When these actions are performed for long time muscles can tire out throughout the body and tighten. tendons. When lifting heavy items. Pushing. This kind of muscle over exertion can be reduced by 97 . In this position muscles maintain its length and neither stretch nor flex with least tension in them. and it is not bent to the left or right. • Neck is balanced on the spinal column. crouching. doctors noticed that workers whose jobs Neutral posture results required them to maintain certain body positions for long periods of in good productivity as time developed musculoskeletal problems.4 Ergonomic principles for reducing the risk factors 11. Lifting/ Lowering. Prolonged or recurrent exposure will aggravate the fatigue factor and give rise to musculoskeletal injuries. The manual effort applied to do the job depends on the size & weight of the job. In this length muscles can develop maximum force to work either in sitting or standing position. Bending are normal ways of doing tasks manually. • Fingers are gently curved. • Natural curves of the spines are maintained. • Shoulders are relaxed neither up nor down and not forward or back. we overexert.

When sufficient time is allowed in between exertions. injuries can occur.5 Reduce Static posture Staying too long in a position is referred to as Static posture. Eventually. 98 .4. 11. Handholds of proper size will make the lifting task easier.6 Reduce the effect of environment and maintain ambient conditions The amount of vibration passing into the body can be significantly reduced by • Using anti-vibration gloves • Using suitable attachments • Providing anti-vibration handles • Use low vibration tools (or) machines having a balancing system – Auto balancing (angle grinders) or Mass balancers (jig saws. Repetitive motions at awkward postures increase the chance of muscle disorders i.4.4. handles provided. • Choosing the right way of doing the job • Limiting the size and weight of load lifted manually • Frequent rest pauses & breaks • Using the whole hand to increase the grip • Keeping the load as close to the body. Work that involves repeated movements can be very tiring because the worker cannot fully recover in the short periods of time between the movements. • Avoid extended use of vibrating machinery. repetitive stress injuries. When the handles fit the palm.3 Reduce Repetitive Motions Working with repetitive motions for an entire 8-hour shift can strain the muscles with accumulation of fatigue. If they are larger than the palm grip will be insufficient and if they are smaller that will not fit the palm and it must be held tight causing stress to the human body. reciprocating saws) • Hold tools with correct grip – do not hold too tight or too loose. The grip we apply depends on the size & surface nature of the object (or) hand holds. Use of ergonomic equipment eliminates these stressful postures. • Job rotation 11. When work activities continue in spite of this fatigue. proper grip can be applied.4 Get proper grip before doing any task manually Proper grip must be applied during a manual task to prevent them from falling. 11. due to fatigue. tendons and ligaments gives them fatigue.e. (Source: OSACH) Repetition alone poses a risk but this can be aggravated by body position & force exerted during the repetitive movements. This constricted blood flow reduces the supply of nutrients and removing the acids produced by the tissues (as explained earlier). muscles can recover. This is due to the reduced blood flow due to lack of movement. 11. In this position exertion is there and the force on muscles.4. it takes more effort to perform the same repetitive movements.

Use trolleys or carts to move objects. Stretch first and stretch often to relax your muscles before lifting and stretch frequently throughout the day. If this isn’t possible. man began to spin clothes. Put items to be lifted between waist and shoulder height vii. Provide easy access so the load is in front of the person lifting v. v. Eliminate twisting by changing the start or end point of the lift vi. ACHIEVE ZERO ii. equipment and the load to ensure a comfortable & healthy interaction is in place when the job is carried and both quality out. loses the ability to concentrate Working smart involves positioning the body.5 Work with smart techniques A worker in pain Working smart means modifying (or) adopting techniques which require lesser effort and reduces the stress absorbed in the human body. Always remember that it is better to push trolleys and carts than to pull them. Become aware of mounting stresses. make clay pots and to fetch water through pulleys. then move in the direction you’re headed by changing the position of the feet instead of twisting your back. “Don’t overdo it.7 Mechanical aids Reduce fatigue Invention of wheel is probably the most important invention of all times. yourself so that after you pick up the object you can move straight to that Work Smart location. Allow recovery time between lifts. This will reduce the effort. The heaviest objects must be stored at the waist level. instead of carrying them. try to position Reduce effort. Do not exceed your physical ability iii. vi.11. 11. force. Later on. He was able to develop round steering to navigate the ships into the sea. Lift with your legs ii. 11. repetitions. Lift items close to your body to reduce the stress on your lower back. Without this wheel life would not have been as fast as it is right now. All of these activities can help reduce the probability of a back injury.6 Effective Lifting Techniques i. put it down on a table or other elevated surface instead of on the floor. Take more frequent “mini-breaks” before you become fatigued. lose weight if you are overweight. Similar changes were seen when auto mobiles were invented.Feeling discomfort or pain is an indication that something is wrong! Combinations of awkward posture. & productivity Smart ways of doing manual tasks are: are reduced. Lower or raise shelves to store objects between waist and shoulder height. iv. repetitive lifting. i. 99 . Utilizing the circular motion of wheel. viii.” vii. and increase your flexibility. Provide adequate recovery time for tasks that require frequent lifting iv. The invention of wheel brought many changes in human lives. Slow down when doing a lot of heavy. Eliminate twisting as twisting while lifting is bad for your back. and insufficient rest periods are a set up for injury. iii. Listen to your body . When you know an object will be lifted later. Get in shape to strengthen your muscles. he learnt to make carts to travel and transport goods from one place to another on land. aches and pains. Place objects off the floor as it is easier and safer to lift objects from an elevated surface.

The effort required to do the job depends on the size & weight of the item handled. method. It can soon. without injuries and accidents. Larger the size/ weight. It more active throughout the day requires less effort when compared with the previous bettering their production rates. The amount of fatigue associated with all these ways is not the same. let us compare these methods with regard to safety & productivity with a case study on Converting 2 wheeled gas cylinder trolleys to 3 wheeled trolleys to reduce the fatigue in push/pull tasks is discussed in section 15.5. Push. In fabrication Imagine using a two-wheeled workshops. To improve productivity and safety choose the method which results in lesser fatigue. more Wheels at work. more no of PUSH THAN TO PULL. Now. Pull & Carry is the common methods used in transporting items manually at work. trolley during shopping. shifting of gas cylinders is a must do task. Pushing and pulling of loads placed on a trolley is a reduce fatigue. muscles are involved and generally allows better visibility. to your job and improves • Comfort • Health • Productivity in a job 100 . The best example is the use of 4 Normally. is a major effort is required do the job resulting in getting fatigued very ergonomic breakthrough. path available to the work location. Application of ergonomics at work prevents fatigue & accidents due to human error. Workmen can be better way to avoid manual lifting and carrying of objects. Also it adds great value. carrying loads and involves lesser fatigue levels. When carrying an item. the total load is on the person doing Ergonomics in everyday life the job. Pushing loads is preferable to pulling because it involves MAN HAS A GREATER CAPACITY TO less work by the muscles of the lower back. the method we choose depends on the type of wheeled trolleys while shopping.

12. Accidents and incidents at workplace are the endpoints of a chain of events. ii. In general behaviour safety methods focus on analyzing the work processes to identify the critical behaviors possible at work that can lead to an accident.1 Behavior Based Safety Process Behaviors are actions we can see and measure. Deciding to proceed with a work activity after the worker identifies an existing unsafe condition. Managing hazards by this way reduces the chance of an accident. Failing to identify an unsafe condition that existed before an activity was started or that developed after an activity was started. BBS is a safety management technique that specifies exactly which behaviors are required from each employee. This is a six-step process which involves hazard identification. Deciding to act unsafe regardless of initial conditions of the work environment. Further.unsafe acts and conditions do not occur by themselves but are the created by man. defined as the actions or reactions exhibited by humans usually in relation to the present environment. Behavior Based Safety (BBS) Apart from technical and administrative controls. These behaviors are geared towards creating a safe work environment and must have controls in place which can measure the behaviors. Often. It is these violations that are more of concern to be prevented in work activities. Research shows that human error (i. observation and action.e. Researchers Abdelhamid and Everett (2000) listed the 3 primary causes of occupational accidents are i. 12. unsafe behaviors can be split into two categories – errors and violations. training. It is well known that the accident causatives . Errors are unintended actions deviating from an accepted standard whereas violations are deliberate deviations from rules and procedures. 101 . Unsafe-Behaviors are the actions we take or not take that increase the chance of injury or illness. Behaviours.) behaviour is the cause for almost 95% of the accidents and can make a substantial difference to the occurrence and severity of accidents or incidents. and iii. The root causes of these can be technical or human error. even after taking suitable action to control the hazards accidents do occur in the workplace. Research indicates that unsafe behaviors are the direct cause of 95% to 98% of the accidents. These hazards at work can be well managed to make them ineffective by applying the principles of hierarchy of Hazard Control. This is due to the risk-taking attitude of few workmen who overlook the hazards mainly due to production pressures at the workplace. Occupational safety is also widely influenced by the behavior of employees within their workplace. This deviation from the normal action is an unsafe act that originated due to unsafe behaviors. A Behavioral safety program deals in identifying & controlling the behaviors that directly causes an accident and encourages safe behaviors. This decision to deviate is taken by the human (mind) after weighing the outcomes. mainly due to the deviation from the recommendations to manage the hazards.

not every time we meet with an accident. Educate & Enforce to ACHIEVE ZERO repetition. Once unsafe behaviors are identified safety education must be imparted to all concerned. Unsafe behaviours get repeated because the potential consequences of an accident occur rarely. The most common answer for questioning unsafe behaviour is – I have been doing this way for all these years and nothing has happened to me. It is this absence of injuries that refrains workmen from following safe work practices. These kinds of unsafe behaviors must be identified and promptly corrected. People behave unsafely as they have never been hurt before when doing it the same way. It is this understanding that interacts with the attitude to determine the final behaviour. Identify the work process Identify the critical behaviour’s that can cause an accident Train workgroup and select observers Observe the involved workgroups for their behaviours at work Get feedback from observers Identify corrective actions and take action for reducing at risk behaviour’s ➢ Encourage and reward safe behaviour’s ➢ Take disciplinary action and punish violators for reducing unsafe behaviour’s Behaviour safety issues when dealt promptly have a significant reduction in accidents. 29 will result in minor injuries and 1 will result in a major injury. correcting undesirable ones and providing data for further analysis. The recurrence of unsafe behaviors depends on the need like taking shortcuts saves time. Observers must be selected and trained in making observations. this becomes the standard for working. Heinrich’s triangle states that for every 330 unsafe acts. The feedback from observers must be used to determine ways to encourage safe behaviors. Actions with positive results tend to be repeated and with negative results tend to be avoided. Hence. 102 . it is very much required to make workmen understand that the potential of the accident remains the same every time a similar unsafe act is performed. Observations are critical for a behaviour-based safety process as these identify the desirable behaviors in workers. Over a period of time.

It can be always observed that after major accident. a resistance to practice safety develops. Overcoming this ‘brain barrier’ resistance to safety is the key to prevent unsafe acts and unsafe conditions and will be the aim of a behavior safety programme. iv. a safety conscious work environment develops making people reasonably aware of the need for Safety. Allowing unsafe behaviours something must change to prevent an vii. The essence of productivity is producing more with proportionately i. However. lack of legislative enforcements hinder the continuous practice of safety. To improve production. lack of trained manpower. With the build-up of production pressures. Every behavior safety programme will be designed to persuade everyone to follow safety by positive or negative reinforcement techniques. Less input The path to ACHIEVE ZERO ii. Horseplay positive safety climate by overcoming v. Taking shortcuts BBS programs helps in creating a iv. Scheduling too much work x.3 Overcome the Brain Barrier resistance to change to Safety Safety education and training is the best way for improving awareness towards safety. Common unsafe behaviors (violations) are: i.2 Production governs the Safety attitudes Production is always the main concern in any industry. processes are modified based on experience and advancement in technology. Failing to correct accident and ACHIEVE ZERO. Failing to report hazards brain barrier resistance to safety as vi. Minimize waste iii. various factors like apathy on the part of the employers. Eliminate rework in all forms ensures best Productivity. The emphasis on educational training program has become evident to overcome this barrier. v. Consider the fact that every occupation is associated with some risk factors and there is no occupation devoid of risk. this resistance shapes to turn into a ‘brain barrier’ as accidents do not happen every time an unsafe act or condition is carried out and it is a common inbuilt characteristic of human to resist changes. ix. Accident costs and related compensations paid form a major chunk of the overheads. 12. Eliminate down time due to accidents Follow it. Almost all the accidents occur when safety precautions are overlooked to save time for improving production. Using unsafe methods iii. Breaking rules ii. A new workers attitude shall be based on his upbringing and social 103 . Failing to supervise viii. Ignoring worker stress 12. In due course. Optimum utilization of available resources. reinforce individual’s behaviour & attitude towards a desired goal. These training programmes must be designed to influence. Productivity does not mean more production.

This can be directly related to attitude . Creating awareness is the first step in shaping attitudes to reduce unsafe behaviors for preventing injuries at the workplace. everyone is accountable for safety.Attitude towards safety can be judged from actions related to safety as human behaviors are widely influenced by it and affected by genetics. Posters are proven techniques of developing safety awareness. which we ought to prevent through team effort. Arguably behaviour of the workforce is one of the greatest determinants of workplace safety and injury prevention. So. It is the prime duty of the employer to educate employees on hazards & mould the attitudes for the workplace. 104 . Behaviours attitudes as a part of the growing up process. A young workers attitude is derived from his parents and family members as a part of the growing process and with the people whom he associates at community. studied how religious principles affected the attitudes of the people and firmly concluded that religion relates to behaviour of individuals via Morality. All religions teach the same “GOLDEN RULE” – Humanity. In short. From birth outcome of his everyone has followed a religion and it plays a big role in developing the attitude. Safety education and training. Behavior based safety focuses on reducing unsafe behaviors (stemming A man’s action is an from the attitudes built within us) done to save effort and time. Lowenthal. is very much essential for better results. background. education and safety climate in the workplace. but also interrupt a planned activity. Tool Box talks. Religion can be used to change are visible actions a person’s attitude towards safety as it can be observed many times groups that can turn systems believe and have superstitions opinions ‘All accidents are Acts of God’. Harry Mockey. Always. Realisation of the fact. a researcher. why not prepare everyone to work safely under pressure. These programs must be designed to emphasize the need for proper attitudes and aim in cultivating good attitudes. All religions teach our actions must be for the wellbeing of our own and other human beings as our actions can directly or indirectly cause harm to others. and procedures into reality. it’s preventable. 12. Most of the accident causative factors are normally overlooked due to sheer work pressure or human error. Safety Induction. Morality in turn determines a man’s attitude. We should take care of our actions and do not cause an accident. This method can be very useful for workgroups who have little educational background like in the mining and construction sector. Continual efforts must be put for attitude development and change by creating safety awareness for the benefit of safety. To change their attitudes continuous education is the most effective approach for everlasting positive results. Proper planning helps in overcoming pressure on the job. Accidents at work not only impede. All religions teach their followers to care of our fellow humans whether related to us or not as we do for ourselves.4 Changing attitudes Poor safety performance can be turned around with a reduction of unsafe behaviors. Man's action depends on his morality and he shall do what he has been taught for years. When a hazard is predictable. the great American speaker says pressure has to do something for which you have not/ are not prepared. preparation is the key to success & everyone must be trained to prepare themselves to tackle the hazards especially ones due to human error at work as it is the root cause for 96% of accidents.

This can be used to HINDU THEE WOULD CAUSE THEEPAIN change the attitudes of the workmen for following safety and be careful at work such NO ONE OF YOU IS A BELIEVER UNTIL HE DESIRES FOR HIS BROTHER that we prevent working unsafe. working with us. i.BUDDIST HURT NOT OTHERS IN WAYS THAT YOU WOULD FIND HURTFUL ALL THINGS WHATSOVER HE WOULD THAT MEN SHOULD DO TO YOU. DO CHRISTIAN EVEN SO TO THEM CONFUCIAN DO NOT UNTO OTHERS WHAT YOU WOULD NOT HAVE THEN DO TO YOU In common all religions advocate. "Our Act" should not cause harm or suffering either to THIS IS THE SUM OF DUTY. SO DEEM OTHERS REGARD YOUR NEIGHBOUR’S GAIN AS YOUR OWN GAIN. WE SHOULD JAIN REGARD ALL CREATURES AS WE REGARD OUR OWN SELF SIKH AS THOU DEEMEST THYSELF. IN JOY AND GRIEF. 105 . DO NAUGHT UNTO OTHERS WHICH IF DONE TO us or lives around us. IN HAPPINESS AND SUFFERING. an ISLAMIC unsafe act that could cause harm directly or THAT HE DESIRES FOR HIMSELF indirectly to fellow workmen.e. AND YOUR TAOIST NEIGHBOURS LOSS AS YOUR OWN LOSS.

prevent incidents. ACHIEVE ZERO . Follow safety at work Experience a heavenly workplace Else your unsafe acts will be punished here itself not in HELL 106 Work safely.

Rigging. These informal safety representatives will bear the charges positively as we are respecting them as Competent / Senior / Experience individual and we are making them realise that they are more capable than what they think themselves. It was made clear that if there is no adequate support for a system or function. They will own the safety responsibility for themselves and for their team. In case of non- compliance by their team member. failure becomes inevitable. the person involved and these informal safety representatives are held responsible. bar bending. Everyone claimed that how such a strong tree can get uprooted in a wind or rain. The common answer we got was no. We can then observe the compliance level rising to an acceptable level. More often we can observe some workmen in respective trades i. They feel happy to be identified and respected.5 Encourage Safe behaviors Innovative approaches to provide understanding and motivation is required to own responsibility for safety and ACHIEVE ZERO. When asked whether they have heard of a banana tree being uprooted in a wind or rain. Electrical. usually the response is positive. Barring to a few. Safety promotional programmes must be conducted to create sufficient safety awareness for knocking out hazards in the route to ACHIEVE ZERO. Participation in safety activities with involvement is a must to obtain effective results in safety implementation. we can always observe many uprooted. Carpentry. The junior & less experience workman will usually take the firm advice of their senior colleague readily and will 107 . Though this number is few. For effectiveness. who excel in their job also take safety seriously. Obviously. etc. Such types of workmen can be selected as informal safety representative from their respective team. such type of scene is required not more than twice or thrice.e. Many answered it is a common event. It is bonus if they are elder and experienced in their team. thanks to this element of ego gratification. In one such a safety programme workman was put up a question – Has anyone ever seen or heard of a banyan tree. uprooted during a storm or a heavy wind.12. We can then witness the welcome change. almost everyone answered yes we have witnessed it often. they are the role models who can very effectively propagate safety activity down the line. workman ship and experience. These people readily take up the responsibility as we are reposing our confidence in their ability. the safety performance level goes up since the support everyone gives is like that of the supporting roots of a banyan tree that helps the tree to withstand the destructive forces during a strong wind or heavy downpours. During a strong wind or heavy downpours. They are expected to work safely and the same is expected from their team mates.

This type of atmosphere enforces a sense of ownership. The approach certainly deserves a try for effective implementation. accountability & responsibility towards each other thus enhance their desire to work safely. Everything you are against. a game against hazards can be won easily by team work. weakens you Everything you are for. as it is not just a theoretical hypothesis but found effective. Preventing loss is akin to improving profits. Here the acceptance and learning curve is very short. empowers you The first step towards change is creating awareness to ACHIEVE ZERO Safety. It is also a welcome deviation from our usual “Top – Down” style of management. This empowerment has a practical beneficial effect.understand all these safety activities are implemented for their benefit. Be a part of the Safety TEAM (Together Employees Accomplish More) Saving Goals is akin to scoring goals. They will come out openly with safety related problems and offer practical suggestions too. 108 .

most measures presently used in safety field require loss type accidents to occur with a certain degree of severity before identification of accident problems is possible" . Exerts policy direction Safety and Health actions “fall . Safety success is a team effort with everyone playing their role to avoid failure. Tarrants In general. all must realise their responsibility towards accident prevention and play their role in implementing safety procedures. Supervises workers to insure correct working procedures . As everyone cannot anticipate all the potential hazards. Delegates Safety & Health responsibility/ authority .E. Safe working conditions can be achieved only by team effort like in a game of football. Similarly. exposure to safety and . Ensures that item complies with be shut down often safety and health specifications 109 . . Hence everyone in the organization must realise their role in implementation of safety and play it safe.Dr. Communication awareness of hazards . Considers safety and health health hazards regulations . Sl No Position Typical Responsibilities Typical Impact of Failure 1 Top Management . this is true. Obviously. Performs environmental monitoring of workplace .6 CONTROL OF WORKING CONDITIONS "Unfortunately. all our attention and efforts are only focused in improving the productivity. materials etc. Purchases required protective Purchases some machines. ACHIEVE ZERO depends on our ability to realise our role in Knocking hazards and work safely. Assesses and designs out safety Inadequate engineering Engineering hazards control. Reviews control Information through the crack” . Conducts various training New employees suffer extra Management programmes ordinary injury rate. W. that . Provides employee consultation 3 Design/ . the striker's main role is scoring goals above and beyond backing up goal keeper to save goals. The goal keeper's role is to save a goal not to score one. Designs or recommends engineering controls 4 Purchasing . equipment equipment. Ensures that supplier provides fails to comply with safety and servicing instructions health regulations which must . Acquires maintenance manuals .12. Makes budgetary allocations 2 Line . as blindness is preferred in most of the reported cases until and unless a major accident occurs.

Informs management of health and Management is unaware of an safety problems unsafe condition until after an . Keeps a list of current local safety A fellow worker is injured due and health legislation and to a known but unreported information hazard. . Oversees proper housekeeping comply procedures . Advises purchasing department of accident has already occurred new safety standards . Projects costs to comply with safety and health legislations . Excessive scrap and rework obviating hazards seriously affect production . safety and health training programs . Effectively communicates hazards to workers 7 Quality Control . Arranges for pre-employment medical examinations . Ensures use of protective There are government equipment and safe work practices prosecutions for failure to . Advises personnel department of available health & safety training 110 . Ensures compliance with safety and health regulations . Maintains medical records 9 Safety Engineer . Establishes induction skill. Budgets for safety and health training 6 Production . Maintains products to set standards. Costs safety and health-related Accidents costs significantly expenditures escalate in one department . Secures hazard information from suppliers 5 Finance . Assesses safety and health hazards quotas related to below standards products 8 Administration . .

explains how the historic Kurukshetra war is the consequence of choosing to be blind over the preliminary incidents that led to the war i. Don't gamble with hazards to ACHIEVE ZERO “The Best preparation for tomorrow is to do today's work well . who was born physically blind.Dr. Voluntary Blindness by Dhritrashtra. activities increase and we are not able to dedicate enough time for planning safety and related activities. Drives out the hazards on the days to come.Our today is worth two tomorrow's” 111 . BEING BLIND & TURNING A DEAF EAR TO SAFETY IMPLEMENTATION AT WORK IS IDENTICAL TO SETTING THE STAGE FOR A KURUKSHETRA WAR AT THE WORKPLACE. Mahabharata. Safety from Day one. accidents can be abated if Managers get in the way of Engineers. Supervisors and Workmen averting them from taking undue chances to complete the work and insists all to follow the Safety precautions. Sakuni from gambling or if the Pandavas had gambled along with Krishna as their guide. Safety activities are neglected presuming it to be a hindrance to progress. father of Duryodhana. fighting in the battlefield. Dhritrashtra. Moreover. misbehaving and refusing to return the kingdom to the pandavas. he chose to be blind on the happenings of the battlefield too. Similarly. Shantanu Nagariki. Remember. Only after that he asked Sanjana to describe the happenings on the battlefield that is on the 10th day of a war that lasted 18 days. when the pandavas had come to claim their lost kingdom. Dhritrashtra has not even taken steps to stop his sons from declaring war. Safety from Day one drives out the hazards on the days to come else it can be an action too late. DO WE NEED TO FIGHT A WAR? CAN WE NOT PREVENT IT? The Kurukshetra war could have been avoided either if Dhritrashtra had stopped the Kavuravas under the guidance of their great gambler uncle. without controlling Duryodhana and his other sons from gambling.e. "Indecision and Delays Too late wasn't it. until the news of death of his close relatives reached him. We can't George Canning foresee when an accident is going to crop up. In the later stages. chose to be blind i. During the initial stages of operation or construction the attention given to safety is inadequate. It is this second (Voluntary) blindness that led to the battle of Kurukshetra.e. are parents of failure" Workplace with thousands of hazards is all the same similar. in one of his editorials on the teachings of the great Indian epic.

Analysing these safety observation helps in identifying perform their work. A well designed. Safety observations. recorded in the Inspection forms. they are now 13.1. tools. it is Safety observations necessary to identify the most dominant hazards in a particular are collection of H & S workplace. harm to the environment. It is the type and trend of the hazards existing in a particular work place. not just to process. A job observation process was identified as a key step in improving the workplace and communicating the company’s commitment to safety and health to the workforce. This observation sheet helps in employees taking care of unsafe acts and unsafe conditions by themselves. The hazards and its impact vary in different workplaces. This type of accident prevention training uses correction for the good of employees. well maintained safety observation system can help to control the risk of injury to people. 112 . Hence. damage to property and loss of production. most people are reluctant to admit they don’t fully understand the task.2 Provide on-the-spot correction of unsafe actions responsible for an This is the time to deliver immediate on-the-spot safety training and catch unsafe practices before they become habits. performance doesn’t meet high safety standards. When observed work ACHIEVE ZERO. Be sure you make it clear to employees that you don’t want them to get hurt! Be clear and specific about how they should work safely. exhibiting a positive safety culture. Manual Material handling and Ergonomics are the major hazards in Metal observing employees Fabrication.1. criticize. an important tool to 13. Safety observations are the first step to prevent a hazard resulting in an accident. These observations must be focused on the entire task — facility.1 Purpose of Safety Observations analyse existing trends The basic purpose of safety observations is to spot unsafe practices. fall of persons & material from height is the most violation data by dominant hazard in the construction of a high-rise building.13. Like. in violations for The other benefits are: preventing accidents & 13. ‘responsible’ for accidents. question the employee about specific accident prevention measures that should Managers find that be used for that job. machinery and people — not just on the actions of the employees.1 Decide on the type of training required & Check effectiveness maintaining sound The best and sometimes only way a supervisor can be sure standards of safety and employees have absorbed their initial job training is to watch them health at work to do the job. Even after being trained. Find out if they were trained and if they know rather than being what to do. Pareto Analysis for Accident prevention Safety observations are the unsafe acts and unsafe conditions observed in the workplace during inspecti7ons.

it may indicate unsafe acts being covered up. Reactions of workers to your presence These reactions usually occur within 10 to 30 seconds after employees become aware that they are being observed and may provide clues to unsafe acts. Tools & Equipment • Are the right tools being used for this job? • Are tools being used correctly? • Are tools & equipment in good condition? v. This provides a good opportunity for supervisors to compliment them for a job well done. and other protective equipment are available and being properly used. caught in. and most will respond with even greater cooperation after they have been praised for doing the job right. or overexert themselves while lifting? • What other hazards are present? iv.4 Suggest better methods to do the job. change position suddenly. Everyone appreciates a kind word now and then.3 Provides opportunities for compliments Most observations will confirm that employees are working safely. 13.1.13.1. or rearrange the job. People tend to repeat behaviour that is rewarded” Employees identified as “Hazard Knockers” were rewarded by Eng. Job procedures • Does it appear that proper procedures are being followed or are shortcuts being taken? • Are the procedures adequate and understood? 113 . Personal Protective equipment All PPE necessary for the job. hearing protection.2 Inspection Principles & Areas to Focus i. such as hard-hats. or exposed to falls? • Can they potentially contact high voltage lines. iii. Hussam Aweis during Stand down day. Potential injury causes • Can employees be struck by something. If employees put on their protective equipment when they see you. 13. ii. safety glasses. be exposed to a hazardous substance. respirators.

it does not necessarily mean that adequate safety systems and controls are in are now universally regarded as place. Positive Performance Indicators Safety Performance measurement is one of the methods at the heart of propelling an organization towards breakthrough safety performance.14. all unsafe acts and unsafe conditions do not result in an accident. Also. The commonly used indicators – accident. In reality. It is the key step for continual improvement in HSE management. measurements are done to monitor the progress towards the goal. Analysis of Injuries & accident causes can give valuable information for accident prevention in future. it does not is controlled and adequate measure whether the hazard control is used regularly to prevent all kinds of accidents and controls are in place to prevent injuries. It forms a Safety program to prevent accidents and improve the working culture. These indicators when used to judge safety performance are known as lagging indicators.e. even over a period of to cause an accident which are not taken into account years gives no guarantee that risk when calculating lagging indicators. possibly at the source itself. a Management consultant – “You can’t manage what you can’t measure” i. what gets measured gets done”. injuries in future. With so many factors ready to cause an accident. frequency & severity rates are calculated at the last stage or when submitting reports.) performance was judged based on what is lost in that period. Systems to achieve the goal ‘Injury & Incident Free’ & ‘Hazard Free’ requires effective monitoring to control the hazards. there may be a lot of hazards present in the workplace waiting for a chance Low injuries. Ideally safety performance measurements are required to provide timely information about conditions or behaviours that lead to accidents. Every company has a Safety goal to achieve that is mentioned through a Safety policy.e. there is a possibility of wrong judgement on the dependability and adequateness of the hazard controls in place. complacency develops as safety precautions are ignored and production becomes the prime priority. With continuous use of lagging indicators. According to the various ‘accident cause’ theories mentioned in earlier chapters. According to Peter Drucker. controls in place. 114 . Certain indicators must be developed through which we can periodically assess the elements or factors affecting safety performance such that accidents are prevented. A work place is really safe when these accident causes are eliminated. Lagging indicators can hide risk and does not unsuccessful is providing assure the adequacy & performance of hazard meaningful measures. As a part of continual improvement. how can we say a work place is really safe to work? Traditional ways of assessing safety performance was based on number of injuries & man-days lost in a specified period to calculate Accident. There are lot of unsafe conditions and unsafe acts in the work area which can cause an accident anytime. Frequency and severity rate (i. Also. Measuring safety performance It appears that the workplace is very safe when the with accident and injuries statistics results are zero or low. Implementing Safety in all means will control the unsafe conditions and unsafe acts.

easy to use and easily switch from ‘feedback’ to ‘feed understood by all. It is put into action by developing parameters to measure the effectiveness of the accident preventive measures. This identifies elements that affect the safety features of the work environment. what to measure for improving performance It is very critical to choose and measure the activities that affect performance. then prompt elimination or control of hazards is a positive step for making a workplace safe. accident causes well before an accident and the latter Falburch & Wilbert. It must be objective.e. 2000 real time measure of the effectiveness of the safety program. For each of these safety condition monitoring PPMs you will need to list the measure to be used. Monitoring activities like Safety Inspection etc. aiming and to take remedial action. 115 . O’Connor & Bryden. An indicator must be selected such that progress towards goal can be monitored. calculated and reported including the which may reduce the need to frequency of reporting. tells us what caused an accident. Each element must be individually assessed to understand the way it influences the safety aspects in the work environment. A progress towards ACHIEVE ZERO requires tracking of each and every step towards improvement. 14. activities that reduce the unsafe acts and unsafe conditions at work. Safety communications. When considering PPMs for safety. to improve the workplace safety with a reduction of risk to This can be conceived as a the lowest. 1999. how it will be collected. Inspections. The most important accident control measures are Risk Management. Trainings and arrangements. Mearns. This helps in identifying the weak spots before they develop as large-scale problems. define the key activities in your safety management system that needs to Leading indicators are be promoted. reinforced to visibly drive the culture.e.1 Determining Leading indicators i. The main difference between leading and lagging indicators is the former warns us the possible forward’ control. predictive measures enabling Select the activity measures from these. Safe work procedures. Safety Education & Training. largely dependent on luck. These indicators shall periodically measure activities specifically undertaken to improve performance and helps in deciding the course of action to achieve our goal by pointing out where we are. The criteria for assessing each work element involved in the safety cycle will vary. while the identification. The measures of these pro-active steps to promote safety and prevent workplace injuries & diseases are called as Positive Performance Indicators or Leading Indicators that act as a gauge of good practice to assess the HSE Activities like Risk assessments. Lead indicators give a Flin. The items selected can vary from workplace to workplace and can be changed to suit the process. Induction. There are no fixed or specific wait for the system to fail in items stated in codes and guidelines to be used as leading order to identify weaknesses indicators. The absence of accidents is a negative measure. Leading indicator for OHS is a proactive activity necessary to control accidents i.

This element when used as a leading indicator will improve the safety performance. Leading indicators lead performance and Lagging All indicators must be indicators lag performance as using lagging indicators measured against a can develop a sense of complacency towards safety. ACHIEVE ZERO – Prevent incidents from occurring with proactive measures and Prevent incidents from recurring with reactive measures. damage or loss. 116 . No of unsafe No of unsafe Acts Repeated Violations/ No of Sl Acts / Unsafe / Unsafe % Violations Not Complied DESCRIPTION inspection NO conditions conditions compliance (Action required from conducted observed complied with Area Office) 1 General inspection of site 2 Height Work Inspection 3 Electrical Safety Inspection 4 Behaviour based safety 5 Fire Extinguisher Inspection 6 Housekeeping Inspection 7 P&M Checking Lifting tools & tackles 8 inspection 9 Power tools inspection 10 Safety items Stock Checking 11 Scaffolding Inspection 12 PPE inspection 13 First Aid Material Inspection 14 Hazardous materials Insp. A safety program striving for excellence will use a mix of minimum criterion these Leading and Lagging indicators. Below is a required to ensure a safe sample Positive performance indicator checklist. level of safety. A Leading indicator is a metric of a proactive activity carried out to prevent & control accidents. they provide data to enable effective intervention to address or reverse a negative trend before it results in an injury. When measured and monitored effectively. Manager’s role plays an important part in the level of safety at the workplace.e. loss and damage i. it allows measurement of activities specifically undertaken to improve performance. This workplace fulfilling the checklist was used to measure the compliance to the safety observations in each site.

15. Accident Prevention – Sharing Experience
Accidents are unplanned occurrences that result in injuries, fatalities, loss of production (or)
damage to property & assets. Preventing injuries will be extremely difficult due to lack of
understanding of accident causes. There are many theories for prediction of accident causes.

Many researches were done to identify accident causes in countries namely Kuwait (Kartam &
Bouz, 1998), USA (Abdelhamid & Everett, 2000 & Toole, 2002); Uganda (Lubega et al, 2000);
Thailand (Pipitsupaphol & Watanbe, 2000) & Chine (Tam et al, 2004) to identify the causes of
accidents and the majority of the accident causes can be managed effectively by the following
elements of safety.

a. Developing SWP using Work-permit systems
b. Housekeeping
c. Ergonomics
d. Measuring Safety Performance using positive performance indicators
e. Investigating accident for Root Causes
f. Changing the attitude
g. Maintaining Zero energy state (LOTO)
h. Behaviour Based Safety

Instances of Practical application of Safety management practices to
prevent incidents in my career is discussed in this chapter.

The benefits of learning from accidents & utilizing accident/ incident
information are, however, RARELY APPLIED.
(Baram 1997, Brusberg et al 2002, Harms Ringdahl 2004)

Incidents are not due to lack of knowledge but due to failure to use the
knowledge we have.

117

15.1 Developing SWP for Operating Overlapping Multiple Tower Cranes

a. Tower Crane Accidents:

Collision of tower cranes may occur when two or more cranes overlap, any crane
crosses the site boundary or to a prohibited zone. An example of a collision is the
crane's hoisting hook block & cable collides with the main jib of the other crane.

Prohibited zone –
restricted zone
where almost all
cranes overlap.

b. Construction sites where Multiple Tower cranes are used

118

c. SWP for increasing the height of the Tower Crane by work permit system

There are standard permits available for erecting a tower crane available with the local
authority. When multiple tower cranes are used in close proximity such that the booms overlap,
it is a critical case where tower crane collisions can happen bringing down the tower cranes
killing people and damaging everything. The chance of accident - collision between the cranes
is high especially when the height clearance between the cranes is not provided as per the
standards. These accidents are nothing less than a major disaster. Even then many times risks
are taken and standards are violated. To control the violations and the risks taken it is better to
develop and follow a work permit system such that all factors affecting the crane stability and
safety of the tower crane like free standing height, clearances required etc are continuously
monitored to be within safe limits and under control.

Tower cranes positioned safely through a permit system

119

Clearance reqd. height in (1) 12. Max. for 4. Check for clearance available above and below Reference Documents: 1. Additional Precautions: a. Jib Length Name Crane Trained in SOP Free Standing Height 3. the crane 2. Tower Crane Jumping – Permit Format No: SF/ PTW-06/_____ Date: 1. 3. No. Create No entry zone below the erection area with barrication. Wind Speed: 7. Location: 10. Crane Test details 2. Crane Operator: Sl. Keep checking for wind speed and Stop (Crane height from a reference point common to erection if wind speed exceeds 12m/s. General plan of tower cranes. Crane height alteration details _______________________________ Height to be increased/ decreased Work in Charge: Date & Time: Height of the crane after alteration ___________________________________ No of ties required @ altered height Approved for: Height of Top wall tie Free Standing height available Erection Operation 9. Date of Erection: No last test No Result 5. all cranes at site) b. Safe operating procedure (refer backside) Safe to Use Overlapping Clearance available building Crane’s/ building Crane/ Height Page 1 of 2 Above Below a. Tower Crane Parameters: Sl. Name of Crane Operator’s: 1. Type: 3. Type of Erection: Initial/ Height Increase 6. Crane Height 2. 8. between overlapping cranes = 18 m b. Minimum clearance above a building = 10 m 120 . Date of Test Certificate Agency 4. of Ties reqd. No Parameter In meters 11. Tower crane sectional elevation drawings.

4.e. 5.) slab part 1/ slab part 2. the operator of the external tower crane shall inform the operator of the internal tower crane. As per the plan the External crane shall be positioned higher than the internal tower crane. Page 2 of 2 121 . a minimum distance of 6 m shall be maintained between the points of operation. one crane shall be put to work in slab part 1 and the other crane in slab part 2. In case both the cranes are required to be used for wall shuttering works. b. The situations where this procedure is required to be followed is when the jib of the higher tower crane passes over the a. 3. Jib of the lower tower crane. A clearance of 3m in all sides/ directions from the operator’s cabin of the internal tower crane shall be maintained at all times when handling loads. When operation is over the operators shall clearly communicate to each other the direction of moving the crane. The internal tower crane shall be most preferred for wall shuttering above the slab. The Internal and External Tower Cranes shall spend minimum time in the area. when the lateral clearance between booms of the tower cranes is close together by 3 meters. Operator’s cabin of the lower tower crane. The external tower crane operator shall not lift and pass any load directly under the operator’s cabin of the internal tower crane. 2. The internal tower crane operator shall move the boom away from the present position to a different position where there is no interference between the crane booms. When the external tower crane is required to lift any load above the internal tower crane. Safe Operating Procedures for Tower Crane: SOP is required to be followed when the clearance between the underside of the jib of the higher crane and the highest point on the lower tower crane is less than 18 m (60 feet). When both the cranes are required to work in the same part of the slab (i. 1.

5 * 1.5 ton/ M3 (as per standard) Actual Load: Slab Thickness = 200 MM Concrete Load/ M2 of bay for a thickness 0.80 M.25 + 1 ton = 3.) Staging – Bay Dimensions 2.2 M = 1 * 1 * 0.5 M2 Hence Live Load per M2 = 1000/ 4. we select scaffolding with a Bay Size of 2. with vertical Ledger spacing of1. After Erection of scaffolding confirm the number of supports.5 = 0.1 Ton/ bay As the Actual total load is less than the manufacturer's SWL it is rated Safe. connections. spacing between supports and verticality of the supports.25 ton per bay.3-meter Total Pour Area: 41. 610 For this type the standard SWL/ bay = 40KN = 4.5 M.5 = 184.2 Checking the Supports required for formwork Location: Under Ground Tank Slab Works Height from Bottom: 7. Total number of bays = Total pour area/ Area per bay = 830/ 4.5 * 0.50 x 1.5 * 20 = 830 M2 Weight of Concrete per M3 (Load) = 2.4 = 185 bays Total number of supports = 185 x 4 = 740 supports.8 meter (minimum for Al Emar K-Lock type) Area per bay 2.25 ton/ bay Total Dead load = 2.5 ton Total Load: AL EMAR K-LOCK SCAFFOLDING & DECKING (This check is vital to know the number of supports and prevent error during construction.15.25 ton/ bay Live load = 223 kg/ M2 * (200 kg/ M2 standard from Al EMAR Tables) Total Load/ bay = Total Live load + Total Dead Load = = 2. Civil Engineer 122 .5 M2 Load of concrete/ bay Area of bay * Concrete load/M2 for 0.5 = 223 KG/ M2 From the Manufacturer’s Chart for K-Lock Scaffolding and Decking – For an Actual Working Load of 3.5 = 2.25 ton/bay *Live Load = 4 persons + 2 vibrator = 4 x 75 + 2 x 100 = 500 kgs Factor of Safety = 2 (considered for slip form works) Total live load = 2 * 500 = 1000 kgs for 4.5 * 1.2 * 2.2 M thick = 4. Infill beam spacing (18 MM Plywood) MM.8 meter = 4.

2 m 1.2W) X 3.15.2 m Safety net – Outside silo Safety net – Inside silo Hanging Platform – outside silo Hanging Platform – Inside silo H ID OD Number of nets required (All dimensions in M): Inside portion : (ID .14/ length of safety net (W – Width of Platform) Width of net = Height between walkway of top platform to walkway of bottom platform. Silo Type Clinker Silo Cement Silo Homo Silo Section Outside of Silo 12/ silo 8/ silo 8/ silo Inside of Silo 10/ silo 6/ silo 7/ silo Total net/ Silo 22 14 15 Specification of fall protection safety nets: 10 m x 5 m x 25 mm mesh size 123 .3 Fall protection .Safety Net required during construction Working Platform 1.14/ length of safety net Outside portion: (OD +2W) X 3.

Case 1: Construction of 1 Clinker silo and either 1 Homo silo/ 1 Cement silo Total nets required for 2 silos = 1 x 22 + 1 x 15 + 1 spare = 38 nets Case 2: Construction of 2 Clinker Silos at a time Total nets required = 2 x 22 + 1 = 45 nets Case 3: Construction of 3 silos at a time Total nets required = 2 x 22 + 1 x 15 + 1 spare = 60 nets _____________ Safety Engineer 124 . in the worst case a maximum of 3 silos will be under construction. no Type of Silo Number of silo’s 1 Clinker Silo 2 2 Cement Silo 4 3 Homo Silo 1 . The construction programme is for 2 silos at a time. As per planning department. Total Number of Silos: Sl.

open flames (or) exposed electrical components are not permitted in the flammable gas cylinder storage area. it was observed that the fuel & gas cylinders are stored closer than as allowed by the standards.4 Housekeeping – Sorting & Storing of Gas cylinders Organization’s put in lot of efforts in housekeeping which is part of their fire prevention & accident prevention programme. Industrial LPG Domestic LPG Acetylene Argon Oxygen CO2 Nitrogen Full Empty Full Empty Full Empty Full Empty Full Empty Full Empty Full Empty 3. oxygen and fuel gas cylinders must be stored at a distance of 25-30 feet apart (or) separated by a fire wall with 2 hours rating. c. Combustible materials.15. The main housekeeping aspects concerned with storage of gas cylinders are a. Flammable Gases Flammable Gases Inert Gases Inert Gases Oxygen Full Empty Empty Full Acety Indu Dom Acety Indu Dom Acety Indu Dom Acety Indu Dom lene strial estic lene strial estic lene strial estic lene strial estic LPG LPG LPG LPG LPG LPG LPG LPG Full Full Full Empty Empty Empty Full Full Full Empty Empty Empty Empty Full 33 feet (Gas cylinders sorted by property and stored safely as per standard (25 to 30 feet)) 125 .3 ft 10 feet only (very unsafe) The gas cylinders were rearranged and stored maintaining the required separation distance. Each cell is around 1 meter in length and is made of steel framework.e. Segregate flammable gas from oxidizing gas during storage i. Storage areas must be kept dry and well ventilated b. Improper housekeeping & material storage can create (or) hide numerous hazards such as • Slip & trip hazards • Contact with sharp objects • Overloading of storage shelves and bins • Chemical exposure • Fire & Explosion hazards Fire & explosion hazards can be well managed when the items are sorted & stored as per their combustible properties. During inspection in a workshop.

Push/ Pull – 2 wheeled trolleys The gas cylinders are placed in the trolleys.15. Carrying cylinders below the hip level has less risk as compared with carrying over shoulders. Load = 100 %. The load is shared equally among the two. Fatigue is halved. Moving along steep slopes and rough surfaces involves certain degree of risk. effort < 50%. locked by chains and then pushed/ pulled to the place of work. However. They put effort to push or pull the trolley to the workplace. Load on person < 50%. Hence. The load will be on the trolley but the worker will feel the strain when pushing or pulling the trolley to the workplace. A Fatigue reduction tool for Accident Prevention Carrying – One person The person usually lifts & places the gas cylinder over his shoulder and walks to the place of work. hence maximum effort is required Fatigue = Maximum Carrying – 2 persons Two persons tie a pipe on both ends and carry it to their place of work. There will be no load on the workmen other than the energy spent to push/ pull the trolley. effort is halved. locked by chains and then pushed/ pulled to the place of work. The load is fully on the body and more energy is spent. Load on person = 0 %. Gas cylinders can fall when loading/ unloading the trolley but not during use. Moving along steep slopes and rough surfaces involves certain degree of risk. Load will be on the workman only while tilting the trolley to move or place it at the workplace. Load on the person = 50%.5 Ergonomics. Explosion may result. thus halving the energy spent by one. Fatigue increases when it is repeated. without strain on the workman. effort = Minimum Fatigue = Minimum Using 3/4 wheeled trolleys proves to be the best way because of less fatigue and improved safety by minimizing the risk of accidents while handling gas cylinders. The load will be fully on the trolley. Fatigue < 50%. Hence. Hence. 126 . when the cylinder slips to fall down damaging the valve. Push/ Pull – 3 / 4 Wheeled trolleys The gas cylinders are placed in the trolleys. these gas trolleys can fall down if the worker loses grip while pushing/ pulling the trolley or it is being hit by some moving object.

e. but the same lifting process was followed without considering the change in parameters. New hazards are not identified and the safety precautions applied for the previous work conditions will be applied in the new conditions creating a GAP. When doing a job for the first time. The workplace and the job must be studies carefully and hazards must be identified.6 Regular review of work procedures Work procedures must be regularly reviewed. The crane may be 5 to 10 times the weight of the car. A car has been parked along the edge of the road.15. this task has all the characteristics of an industrial activity. By mistake the car fell over into water. • Prior to execution. Moreover. But when lifting the crane. the crane along with the car has collapsed and fallen into water. From this incident we can learn that • One hazard analysis may not suit another job • Do/ Review the hazard analysis every time. especially whenever there is a change in job or working conditions. especially when there is a change in the job characteristics & working conditions. Due to poor planning of the lift operation. 127 . Hazards are present everywhere and must be identified to manage it else we give it chance to cause an accident. a bigger was used to lift the car. The car was lifted successfully. Then. the lifting operation failed and both the cranes fell back into the water. educate the workmen through pep-talk/ tool box meetings about the hazards that can be expected when performing the job. The job characteristic i. these kinds of innovative ideas used for teaching. A crane was used to life the car. This makes a big difference as there are many hidden hazards in the job. promotes the interest to learn and remember it for a long time. Oh fantastic! The same successful procedure was used to lift the drowned crane. the object to be lifted has changed in size and weight. Though the incident is not a normal industrial activity. a hazard analysis is done and later it is used for all kinds of related work irrespective changes in the job characteristics and working conditions. The incident shown in the photographs below can be used to demonstrate the need to review the hazard identification done for a job. If this has been considered before lifting the lifting operation would not have failed when lifting the crane from water.

When parameters of the same job change Review JSA everytime to ACHIEVE ZERO 128 .

When Newton saw it fall. An employee was not wearing safety glass in the shop floor: Why 1? Because he was not able to see properly Why 2? Is there sufficient lighting? Yes. you can discoveries. just like the layers of an only treat the symptoms/warning signs (i. peel away the layers of symptoms which can lead to the root cause of the problem. property damage incidents. finding the real cause of the problem and asked why and it led to the dealing with it rather than simply continuing to deal with the symptoms. The following example demonstrates the management system. we should continue asking “Why?” to avoid assumptions and logic traps. discoveries? There are many tools for conducting accident investigation to figure out the real cause of the Over generations.15. process. Sometimes we can arrive at the root cause by asking why 2 or 3 times. 129 . discovery of the “gravitational force” and Newton’s law of Gravity.) the onion. Investigations are done to find out the underlying By repeatedly asking the question causes and suggest preventive actions to prevent ‘why?' you can peel away the layers similar events in future. TO ACHIEVE ZERO never hesitate to Although this technique suggests asking “Why” five ask why? times. One of the simplest methods is to ask “Why?” five Asking why can lead to great times. millions of accident.e. machinery breakdowns are some of the many unwanted events that can in the workplace that can bring a mammoth financial loss to the organization. In these cases. which can lead you to the cause of the particular incident and conclude any of the different forms of Human Error like root cause of an accident. These unwanted situations consume lot of resources and sometimes tends to happen in a repeated fashion. people have seen the apple fall but similar incidents will not be repeated in future. it may be required to ask few or more times than five before arriving at the root cause of the Root causes will be failures in the problem. Why 5? Purchase department has been instructed to go for low cost products as part of budgeting to reduce expenses. By repeatedly asking why 5 times.7 Root cause analysis. The Asking why can lead to great same human error can happen again with another person replacing the accidentee and this continues. Hence the root cause of the problem is – Poor quality of safety glass. carelessness as the underlying accident cause. When this real cause is dealt with properly. This none knew or asked Why it falls underlying cause is referred to as Root Cause down. he Analysis. Often the recommendations of an issue. an Accident Prevention tool Accidents. there is Why 3? The glass is full of scratches and poorly visible Why 4? Has he not changed the glass? The organization issues glass every 3 months and he has taken the glass just 2 weeks before? Low quality of the glass is the issue.

Hence for long term benefits. money and a lot to list. Proper behavior is often achieved through BBS. Research proves reinforcing safe behavior’s continuously.15. Working safely gets promotion (for ambitious man). This is because behavior (for the moment) comes from the sub-conscious mind. Regular encouragement coupled with motivation & reinforcement makes safe behavior a habit as unsafe behavior is within one’s control. Conscious mind is temporary and sub-conscious mind is permanent. Praising people in public gatherings. Posting details of incidents with loss details will make everyone aware about the losses due to unsafe behavior – “Learn from the experience of others”. Sometimes public punishing is required to correct unsafe behavior. These observations are analysed for their root cause and the required training in given along with positive or negative reinforcement techniques to minimize unsafe behaviors. A simple example to illustrate: Despite putting huge efforts to persuade for using seat belts the results were not satisfactory. The easiest way to remove tensions is to change our attitudes. For long term benefits this behavior change must be aimed to change the attitude. Thorndike’s famous law of effect says “behavior that is rewarded increases”. a chance for promotion likewise with this certificate boosts their image to a star’s status. Everyone wants to maintain a good public image. Everyone has got their own career targets to achieve like position. BBS is not a substitute for Safety & Hazard management programs. A reward like a financial incentive. It is a simple rule of thumb worth keeping in mind when considering actions. It appears that by following a BBS program will make the workplace safe and free from accidents. 130 . keeps his family safe (for family man) and boosts the reputation (for proud man). Then observers are identified and trained to make observations. New laws were enforced and strictly followed meant that we have to wear them – and after sometime few workers would feel comfortable driving around without a seat belt. These kinds of appreciations expressed properly become an incentive for working safely and foster’s the needed cooperation in following safe practices. an attitude change is important if safe working practices are to be internalized by operatives. Awarding deserving employees with catchy safety titles & certificates will bolster their image in turn motivates all to demonstrate safe behavior. One such catchy title is “Hazard Knocker”. This makes everyone eager to get the certificate of honor and used to encourage safe behaviors. leads to a change in attitude because if there is a mismatch between the ways we behave and our attitude it results in internal tension.8 Encouraging safe behaviors – BBS in action As explained earlier. emphasize on the personnel and job gains for working safely. meetings will bolster their image and is good compliment for a work done safely. BBs must be used to support the Hazard management programs to make the workplace safe. During toolbox talks. Always stress on the gains that impress employees. all the possible unsafe behaviors are listed out and a checklist is made.

Kabir bedi in villain role often quotes a dialogue "loog kahan sochana bandh karthey hai.1 My experience in promoting safe behaviour at work We can also use the movies & media to promote safety. One man taking risk will certainly affect others. Encourage employees to participate in safety activities. Some parts of the movie show the situations and dialogues which has an underlying safety concept. Actions with positive results tend to be repeated and with negative results tend to be avoided.8. some scenes from famous Bollywood block buster Hindi movie – "HUMRAAZ" was enacted as drama for workmen to understand how hazards multiply – One hazard leads to another. Johnny Lever explains in a comic way how a simple act like smoking or spilling tea. Praising and rewarding for good suggestions encourages employees to follow safe behaviors. These kinds of dialogues must be identified and screened when conducting safety promotional programmes. with a big hungama. Movies with catchy dialogues are often remembered and can be used to promote safety as done below. Akin to this. "Faisla .The Decision" (cast by Bobby Deol & Amisha Patel) can be used during toolbox talks. Co-worker’s actions make everyone’s life safe 15. main vahan se soochana shuru kartha hoon" 131 . In Humrazz. Excerpts from movies can be used to promote the concept of safety. can create havoc throughout the city. the comedian. to promote the importance of eliminating hazards to ACHIEVE ZERO. another dialogue from the Bollywood movie. In a safety drama. One of the commonly used techniques is the safety suggestion scheme. Higher management must always disapprove unsafe behaviors no matter how much cost or time saved.

It must also be insisted to eliminate all false protection provided at work places. It needs Action from everyone to ACHIEVE ZERO. 132 .– the dialogue means the "hazard" (villain) starts striking from the point where people stop implementing safety precautions for accident prevention. to catch up the backlogs in construction schedules safety procedures are overlooked. Just worrying about the backlog of the construction schedules doesn't empty the sorrows of tomorrow loss in production but it certainly empties the strength of achieving the task in hand today as working safely means you are planning perfectly with the approved 4M's required to do the job. Substation project @ Juayamah Saudi Arabia to explain the concept "Hazards Multiply Fast if not Knocked out in time. This can be widely observed in construction sites particularly in the use of ACCESS requiring attention round the clock as it is the basic requirement for doing work safely to ACHIEVE ZERO. when the mother advises her daughter to use the Krack cream to avoid cracks causing pain in the feet."Accidents start where Safety ends". Providing unsafe handrails particularly made of packing timber/ wood or plywood and improper access at workplaces indirectly invokes a workman to take shortcuts and violate safety rules. Author acting in a safety drama. In the advertisement telecast in Indian TV channels for Krack Cream. Isn't this analogous with the Safety thought ." – “Jaldi Faisla Karo" (means Decide fast) to ACHIEVE ZERO Toolbox talks by the Author @ Diplomat Hotel site. the daughter caringly tells her mum that pain is for you mother caused by cracks in her feet." Often. Isn't this analogous with "TO ACHIEVE ZERO knowing about safety is not enough. safe action is a must from everyone to ACHIEVE ZERO. Proper access ensures safe work while improving the work output making working a pleasure. Bahrain elaborating "Knowing about safety is not enough. She alerts her mum – you know everything. even then failed to take preventive action.

which states that about 80% of the problems are produced by about 20% of the which when addressed will causes and 80% of problems could be resolved by dealing solve the recurring problems with 20% of the causes.80-20.15. Pareto’s law: “The vital few and the trivial many” .9 Pareto Analysis. determine the major areas on which the efforts must be concentrated to improve safety performance. (Trivial many problems can be (or) the most important solved by managing vital few causes. Rating Observation Recommendation Date 1 2 3 4 5 Note: The higher the priority rating.a small Pareto Analysis is an ideal proportion of causes produce a large proportion of results. difficulties are addressed Pareto analysis is a ranking method that can be used to first. Thus. A vital few improvements can produce the bulk of the results. problems we have to deal Vilfredo Pareto is an Italian economist and sociologist. the higher the risk or hazard A=High D=Low “Hazard Type” is the classification of unsafe act or unsafe condition observed (refer sec. Lot of accident data is available with which we can determine what has been accomplished and what further action must be put to increase the effectiveness of work to prevent accidents.) problem to solve. 133 . CONSOLIDATED SAFETY LOG/ CONCERN/ OBSERVATION Sr. This is based Before solving problems only on past data that identifies the most important items identify the vital few issues among many using the thumb rule . who first & where to focus for after analyzing the wealth distribution in Italy proposed the rule – 80% of the country’s (Italy) wealth are owned by 20% action. Priority Concern/ Corrective Action/ Due Location Date Hazard Type Status No. With this data the workmen can be trained suitably & our efforts can be directed more towards the prominent hazards prevailing in the workplace. Analysing observations over a period of time we can identify the trend in types of hazards dominant in the work place and violations recurring with the workmen. so that areas creating of the people and the balance 20% of the country’s wealth is most of the issues and owned by 80% of the people.4. Analyze the trend in violations Work safety observations must be analyzed to spot the recurring unsafe practices occurring in the workplace. frequently a vital few causes may need special way to prioritize which attention while the trivial many may warrant very little.3).

It is a creative way of looking into problem causatives & stimulates thinking about the prominent hazards. This is nothing more than a list of causes in descending order of their frequency or occurrence. For example.“20% of the accidents account for 80% of the losses & balance 80% of accidents account for 20% of the losses”. we may have a lot of shop floor accidents. Thus.effort must be expended on those vital few at the head of the list first. a high percentage of rejects. a vital few accidents cause the bulk of losses . gradually tailing off into the trivial many at the bottom of the list. our attention is unavoidably focussed where it will do the most good. Our task is now clear and unavoidable . This list automatically reveals the vital few at the top of the list. This is because nothing of importance can take place unless it affects the vital few. Similarly. The results of thinking along Pareto lines are immense. The first stage is to carry out a Pareto analysis. “Managers are the key to establish a successful safety culture where everyone values safety highly as productivity and ACHIEVE ZERO” 134 . as it keeps varying for one industry to another. and a sudden increase in costs etc.

Litter-free. clean and tidy. LAKSHMANAN 135 . Do not be careless when gauging the gravity.look. let us make this Treaty. When handling accessories and Tools hefty. beware its Warranty. they result from laxity. While using sensitive explosives like TNT. In observing Safety Rules strictly while on Duty. K. Take all the precautions and avoid being hasty. Enforce wearing PPE at Work . Your diligence can prevent a situation nasty.Spot. Use Warning Tapes To cordon off deep trenches' entry. as a Soldier of Safety. Periodic checks on Chains & Pulleys a necessity! Don’t ever Over . To realize an Environment of a Safer Society. Studiously Keep the Work-Spot vicinity. accessible. While using Wire Ropes. carefully study. Accidents don’t befall. Swear by Your Commitment. Of the Work on hand and devising your strategy. as its Sentry. A Treaty with Safety To ensure Cent Per Cent Sanctity of Safety. Consciously. If it is sufficiently weight-worthy & sturdy. At Workplace.

Hazard Knockers manage risks using   TRICK TRAINING RECOGNITION       INSPECTION       CORRECTIVE ACTION   KNOWLEDGE SHARING &S Achieve Zero       INCIDENTS INJURIES ILLNESSES Hareekirishnan LRK .