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Difficult round

1. Mathematics

A poster is to contain 300 cm2 of printed matter with margins of 10 cm at the top and bottom and
5 cm at each side. Find the overall dimensions if the total area of the poster is minimum

Ans: 22.24cm x 44.5cm

Let A = total area

Ap = area with picture

A = (10+x) (20+y)

A = 200 + 10y +20x + xy (1)

Ap = xy = 300

y = 300/x (2)

Substitute (2) in (1)

300 300
𝐴 = 200 + 10 ( ) + 20𝑥 + 𝑥( )
𝑥 𝑥
3000
𝐴 = 500 + ( ) + 20𝑥
𝑥
𝑑𝐴 3000
= − 2 + 20 = 0
𝑑𝑥 𝑥
3000
0 = 20 −
𝑥2
x = 12.24 cm

Substitute x = 12.24cm in (2)

300
𝑦= = 24.5 𝑐𝑚
12.24
A = (10+12.24) + (20+24.5), thus A = 22.24cm x 44.45cm
2. Mathematics

Solve for x, if tan 3x = 5tan x

Ans: 20.705°

tan 3x = 5tan x (1)


𝑡𝑎𝑛2𝑥+𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑥
tan 3x = tan (2x+x) = (2)
1−𝑡𝑎𝑛2𝑥𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑥

Substitute (2) in (1)

𝑡𝑎𝑛2𝑥 + 𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑥
= 5 tan 𝑥
1 − 𝑡𝑎𝑛2𝑥𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑥
𝑡𝑎𝑛2𝑥 + tan 𝑥 = 5𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑥 − 5𝑡𝑎𝑛2𝑥𝑡𝑎𝑛2 𝑥

𝑡𝑎𝑛2𝑥 = 4𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑥 − 5𝑡𝑎𝑛2𝑥𝑡𝑎𝑛2 𝑥

𝑡𝑎𝑛2𝑥(1 + 5𝑡𝑎𝑛2 𝑥) = 4𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑥 (3)


2𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑥
𝑡𝑎𝑛2𝑥 = (4)
1−𝑡𝑎𝑛2 𝑥

Substituting (4) in (3)

2𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑥
(1 + 5𝑡𝑎𝑛2 𝑥) = 4𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑥
1 − 𝑡𝑎𝑛2 𝑥
2𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑥(1 + 5𝑡𝑎𝑛2 𝑥) = 4𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑥(1 − 𝑡𝑎𝑛2 𝑥)

2𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑥 + 10𝑡𝑎𝑛3 𝑥 = 4𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑥 − 4𝑡𝑎𝑛3 𝑥)

14𝑡𝑎𝑛3 𝑥 = 2𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑥

𝑡𝑎𝑛2 𝑥 = 0.142857, x = 20.705°

3. Mathematics
𝑒 𝑥 −1
Find the integral of
𝑒 𝑥 +1

Ans: = 𝒍𝒏(𝒆𝒙 + 𝟏)𝟐 − 𝒙 + 𝑪

𝑒𝑥 − 1 𝑒 𝑥 𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥
∫ 𝑥 = ∫ 𝑥 − ∫ 𝑥
𝑒 +1 𝑒 +1 𝑒 +1
𝑑𝑥
= ln(𝑒 𝑥 + 1) − ∫
𝑒𝑥 + 1
Let u = ex+1, du = ex dx

𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑢 𝑑𝑢
∫ = ∫ 𝑥 𝑥 =∫
𝑒𝑥+1 𝑒 (𝑒 + 1) (𝑢 − 1)𝑢

1 𝐴 𝐵
= +
𝑢(𝑢 − 1) 𝑢 (𝑢 − 1)

1 = A(u-1) +Bu, = Au – A + Bu

1 = -A, A = -1, 0 = A + B, B = 1

𝑑𝑢 −𝑑𝑢 𝑑𝑢
∫ = ∫ +∫
(𝑢 − 1)𝑢 𝑢 (𝑢 − 1)

= 𝑙𝑛𝑢 + ln(𝑢 + 1) = − ln(𝑒 𝑥 + 1) + 𝑙𝑛𝑒 𝑥

= 𝑙𝑛(𝑒 𝑥 + 1) − (− ln(𝑒 𝑥 + 1) + 𝑙𝑛𝑒 𝑥 )

= 2 𝑙𝑛(𝑒 𝑥 + 1) − 𝑥 + 𝐶

= 𝒍𝒏(𝒆𝒙 + 𝟏)𝟐 − 𝒙 + 𝑪

4. Mathematics

A norman window is in the shape of a rectangle surmounted by a semi-circle. What is the ratio of
the width of the rectangle to the total height so that it will yield a window admitting the most
light for a given perimeter?
Ans: 1:1

Let P = Perimeter

P = 2x + 2y + [(1/2)(2πx)], = 2x + 2y + πx
𝑃−2𝑥−πx
𝑦= = 0.5P – 2.57x (1)
2

A = 2xy + [(1/2) (πx2)], (2)

Substituting (1) in (2)


π
𝐴 = 2𝑥[0.5P – 2.57x] + 𝑥 2
2
π
𝐴 = 𝑃𝑥 − 5.14𝑥 2 + 𝑥 2
2
𝐴 = 𝑃𝑥 − 3.57𝑥 2
𝑑𝐴
= 𝑃 − 7.14𝑥 = 0
𝑑𝑥
x = 0.14P

Substitute x in (1)

y = 0.5P – 2.57(0.14P), y = 0.14P

Solving for h:

h = y + x = 0.14P + 0.14P

h = 0.28P

Ratio = 2x/h = [2(0.14P]/0.28

Ratio = 1:1

5. Mathematics

Two perpendicular chords both 5cm from the center of a circle divide the circle into four parts. If
the radius of the circle is 13cm, find the area of the smallest part.

Ans: 31cm2

sinα = 5/13, α = 22.62°

2α + θ = 90°, θ = 44.76°

Let A = area of the shaded part,

AS = area of sector ABC

AT = area of triangle CDB


1 2𝜋𝑟𝑎𝑑
AS = (1/2) r2θ, = (13)2 [44.76°x ], A = 66cm2
2 360°

By Phytagorean theorem:

132 = 52 + (y+5)2

144 = (y+5)2

12 = y+5, y = 7
1
A = AS - 2AT A = 66 − 2 [ (7)(5)] = 𝟑𝟏𝒄𝒎𝟐
2
6. General Engineering (Engineering Economy)

You need P 4,000 per year for four years to go to college. Your father invested P 5,000 in 7%
account for your education when you were born. If you withdraw P 4,000 at the end of your 17th,
18th, 19th, and 20th birthday, how much will be left in the account at the end of the 21st year?
Round off your answers to two decimal points

Ans: P 1,699.86

𝐹1 = 𝑃1 (1 + 𝑖)𝑛 = 500(1 + 0.07)21 F1 = 20,702.81


𝐴[(1+𝑖)𝑛 −1]
𝐹2 =
𝑖

4000[(1+0.07)4 −1]
𝐹2 = F2 = 17,759.772
0.07

F3 = F2 (1+i) = (17,759.772) (1+0.07)

F3 = 19,002.95

Money left = F1 – F3

20,702.82 – 19,002.95 = P 1,699.86

7. General Engineering (Statics)

A trapezoid has two equal slanting sides, a 6 cm base and a 3 cm top parallel to and 5 cm above
the base. Determine the moment of inertia of the trapezoid area relative to the top side, in cm4

Ans: 218.75 cm4

A1 = 3(5) = 15

A2 = A3 = (1/2) (1.5) (5)

A2 = A3 = 3.75

d1 = 5/2 = 2.5

d2 = d3 = 2/3(5) = 10/3

Using transfer axis and moment formula:

IX1 = (I1+A1d12) + (I2+A2d22) + (I3+A3d32)

𝑏1 ℎ1 3 𝑏2 ℎ2 3 𝑏1 ℎ1 3
= [ + 𝐴1 𝑑1 2 ] + [ + 𝐴1 𝑑1 2 ] + [ + 𝐴1 𝑑1 2 ]
12 36 36
3(5)3 2
1.5(5)3 10
= [ + 15(2.5) ] + 2 [ + (3.75)( )2 ]
12 36 3

IX1 = 218.74 cm4

8. General Engineering (Strength of materials)

A steel shaft is transmitting 50 hp at 1200 rpm. The nature of the load and the type of the service
of the shaft is such that the allowable shearing stress based on pure torsion is 4000 psi. Find the
torsional deflection of the shaft in degrees per foot of the shaft. Assume G = 12x106

Ans: 𝟎. 𝟑° 𝒑𝒆𝒓 𝒇𝒐𝒐𝒕


2𝜋𝑁𝑇 2𝜋(1200)𝑇
𝐻𝑃 = 50 = T = 218.838 lb-ft, = 2626.056 lb-in
33,00 33,00

16𝑇 16(2626.056)
τ= 4000 = d = 1.5 in
𝜋𝑑 3 𝜋𝑑 3

𝑇𝐿 𝜋
𝜃= 𝐽= 𝑑3
𝐽𝐺 32

𝜃 𝑇 2626.056 180°
= 𝜋 = 𝜋 𝑥
𝐿 𝑑4𝐺 (1.5)4 (12𝑥10)6 𝜋
32 32
𝜃
= 0.025° 𝑝𝑒𝑟 𝑖𝑛𝑐ℎ or 0.3° 𝒑𝒆𝒓 𝒇𝒐𝒐𝒕
𝐿

9. General Engineering (Dynamics)

A ball is thrown vertically into the air at 120 m/s. After 3 seconds another ball is thrown
vertically. What is the velocity that the second ball must have to pass the first ball at 100m from
the ground?

Ans: 105.89m/s

Distance traveled by the first ball after 3 seconds (h)

1
ℎ = 𝑉𝑜 𝑡 − 𝑔𝑡 2
2
1
ℎ = (120)(3) − (9.81)(3)2 h = 315.85m
2

Note: since the distance traveled by the first ball is greater than 100m, therefore during the time
the two balls meet at 100m above the ground, the direction of the first ball must be going
downward, while the second ball upward
𝑉1 2 = 𝑉0 2 − 2𝑔ℎ1
0 = 1202 − 2(9.81)ℎ1 h1 = 734m, h2 = 734 – 100 = 634m

𝑉1 = 𝑉0 − 𝑔𝑡 2

0 = (120) − (9.81)(𝑡1 )2 t1 = 12.23s

1
ℎ2 = 𝑉1 𝑡2 + 𝑔𝑡 2
2
1
634 = 0 + (9.81)𝑡2 2 t2 = 11.37s
2

ttotal = t1 + t2, = 12.23s + 11.37s

ttotal = 23.6s

Let t3 = time needed by the second ball to reach at an elevation of 100m

t3 = 23.6-3 = 20.6s

1
ℎ3 = 𝑉𝑡3 − 𝑔𝑡3 2
2
1
ℎ3 = 𝑉(20.6) − (9.81)(20.6)2 h3 = 105.89m/s
2

10. Physics

Given a voltage of 10V, calculate the Power in terms of ergs/s

Ans: 166.67x106 erg/s

Req = 6 ohms

P = V2/Req = 102/6 = 16.67W x(10,000,000) = 166.67x106 erg/s


11. Physics

A 10g block slides with a velocity of 20cm/s on a smooth level surface and makes a collision with a 30g
block moving in the opposite direction with a velocity of 10cm/s. If the collision is perfectly elastic, what
is the velocity of the 30g block after the collision?

Ans: 5cm/s

M1`V1 + M2`V2 = M1`V’1 + M2`V’2

10(20) + 30(-10) = 10`(-V’1) + 30`V’2

-100 = -10V’1 + 30V’2 (1)

Note: For a perfectly elastic collision, coefficient of restitution is equal to 1.


𝑉′2 −𝑉′1
𝑒= = 1, therefore: V1 – V2 = V’2 – V’1
𝑉1 −𝑉2

20 – (-10) = V’2 – (-V’1), V’1 = 30 – V’2 (2)

Substituting (2) in (1)

-100 = -10(30 – V’2) + 30V’2

V’2 = 5cm/s

12. Chemistry

How much heat was removed from a cubic meter of helium at STP when cooled at constant pressure to
a final volume of 0.75m3? MWHelium = 4kg/kmol and Cv = 3.10 kJ/kg-K

Ans: -63.20kJ

𝑉1 𝑉2
=
𝑇1 𝑇2

(273𝐾)(0.75)𝑚3
𝑇2 = = 204.75𝐾
1𝑚3

Mass of Helium at STP

(101.325)(1)
M = PV/RT = = 0.179𝑘𝑔
(8.314⁄4)(273)

Change in internal energy:

ΔU = mCVΔT = (0.179)(3.10)(204.75-273)

ΔU = -37.87 kJ
Using the 1st law of thermodynamics:

Q = ΔU + P(V2-V1)

Q = -37.87 + 101.325(0.75-1)

Q = -63.20 kJ, (negative sign indicates that heat is removed)

13. General Chemistry

A motor is used to stir 5 kg of water at 0.4 Hp. Assuming that there was no losses and all the
work went into heating, how long will it take to increase the temperature of water by 6°C?
Express your answers in minutes

Ans: 7 minutes

Heat required to increase the temperature of water

Q = mCPΔT = 5000g (1.0Cal/g.C°)(6C°) = 30kcal

Since there are no heat losses and the work was fully converted into heat

W=Q

W = 30kcal x (4.186kJ/kCal)

W = 125.58kJ = power of the motor

P = W/t, t = W/P

t = 125.58kJ/0.4x(0.746kJ/s)

t = 420 s = 7 minutes

14. General information

A _____ is a smooth space curve that has a property that the tangent line in any point makes a
constant angle with a fixed line called the axis

Ans: Helix

15. General information

The growth of a nautilus shell, and other kinds of natural growth are governed by the
mathematical properties exhibited in the __________

Ans: Fibonacci sequence