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Automatic Identification And Data Capture

What is AIDC

•Automatic Identification and Data Capture (AIDC) is a broad category

of technologies used to collect information from an individual, object,
image or sound without manual data entry.

• Some of the technologies are Barcode, RFID, NFC, Biometrics and

many others

• These technologies aims at identifying an entity and ability to read and

process that identity




•Radio-frequency identification (RFID) is the wireless non-contact use of radio-

frequency electromagnetic fields to transfer data for the purposes of
automatically identifying and tracking tags attached to assets.

• RFID is Fast and Reliable

• It does not require a physical line of sight or contact between reader and the
tagged item

RFID Reader/Interrogator
RFID Tag/Transponder
RFID Antenna
• Brain of the RFID system
• Sometimes they are named as interrogator
• Transmit and receive radio waves in order to communicate with


Fixed Reader Handheld Reader Integrated Reader


•Antennas will allow the reader to transmit and receive signals

from the RFID Tags
• Antennas comes with various size, gain and polarization
•Gain – higher the gain, the more powerful the antenna. A higher
gain antenna will produce a larger field, thus extending read range
farther than a lower gain antenna.

Broadcast electromagnetic waves on a in a corkscrew-like fashion.

single plane

Horizontal plane/Vertical plane Right/Left hand circularly polarized

Greater read range Lesser read range

RFID tag must be fixed upon the same RFID tag may be found in any
plane as the antenna orientation

Polarization (horizontal) Circular Polarization (right-hand)


• it comprises of two parts antenna and a chip

• an antenna for transmitting and receiving signals, and an
RFID chip (or integrated circuit) which stores the tag’s ID
and other information.

Active RFID v/s Passive RFID

Power Battery Operated No internal power

Communication Range Long Range(100+mtr ) Short Range (>10 mtr)

Varies depending on “Sticker” to credit card

Tag Size
application size

Fixed Infrastructure Lower – cheaper

Higher – fixed readers
Costs interrogators

Per Asset Variable Costs Higher – see tag cost Lower – see tag cost


( Low Frequency) (High Frequency)
Frequency: 125- 134 kHz Frequency: 13.56 MHz (Ultra High (Super High
Frequency) Frequency)
2.45 GHz

Active Passive
433 & 856- 960 MHz 856- 960 MHz
Low Frequency Passive Reader
Operating Frequency: 125 - 134 kHz

Read Range: contact - 10 cm

Examples: Animal tracking, Access Control, Car Key-Fob,

Applications with high volumes of liquids and metals

Pros: work well around liquids and metals, global standards

Cons: very short read range, limited quantity of memory, low data
transmission rate (read very few tags at one one), high production
High Frequency Passive Reader
Operating Frequency: 13.56 MHz

Read Range: contact - 30 cm

Examples: DVD Kiosks, Library Books, Personal ID cards,

Poker/Gaming Chips

Pros: NFC protocol

Cons: short read range, low data transmission rate (read fewer tags at
one time)
Ultra High Frequency Passive Reader
Operating Frequency: 856- 960 MHz

Read Range: near contact - 10+ meters

Examples: Supply Chain, High-volume Manufacturing, Electronic

tolls, Item Tracking, Asset Tracking

Pros: longer read range, lower cost per tag, wide range of tag sizes and
types, global standards, high data transmission rates (read more tags at
one time)

Cons: typically higher associated infrastructure cost, write small

amounts of data, high amount of interference from metal and liquids
Super High Frequency Active Reader

Operating Frequency: 2.45GHz

Read Range: up to 100 Meters

Examples: Vehicle and Cargo Tracking

Pros: Active tags can also be read while moving at 60 miles per
hour or more, with near 100 percent reliability.

Cons: active RFID tags are powered by a battery so will

eventually require replacing
RFID TAGS- on chip Memory
-Memory size varies from vendor to vendor
-Active tags have more memory than passive Tags
-Passive tags Memory size varies from few bits to 64KB


Active tags Varies from 16 bytes-128KB

License plate Tags 96 bits/128bits

CryptoRF Family 1k,2k,4k,8k,16k,32k,64k

Fujitsu Metal mount tags 8k

EPCglobal Standards

Out Dated Standards

1)Class 0 2)Class 1
singulation is relatively slow when a large number of
tags are present.

Existing Standards
• Class 1 Gen2 (ISO 18000-6C)
Incompatible to previous Standards
The data rate can vary from 27 to 128 Kbps
18000–1: Generic parameters for air interfaces for globally
accepted frequencies

18000–2: Air interface for 135 KHz

18000–3: Air interface for 13.56 MHz

18000–4: Air interface for 2.45 GHz

18000–5: Air interface for 5.8 GHz

18000–6: Air interface for 860 MHz to 930 MHz

18000–7: Air interface at 433.92 MHz

Advantages of RFID System

•As no line-of-sight is required, tag placement is less


•RFID tags have a longer read range than barcodes

•Tags can have read/write memory capability

•Many tags can be read simultaneously

•RFID tags can be combined with sensors

•Tags can locally store additional information; such

distributed data storage may increase fault tolerance of the
entire system,
• Reduces inventory control and provisioning costs,

Document tracking/Library Management System:

Each document is tagged with a RFID tag and the document ID is

stored in DB, Personnel are also issued with RFID cards for issue and tracking
Readers are placed in entry/exit position and also at the issue desk and
dropdown box
• RTLS (Real Time Location Systems)

In some applications, you need to track the real-time location of assets,

employees, or customers. Whether you’re measuring the efficiency of
worker movements, the effectiveness of a store floor plan, or tracking
the location of valuable resources, RFID systems provide visibility in
any number of locations.
Automated Toll Collection

Electronic toll collection system allows the vehicle drivers to pass the
toll tax booths without stopping at the toll booths. The toll amount is deducted
from the RFID card. This RFID card is rechargeable and account is stored on the
Attendance Tracking:

-helps to gather business intelligence at events like trade shows,

conferences, corporate functions, and other large gatherings.
-Attendee’s are given badges affixed with UHF RFID tags. Appropriately
placed RFID readers and antennas track the location of the RFID badges as
the attendee visits booths, seminars, product demos, and other events.
IT Asset Tracking:

-IT assets such as server blades, laptops, tablets, and other peripherals are
costly investments for any company, not to mention that information stored
on those items could prove detrimental in the wrong hands. IT asset tags
give your IT team the ability to quickly do an inventory count and make sure
everything is in place.
NFC – Near Field Communication
• It is a subset of RFID Technology

• It is a form of contactless communication between 2 devices

which uses RF waves

• operating frequency 13.56 MHz

• read range is about 10cm or less

• Supported data rates: 106, 212 or 424 kbit/s

Three Modes Of NFC

1. Card emulation mode: example e-payment

2. Peer to peer (Bluetooth like communication)

3. Reader/writer mode ex: advertisement (Smart Poster )

1. Card Emulation Mode:
This mode enables NFC-enabled devices to act like smart
cards, allowing users to perform transactions such as purchases,
ticketing, and transit access control with just a touch.

- Physical object elimination(Credit cards, debit cards, paper based
tickets, physical keys)
2. Peer To Peer Mode:

Peer-to-peer mode enables two NFC-enabled devices to

communicate with each other to exchange information and share
files, so that users of NFC-enabled devices can quickly share
contact information and other files with a touch. For example, users
can share Bluetooth or WiFi link set-up parameters or exchange
data such as virtual business cards or digital photos.
3.Reader/Writer Mode:
Reader/writer mode enables NFC-enabled devices to read
information stored on inexpensive NFC tags embedded in smart
posters and displays, providing a great marketing tool for companies.
In reader/writer mode, the NFC-enabled device is capable of reading
NFC Forum-mandated tag types, such as a tag embedded in an NFC
smart poster.
NFC Tags-On chip Memory

Tag Type On Chip Memory

MIFARE Mini 320 Bytes

MIFARE 1k 1024 Bytes

MIFARE 4k 496 Bytes

MIFARE Ultralight 192 Bytes

MIFARE Plus 2/4 Kb

NFC applications can be split into four basic categories.

Touch and Go
•Applications such as access control or transport/event ticketing, where the user
only needs to bring the device storing the ticket or access code close to the reader.
• simple data capture applications, such as picking up an Internet URL from a
smart label on a poster.
Touch and Confirm
-Applications such as mobile payment
-confirm the interaction by entering a password or just
accepting the transaction.

Touch and Connect

Linking two NFC-enabled devices to enable peer to peer
transfer of data such as downloading music, exchanging
images or synchronizing address books.