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Microbiology and Immunology

Lecture Notes, Study Materials and Important questions answers

Subject : Microbiology and Immunology


General Microbiology History of Microbiology
1. History of Microbiology - Answer (click here)
2. Historical Background of Microbiology - Answer (click here)
3. Microorganisms as a Cause of Disease - Answer (click here)
4. Study of Viruses - Answer (click here)
5. Phenomenon of Immunity - Answer (click here)
6. Specificity of the Antibody Molecule - Answer (click here)
7. Chemotherapeutic Agents - Answer (click here)

Morphology and Physiology of Bacteria


1. Morphology and Physiology of Bacteria - Answer (click here)
2. Size of Bacteria - Answer (click here)
3. Microscopy and Types of Microscopy - Answer (click here)
4. Light microscopy - Answer (click here)
5. Fluorescence microscopy - Answer (click here)
6. Electron microscopy - Answer (click here)
7. Study of Bacteria - Answer (click here)
8. Staining Methods used in diagnostic microbiology - Answer (click here)
9. Shape of Bacteria - Answer (click here)
10. Cell Wall - Structure and Functions of Bacterial Cell Envelope - Answer
(click here)
11. Cell Membrane - Structure and Functions of Bacterial Cell Envelope -
Answer (click here)
12. Cytoplasm - Structure and Functions of Bacterial Cell Envelope - Answer
(click here)
13. Nucleus - Structure and Functions of Bacterial Cell Envelope - Answer
(click here)
14. Capsule and Slime Layer - Structure and Functions of Bacterial Cell
Envelope - Answer (click here)
15. Surface Appendages - Structure and Functions of Bacterial Cell
Envelope - Answer (click here)
16. Sporulation - Structure and Functions of Bacterial Cell Envelope -
Answer (click here)
17. Growth and Multiplication of Bacteria - Answer (click here)
18. Bacterial Count - Answer (click here)
19. Bacterial Growth Curve - Answer (click here)
20. Factors Affecting Growth of Bacteria - Answer (click here)
21. Bacterial Nutrition - Answer (click here)

Sterilizationand Disinfection
1. Definition of Frequently Used Terms in Sterilizationand Disinfection -
Answer (click here)
2. Sterilization - Answer (click here)
3. Physical Methods of Sterilization - Answer (click here)
4. Chemical Methods of Sterilization - Answer (click here)
5. Sterilization by moist heat - Answer (click here)
6. Sterilization by dry heat - Answer (click here)
7. Disinfection - Answer (click here)
8. Properties of Ideal Disinfectant - Answer (click here)
9. Action of Disinfectants - Answer (click here)
10. Factors Influencing Activity of Disinfectants - Answer (click here)
11. Types of Disinfectants - Answer (click here)
12. Testing of Disinfectants - Answer (click here)

Culture Media
1. Culture Media - Answer (click here)
2. Ingredients of Culture Media - Answer (click here)
3. Types of Culture Media - Answer (click here)

Culture Methods
1. Culture Methods - Answer (click here)
2. Methods of Culture - Answer (click here)
3. Anaerobic Culture: Specimen, Culture Media, Methods - Answer (click
here)

Laboratory Identification of Bacteria and Taxonomy


1. Identification of Bacteria - Answer (click here)
2. Biochemical Reactions - Identification of Bacteria - Answer (click here)
3. Typing of Bacterial Strains - Answer (click here)
4. Bacterial Taxonomy - Answer (click here)
5. Bacterial Classification - Answer (click here)
6. Nomenclature of Microorganisms - Answer (click here)

Bacterial Genetics
1. Bacterial Genetics - Answer (click here)
2. Chromosomal Substances - Bacterial Genetics - Answer (click here)
3. Mutations - Answer (click here)
4. Extrachromosomal DNA Substances - Answer (click here)
5. Transfer of DNA Within Bacterial Cells - Answer (click here)
6. Transfer of DNA Between Bacterial Cells - Answer (click here)

Genetic Engineering and Molecular Methods


1. DNA: An Amazing Molecule - Answer (click here)
2. Genetic Engineering - Answer (click here)
3. Nucleic Acid Probes - Answer (click here)
4. Polymerase Chain Reaction - Answer (click here)
5. Recombinant DNA Technology - Microbiology and Immunology -
Answer (click here)
6. Genetically Modified Organisms - Answer (click here)
7. Gene Therapy - Answer (click here)

Antimicrobial Agents Therapy and Resistance


1. Antimicrobial Agents Therapy and Resistance - Answer (click here)
2. Mechanisms of Action of Antimicrobial Drugs - Answer (click here)
3. Mechanisms of Antibiotic Resistance - Resistance to Antimicrobial
Drugs - Answer (click here)
4. Nongenetic and Genetic Basis of Resistance - Answer (click here)
5. Specific Mechanisms of Resistance - Answer (click here)
6. Antibiotic Sensitivity Testing - Answer (click here)
7. Antibacterial Assays in Body Fluids - Answer (click here)

Microbial Pathogenesis
1. Microbial Pathogenesis: Introduction - Answer (click here)
2. Types of Microorganisms - Answer (click here)
3. Infection and Types of Infections - Answer (click here)
4. Stages of Pathogenesis of Infections - Answer (click here)
5. Transmission of Infection - Stages of Pathogenesis of Infections - Answer
(click here)
6. Entry of Organisms and Evasion of Local Defenses - Stages of
Pathogenesis of Infections - Answer (click here)
7. Adherence to Cell Surfaces - Stages of Pathogenesis of Infections -
Answer (click here)
8. Growth and Multiplication of Bacteria at the Site of Adherence - Stages
of Pathogenesis of Infections - Answer (click here)
9. Manifestations and Termination of Disease - Stages of Pathogenesis of
Infections - Answer (click here)
10. Stages of an Infectious Disease - Answer (click here)

Immunity
1. Immunity - Answer (click here)
2. Types of Immunity - Answer (click here)
3. Innate Immunity - Answer (click here)
4. Factors influencing innate immunity - Answer (click here)
5. Mechanisms of innate immunity - Answer (click here)
6. Mediators of inflammatory reactions - Answer (click here)
7. Adaptive (Acquired) Immunity and its Types - Answer (click here)

Antigen
1. Antigen: Introduction - Answer (click here)
2. Determinants of Antigenicity - Answer (click here)
3. Antigenic Specificity: Epitopes - Answer (click here)
4. Species Specificity - Antigen - Answer (click here)
5. Isospecificity - Antigen - Answer (click here)
6. Autospecificity - Antigen - Answer (click here)
7. Organ Specificity - Antigen - Answer (click here)
8. Heterophile Specificity - Antigen - Answer (click here)
9. Haptens - Answer (click here)
10. Superantigens - Answer (click here)

Antibodies
1. Antibodies: Introduction - Answer (click here)
2. Structure of Immunoglobulins - Answer (click here)
3. Treatment of Immunoglobulins with Proteolytic Enzymes - Answer (click
here)
4. Immunoglobulin Antigen Determinants - Answer (click here)
5. Biosynthesis of Immunoglobulins - Answer (click here)
6. Metabolism of Immunoglobulins - Answer (click here)
7. Immunoglobulin Classes - Answer (click here)
8. Abnormal Immunoglobulins - Answer (click here)

Antigen Antibody Reactions


1. General Features of Antigen-Antibody Reactions - Answer (click here)
2. Stages of Antigen-Antibody Reactions - Answer (click here)
3. Types of Antigen-Antibody Reactions - Answer (click here)
4. Precipitation - Antigen Antibody Reactions - Answer (click here)
5. Types of precipitation reactions - Antigen Antibody Reactions - Answer
(click here)
6. Agglutination - Antigen Antibody Reactions - Answer (click here)
7. Types of agglutination reactions: Direct, Passive - Antigen Antibody
Reactions - Answer (click here)
8. Complement Dependent Serological Tests - Antigen Antibody Reactions
- Answer (click here)
9. Neutralization Tests - Antigen Antibody Reactions - Answer (click here)
10. Opsonization - Antigen Antibody Reactions - Answer (click here)
11. Immunofluorescence - Antigen Antibody Reactions - Answer (click here)
12. Enzyme Immunoassays - Antigen Antibody Reactions - Answer (click here)
13. Radioimmunoassay - Antigen Antibody Reactions - Answer (click here)
14. Western Blotting - Antigen Antibody Reactions - Answer (click here)
15. Chemiluminescence Assay - Antigen Antibody Reactions - Answer (click
here)
16. Immunoelectronmicroscopic Tests - Antigen Antibody Reactions -
Answer (click here)

Complement System
1. Complement System - Answer (click here)
2. Activation of Complement - Answer (click here)
3. Regulation of Complement System - Answer (click here)
4. Biological Effects of Complement - Answer (click here)
5. Deficiency of Complement - Answer (click here)
6. Biosynthesis of Complement - Answer (click here)
7. Quantitation of Complement - Answer (click here)

Structure and Function Imune System


1. Structure and Function Imune System: Introduction - Answer (click here)
2. Lymphoid Tissues and Organs - Answer (click here)
3. Lymphatic Circulatory System - Answer (click here)
4. Cells of the Lymphoreticular System - Answer (click here)
5. Thymus-derived cells - Answer (click here)
6. Bone marrow-derived cells - Answer (click here)
7. Antigen-presenting cells - Answer (click here)
8. Effector cells that function to eliminate antigens - Answer (click here)
9. Major Histocompatibility Complex - Answer (click here)

Immune Response
1. Humoral Immunity - Answer (click here)
2. Production of Antibodies - Answer (click here)
3. Theories of antibody formation - Answer (click here)
4. Factors affecting production of antibodies - Answer (click here)
5. Immunosuppressive agents - Answer (click here)
6. Monoclonal Antibodies and Method of production - Answer (click here)
7. Function of Antibodies - Answer (click here)
8. Cell-Mediated Immunity - Answer (click here)
9. Induction of CMI - Answer (click here)
10. Cytokines and Categories of cytokines - Answer (click here)
11. Tests for Detection of CMI - Answer (click here)
12. Transfer Factor - Answer (click here)
13. Immunological Tolerance - Answer (click here)
14. Mechanisms of Tolerance - Answer (click here)
15. Types of Immune Tolerance - Answer (click here)

Immunodeficiency
1. Immunodeficiency: Introduction - Answer (click here)
2. Primary Immunodeficiencies - Answer (click here)
3. B-Cell Immunodeficiencies - Answer (click here)
4. T-Cell Immunodeficiencies - Answer (click here)
5. Combined B-Cell and T-Cell Deficiencies - Answer (click here)
6. Complement Immunodeficiencies - Answer (click here)
7. Phagocyte Deficiencies - Answer (click here)
8. Secondary Immunodeficiencies - Answer (click here)
9. B-Cell Deficiencies - Answer (click here)
10. T-Cell Deficiencies - Answer (click here)
11. Complement Deficiencies - Answer (click here)
Hypersensitivity
1. Hypersensitivity: Introduction - Answer (click here)
2. Type I (Anaphylactic) Hypersensitivity - Answer (click here)
3. Type II (Cytotoxic) Hypersensitivity - Answer (click here)
4. Type III (Immune-Complex) Hypersensitivity - Answer (click here)
5. Type IV Delayed (Cell-Mediated) Hypersensitivity - Answer (click here)
6. Type V (Stimulatory Type) Hypersensitivity - Answer (click here)
7. Types of DTH(delayed type hyper-sensitivity) Reactions - Answer (click
here)
8. Mechanism of DTH(delayed type hyper-sensitivity) - Answer (click here)
9. Immune-Complex Diseases - Answer (click here)

Autoimmunity
1. Autoimmunity - Answer (click here)
2. Tolerance and Mechanisms of Tolerance - Answer (click here)
3. Pathogenesis of Autoimmunity - Answer (click here)
4. Mechanisms in Pathogenesis of Autoimmunity - Answer (click here)
5. Autoimmune Pathological Process - Answer (click here)
6. Animal Models of Autoimmunity - Answer (click here)
7. Autoimmune Diseases - Answer (click here)

Immunology of Transplantation and Malignancy


1. Transplant Immunology and Types of Transplants - Answer (click here)
2. Allograft Rejection - Transplant Immunology - Answer (click here)
3. Graft-Versus-Host Reaction - Transplant Immunology - Answer (click here)
4. Tumor Immunology - Answer (click here)
5. Features of Malignant Cells - Answer (click here)
6. Tumor Antigens - Answer (click here)
7. Immune Reactions against Tumors - Answer (click here)
8. Immunosurveillance - Answer (click here)
9. Immunotherapy of Cancer - Answer (click here)

Immunohematology
1. ABO Blood Group System and Antigens - Answer (click here)
2. Rh Blood Group System and Antigens - Answer (click here)
3. Blood Transfusion - Answer (click here)
4. Hemolytic Disease of Newborn (Erythroblastosis Fetalis) - Answer (click
here)
5. ABO Hemolytic Diseases - Answer (click here)

Bacteriology Staphylococcus
1. Staphylococcus - Answer (click here)
2. Staphylococcus aureus - Answer (click here)
3. Properties of the Bacteria - Staphylococcus aureus - Answer (click here)
4. Cell Wall Components and Antigenic Structure - Staphylococcus aureus
- Answer (click here)
5. Pathogenesis and Immunity - Staphylococcus aureus - Answer (click here)
6. Clinical Syndromes of Staphylococcus aureus - Answer (click here)
7. Epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus - Answer (click here)
8. Laboratory diagnosis of staphylococcal infections - Staphylococcus
aureus - Answer (click here)
9. Treatment of staphylococcal infection - Staphylococcus aureus - Answer
(click here)
10. Prevention and Control of staphylococcal infection - Staphylococcus
aureus - Answer (click here)
11. Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci - Answer (click here)
12. Micrococcus, Planococcus, Stomatococcus - Staphylococcus - Answer
(click here)

Bacteriology Streptococcus and Enterococcus


1. Streptococcus - Answer (click here)
2. Streptococcus pyogenes - Answer (click here)
3. Properties of the Bacteria - Streptococcus pyogenes - Answer (click here)
4. Cell Wall Components and Antigenic Structure - Streptococcus
pyogenes - Answer (click here)
5. Pathogenesis and Immunity - Streptococcus pyogenes - Answer (click here)
6. Clinical Syndromes - Streptococcus pyogenes - Answer (click here)
7. Epidemiology - Streptococcus pyogenes - Answer (click here)
8. Laboratory Diagnosis - Streptococcus pyogenes - Answer (click here)
9. Treatment of Streptococcus pyogenes infections - Answer (click here)
10. Prevention and Control of Streptococcus pyogenes infections - Answer
(click here)
11. Streptococcus agalactiae - Answer (click here)
12. Other Hemolytic Streptococci - Answer (click here)
13. Viridans Streptococci - Answer (click here)
14. Enterococcus - Answer (click here)

Bacteriology Pneumococusm
1. Streptococcus pneumonia - Answer (click here)
2. Cell Wall Components and Antigenic Structure - Streptococcus
pneumonia - Answer (click here)
3. Pathogenesis and Immunity - Streptococcus pneumonia - Answer (click
here)
4. Clinical Syndromes - Streptococcus pneumonia - Answer (click here)
5. Epidemiology of Streptococcus pneumonia - Answer (click here)
6. Laboratory Diagnosis - Streptococcus pneumonia infections - Answer
(click here)
7. Treatment of Streptococcus pneumonia infections - Answer (click here)

Bacteriology Neisseria
1. Neisseria gonorrhoeae - Answer (click here)
2. Properties of the Bacteria Neisseria gonorrhoeae - Answer (click here)
3. Cell Wall Components and Antigenic Properties - Neisseria gonorrhoeae
- Answer (click here)
4. Pathogenesis and Immunity - Neisseria gonorrhoeae - Answer (click here)
5. Clinical Syndromes - Neisseria gonorrhoeae - Answer (click here)
6. Epidemiology of Neisseria gonorrhoeae - Answer (click here)
7. Laboratory diagnosis of Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection - Answer (click
here)
8. Treatment of Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection - Answer (click here)
9. Prevention and Control of Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection - Answer (click
here)
10. Neisseria meningitides: Properties of the Bacteria - Answer (click here)
11. Cell Wall Components and Antigenic Structure - Neisseria meningitides
- Answer (click here)
12. Pathogenesis and Immunity - Neisseria meningitides - Answer (click here)
13. Clinical Syndromes - Neisseria meningitides - Answer (click here)
14. Epidemiology of Neisseria meningitides - Answer (click here)
15. Laboratory Diagnosis of Neisseria meningitides infections - Answer (click
here)
16. Treatment of Neisseria meningitides infections - Answer (click here)
17. Prevention and Control of Neisseria meningitides infections - Answer
(click here)
18. Other Neisseria Bacteria Species - Answer (click here)

Bacteriology Corynebacterium
1. Corynebacterium - Answer (click here)
2. Corynebacterium diphtheria: Properties of the Bacteria - Answer (click
here)
3. Pathogenesis and Immunity - Corynebacterium diphtheria - Answer (click
here)
4. Clinical Syndromes - Corynebacterium diphtheria - Answer (click here)
5. Epidemiology of Corynebacterium diphtheria - Answer (click here)
6. Laboratory Diagnosis of Corynebacterium diphtheria infections - Answer
(click here)
7. Treatment of Corynebacterium diphtheria infections - Answer (click here)
8. Prevention and Control of Corynebacterium diphtheria infections -
Answer (click here)
9. Other Pathogenic Corynebacterium Species - Answer (click here)
10. Few Coryneform Genera - Answer (click here)

Bacteriology Bacillus
1. Bacillus: Introduction - Answer (click here)
2. Bacillus anthracis - Answer (click here)
3. Properties of the Bacteria Bacillus anthracis - Answer (click here)
4. Cell Wall Components and Antigenic Properties - Bacillus anthracis -
Answer (click here)
5. Pathogenesis and Immunity - Bacillus anthracis - Answer (click here)
6. Clinical Syndromes - Bacillus anthracis - Answer (click here)
7. Epidemiology - Bacillus anthracis - Answer (click here)
8. Laboratory Diagnosis of Bacillus anthracis infections - Answer (click here)
9. Treatment of Bacillus anthracis infections - Answer (click here)
10. Prevention and Control of Bacillus anthracis infections - Answer (click
here)
11. Anthracoid Bacilli - Answer (click here)
12. Bacillus cereus - Answer (click here)

Bacteriology Clostridium
1. Clostridium - Answer (click here)
2. General Properties of Clostridia - Answer (click here)
3. Clostridium perfringens: Properties of the Bacteria - Answer (click here)
4. Pathogenesis and Immunity - Clostridium perfringens - Answer (click here)
5. Clinical Syndromes - Clostridium perfringens - Answer (click here)
6. Epidemiology - Clostridium perfringens - Answer (click here)
7. Laboratory Diagnosis of Clostridium perfringens infections - Answer (click
here)
8. Treatment, Prevention and Control of Clostridium perfringens infections
- Answer (click here)
9. Clostridium tetani: Properties of the Bacteria - Answer (click here)
10. Pathogenesis and Immunity - Clostridium tetani - Answer (click here)
11. Clinical Syndromes - Clostridium tetani - Answer (click here)
12. Epidemiology - Clostridium tetani - Answer (click here)
13. Laboratory Diagnosis of Clostridium tetani infections - Answer (click here)
14. Treatment of Clostridium tetani infections - Answer (click here)
15. Prevention and Control of Clostridium tetani infections - Answer (click
here)
16. Clostridium botulinum: Properties of the Bacteria - Answer (click here)
17. Pathogenicity and Immunity - Clostridium botulinum - Answer (click here)
18. Clinical Syndromes - Clostridium botulinum - Answer (click here)
19. Epidemiology - Clostridium botulinum - Answer (click here)
20. Laboratory Diagnosis of Clostridium botulinum infections - Answer (click
here)
21. Treatment of Clostridium botulinum infections - Answer (click here)
22. Prevention and Control of Clostridium botulinum infections - Answer
(click here)
23. Clostridium difficile - Answer (click here)

Bacteriology Nonsporing Anaerobes


1. Nonsporing Anaerobes - Answer (click here)
2. Anaerobic Bacilli - Answer (click here)
3. Anaerobic Gram-Positive Bacilli - Answer (click here)
4. Anaerobic Gram-Negative Bacilli - Answer (click here)

Coliforms
1. Coliforms - Answer (click here)
2. Escherichia - Answer (click here)
3. Escherichia coli: Properties of the Bacteria - Answer (click here)
4. Cell Wall Components and Antigenic Structure - Escherichia coli -
Answer (click here)
5. Pathogenesis and Immunity - Escherichia coli - Answer (click here)
6. Epidemiology - Escherichia coli - Answer (click here)
7. Laboratory Diagnosis of Escherichia coli Infections - Answer (click here)
8. Treatment, Prevention and Control of Escherichia coli Infections -
Answer (click here)
9. Edwardsiella - Answer (click here)
10. Citrobacter - Nonsporing Anaerobes - Answer (click here)
11. Klebsiella - Answer (click here)
12. Enterobacter - Answer (click here)
13. Hafnia - Answer (click here)
14. Serratia - Answer (click here)
15. Proteus - Answer (click here)
16. Proteus: Properties of the Bacteria - Answer (click here)
17. Cell Wall Components and Antigenic Properties - Proteus - Answer (click
here)
18. Pathogenesis and Immunity - Proteus - Answer (click here)
19. Clinical Syndromes - Proteus - Answer (click here)
20. Epidemiology - Proteus - Answer (click here)
21. Laboratory Diagnosis of Proteus Infections - Answer (click here)
22. Treatment, Prevention and Control of Proteus Infections - Answer (click
here)
23. Morganella - Answer (click here)
24. Providencia - Answer (click here)
25. Erwinia - Answer (click here)

Bacteriology Salmonella
1. Salmonella - Answer (click here)
2. Salmonella: Properties of the Bacteria - Answer (click here)
3. Cell Wall Components and Antigenic Structure - Salmonella - Answer
(click here)
4. Pathogenesis and Immunity - Salmonella - Answer (click here)
5. Clinical Syndromes - Salmonella - Answer (click here)
6. Epidemiology - Salmonella - Answer (click here)
7. Laboratory Diagnosis of Salmonella Infections - Answer (click here)
8. Treatment of Salmonella Infections - Answer (click here)
9. Prevention and Control of Salmonella Infections - Answer (click here)
10. Salmonella Gastroenteritis - Answer (click here)
11. Salmonella Bacteremia - Answer (click here)

Bacteriology Shigella
1. Shigella - Answer (click here)
2. Shigella: Properties of the Bacteria - Answer (click here)
3. Cell Wall Components and Antigenic Structure - Shigella - Answer (click
here)
4. Pathogenesis and Immunity - Shigella - Answer (click here)
5. Clinical Syndromes - Shigella - Answer (click here)
6. Epidemiology - Shigella - Answer (click here)
7. Laboratory Diagnosis of Shigella Infections - Answer (click here)
8. Treatment and Prevention and Control of Shigella Infections - Answer
(click here)

Bacteriology Yersinia
1. Yersinia - Answer (click here)
2. Yersinia pestis: Properties of the Bacteria - Answer (click here)
3. Cell Wall Components and Antigenic Structure - Yersinia pestis - Answer
(click here)
4. Pathogenesis and Immunity - Yersinia pestis - Answer (click here)
5. Clinical Syndromes - Yersinia pestis - Answer (click here)
6. Epidemiology - Yersinia pestis - Answer (click here)
7. Laboratory Diagnosis of Yersinia pestis Infections - Answer (click here)
8. Treatment of Yersinia pestis Infections - Answer (click here)
9. Prevention and Control of Yersinia pestis Infections - Answer (click here)
10. Yersinia enterocolitica - Answer (click here)
11. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis - Answer (click here)

Bacteriology VibrioAeromonasand Plesiomonas


1. Vibrio cholerae: Properties of the Bacteria - Answer (click here)
2. Cell Wall Components and Antigenic Structure - Vibrio cholerae -
Answer (click here)
3. Pathogenesis and Immunity - Vibrio cholerae - Answer (click here)
4. Clinical Syndromes - Vibrio cholerae - Answer (click here)
5. Epidemiology - Vibrio cholerae - Answer (click here)
6. Laboratory Diagnosis of Vibrio cholerae Infections - Answer (click here)
7. Treatment of Vibrio cholerae Infections - Answer (click here)
8. Prevention and Control of Vibrio cholerae Infections - Answer (click here)
9. Noncholera Vibrios - Answer (click here)
10. Vibrio mimicus - Answer (click here)
11. Halophilic Vibrios - Answer (click here)
12. Aeromonas - Answer (click here)
13. Plesiomonas - Answer (click here)

Bacteriology Campylobacter and Helicobacter


1. Campylobacter: Properties of the Bacteria - Answer (click here)
2. Pathogenesis and Immunity - Campylobacter - Answer (click here)
3. Clinical Syndrome - Campylobacter - Answer (click here)
4. Epidemiology - Campylobacter - Answer (click here)
5. Laboratory Diagnosis of Campylobacter Infections - Answer (click here)
6. Treatment, Prevention and Control of Campylobacter Infections - Answer
(click here)
7. Helicobacter - Answer (click here)
8. Helicobacter pylori: Properties of the Bacteria - Answer (click here)
9. Pathogenesis and Immunity - Helicobacter pylori - Answer (click here)
10. Clinical Syndrome - Helicobacter pylori - Answer (click here)
11. Epidemiology - Helicobacter pylori - Answer (click here)
12. Laboratory Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori Infections - Answer (click
here)
13. Treatment, Prevention and Control of Helicobacter pylori Infections -
Answer (click here)

Bacteriology Pseudomonas Burkholderia and Moraxell


1. Pseudomonas - Answer (click here)
2. Pseudomonas aeruginosa: Properties of the Bacteria - Answer (click here)
3. Cell Wall Components and Antigenic Structure - Pseudomonas
aeruginosa - Answer (click here)
4. Pathogenesis and Immunity - Pseudomonas aeruginosa - Answer (click
here)
5. Clinical Syndromes - Pseudomonas aeruginosa - Answer (click here)
6. Epidemiology - Pseudomonas aeruginosa - Answer (click here)
7. Laboratory Diagnosis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infections - Answer
(click here)
8. Treatment, Prevention and Control of Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Infections - Answer (click here)
9. Burkholderia: Burkholderia cepacia, mallei, pseudomallei - Answer (click
here)
10. Moraxella - Answer (click here)

Bacteriology Haemophilus Pasteurella and Actinobacillus


1. Haemophilu - Answer (click here)
2. Haemophilus influenza: Properties of the Bacteria - Answer (click here)
3. Cell Wall Structures and Antigenic Properties - Haemophilus influenza -
Answer (click here)
4. Pathogenesis and Immunity - Haemophilus influenza - Answer (click here)
5. Clinical Syndromes - Haemophilus influenza - Answer (click here)
6. Epidemiology - Haemophilus influenza - Answer (click here)
7. Laboratory Diagnosis of Haemophilus influenza Infections - Answer (click
here)
8. Treatment, Prevention and Control of Haemophilus influenza Infections
- Answer (click here)
9. Few Haemophilus Species - Answer (click here)
10. Pasteurella - Answer (click here)
11. Actinobacillus - Answer (click here)
12. HACEK Group of Bacteria - Answer (click here)

Bacteriology Bordetella and Francisella


1. Bordetella - Answer (click here)
2. Bordetella pertussis: Properties of the Bacteria - Answer (click here)
3. Cell Wall Components and Antigenic Properties - Bordetella pertussis -
Answer (click here)
4. Pathogenesis and Immunity - Bordetella pertussis - Answer (click here)
5. Clinical Syndromes - Bordetella pertussis - Answer (click here)
6. Epidemiology - Bordetella pertussis - Answer (click here)
7. Laboratory Diagnosis of Bordetella pertussis Infections - Answer (click
here)
8. Treatment, Prevention and Control of Bordetella pertussis Infections -
Answer (click here)
9. Bordetella parapertussis - Answer (click here)
10. Bordetella bronchiseptica - Answer (click here)
11. Francisella tularensis: Properties of the bacteria - Answer (click here)
12. Pathogenesis and Immunity - Francisella tularensis - Answer (click here)
13. Clinical Syndromes and Epidemiology - Francisella tularensis - Answer
(click here)
14. Laboratory Diagnosis of Francisella tularensis Infections - Answer (click
here)
15. Treatment, Prevention and Control of Francisella tularensis Infections -
Answer (click here)

Bacteriology Brucella
1. Brucella - Answer (click here)
2. Brucella: Properties of the Bacteria - Answer (click here)
3. Cell Wall Components and Antigenic Structure - Brucella - Answer (click
here)
4. Pathogenesis and Immunity - Brucella - Answer (click here)
5. Clinical Syndromes - Brucella - Answer (click here)
6. Epidemiology - Brucella - Answer (click here)
7. Laboratory Diagnosis of Brucella Infections - Answer (click here)
8. Treatment, Prevention and Control of Brucella Infections - Answer (click
here)

Bacteriology Mycobacterium tuberculosis


1. Mycobacterium tuberculosis - Answer (click here)
2. Mycobacterium tuberculosis: General Properties - Answer (click here)
3. Mycobacterium tuberculosis: Properties of the Bacteria - Answer (click
here)
4. Cell Wall Components and Antigenic Structure - Mycobacterium
tuberculosis - Answer (click here)
5. Pathogenesis and Immunity - Mycobacterium tuberculosis - Answer (click
here)
6. Clinical Syndromes - Mycobacterium tuberculosis - Answer (click here)
7. Complications of Tuberculosis - Mycobacterium tuberculosis - Answer
(click here)
8. Epidemiology - Mycobacterium tuberculosis - Answer (click here)
9. Laboratory Diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infections - Answer
(click here)
10. Treatment for Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infections - Answer (click here)
11. Prevention and Control for Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infections -
Answer (click here)

Bacteriology Nontuberculous Mycobacteria


1. Nontuberculous Mycobacteria - Answer (click here)
2. Photochromogens - Answer (click here)
3. Scotochromogens - Answer (click here)
4. Nonphotochromogens - Answer (click here)
5. Rapid Growers - Answer (click here)

Bacteriology Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium


1. Mycobacterium leprae: Properties of the Bacteria - Answer (click here)
2. Cell Wall Components and Antigenic Structure - Mycobacterium leprae
- Answer (click here)
3. Pathogenesis and Immunity - Mycobacterium leprae - Answer (click here)
4. Clinical Syndromes - Mycobacterium leprae - Answer (click here)
5. Epidemiology - Mycobacterium leprae - Answer (click here)
6. Laboratory Diagnosis for Mycobacterium leprae Infections - Answer (click
here)
7. Treatment for Mycobacterium leprae Infections - Answer (click here)
8. Prevention and Control for Mycobacterium leprae Infections - Answer
(click here)
9. Mycobacterium lepraemurium - Answer (click here)

Bacteriology Treponema Borrelia and Leptospira


1. Treponema - Answer (click here)
2. Treponema pallidum: Properties of the Bacteria - Answer (click here)
3. Cell Wall Components and Antigenic Structure - Treponema pallidum -
Answer (click here)
4. Pathogenesis and Immunity - Treponema pallidum - Answer (click here)
5. Clinical Syndromes - Treponema pallidum - Answer (click here)
6. Epidemiology - Treponema pallidum - Answer (click here)
7. Laboratory Diagnosis - Treponema pallidum Infections - Answer (click
here)
8. Treatment, Prevention and Control - Treponema pallidum Infections -
Answer (click here)
9. Nonvenereal Treponematosis - Answer (click here)
10. Nonpathogenic Treponemes - Answer (click here)
11. Borrelia - Answer (click here)
12. Borrelia recurrentis: Properties of the Bacteria - Answer (click here)
13. Pathogenesis and Immunity - Borrelia recurrentis - Answer (click here)
14. Clinical Syndromes - Borrelia recurrentis - Answer (click here)
15. Epidemiology - Borrelia recurrentis - Answer (click here)
16. Laboratory Diagnosis - Borrelia recurrentis infections - Answer (click here)
17. Treatment, Prevention and Control - Borrelia recurrentis infections -
Answer (click here)
18. Borrelia vincenti - Answer (click here)
19. Borrelia burgdorferi - Answer (click here)
20. Leptospira: Classification - Answer (click here)
21. Leptospira interrogans Complex: Properties of the Bacteria - Answer (click
here)
22. Pathogenesis and Immunity - Leptospira interrogans Complex - Answer
(click here)
23. Clinical Syndromes - Leptospira interrogans Complex - Answer (click here)
24. Epidemiology - Leptospira interrogans Complex - Answer (click here)
25. Laboratory Diagnosis - Leptospira interrogans Complex Infections -
Answer (click here)
26. Treatment, Prevention and Control - Leptospira interrogans Complex
Infections - Answer (click here)

Bacteriology Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma


1. Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma - Answer (click here)
2. Mycoplasma pneumonia: Properties of the Bacteria - Answer (click here)
3. Cell Wall Components and Antigenic Structure - Mycoplasma
pneumonia - Answer (click here)
4. Pathogenesis and Immunity - Mycoplasma pneumonia - Answer (click here)
5. Clinical Syndromes - Mycoplasma pneumonia - Answer (click here)
6. Epidemiology - Mycoplasma pneumonia - Answer (click here)
7. Laboratory Diagnosis - Mycoplasma pneumonia Infections - Answer (click
here)
8. Treatment, Prevention and Control - Mycoplasma pneumonia Infections
- Answer (click here)
9. Genital Mycoplasma Species - Answer (click here)
10. Ureaplasma urealyticum - Answer (click here)
11. Atypical Pneumonia - Answer (click here)

Bacteriology Actinomycetes
1. Actinomycetes - Answer (click here)
2. Actinomyces: Properties of the Bacteria - Answer (click here)
3. Pathogenesis and Immunity - Actinomyces - Answer (click here)
4. Clinical Syndromes and Epidemiology - Actinomyces - Answer (click here)
5. Laboratory Diagnosis - Actinomyces Infections - Answer (click here)
6. Treatment, Prevention and Control - Actinomyces Infections - Answer
(click here)
7. Nocardia - Answer (click here)
8. Nocardia: Properties of the Bacteria - Answer (click here)
9. Pathogenesis and Immunity - Nocardia - Answer (click here)
10. Clinical Syndromes - Nocardia - Answer (click here)
11. Epidemiology - Nocardia - Answer (click here)
12. Laboratory Diagnosis - Nocardia Infections - Answer (click here)
13. Treatment, Prevention and Control - Nocardia Infections - Answer (click
here)
14. Rhodococcus - Answer (click here)
15. Gordonia, Tsukamurella, Thermophilic Actinomyces, Tropheryma
whippelii, Dermatophilus, Oerskovia - Actinomycetes - Answer (click here)

Bacteriology Miscellaneous Bacteria


1. Listeria monocytogenes - Bacteria - Answer (click here)
2. Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae - Bacteria - Answer (click here)
3. Alcaligenes faecalis - Bacteria - Answer (click here)
4. Chromobacterium violaceum - Bacteria - Answer (click here)
5. Flavobacterium meningosepticum - Bacteria - Answer (click here)
6. Calymmatobacterium - Bacteria - Answer (click here)
7. Streptobacillus moniliformis - Bacteria - Answer (click here)
8. Spirillum minus - Bacteria - Answer (click here)
9. Legionella - Bacteria - Answer (click here)
10. Legionella pneumophila: Properties of the Bacteria - Answer (click here)
11. Cell Wall Components and Antigenic Structure - Legionella
pneumophila - Answer (click here)
12. Pathogenesis and Immunity - Legionella pneumophila - Answer (click here)
13. Clinical Sydromes - Legionella pneumophila - Answer (click here)
14. Epidemiology - Legionella pneumophila - Answer (click here)
15. Laboratory Diagnosis - Legionella pneumophila Infections - Answer (click
here)
16. Treatment, Prevention and Control - Legionella pneumophila Infections
- Answer (click here)
17. Bartonella - Answer (click here)
18. Capnocytophaga - Answer (click here)
19. Gardnerella vaginalis - Bacteria - Answer (click here)

Bacteriology Rickettsia Orientia Ehrlichia and Coxiella


1. Rickettsia, Orientia Ehrlichia, and Coxiella - Answer (click here)
2. Genus Rickettsia: Properties of the Bacteria - Answer (click here)
3. Cell Wall Components and Antigenic Structure - Genus Rickettsia -
Answer (click here)
4. Typhus Fever Group - Answer (click here)
5. Rickettsia prowazekii - Answer (click here)
6. Rickettsia typhi - Answer (click here)
7. Spotted Fever Group - Answer (click here)
8. Rickettsia rickettsiae - Answer (click here)
9. Rickettsia akari - Answer (click here)
10. Orientia tsutsugamushi - Genus Orientia - Answer (click here)
11. Genus Ehrlichia - Answer (click here)
12. Genus Coxiella - Answer (click here)
13. Coxiella burnetii: Properties of the Bacteria - Answer (click here)
14. Cell Wall Components and Antigenic Structure - Coxiella burnetii -
Answer (click here)
15. Pathogenesis and Immunity, Clinical Syndrome - Coxiella burnetii -
Answer (click here)
16. Epidemiology - Coxiella burnetii - Answer (click here)
17. Laboratory Diagnosis - Coxiella burnetii Infections - Answer (click here)
18. Treatment, Prevention and Control - Coxiella burnetii Infections - Answer
(click here)

Bacteriology Chlamydia and Chlamydophilaum


1. Chlamydia - Answer (click here)
2. Chlamydia: General Properties, Growth and Multiplication - Answer (click
here)
3. Chlamydia trachomatis: Properties of the Bacteria - Answer (click here)
4. Cell Wall Components and Antigenic Structure - Chlamydia trachomatis
- Answer (click here)
5. Pathogenesis and Immunity - Chlamydia trachomatis - Answer (click here)
6. Clinical Syndromes - Chlamydia trachomatis - Answer (click here)
7. Epidemiology - Chlamydia trachomatis - Answer (click here)
8. Laboratory Diagnosis - Chlamydia trachomatis Infections - Answer (click
here)
9. Treatment, Prevention and Control - Chlamydia trachomatis Infections -
Answer (click here)
10. Chlamydophila - Answer (click here)
11. Chlamydophila pneumonia - Answer (click here)
12. Chlamydophila psittaci - Answer (click here)

Virology Virus General Properties of Viruses


1. General Properties of Viruses - Answer (click here)
2. Morphology of Viruses - Answer (click here)
3. Structure and Symmetry of Virus - Answer (click here)
4. Susceptibility to Physical and Chemical Agents of Virus - Answer (click
here)
5. Replication of Viruses - Answer (click here)
6. Viral Genetics - Answer (click here)
7. Nomenclature and Taxonomy of Viruses - Answer (click here)

Virology Virus Pathogenesis of Viral Infections


1. Stages of Viral Infections - Answer (click here)
2. Viral Pathogenesis at the Cellular Level - Answer (click here)
3. Host Response to Viral Infections - Answer (click here)
4. Clinical Manifestations of Viral Diseases - Answer (click here)
5. Epidemiology - Pathogenesis of Viral Infections - Answer (click here)

Virology Virus Antiviral Agents


1. Antiviral Agents - Answer (click here)
2. Mechanism of Action of Antiviral Drugs - Answer (click here)
3. Classification of Antiviral Drugs - Answer (click here)

Virology Virus Laboratory Diagnosis of Viral Diseases


1. Laboratory Diagnosis of Viral Diseases: Introduction - Answer (click here)
2. Methods of Laboratory Diagnosis of Viral Diseases - Answer (click here)
3. Demonstration of Virus-Induced CPEs in the Cells - Methods of
Laboratory Diagnosis of Viral Diseases - Answer (click here)
4. Direct Detection of Viruses - Methods of Laboratory Diagnosis of Viral
Diseases - Answer (click here)
5. Virus Isolation - Methods of Laboratory Diagnosis of Viral Diseases -
Answer (click here)
6. Viral Assays - Methods of Laboratory Diagnosis of Viral Diseases -
Answer (click here)
7. Detection of Viral Proteins and Other Enzymes - Methods of Laboratory
Diagnosis of Viral Diseases - Answer (click here)
8. Detection of Viral Genome - Methods of Laboratory Diagnosis of Viral
Diseases - Answer (click here)
9. Viral Serology - Methods of Laboratory Diagnosis of Viral Diseases -
Answer (click here)

Virology Virus Bacteriophages


1. Bacteriophages - Answer (click here)
2. Morphology - Bacteriophages - Answer (click here)
3. Life Cycle: Lysogenic and Lytic Cycle - Bacteriophages - Answer (click
here)
4. Uses of Bacteriophages - Answer (click here)
5. Bacteriophage Typing - Answer (click here)

Virology Virus Poxviruses


1. Poxviruses: Classification - Answer (click here)
2. Variola (Smallpox) Virus: Properties of the Virus - Answer (click here)
3. Virus Isolation and Animal Susceptibility - Variola (Smallpox) Virus -
Answer (click here)
4. Pathogenesis and Immunity - Variola (Smallpox) Virus - Answer (click
here)
5. Clinical Syndrome - Variola (Smallpox) Virus - Answer (click here)
6. Epidemiology - Variola (Smallpox) Virus - Answer (click here)
7. Laboratory Diagnosis - Variola (Smallpox) Virus Infections - Answer
(click here)
8. Treatment, Prevention and Control - Variola (Smallpox) Virus Infections
- Answer (click here)
9. Vaccinia Virus - Answer (click here)
10. Monkeypox - Answer (click here)
11. Buffalopox - Answer (click here)
12. Cowpox - Answer (click here)
13. Orf - Answer (click here)
14. Molluscum Contagiosum - Answer (click here)
15. Tanapox and Yabapox - Answer (click here)

Virology Virus Papovaviruses


1. Human Papillomaviruses: Properties of the Virus - Answer (click here)
2. Pathogenesis and Immunity - Human Papillomaviruses - Answer (click
here)
3. Clinical Syndromes - Human Papillomaviruses - Answer (click here)
4. Epidemiology - Human Papillomaviruses - Answer (click here)
5. Laboratory Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention and Control - Human
Papillomaviruses Infections - Answer (click here)
6. Polyomavirus - Answer (click here)

Virology Virus Herpesviruses


1. Herpesviruses - Answer (click here)
2. Herpes Simplex Virus: Properties of the Virus - Answer (click here)
3. Virus Isolation and Animal Susceptibility - Herpes Simplex Virus -
Answer (click here)
4. Pathogenesis and Immunity - Herpes Simplex Virus - Answer (click here)
5. Clinical Syndromes - Herpes Simplex Virus - Answer (click here)
6. Epidemiology - Herpes Simplex Virus - Answer (click here)
7. Laboratory Diagnosis - Herpes Simplex Virus Infections - Answer (click
here)
8. Treatment, Prevention and Control - Herpes Simplex Virus Infections -
Answer (click here)
9. Herpesvirus Simiae: B Virus - Answer (click here)
10. Varicella Zoster Virus: Properties of the Virus, Virus Isolation and
Animal Susceptibility - Answer (click here)
11. Pathogenesis and Immunity - Varicella Zoster Virus - Answer (click here)
12. Clinical Syndromes - Varicella Zoster Virus - Answer (click here)
13. Epidemiology - Varicella Zoster Virus - Answer (click here)
14. Laboratory Diagnosis - Varicella Zoster Virus Infections - Answer (click
here)
15. Treatment, Prevention and Control - Varicella Zoster Virus Infections -
Answer (click here)
16. Epstein Barr Virus: Properties of the Virus - Answer (click here)
17. Pathogenesis and Immunity - Epstein Barr Virus - Answer (click here)
18. Clinical Syndromes - Epstein Barr Virus - Answer (click here)
19. Epidemiology - Epstein Barr Virus - Answer (click here)
20. Laboratory Diagnosis - Epstein Barr Virus Infections - Answer (click here)
21. Treatment, Prevention and Control - Epstein Barr Virus Infections -
Answer (click here)
22. Cytomegalovirus: Classification, Properties of the Virus, Virus Isolation
and Animal Susceptibility - Answer (click here)
23. Pathogenesis and Immunity - Cytomegalovirus - Answer (click here)
24. Clinical Syndromes - Cytomegalovirus - Answer (click here)
25. Epidemiology - Cytomegalovirus - Answer (click here)
26. Laboratory Diagnosis - Cytomegalovirus Infections - Answer (click here)
27. Treatment, Prevention and Control - Cytomegalovirus Infections -
Answer (click here)
28. Human Herpesvirus 6,7,8 - Answer (click here)

Virology Virus Adenoviruses


1. Adenovirus: Classification - Answer (click here)
2. Adenovirus: Properties of the Virus - Answer (click here)
3. Virus Isolation and Animal Susceptibility - Adenovirus - Answer (click
here)
4. Pathogenesis and Immunity - Adenovirus - Answer (click here)
5. Clinical Syndromes - Adenovirus - Answer (click here)
6. Epidemiology - Adenovirus - Answer (click here)
7. Laboratory Diagnosis - Adenovirus Infections - Answer (click here)
8. Treatment - Adenovirus Infections - Answer (click here)
9. Adeno-Associated Viruses - Answer (click here)

Virology Virus Parvoviruses


1. Parvoviruses - Answer (click here)
2. Parvovirus B19: Properties of the Virus - Answer (click here)
3. Pathogenesis and Immunity - Parvovirus B19 - Answer (click here)
4. Clinical Syndromes - Parvovirus B19 - Answer (click here)
5. Epidemiology - Parvovirus B19 - Answer (click here)
6. Laboratory Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention and Control - Parvovirus
B19 Infections - Answer (click here)

Virology Virus Picornaviruses


1. Picornaviruses - Answer (click here)
2. Enteroviruses - Answer (click here)
3. Poliovirus: Properties of the Virus - Answer (click here)
4. Virus Isolation and Animal Susceptibility - Poliovirus - Answer (click here)
5. Pathogenesis and Immunity - Poliovirus - Answer (click here)
6. Clinical Syndromes - Poliovirus - Answer (click here)
7. Epidemiology - Poliovirus - Answer (click here)
8. Laboratory Diagnosis - Poliovirus Infections - Answer (click here)
9. Treatment, Prevention and Control - Poliovirus Infections - Answer (click
here)
10. Coxsackieviruses - Answer (click here)
11. Diseases Caused by Coxsackie A and B - Answer (click here)
12. Echoviruses - Answer (click here)
13. Enterovirus 70 - Answer (click here)
14. Rhinoviruses - Answer (click here)

Virology Virus Orthomyxoviruses


1. Orthomyxoviruses - Answer (click here)
2. Influenza Viruses: Properties of the Virus - Answer (click here)
3. Virus Isolation and Animal Susceptibility - Influenza Viruses - Answer
(click here)
4. Pathogenesis and Immunity - Influenza Viruses - Answer (click here)
5. Clinical Syndrome - Influenza Viruses - Answer (click here)
6. Complications - Influenza Viruses - Answer (click here)
7. Epidemiology - Influenza Viruses - Answer (click here)
8. Laboratory Diagnosis - Influenza Viruses Infections - Answer (click here)
9. Treatment - Influenza Viruses Infections - Answer (click here)
10. Prevention and Control - Influenza Viruses Infections - Answer (click here)

Virology Virus Paramyxoviruses


1. Paramyxoviruses - Answer (click here)
2. Measles Virus: General Properties - Answer (click here)
3. Virus Isolation - Measles Virus - Answer (click here)
4. Pathogenesis and Immunity - Measles Virus - Answer (click here)
5. Clinical Syndromes - Measles Virus - Answer (click here)
6. Epidemiology - Measles Virus - Answer (click here)
7. Laboratory Diagnosis - Measles Virus Infections - Answer (click here)
8. Prevention and Control - Measles Virus Infections - Answer (click here)
9. Parainfluenza Virus: Properties of the Virus - Answer (click here)
10. Pathogenesis and Immunity - Parainfluenza Virus - Answer (click here)
11. Clinical Syndromes and Epidemiology - Parainfluenza Virus - Answer
(click here)
12. Laboratory Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention and Control -
Parainfluenza Virus Infections - Answer (click here)
13. Mumps Virus: Properties of the Virus, Virus Isolation - Answer (click here)
14. Pathogenesis and Immunity - Mumps Virus - Answer (click here)
15. Clinical Syndrome and Epidemiology - Mumps Virus - Answer (click here)
16. Laboratory Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention and Control - Mumps
Virus Infections - Answer (click here)
17. Respiratory Syncytial: Properties of the Virus - Answer (click here)
18. Pathogenesis and Immunity - Respiratory Syncytial - Answer (click here)
19. Clinical Syndromes - Respiratory Syncytial - Answer (click here)
20. Epidemiology - Respiratory Syncytial - Answer (click here)
21. Laboratory Diagnosis - Respiratory Syncytial Infections - Answer (click
here)
22. Treatment, Prevention and Control - Respiratory Syncytial Infections -
Answer (click here)
23. Nipah Virus and Hendra Virus - Answer (click here)
24. Human Metapneumovirus - Answer (click here)

Virology Virus Reoviruses


1. Human Metapneumovirus - Answer (click here)
2. Reoviruses - Answer (click here)
3. Orbiviruses - Answer (click here)
4. Coltiviruses and Colorado Tick Fever Virus - Answer (click here)
5. Orthoreoviruses - Answer (click here)
6. Rotavirus: Properties of the Virus - Answer (click here)
7. Pathogenesis and Immunity - Rotavirus - Answer (click here)
8. Clinical Syndrome and Epidemiology - Rotavirus - Answer (click here)
9. Laboratory Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention and Control - Rotavirus
Infections - Answer (click here)

Virology Virus Rhabdoviruses


1. Rhabdoviruses - Answer (click here)
2. Rabies Virus: Properties of the Virus - Answer (click here)
3. Virus Isolation and Animal Susceptibility - Rabies Virus - Answer (click
here)
4. Pathogenesis and Immunity - Rabies Virus - Answer (click here)
5. Clinical Syndrome - Rabies Virus - Answer (click here)
6. Epidemiology - Rabies Virus - Answer (click here)
7. Laboratory Diagnosis in Humans - Rabies Virus Infection - Answer (click
here)
8. Direct Antigen Detection - Rabies Virus Infection - Answer (click here)
9. Laboratory Diagnosis in Animals - Rabies Virus Infection - Answer (click
here)
10. Treatment, Prevention and Control - Rabies Virus Infection - Answer (click
here)
11. Rabies-Related Viruses - Answer (click here)

Virology Virus Arboviruses


1. Arboviruses - Answer (click here)
2. Important Properties of Arboviruses - Answer (click here)
3. Roboviruses - Answer (click here)
4. Togaviruses: Alphaviruses, Rubivirus - Answer (click here)
5. Flaviviruses - Answer (click here)
6. Mosquito-Borne Flaviviruses - Answer (click here)
7. Properties of the virus Mosquito-Borne Flaviviruses - Answer (click here)
8. Pathogenesis and immunity - Mosquito-Borne Flaviviruses - Answer (click
here)
9. Clinical syndromes - Mosquito-Borne Flaviviruses - Answer (click here)
10. Epidemiology - Mosquito-Borne Flaviviruses - Answer (click here)
11. Laboratory diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention and control - Mosquito-
Borne Flaviviruses Infections - Answer (click here)
12. Tick-Borne Flaviviruses - Answer (click here)
13. Bunyaviridae Viruses - Answer (click here)
14. Reoviridae - Answer (click here)
15. Rhabdoviridae - Answer (click here)
16. Ungrouped Arboviruses - Answer (click here)

Hepatitis Viruses
1. Hepatitis Viruses: Introduction - Answer (click here)
2. Hepatitis A Virus: Properties of the Virus - Answer (click here)
3. Pathogenesis and Immunity - Hepatitis A Virus - Answer (click here)
4. Clinical Syndrome - Hepatitis A Virus - Answer (click here)
5. Epidemiology - Hepatitis A Virus - Answer (click here)
6. Laboratory Diagnosis - Hepatitis A Virus - Answer (click here)
7. Treatment, Prevention and Control - Hepatitis A Virus Infections -
Answer (click here)
8. Hepatitis B Virus: Properties of the Virus - Answer (click here)
9. Pathogenesis and Immunity - Hepatitis B Virus - Answer (click here)
10. Clinical Syndromes - Hepatitis B Virus - Answer (click here)
11. Epidemiology - Hepatitis B Virus - Answer (click here)
12. Laboratory Diagnosis - Hepatitis B Virus Infections - Answer (click here)
13. Treatment - Hepatitis B Virus Infections - Answer (click here)
14. Prevention and Control - Hepatitis B Virus Infections - Answer (click here)
15. Hepatitis C Virus: Properties of the Virus - Answer (click here)
16. Pathogenesis and Immunity - Hepatitis C Virus - Answer (click here)
17. Clinical Syndromes - Hepatitis C Virus - Answer (click here)
18. Epidemiology - Hepatitis C Virus - Answer (click here)
19. Laboratory Diagnosis - Hepatitis C Virus Infections - Answer (click here)
20. Treatment, Prevention and Control - Hepatitis C Virus Infections -
Answer (click here)
21. Hepatitis D Virus - Answer (click here)
22. Hepatitis E Virus - Answer (click here)
23. Hepatitis G Virus - Answer (click here)

Virology Virus Retrovirus


1. Retroviruses: Classification - Answer (click here)
2. Retroviruses: Properties of the Virus - Answer (click here)
3. Pathogenesis and Immunity - Retroviruses - Answer (click here)
4. Clinical Syndromes - Retroviruses - Answer (click here)
5. Epidemiology - Retroviruses - Answer (click here)
6. Laboratory Diagnosis and Treatment - Retroviruses Infections - Answer
(click here)
7. Human T-Lymphotropic Viruses: Properties of the Virus - Answer (click
here)
8. Pathogenesis and Immunity - Human T-Lymphotropic Viruses - Answer
(click here)
9. Host immunity - Human T-Lymphotropic Viruses - Answer (click here)
10. Clinical Syndromes - Human T-Lymphotropic Viruses - Answer (click here)
11. Epidemiology - Human T-Lymphotropic Viruses - Answer (click here)
12. Laboratory Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention and Control - Human T-
Lymphotropic Viruses Infections - Answer (click here)
13. Endogenous Retroviruses - Answer (click here)

Virology Virus Human Immunodeficiency Virus


1. Human Immunodeficiency Virus - Answer (click here)
2. HIV Virus: Classification and Properties of the Virus - Answer (click here)
3. HIV Virus Isolation: Cell culture - Answer (click here)
4. Pathogenesis and Immunity - HIV Virus - Answer (click here)
5. Clinical Syndromes - HIV Virus - Answer (click here)
6. Epidemiology - HIV Virus - Answer (click here)
7. Laboratory Diagnosis - HIV Virus infection - Answer (click here)
8. Treatment - HIV Virus infection - Answer (click here)
9. Prevention and Control - HIV Virus infection - Answer (click here)

Virology Virus Slow Viruses and Prions


1. Slow Viruses and Prions - Answer (click here)
2. Slow Diseases Caused by Prions - Answer (click here)
3. Properties of the Prions - Slow Diseases Caused by Prions - Answer (click
here)
4. Pathogenesis and Immunity - Slow Diseases Caused by Prions - Answer
(click here)
5. Clinical Syndromes - Slow Diseases Caused by Prions - Answer (click here)
6. Epidemiology - Slow Diseases Caused by Prions - Answer (click here)
7. Laboratory Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention and Control - Slow
Diseases Caused by Prions - Answer (click here)
8. Slow Diseases Caused by Conventional Viruses in Humans - Answer (click
here)
9. Slow Diseases Caused by Conventional Viruses in Animals - Answer
(click here)

Virology Virus Miscellaneous Viruses


1. Rubella Virus - Answer (click here)
2. Norwalk Virus - Answer (click here)
3. Viral Hemorrhagic Fever - Answer (click here)
4. Arenavirus - Answer (click here)
5. Coronaviruses - Answer (click here)

Mycology Fungi Introduction to Mycology


1. Introduction to Mycology - Answer (click here)
2. Classification of Fungi - Answer (click here)
3. Reproduction of Fungi - Answer (click here)
4. Pathogenesis of Fungal Infection - Answer (click here)
5. Laboratory Diagnosis of Fungal Infection - Answer (click here)
6. Antifungal Drugs - Answer (click here)

Mycology Fungi Superficial Cutaneous and Subcutaneous


Mycoses
1. Superficial Mycoses - Answer (click here)
2. Cutaneous Mycoses - Answer (click here)
3. Subcutaneous Mycosis - Answer (click here)

Mycology Fungi Systemic Mycoses


1. Coccidioidomycosis - Answer (click here)
2. Paracoccidioidomycosis - Answer (click here)
3. Histoplasmosis - Answer (click here)
4. Blastomycosis - Answer (click here)
5. Cryptococcosis - Answer (click here)

Mycology Fungi Opportunistic Fungal Infections


1. Opportunistic Fungal Infections - Answer (click here)
2. Candidiasis - Answer (click here)
3. Candida albicans: Properties - Answer (click here)
4. Pathogenesis and Immunity - Candida albicans - Answer (click here)
5. Clinical Syndromes and Epidemiology - Candida albicans - Answer (click
here)
6. Laboratory Diagnosis - Candida albicans Infections - Answer (click here)
7. Treatment, Prevention and Control - Candida albicans Infections -
Answer (click here)
8. Aspergillus Species - Answer (click here)
9. Zygomycosis - Answer (click here)
10. Pneumocystis jiroveci - Pneumocystosis - Answer (click here)
11. Penicillium marneffei - Penicilliosis - Answer (click here)
12. Pseudoallescheria boydii Infection - Answer (click here)
13. Fusarium solani Infection - Answer (click here)

Applied Microbiology Normal Microbial Flora


1. Normal Microbial Flora - Answer (click here)
2. Functions of Resident Flora - Answer (click here)
3. Factors Determining the Colonization by Microbes - Answer (click here)
4. Normal Flora at Various Sites of the Body - Answer (click here)
5. Normal Flora at Respiratory Tract - Answer (click here)
6. Normal Flora at Gastrointestinal Tract - Answer (click here)
7. Normal Flora at Genitourinary Tract - Answer (click here)
8. Normal Flora at Body Surface - Answer (click here)
9. Normal Flora at Sterile Sites - Answer (click here)

Applied Microbiology Bacteriology of Water Milk and Air


1. Bacteriology of Water - Answer (click here)
2. Bacteriology of Milk - Answer (click here)
3. Bacteriology of Air - Answer (click here)

Applied Microbiology Nosocomial Infections


1. Nosocomial Infections - Answer (click here)
2. Factors Affecting Hospital-Acquired Infection - Answer (click here)
3. Epidemiology of Hospital-Acquired Infections - Answer (click here)
4. Diagnosis of Hospital-Acquired Infections - Answer (click here)
5. Prevention and Control of Hospital-Acquired Infections - Answer (click
here)

Applied Microbiology Biomedical Waste Management


1. Biomedical Waste Management - Answer (click here)
2. Types of Biomedical Waste - Answer (click here)
3. Waste Treatment and Disposal of Biomedical Wastes - Answer (click here)

Applied Microbiology Immunoprophylaxis


1. Immunoprophylaxis - Answer (click here)
2. Active Immunization - Answer (click here)
3. Immunization Schedule - Answer (click here)
4. Passive Immunization - Answer (click here)
5. Individual Immunization - Answer (click here)