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PSYCHOLOGY
An Exploration
Canadian Edition

Saundra K. Ciccarelli
Gulf Coast Community College

J. Noland White
Georgia College & State University

V. Heather Fritzley
Sheridan College Institute of Technology & Advanced Learning

Tom Harrigan
Red River College

Toronto
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10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 [CKV]

Library and Archives Canada Cataloguing in Publication

Ciccarelli, Saundra K., author


  Psychology : an exploration / Saundra K. Ciccarelli (Gulf Coast Community College), J. Noland White (Georgia College and State University),
V. Heather Fritzley (Sheridan College Institute of Technology and Advanced Learning), Tom Harrigan (Red River College). — Canadian edition.
  Includes bibliographical references and indexes.
  ISBN 978-0-205-89746-9 (bound)
  1.  Psychology—Textbooks.  I.  Harrigan, Tom, 1964-, author  II.  Fritzley, V. Heather, author  III.  White, J. Noland, author  IV.  Title.
  BF121.C5228 2014
  150
C2014-906111-0

ISBN: 978-0-205-89746-9
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brief contents
Psychology
in Action Secrets for Surviving University and Improving Your Grades  PIA-2

1
The Science of Psychology 2
2
The Biological Perspective 40
3
Sensation and Perception 82
4
Learning 122
5 Memory 164
6
Consciousness and Cognition 200
7
Development Across the Life Span 232
8 Motivation and Emotion 276
9
Stress and Health 318
10
Social Psychology 354
11
Theories of Personality and Intelligence 396
12
Psychological Disorders 444
13
Psychological Therapies 478
Appendix A Applied Psychology and Psychology Careers A-1

iii
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contents
Cognitive Perspective  11
Sociocultural Perspective  12
Biopsychological Perspective  12
Preface  x
psychology in the news
About the Authors  xxi Was Prominent Canadian Psychologist Donald Hebb
a CIA Operative?  13
psychology Evolutionary Perspective  14

in action Psychological Professionals and Areas of Specialization  14


Psychology: The Scientific Methodology  16
Secrets for Surviving Why Psychologists Use the Scientific Method  16

University and Improving


Descriptive Methods  18
Finding Relationships  22

Your Grades  PIA-2 issues in psychology


Free Cocaine Offered for Psychological Study at McGill  25
Study Methods: Different Strokes for Different Folks  PIA-4 Ethics of Psychological Research  29
Reading Textbooks: Textbooks Are Not Novels  PIA-6 The Guidelines for Doing Research with People  29

How to Take Notes: Printing Out PowerPoint Slides Is Not applying psychology to everyday life
Taking Notes  PIA-8 Thinking Critically About Critical Thinking  31
Taking Notes While Reading the Text  PIA-8 Chapter Summary  33   Test Yourself 35
Taking Notes During the Lecture  PIA-8
C oncept S ummary  3 8
Studying for Exams: Cramming Is Not an Option  PIA-9
Writing Papers: Planning Makes Perfect  PIA-12
applying psychology to everyday life

2
Strategies for Improving Your Memory  PIA-14
psychology in action summary  PIA-16
Test Yourself  PIA-17

Concept Summary  P IA- 18


The Biological Perspective  40
An Overview of the Nervous System  42

1
Neurons and Nerves: Building the Network  42
Structure of the Neuron—The Nervous System’s Building Block  42
Generating the Message Within the Neuron—The Neural
Impulse  44
Sending the Message to Other Cells: The Synapse  47
The Science of Psychology  2 Neurotransmitters, Messengers of the Network  48
Cleaning Up the Synapse: Reuptake and Enzymes  50
What Is Psychology?   4
The Central Nervous System—The “Central Processing Unit”  51
The Field of Psychology  4
The Brain  51
Psychology’s Goals  4
The Spinal Cord  51
Psychology Then: The History of Psychology  5
The Peripheral Nervous System—Nerves on the Edge  54
In the Beginning: Wundt, Introspection,
The Somatic Nervous System  54
and the Laboratory  5
The Autonomic Nervous System  55
Titchener and Baldwin and Structuralism
in North America  6 Distant Connections: The Endocrine Glands  57
William James and Functionalism  7 The Pituitary, Master of the Hormonal Universe  58
Gestalt Psychology: The Whole Is Greater The Pineal Gland  58
Than the Sum of Its Parts  8 The Thyroid Gland  58
Sigmund Freud’s Theory of Psychoanalysis  8 Pancreas  58
Pavlov, Watson, and the Dawn of Behaviourism  9 The Gonads  58
Psychology Now: Modern Perspectives  10 The Adrenal Glands  59
Psychodynamic Perspective  10 Looking Inside the Living Brain  59
Behavioural Perspective  11 Lesioning Studies  60
Humanistic Perspective  11 Brain Stimulation  60
iv
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CONTENTS v

Mapping Structure  61 applying psychology to everyday life


Mapping Function  62 Beyond “Smoke and Mirrors”—The Psychological Science
and Neuroscience of Magic  116
psychology in the news
Concussions: Your Brain Like a Football!  63 Chapter Summary  117   Test Yourself 119
From the Bottom Up: The Structures of the Brain  64 C oncept S ummary   1 2 0
The Hindbrain  65
Structures Under the Cortex  66
The Cortex  69

4
The Association Areas of the Cortex  71
The Cerebral Hemispheres: Are You in Your Right Mind?  72
applying psychology to everyday life
Paying Attention to the Causes of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity
Disorder  75 Learning  122
Chapter Summary  76   Test Yourself 78
Definition of Learning  124
Concept Summary  80
It Makes Your Mouth Water: Classical Conditioning  124
Pavlov and the Salivating Dogs  125
Elements of Classical Conditioning  125

3
Putting It All Together: Pavlov’s Canine Classic,
or Tick Tock, Tick Tock  125
Conditioned Emotional Responses: Rats!  130
Watson and “Little Albert”  130

Sensation and Perception  82 Other Conditioned Responses in Humans  130


Why Does Classical Conditioning Work?  132

The ABCs of Sensation  84 What’s in It for Me? Operant Conditioning  133


What Is Sensation?  84 Frustrating Cats: Thorndike’s Puzzle Box and the Law
Sensory Thresholds  84 of Effect  133
Habituation and Sensory Adaptation  85 B. F. Skinner: The Behaviourist’s Behaviourist  134
The Concept of Reinforcement  134
The Science of Seeing  87
Positive and Negative Reinforcement  135
Perceptual Properties of Light: Catching the Waves  87
The Schedules of Reinforcement: Why the One-Armed
The Structure of the Eye  88
Bandit Is So Seductive  136
How the Eye Works  90
The Role of Punishment in Operant Conditioning  140
Perception of Colour  91
Two Kinds of Punishment  141
The Hearing Sense: Can You Hear Me Now?  94 Problems with Punishment  142
Perception of Sound: Good Vibrations  94
issues in psychology
The Structure of the Ear: Follow the Vibes  96 The Link Between Spanking and Aggression in
Types of Hearing Impairments  98 Young Children  144
Chemical Senses: It Tastes Good Stimulus Control: Slow Down, It’s the Cops  144
and Smells Even Better  99 Other Concepts in Operant Conditioning  145
Gustation: How We Taste the World  99 classic studies in psychology
The Sense of Scents: Olfaction  101 Biological Constraints on Operant Conditioning  146
psychology in the news Applying Operant Conditioning: Behaviour Modification  147
Can Humans Smell Danger and Great Potential Mates?  102 Cognitive Learning Theory  149
Somesthetic Senses: What the Body Knows  103 Tolman’s Maze-Running Rats: Latent Learning  150
Perception of Touch, Pressure, and Temperature  103 Köhler’s Smart Chimp: Insight Learning  150
Pain: Gate-Control Theory  104 Seligman’s Depressed Dogs: Learned Helplessness  151
The Kinesthetic Sense  105 Observational Learning  153
The Vestibular Sense  105 Bandura and the Bobo Doll  153
The ABCs of Perception  106 The Four Elements of Observational Learning  154
The Constancies: Size, Shape, and Brightness  107 applying psychology to everyday life
The Gestalt Principles  107 Can You Really Toilet-Train Your Cat?  156
Depth Perception  109
Chapter Summary  158   Test Yourself 160
Perceptual Illusions  111
Other Factors That Influence Perception  114 C oncept S ummary  1 6 2
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vi C ON T E N T S

5
Altered States: Sleep 203
The Biology of Sleep 203
The Stages of Sleep 204
classic studies in psychology
Memory  164 Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD): Are Canadians at Greater Risk? 204
What Happens in REM Sleep? 207
Three Processes of Memory  166 Sleep Disorders 208
Putting It In: Encoding  166 psychology in the news
Keeping It In: Storage  166 Murder While Sleepwalking 209
Getting It Out: Retrieval  166
How People Think 212
Models of Memory  166 Mental Imagery 212
classic studies in psychology Concepts 214
Craik, Lockhart, Tulving, and Levels of Processing  167 Problem Solving and Decision Making 215
The Information-Processing Model: Three Stages of Memory 169 Problems with Problem Solving 218
Sensory Memory: Why Do People Do Double Takes? 169 Creativity 220
Short-Term and Working Memory 171 Language 222
Long-Term Memory 174 The Levels of Language Analysis 222
Culture and Long-Term Memory 175 The Relationship Between Language and Thought 224
Types of Long-Term Information 175 applying psychology to everyday life
Getting it Out: Retrieval of Long-Term Memories 179 The Cognitive Benefits of Multilingualism 227
Retrieval Cues 179 Chapter Summary 227   Test Yourself 228
Recall: Hmm . . . Let Me Think 181
C oncept S ummary  2 3 0
Recognition: Hey, Don’t I Know You from Somewhere? 182
Automatic Encoding: Flashbulb Memories 183
The Reconstructive Nature of Long-Term

7
Memory Retrieval: How Reliable Are Memories? 184
Constructive Processing of Memories 184
Memory Retrieval Problems 185
Reliability of Memory Retrieval 186
What Were We Talking About? Forgetting 187
Ebbinghaus and the Forgetting Curve 188
Development Across the
Encoding Failure 188 Life Span  232
Memory Trace Decay Theory 189
Interference Theory 189 Issues in Studying Human Development 234
Research Designs 234
Neuroscience of Memory 190
Nature Versus Nurture 234
Neural Activity and Structure in Memory Formation 190
Adoption Studies 236
The Hippocampus and Memory 191
When Memory Fails: Amnesia 191 The Basic Building Blocks of Development 236
applying psychology to everyday life Genetic and Chromosome Problems 236
Alzheimer’s Disease 193 Prenatal Development 238
Chapter Summary 194   Test Yourself 196 Fertilization, the Zygote, and Twinning 239

Co ncept Summary  198 psychology in the news


Tatiana and Krista Hogan: Seeing Through
Each Other’s Eyes 240
The Germinal Period 240

6
The Embryonic Period 241
The Fetal Period: Grow, Baby, Grow 242
Infancy and Childhood Development 243
Physical Development 243
Consciousness and Cognition  200 Baby, Can You See Me? Baby, Can You Hear Me?
Sensory Development 244
What Is Consciousness? 202 Cognitive Development 245
Definition of Consciousness 202 Autism Spectrum Disorder 251
Altered States of Consciousness 202 Psychosocial Development 252
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CONTENTS vii

9
classic studies in psychology
Ainsworth and the Strange Situation Paradigm 253
Harlow and Contact Comfort 255
Gender Development 257
Gender Roles 258 Stress and Health  318
Theories of Gender-Role Development 259
Adolescence 260 Stress and Stressors 320
Physical Development 260 Definition of Stress 320
Cognitive Development 261 What Are Stressors? 320
Environmental Stressors: Life’s Ups and Downs 321
Adulthood 264
Psychological Stressors: Stress and the Mind 323
Physical Development: Use It or Lose It 264
Cognitive Development 266 Physiological Factors: Stress and Health 327
Psychosocial Development 266 The General Adaptation Syndrome 327
Theories of Physical and Psychological Aging 268 Immune System and Stress 328
Stages of Death and Dying 269 issues in psychology
applying psychology to everyday life Health Psychology and Stress 331
Cross-Cultural Views on Death 270 The Influence of Cognition and Personality on Stress 332
Personality Factors in Stress 333
Chapter Summary 271   Test Yourself 272
Social Factors in Stress: People Who Need People 338
Concept Summary  274
Stress, Hunger, and Eating 341
The Physiology of Hunger 341
Social Components of Hunger 341

8
Maladaptive Eating Problems 342
Stress and Sexual Dysfunction 343
Coping with Stress 345
Problem-Focused Coping 345
Motivation and Emotion  276 Emotion-Focused Coping 345
Meditation as a Coping Mechanism 346
Approaches to Understanding Motivation 278 How Culture Affects Coping 347
Instinct Approaches 278 How Religion Affects Coping 347
Drive-Reduction Approaches 279 applying psychology to everyday life
Personality and nAch: Carol Dweck’s Self-Theory of Exercising for Mental Health 348
Motivation 281
Chapter Summary 349   Test Yourself 350
Arousal Approaches 282
Incentive Approaches 283 C oncept S ummary  3 5 2
Humanistic Approaches: Maslow’s
Hierarchy of Needs 284
Self-Determination Theory (SDT) 287
Psychoactive Drugs and Addiction 289
Physical Dependence 290
Psychological Dependence 290 10
Social Psychology  354
Sexual Motivation 296
Sexual Orientation 298
issues in psychology Social Influence: Conformity, Compliance, and Obedience 356
What Is the Evolutionary Purpose of Homosexuality? 301 Conformity 356
Emotion 302 Compliance 359
The Three Elements of Emotion 302 Obedience 360
Task Performance: Social Facilitation and Social Loafing 362
classic studies in psychology
The Angry/Happy Man 308 Social Cognition: Attitudes, Impression Formation,
and Attribution 364
applying psychology to everyday life
When Motivation Is Not Enough 312 Attitudes 364
The ABC Model of Attitudes 364
Chapter Summary 313   Test Yourself 314
Attitude Formation 365
Concept Summary  316 Biological and Genetic Factors 366
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viii CONTENTS

Attitude Change: The Art of Persuasion 366 The Behaviourist and Social Cognitive Views
Cognitive Dissonance: When Attitudes and Behaviour Clash 368 of Personality 408
Impression Formation and Attribution 370 Bandura’s Reciprocal Determinism and Self-Efficacy 409
Social Categorization 370 Rotter’s Social Learning Theory: Expectancies 410
Implicit Personality Theories 371 Current Thoughts on the Behaviourist and Social
Attribution 371 Cognitive Views 410
Fundamental Attribution Error 372 The Third Force: Humanism and Personality 411
Social Interaction: Prejudice, Love, Aggression, Carl Rogers and Self-Concept 411
and Prosocial Behaviour 373 Current Thoughts on the Humanistic View of
Prejudice and Discrimination 373 Personality 412
Types of Prejudice and Discrimination 374 Trait Theories: Who Are You? 413
classic studies in psychology Allport 413
Brown Eyes, Blue Eyes 374 Cattell and the 16PF 413
How People Learn Prejudice 375 The Big Five: OCEAN, or the Five-Factor
Overcoming Prejudice 376 Model of Personality 414
Current Thoughts on the Trait Perspective 415
Liking and Loving: Interpersonal Attraction 378
The Rules of Attraction 378 Assessment of Personality 416
When Opposites Attract 379 Interviews 416
Problems with Interviews 417
psychology in the news
Facing Facebook—The Social Nature of Online Networking 380 Projective Tests 417
Behavioural Assessments 419
Love Is a Triangle—Robert Sternberg’s
Personality Inventories 420
Triangular Theory of Love 380
Intelligence 422
Aggression and Prosocial Behaviour 382
Definition 422
Aggression and Biology 383
Theories of Intelligence 422
The Power of Social Roles 383
Measuring Intelligence 423
Violence in the Media and Aggression 385
Individual Differences in Intelligence: Intellectual
Prosocial Behaviour 386
Disability and Giftedness 429
Why People Won’t Help 387
classic studies in psychology
applying psychology to everyday life
Terman’s “Termites” 431
Anatomy of a Cult 389
The Biology of Personality and Intelligence:
Chapter Summary 390   Test Yourself 392
Behavioural Genetics 434
Co ncept Summary  394 Twin Studies 434
Current Findings 436
applying psychology to everyday life

11
Procrastination and Personality in the Twenty-First
Century 437
Chapter Summary 438   Test Yourself 440

C oncept S ummary  4 4 2
Theories of Personality
and Intelligence  396
Theories of Personality and Intelligence 398
The Man and the Couch: Sigmund Freud and the
Psychodynamic Perspective 398
12
Freud’s Cultural Background 398 Psychological Disorders  444
The Unconscious Mind 399
The Divisions of the Personality 400 What Is Abnormality? 446
Superego: The Moral Watchdog 400 A Very Brief History of Psychological Disorders 446
Stages of Personality Development 402 What Is Abnormal? 447
The Neo-Freudians 404 A Working Definition of Abnormality 448
Current Thoughts on Freud and the Psychodynamic issues in psychology
Perspective 406 Abnormality Versus Insanity 449
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CONTENTS ix

Models of Abnormality 450 Psychoanalysis 482


The Biological Model: Medical Causes for Psychological Dream Interpretation 482
Disorders 450 Free Association 483
The Psychological Models 450 Resistance and Transference 483
Biopsychosocial Perspective: All of the Above 451 Evaluation of Psychoanalysis and
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition Psychodynamic Approaches 483
(DSM-5) 451 Interpersonal Psychotherapy 484
How Common Are Psychological Disorders? 453 Humanistic Therapy: To Err Is Human 484
The Pros and Cons of Labels 453 Tell Me More: Rogers’s Person-Centred Therapy 485
Gestalt Therapy 486
Anxiety Disorders: What, Me Worry? 455
Evaluation of the Humanistic Therapies 486
Phobic Disorders: When Fears Get Out of Hand 455
Panic Disorder 456 Behaviour Therapies: Learning One’s Way
Generalized Anxiety Disorder 457 to Better Behaviour 487
Causes of Anxiety Disorders 457 Therapies Based on Classical Conditioning 487
Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders 459 Therapies Based on Operant Conditioning 489
Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Evaluation of Behaviour Therapies 490
(PTSD) 459 Cognitive Therapies: Thinking Is Believing 491
Mood Disorders: The Effect of Affect 460 Beck’s Cognitive Therapy 491
Major Depression 460 Ellis and Rational-Emotive Behaviour
Bipolar Disorders 461 Therapy (REBT) 492
Causes of Mood Disorders 462 Evaluation of Cognitive and Cognitive-Behavioural
Therapies 492
Eating Disorders 463
Group Therapies: Not Just for the Shy 493
Anorexia Nervosa 463
Types of Group Therapies 493
Bulimia Nervosa 463
Advantages of Group Therapy 494
Culture and Eating Disorders 464
Disadvantages of Group Therapy 494
Schizophrenia: Altered Reality 465
Evaluation of Group Therapy 495
Symptoms of Schizophrenia 466
psychology in the news
Causes of Schizophrenia 467
Mental Health on Campus 496
Personality Disorders 469
Does Psychotherapy Really Work? 496
Antisocial Personality Disorder 469
Studies of Effectiveness 497
Borderline Personality Disorder 470
Characteristics of Effective Therapy 497
Causes of Personality Disorders 470
Cultural, Ethnic, and Gender Concerns
applying psychology to everyday life in Psychotherapy 498
Taking the Worry Out of Exams 471 Cybertherapy: Therapy in the Computer Age 500
Chapter Summary 472   Test Yourself 474 Biomedical Therapies 500
Psychopharmacology 501
Concept Summary  476
Electroconvulsive Therapy 504
Psychosurgery 505
applying psychology to everyday life

13
Virtual Realities 507
Chapter Summary 509   Test Yourself 510

C oncept S ummary  5 1 2

psychological therapies  478 Appendix A: Applied Psychology


  and Psychology Careers  A-1
Two Kinds of Therapy 480
Psychotherapy 480 Answer Key  AK-1
Biomedical Therapy 480 Glossary G-1
References R-1
The Early Days: Ice-Water Baths and Electric Shocks 480
Early Treatment of the Mentally Ill 481 Credits C-1
Pinel’s Reforms 481 Name Index  NI-1
Psychotherapy Begins 482 Subject Index  SI-1
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for my class.
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presentation resources
for instructors
Powerful and Exclusive
Instructors consistently tell us that making their classroom lectures and
online instruction exciting and dynamic is a top priority in order to engage
students and bring psychology to life. We have been listening, and we have
responded by creating state-of the-art presentation resources, putting the
most powerful presentation resources at your fin ertips.

ClassPrep available in MyPsychLab


Finding, sorting, organizing, and presenting your instructor
resources is faster and easier than ever before with MyClassPrep.
This fully searchable database contains hundreds and hundreds
of our best teacher resources, such as lecture launchers and dis-
cussion topics, in-class and out-of -class activities and assign-
ments, and handouts, as well as video clips, photos, illustrations,
charts, graphs, and animations. Instructors can search or browse
by topic, and it is easy to sort your results by type, such as photo,
document, or animation. You can create personalized folders to
organize and store what you like, or you can download resources.
You can also upload your own content and present directly from
MyClassPrep.

xii
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presentation resources for instructors xiii

PowerPoint slides
Theseslides bring the powerful Ciccarelli/White/Fritzley/Harrigan design
right into the classroom, drawing students into the lecture by combining
engaging overviews of key concepts with rich visuals.

The slides are built around the text’s ­


learning objectives and offer multiple
pathways or links between content areas.

Personal Response System


Also included are clicker questions that help generate discussion and
­provide instant feedback on how your students are responding to lecture
content.
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teaching and learning package


Integration and Feedback
It is increasingly true today that as valuable as a good textbook is, it is still only one
element of a comprehensive learning package. The te ching and homework package that
accompanies Psychology: An Exploration, Canadian edition, is the most comprehensive
and integrated on the market. We have made every effort to provide high-quality
instructor resources that will save you preparation time and will enhance the time you
spend in the classroom. Noland White has overseen the development of each component
of the teaching and assessment package by working directly with the authors and
reviewers to ensure consistency in quality and content.

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The Test Item File contains a


primary test bank containing
thousands of questions. Each The test item file has been
chapter includes a two-page Total TOTAL
ASSESSMENT
Chapter 1
thoroughly revised in response to
The Science of Psychology
Assessment Guide that categorizes GUIDE
feedback. It has also been
Factual Conceptual Applied Short
all test items by learning objective Learning objectives
(Multiple
Choice)
(Multiple
Choice)
(Multiple
Choice)
True/False
Questions
Answer
Questions
Essay
Questions
analyzed line-by-line by a
and question type (factual, QUICK QUIZ 1

1.1—What defines psychology


3, 6, 8

1, 2, 6–8,
1, 2, 9

12, 15
4, 5, 7, 10

3–6, 9, 10, 191–192 221–222 developmental editor and a copy


conceptual, or applied) in an easy- as a field of study, and what are
psychology’s four primary goals?
11, 13 14

editor in order to ensure clarity,


to-reference grid. 1.2—How did structuralism and
functionalism differ, and who
were the important people in
16, 18, 20,
22, 25–27
19, 21, 23, 24,
28, 29
17, 30 193–194 223 241–242

accuracy, and delivery of the


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those early fields?

1.3—What were the basic ideas


and who were the important peo-
31, 32, 35,
36, 39, 40,
34, 37, 38, 41,
47, 50, 54
33, 45, 51,
52, 55
195–196 223–224 241–243 highest quality assessment tool.
ple behind the early approaches 42–44, 46,
known as Gestalt, psychoanalysis, 48, 49, 53
and behaviourism?

1.4—What are the basic ideas 59, 60, 62, 56, 57, 65, 66, 58, 61, 64, 197–201 225–227 244
behind the seven modern per- 63, 69, 73, 68, 78 67, 70–72,
spectives as well as the important 74, 76, 77, 75, 79, 81
Quick Quiz 1: Answers contributions of Skinner, Maslow, 80
Rogers, and Hebb?
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1. In addition to describing and explaining mental processes and behaviour, psychology also attempts1.5—How
to _________
does athese
psychiatrist dif- 82, 84–86 89 83, 87, 88, 202–205 228
phenomena. fer from a psychologist, and what 90–92
are the other types of profession-
a)
b)
predict and control
analyze and manipulate
als who work in the various areas
of psychology? In addition to the high-
c) categorize and organize
d) synthesize and regulate quality test bank just
1. Answer: a LO: 1.1 Page(s): 5 Type: Conceptual Diff: 1
2. Which early school of psychology proposed that consciousness was made up of two types of elements, sensations and MULTIPLE CHOICE
described, a second
thoughts?
a) Functionalism
What Is Psychology? bank of over 1800
b) Gestalt psychology
c) Psychodynamic theory Learning Objective 1.1-What defines psychology as a field of study, and what are psychology’s four primary goals? questions by Fred
d) Structuralism
2. Answer: d LO: 1.2 Page(s): 6 Type: Conceptual Diff: 2
1. Which of these is the most accurate definition of the discipline of psychology?
a) the scientific study of behaviour
Whitford is available,
3. The early perspective called Gestalt psychology has evolved into the current perspective called __________.
a) psychoanalysis
b) the scientific study of mental processes
c) the scientific study of behaviour and mental processes
which has been class-
b) cognitive psychology
c) behavioural psychology
Correct. The definition of psychology includes both behaviour and mental processes and does not exclude animals.
d) the scientific study of human behaviour and mental processes
tested with item analysis
d) social psychology
3. Answer: b LO: 1.3 Page(s): 8 Type: Factual Diff: 1 Incorrect. The definition of psychology also includes animal behaviour and mental processes. available for each
4. Samantha just had her purse stolen while walking down Fifth Avenue in New York City, which is a very busy part of Man-ANS: c, p. 4, F, LO=1.1, (1)
hattan. She screamed loudly and several people looked in her direction, but nobody stopped or made an attempt to help. % correct 45 a = 2 b = 1 c = 45 d = 53 r = .29 question.
She immediately broke down in tears and trembled for 10 minutes until she could walk to her car. This is an example of
_____________. 2. In the definition of psychology, the term mental processes refers to __________.
a) democracy a) internal, covert processes
b) the bystander effect Correct. Mental processes are internal.
c) diffusion of effects
d) flaws in the judicial system b) outward behaviour
c) overt actions and reactions
4. Answer: b LO: 1.4 Page(s): 12 Type: Applied Diff: 2
Incorrect. Overt means outward, not internal.
5. Sandi is a single mother living in a project in a poor section of the city. She has addiction issues and just lost custody of her
three children. What type of professional is most likely to get involved in Sandi’s situation? d) only animal behaviour
a) educational psychologist ANS: a, p. 4, F, LO=1.1, (1)
b) psychiatrist
An additional feature for the test bank, currently not found
c)
d)
psychiatric social worker
counselor
3. You are at in any
a hockey game other
and the arena introductory
is packed; the crowd is evenly split between fans of the two teams. At one point,
the referee makes a call. Half of the fans yell insults; the other half of the fans shout their approval. The event reminds you
psychology
5. Answer: c texts,
LO: 1.5 is 15–16
Page(s): the Type:
inclusion
Applied of2 rationales for the correct
Diff: answer
of the topic of today’s
a) bias
and
lecture in psychology the key
class. What was the likely topic of the lecture?

distracter in the multiple-choice questions. The rationales Correct. Thehelp instructors


fans are showing reviewing
bias and this is an important issue.
b) experiments
the content to further evaluate the questions they areIncorrect. choosing for
The fans are really their
not part tests
of any treatment groups.and give

instructors the option to use the rationales as an answer key for


c) psychoanalysis
d) extraneous variables
their students.
Feedback from current customers indicates that this unique feature is very useful for
ANS: a, p. 4, A, LO=1.1, (2)

ensuring quality and quick response to student queries. 4. Marci is a fan of the Toronto Raptors basketball team. With little provocation, she will engage you in a debate about
whether it is the greatest team in basketball. Marci may be demonstrating __________.
a) bias
Correct. Marci’s loyalty to her team will influence her debate.
b) critical thinking
Incorrect. Critical thinking requires an open mind.
c) an eclectic approach
xiv d) unconscious behaviour
ANS: a, p. 4, A, LO=1.1, (2)
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TEACHING AND LEARNING PACKAGE xv

Thetest bank comes with Pearson MyTest, a powerful assessment generation program
that helps instructors easily create and print quizzes and exams. Questions and tests
can be authored online, allowing instructors ultimate flexibility and the ability to effi-
ciently manage assessments any time, anywhere! Instructors can easily access existing
questions and edit, create, and store using simple drag-and-drop and Word-like con-
trols. Data on each question provides information on level of difficult and page num-
ber. In addition, each question maps to the text’s major section and learning objective.
For more information, go to www.PearsonMyTest.com.

• Instructor’s Resource Manual offers a robust collection of resources in an easy-


to-use format. For each chapter, you’ll find ctivities, exercises, assignments, hand-
outs, and demos for in-class use, as well as guidelines on integrating the many
Pearson media resources into your classroom and syllabus. This esource saves prep
work and helps you maximize your classroom time.

• CourseSmart goes beyond traditional expectations—providing instant, online


access to the textbooks and course materials you need at a lower cost for students.
And even as students save money, you can save time and hassle with a digital
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help students with difficult ncepts, CourseSmart can make life a little easier. See
how when you visit www.coursesmart.com/instructors.

• Pearson Custom Library. For enrollments of at least 25, you can create your own
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pearsoncustomlibrary.com. You may also work with a dedicated Pearson Custom
editor to create your ideal text—publishing your own original content or mixing
and matching Pearson content. Contact your Pearson representative to get started.

• Learning Solutions Managers. Pearson’s Learning Solutions Managers work with


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sales representative can provide you with more details on this service program.

Accessing All Resources


For a list of all student resources available with Ciccarelli/White/Fritzley/­
Harrigan Psychology: An Exploration, Canadian edition, go to the online Pearson
Canada catalogue and search by title or ISBN. You’ll f ind them listed under the
Resources tab.
For access to all instructor resources for Ciccarelli/White/Fritzley/Harrigan,
­ sychology: An Exploration, Canadian edition, simply go to the online Pearson Canada
P
catalogue and search by title or ISBN. You’ll find them listed under the Resources tab.
Once you have registered and your status as an instructor is verified you will be emailed
a login name and password to access the catalogue. Under the description of each
supplement is a link that allows you to download and save the supplement to
your desktop.
For technical support for any of your Pearson products, you and your students can
contact http://247.pearsoned.com.
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learner-centred approach
Curiosity and Dialogue
In recent years there has been an increased focus on a more learner-centred approach
in higher education. A learner-centred approach encourages dialogue and recognizes the
importance of actively engaging students. This tex book came about because we
recognized the importance of motivating students to read. When we say “read,” we mean
really read the text, not just skim it looking for answers to some study guide questions or
trying to cram it all in the night before the exam. We set out to write in a style that draws
the reader into an ongoing dialogue about psychology. We also want to see students
inspired to use the study materials integrated with the text. Our goal is to awaken
students’ curiosity and energize their desire to learn more; we are delighted with the
feedback from students and instructors who have used our text and who tell us this
approach is working.

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Seeing Sounds and Hearing Colours: Synesthesia


learning objectives
How does sensation travel chapter opening prologues
3
through the central nervous
3.1

“T here was a piece of music by a group called Uman. The first note was grey system, and why are some

are designed to capture student interest


sensations ignored?
and it was like a band of grey with a slight curve to it, and it was a

sensation and perception


gradient—light grey going to dark grey—it had gold specks on it. The background What is light, and how does

92 CH AP TE r 3 was black but it was being broken up by other colours, moving shapes of fuchsia and
3.2 it travel through the various
parts of the eye? se
why study sensation and perception?
immediately. Taken from a case study or
there was a small sound like a click, almost like a drumbeat, something being struck,
and as it was struck, a black shape appeared, and the shapes appeared from left to
right, going horizontally across the bottom of this—like a movie screen that I was
3.3
How do the eyes see, and
how do the eyes see different
colours?
Without sensations to tell us what is outside our own mental world, we would live entirely
in our own minds, separate from one another and unable to find food or any other basics that
sustain life. Sensations are the mind’s window to the world that exists around us. Without
recent
a kindevent
of cyan in the news, these openers
watching. And the shapes were so exquisite, so simple, so pure and so beautiful,

result is magenta. If the blue and green cones are firing fast enough,
I wanted somehow to be able to capture them, but they were moving too quickly and
I couldn’t remember them all.”—Carol Steen (1996), New York artist and
3.4
What is sound, and how does
it travel through the various
parts of the ear?

colour (blue-green) appears. engage students in the material from the very
perception, we would be unable to understand what all those sensations mean—perception synesthete, quoted from ABC Radio National Transcripts, Health Report How do the senses of taste
is the process of interpreting the sensations we experience so that we can act upon them. 3.5 and smell work, and how are
with Robin Hughes they alike?

Brown and Wald (1964) identified three types of cones in the retina, each sensi-
Ms. Steen is a most unusual artist because she is able to perceive a world

start of the chapter. The design truly captures


What allows people to experi-
where sounds have colours and shapes, an ability she often turns into unusual
3.6 ence the sense of touch, pain,

tive to a range of wavelengths, measured in nanometres (nm), and a peak sensitivity


and beautiful sculptures. A synesthete is a person with synesthesia, which motion, and balance?
literally means “joined sensation.” People with this condition are rare—about

the imagination of students and adds to the


What are perception,

that roughly corresponds to three different colours (although hues/colours can vary
1 in 25 000. In the synesthete, the signals that come from the sensory organs, perceptual constancies,
3.7
and the Gestalt principles
such as the eyes or the ears, go to places in the brain where they weren’t
of perception?
originally meant to be, causing those signals to be interpreted as more than one
depending on brightness and saturation). The peak wavelengthappeal of light the
ofcones
the chapter content.
sensation. A fusion of sound and sight is most common, but touch, taste, and
3.8
What is depth perception,
and what kinds of cues are
even smell can enter into the mix (Cytowic, 1989). Singer-songwriters Billy

seem to be most sensitive to turns out to be just a little different from Young and
important for it to occur?
chapter outline
Joel and Kanye West were born with synesthesia, but recently, a Canadian
The ABCs of Sensation What are visual illusions, and
man—we’ll call him George—became a synesthete after suffering a stroke in 3.9 how can they and other factors

von Helmholtz’s original three corresponding colours: Short-wavelength cones detect


The Science of Seeing
his thalamus. MRI evidence suggests that in trying to repair itself, George’s influence and alter perception?
The Hearing Sense: Can You Hear
Me Now? thalamus connected parts of the brain that were never in contact before, so now
Chemical Senses: It Tastes Good
and Smells Even Better what we see as blue-violet (about 420 nm), medium-wavelength cones detect what we
he can taste colour, smell, touch, and more (Schweizer et al., 2013).

see as green (about 530 nm), and long-wavelength cones detect what we see as green-
PSYCHoloGY IN THE NEwS:
Can Humans Smell Danger and synesthesia disorder in which
Great Potential Mates? the signals from the various sensory
organs are processed in the wrong

yellow (about 560 nm). Interestingly, none of the cones identified by Brown and Wald
Somesthetic Senses: what the
Body Knows cortical areas, resulting in the sense
information being interpreted as
The ABCs of Perception more than one sensation.
APPlYING PSYCHoloGY
To EvErYDAY lIfE:
Beyond “Smoke and Mirrors”—
has a peak sensitivity to light where most of us see red (around 630 nm). Keep in
mind though that each cone responds to light across a range of wavelengths, not just
The Psychological Science and
Neuroscience of Magic

In trichromatic theory, the three types


its wavelength of peak sensitivity. Depending on the intensity of the light, both the
of cones combine to form different medium- and long-wavelength cones respond to light that appears red.
colours much as these three coloured
The AFTerimAge The trichromatic theory would, at first glance, seem to be more
lights combine.
than adequate to explain how people perceive colour. But there’s an interesting

Watch
phenomenon that this theory cannot explain. If a person stares at a picture of the
Canadian flag for a little while—say, a minute—and then looks away to a blank white
student-voice questions
IT Video: A Negative Afterimage wall or sheet of paper, that person will see an afterimage of the flag. Afterimages encourage students to stop, to clarify, and to
occur when a visual sensation persists for a brief time even after the original stimulus
is removed. The person would also notice rather quickly that the colours of the flag think critically. Written by students for
Hey, now the
in the afterimage are all wrong—green for red, and black for white. If you follow the students, these questions create a dialogue
directions for Figure 3.5, in which the flag is green and black, you should see a flag
afterimage of the with the usual red and white.
between the text and the reader and
flag has normal Hey, now the afterimage of the flag has normal colours! Why does this happen? encourage students to ask similar questions in
colours! The phenomenon of the colour afterimage is explained by the second theory the classroom or online. Cited by students
Why does this of colour perception, called the opponent-process theory (De Valois & De Valois,
1993; Hurvich & Jameson, 1957), based on an idea first suggested by Edwald Her- and instructors alike as a truly unique and key
happen?
ing in 1874 (Finger, 1994). In opponent-process theory, there are four primary element, this feature highlights photographs
colours: red, green, blue, and yellow. The colours are arranged in pairs, red with
green and blue with yellow. If one member of a pair is strongly stimulated, the
of students who used the text in their
other member is inhibited and cannot be working—so there are no reddish-greens introductory class and who provided
or bluish-yellows. questions, comments, and invaluable
feedback on the book.

xvi

afterimages images that occur when a


visual sensation persists for a brief time
even after the original stimulus is removed.
opponent-process theory theory of fIGurE 3.5 Colour Afterimage
colour vision that proposes visual neurons Stare at the white dot in the centre of this oddly coloured flag for about 30 seconds. Now look at a
(or groups of neurons) are stimulated by white piece of paper or a white wall. Notice that the colours are now the normal, expected colours of
light of one colour and inhibited by light of the Canadian flag. They are also the primary colours that are opposites of the colours in the picture,
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LEARNER-centred APPROACH xvii

94 C HAPTEr 3
Watch on MyPsychLab
MyPsychLab icons
fIGurE 3.6 ishihara Colour
Test example indicate that students can find related video, Explore on MyPsychLab
Two facsimiles of the Ishihara Colour Test.
In the circle on the left, the number 5
podcasts, simulations, practice quizzes, and more
should be easier to see for those with nor- in MyPsychLab to expand their learning. There are Simulate on MyPsychLab
mal colour vision, and on the right, the
number 96. In both circles, individuals with
many more resources available in MyPsychLab than
colour-deficient vision will have difficulty those highlighted in the book, but the icons draw
identifying the numbers or may see noth-
attention to some of the most high-interest
ing but a circle of dots.
materials available at www.mypsychlab.com.

and one of the genes missing is the one that would normally suppress the gene for
colour-deficient vision. For a woman to have colour-deficient vision, she must inherit
two recessive genes, one from each parent, but a man only needs to inherit one reces-
sive gene—the one passed on to him on his mother’s X chromosome. His odds are
greater; therefore, more males than females have colour-deficient vision.

practice quiz How much do you remember?

Pick the best answer.


3.2 3.3
practice quizzes
1. Which of the following terms refers to the perceived effect of c. Look directly at it because the rods can see sharply at night. are included in each chapter at
the amplitude of light waves? d. Look off to the side, using the rods in the periphery of the
a. colour c. saturation retina.
the end of every major section.
b. brightness d. hue 4. Which theory of colour vision best accounts for afterimages?
Practice quizzes help students
2. Which of the following represents the correct path of light a. trichromatic theory think critically and apply their
through the eye? b. opponent-process theory
a. iris, cornea, lens, retina c. both a and b
understanding before moving
b. cornea, vitreous humour, iris, lens, aqueous humour, retina d. neither a nor b on to the next section.
c. cornea, pupil, lens, vitreous humour, retina 5. Which statement about colour-deficient vision is true?
d. cornea, lens, pupil, iris, retina a. There are more men with colour-deficient vision than women.
3. If you wanted to locate a dimly lit star better at night, what b. All people with colour-deficient vision see only in black and white.
should you do? c. Some people with colour-deficient vision see only in blue.
a. Look directly at it because the cones will focus better at night. d. Some people with colour-deficient vision see only in blue
b. Look off to the side, using the cones in the periphery of the retina. and red.

AnSwerS on pAge AK–1


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If light works like waves, then The hearing Sense: Can you hear me now?
do sound waves have similar If light works like waves, then do sound waves have similar properties? sensation and perception 119

properties? The properties of sound are indeed similar to those of light, as both senses rely
on waves. But the similarity ends there, as the physical properties of sound are differ-
TeST yourself AnSwerS on pAge AK–1

test yourself ent from those of light. Pick the best answer.
1. You find that you have to add 1 teaspoon of sugar to a cup of
14. The olfactory receptor cells are located in the ________________.
a. tops of the nasal passages c. roof of the mouth
b. auditory passages d. lining of the outer nose
Sample exams are found at the end
Perception of
of Sound: Good vibrations
coffee that already has 5 teaspoons of sugar in it to notice the
difference in sweetness. If you have a cup of coffee with 10 tea- 15. Which of the following statements about olfactory receptors is true?
spoons of sugar in it, how many teaspoons would you have to a. Olfactory receptors are replaced every five to eight weeks.
every chapter. Both the quizzes and the end- add to notice the difference in sweetness at least half the time? b. There are fewer than 50 types of olfactory receptors.
3.4 what is sound, and how does it travel through the various a. 1
parts of the ear? c. 4 c. Signals from the receptors go through the brain stem and
of-chapter tests are in multiple-choice format b. 2 d. 5 then to the cortex.
d. Olfactory receptors respond to pressure.
Sound waves do not come in little packets the way light comes in photons. Sound
2. The process by which the brain stops attending to constant,
to replicate the experience most students unchanging information is called ______________.
waves are simply the vibrations of the molecules of air that surround
a. adaptation us. Sound waves c. habituation
16. In the spinal cord, ____________ inhibit(s) the release of
substance P.

have with graded assessments. Answers


do have the same to of light waves, though—wavelength,
properties
b. sensation
amplitude,
3. Which of the following
d. accommodation
terms refersand
to the psychological effect of
a. hormones
b. serotonin
c. norepinephrine
d. endorphins

all practice quizzes and end-of-chapter tests the length of light waves?


a. colour c. pitch
17. We know when we are moving up and down in an elevator
because of the movement of tiny crystals in the _______________.
b. brightness d. amplitude a. outer ear c. otolith organs
are in an Answer Key found at the back of 4. Which of the following is responsible for controlling how much b. inner ear d. middle ear
light enters the eye? 18. Ellis turns around and around in a circle. When he stops, he feels
the book. a. cornea
b. lens
c. retina
d. iris
like his head is still spinning. What is responsible for this sensation?
a. semicircular canals c. otolith organs
5. Which type of retinal cell forms the optic nerve? b. proprioceptors d. otolith crystals
a. rods c. ganglion cells 19. An old comedy routine on television had a character who would
b. cones d. bipolar cells line up the heads of people who were very far away from him
6. Which type of retinal cell plays a role in colour vision? between his fingers. Then he would pinch his fingers together and
a. rods c. ganglion cells say gleefully, “I’m crushing your head, I’m crushing your head.” The
b. cones d. bipolar cells comedian was playing around with which perceptual constancy?
a. size constancy c. brightness constancy
7. Which set of colours are the primary colours when mixing light? b. shape constancy d. colour constancy
a. red, yellow, and blue c. blue, green, and yellow
b. red, blue, and green d. red, green, and yellow 20. Which Gestalt principle is at work when a ventriloquist moves the
dummy’s mouth while doing the talking, making it seem as if the
8. Which of the following properties of sound would be the most dummy is talking?
similar to the brightness of light? a. closure c. contiguity
a. pitch c. purity b. similarity d. continuity
b. loudness d. timbre
21. What is occurring when you’re looking down a set of railroad
9. The thin membrane stretched over the opening to the inner ear tracks and they appear to merge together in the distance?
is the _____________. a. convergence c. overlap
a. pinna c. tympanic membrane b. linear perspective d. texture gradient
b. oval window d. cochlea
22. The Müller-Lyer illusion exists in cultures in which there are
10. The ____________ theory appears to account for how we hear _________________.
sounds between 400 and 4000 Hz. a. more men than women c. lots of trees
a. wave c. volley b. more women than men d. buildings with lots
b. frequency d. adaptive of corners
11. If a severe ear infection damages the bones of the middle ear, 23. Allison opened her new jigsaw puzzle but soon realized that the
you may develop ___________ hearing impairment. puzzle pieces inside had nothing to do with the picture on the
a. nerve c. brain pathway box. With no picture to go by, she realized she would have to
b. stimulation d. conduction use __________________.
12. The sense of taste is closely related to the sense of a. bottom-up processing c. perceptual expectancy
____________. b. top-down processing d. perceptual set
a. sight c. smell 24. Juan just attended a terrific magic show. In one of the tricks, the
b. hearing d. touch magician made a ball disappear that had just been in plain sight.
13. The “bumps” on the tongue that are visible to the eye are the Which aspect of our visual system likely allowed the magician to
______________. accomplish this illusion?
a. taste buds c. taste receptors a. lateral inhibition c. persistence of vision
b. papillae d. olfactory receptors b. microsaccades of the eyes d. achromatopsia
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xviii PREFACE

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3 concept summaries
sensation and perception 121

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p. 84 p. 99
3.1 p. 84
3.5 p. 99
3.1 3.5

The ABCs of Sensation


The ABCs of Sensation
sensation
process by which information from
sensation
the outside
process world
by which enters thefrom
information brain
related to the activation of receptors
in thetovarious
related sense organs
the activation
in the various sense organs
of receptors

related to changes in physical stimuli


related to changes in physical stimuli
smell/olfaction
smell/olfaction
called a chemical sense because substance molecules
are suspended
called
areand
and
in the because
a chemical sense
fit into receptor
suspended
fit into receptor
air, carried
sites
in the air,
sites
to the nasal
substance cavity,
molecules
carried to the nasal cavity,
Olfactory bulb
Olfactory bulb

Cilia of
olfactory
Cilia of
receptor
at the end of each chapter provide students with a graphic
summary of content covered in the chapter. By pulling the
the outside world enters the brain nose serves as a collection device olfactory
cell
receptor
nose serves as a collection device
unique in that signals do not first travel cell
to theinthalamus
unique before
that signals going
do not firsttotravel
the brain
p. 87 p. 94 to the thalamus before going to the brain
3.2 3.3 p. 87 3.4 p. 94
Olfactory
3.2 3.3 3.4 Chemical Senses epithelium
Olfactory

content together in this highly visual manner, students can


Chemical Senses epithelium

Taste pore
Lens composed of
Lens sound sound waves
composed of
Taste pore
Taste hair taste/gustation
Pupil sound sound waves Taste hair taste/gustation

better understand the connections and grasp how the


Pupil Iris Retina processed by the ear
Iris is a physical processed by the ear Receptor cell made possible largely through the role of taste buds
Retina
is astimulus
physical processing can Receptor cell (taste
made receptor
possible cells)through the role of taste buds
largely
be impaired
processing can (taste
stimulus Supporting cell five receptor cells)
basic tastes (receptor types)
Fovea be impaired
Supporting cell fivecalled
basicatastes (receptor
chemical sensetypes)
because food molecules dissolve

146 Ch A P Te r 4
Light Fovea

chapter material fits together.


Outer layer
Light
has psychological properties of tongue in saliva,
called which sense
a chemical then fits into receptor
because sites
food molecules dissolve
Outer layer
has psychological properties in saliva, which then fits into receptor sites
frequency or pitch of tongue
Nerve fibre
frequency
volume or pitch
Cornea Optic nerve Nerve fibre
Cornea volume
Optic nerve timbre
Blind spot (optic disc) timbre
Blind spot (optic disc) p. 106
light
Blood vessels The Hearing Sense 3.6 p. 106
light
Blood vessels The Hearing Sense 3.6

parent has not experienced that wonderful moment when Baby, who is just learning
Pinna

instinctive drift Sensestendency for an animal’s


is a form of electromagnetic
Pinna
is a physical is aradiation
form of electromagnetic Somesthetic Hair

is astimulus
physical radiation
processed by the eye Somesthetic Senses Skin surface Hair
Sweat gland
stimulus Skin surface

behaviour to revert to genetically


processed by the eye

to label objects and people, refers to every man she sees as “Dada”? The name “Dada”
brightness Sweat gland
outer ear skin senses processed by the skin Skin
has psychological properties brightness
colour/hue skin senses layers
outer ear processed by the skin Skin
Pressure-sensitive
has psychological properties colour/hue
saturation layers

controlled patterns.
kinesthetic sense nerves
Pressure-sensitive
saturation nerves
The Science of Seeing kinesthetic sense

is a response to the presence of her own father and is reinforced by his delight and
Ear canal
processed by
The Science of Seeing rods
Ear canal
proprioceptors
processed by
seeing Blood
begins with retinal receptor cells rods in skin, joints,
proprioceptors vessels
seeing begins with retinal receptor cells cones muscles, Blood
in skin, joints,

attention to her. But in the beginning, she will generalize her “Dada” response to any
vessels Subcutaneous
cones and tendons
muscles, Pain-sensitive and fat
Hammer Anvil Subcutaneous
and tendons touch-sensitive
Pain-sensitive and free fat
Left visual field Right visual field Hammer Anvil Oval nerve endings
touch-sensitive free
Left visual field Right visual field window
Oval nerve endings
window

man. As other men fail to reinforce her for this response, she’ll learn to discriminate
middle ear vestibular sense processed by vestibular organs
Stirrup middle ear vestibular sense processed by vestibular organs
Left eye Right eye
Stirrup
Left eye Right eye
Middle ear

between them and her father and only call her father “Dada.” In this way, the man
Eardrum Middle ear
Optic nerve p. 106
Optic nerve
Eardrum
3.7 3.8 3.9 p. 106
Optic Organ of Corti 3.7 3.8 3.9
chiasm
Optic

who is actually her father becomes a discriminative stimulus just like the stoplight or
Optic tract Organ of Corti
Basilar
chiasm
Optic tract membrane
Basilar
inner ear
The ABCs of Perception
Nerve
signal
Nerve
membrane
inner ear
The ABCs of Perception
signal method by which the sensations experienced at any given moment
are interpreted
method andsensations
by which the organized experienced
in some meaningful fashion
at any given moment

the doorknob mentioned earlier.


Fluid in perception are interpreted and organized in some meaningful fashion
cochlea may have unique features depending on sensory modality
Left visual Right visual
Fluid in perception
cochlea may have unique features depending on sensory modality
cortex cortex
Left visual Right visual may not always be based on an accurate interpretation of the stimulus
cortex cortex
may not always be based on an accurate interpretation of the stimulus

Spontaneous recovery (the recurrence of a conditioned response after extinction)


will also happen with operant responses. Remember the hoop-jumping dog? Anyone
who has ever trained animals to do several different tricks will say that when first
learning a new trick, most animals will try to get reinforcers by performing their old
tricks. Rover might very well have tried to roll over, speak, and shake paws to get that
treat before finally walking through the hoop.
While animals can learn many types of behaviour through the use of operant
conditioning, it seems that not every animal can be taught anything. For more on this
topic, see the following section on biological constraints.

other features of each chapter


are special sections covering interesting topics classic studies in psychology
related to the chapter material, especially topics Biological Constraints on Operant Conditioning
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of diversity and cultural interest. These sections
Raccoons are fairly intelligent animals and are sometimes used in learning
are not set off from the text in boxes, and the experiments. In a typical experiment, a behaviourist would use shaping and
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6:18 PM user refer to these /202/PHC00166/9780205897469_CICCARELLI/CICCARELLI_AN_EXPLORATION_1ST_CANADIAN_EDI
features in the chapter ...
reinforcement to teach a raccoon a trick. The goal might be to get the raccoon
content, making it more likely that students will to pick up several coins and drop them into a metal container, for which the raccoon would
read the enriching material. The test bank, be rewarded with food. The behaviourist starts by reinforcing the raccoon for picking up a
116 CH A PTEr 3 single coin. Then the metal container is introduced, and the raccoon is now required to
practice quizzes, and the tests at the end of drop the coin into the slot on the container in order to get reinforcement.
each chapter include questions on this material, It is at this point that operant conditioning seems to fail. Instead of dropping the coin
ChAPter 10 social psychol
further encouraging students to read it. Each practice quiz How much in thedo slot,
youtheremember?
raccoon puts the coin in and out of the slot and rubs it against the inside of
3.7
the container, then holds it firmly for a few seconds before finally letting it go. When the 3.8 3.9
section ends with Questions for Further Study
The only time that liking someone does not seemPick the best
to make answer.
that person like the requirement is upped to two coins, the raccoon spends several minutes rubbing them
that other
encourage students to think critically about
in return is if a person suffers from feelings of low1.
self-worth. In that
The tendency to case, find-
perceive againstaseach
a quarter beingother and
round dipping
even whenthem intoc.theis container,
a distorted without
perception actually
of andropping them
actual stimulus
the content
ing out thatthey
someone havelikesjust read.
you when you don’t even like yourself makes
it is viewed at you question
an angle is called
in. ______.
In spite of the fact that this dipping and d. corresponds directlyistonot
rubbing behaviour reality
reinforced, it gets
a. size constancy
his or her motives. This mistrust can cause you to act in an unfriendly manner toward worse c.andbrightness constancy
worse until conditioning becomes
5. Nedimpossible.
found a decaying carcass lying on the beach one day.
that person, which makes the person more likely to becomeb.unfriendly
shape constancy
toward you in d. colour
Keller constancy
and Marian Breland, in their attempt
Lookingto train
at thea size
raccoon,
of thefound
body that thishad
(which problem
decomposed quite a
a kind of self-fulfilling prophecy (Murray et al., 1998). 2. A reversible figure, such as the Necker cube, makes use of
was not limited to the raccoon (Breland & Breland, decided
bit), Ned that ran
1961). They it was the
into a body
similarofdifficulty
a sea monster, some-
which principle of perception? with a pig that was being trained to pick thingup a like the
total ofLoch
five Ness
large monster
woodenincoins Scotland. If we know that
and put
a. shape constancy c. figure–ground relationships Ned loves to read about weird, mythical animals, we might
them into a “piggy bank.” Although at first successful, the pig became slower and slower
psychology in the news b. expectancy d. depth perception expect that he has made an error of perception due to ______.
at the task over a period of weeks, dropping the coin, rooting (pushing) it around with its
3. Which of the following is not nose, a monocular
pickingcue depth? it again, anda.rooting
fordropping
it up,
perceptual set
somedefence
more. This behaviour
c. bottom-up processing
b. perceptual d. became
cognitivesoconvergence
Facing Facebook—The Social Nature of Online Networking a. convergence c. overlap
persistent that the pig actually did not get enough to eat for the day.
b. linear perspective d. texture gradient 6. The first time Joe had to put together a child’s bicycle, it took a
The Brelands concluded that the raccoon and the pig were reverting to behaviour that
There are some interesting research findings concerning the online
4. An illusion ______.networking long time. But several bicycles later, he’s a whiz at constructing
was instinctual for them. Instinctual behaviour
them.is genetically
His improved determined
speed andand skillnot
canunder the
be attributed to ______.
phenomenon. For example, the frequency of social media use same
a. is the has increased
thing as sub-
a hallucination
influence of learning. Apparently, even though the animals
a. bottom-up were at first ablec. toperceptual
processing learn the expectancy
stantially over the past few years. Between 2010 and 2011, b. exists
thereonly
wasinathe brain cells of the viewer
15 percent
tricks, as the coins became more and more b. top-down
associatedprocessing
with food, the animals d. perceptual
began to set
increase in the number of Canadians who visited a socialcommonly
Raccoons media sitedunk at least
theironce
food ainweek and
drift back into the instinctual patterns of behaviour that they used with real food. Raccoons
a 16 percent increase in the number of Canadians whoofvisited
and out a social
water before networking
eating. This site every AnSwerS on pAge AK–1
rub their food between their paws and dip it in and out of water. Pigs root and throw their
day. In addition, although the stereotype is that“washing” behaviour
social media is onlyisfor
controlled
teenagersby and young
instinct and is difficult to change even food around before eating it. The Brelands called this tendency to revert to genetically
adults, the number of older Canadians actively using social networking sites has also increased
using operant techniques. controlled patterns instinctive drift.
dramatically—almost 66 percent of 35–54-year-olds, and over 40 percent of those over the
age of 55, have reported using social media. There are also gender differences, with 37
applying psychology to everyday life
percent of online Canadian females using social media once a day compared to only 24 per-
cent of online Canadian males (Faber, 2011).
Beyond “Smoke and Mirrors”—The
Researchers have found that young people who already experience positive social Psychological Science and Neuroscience of Magic
relationships use online sites to enhance those same relationships, contrary to the stereo-
Many people enjoy watching magic acts in person or on television. Perhaps you
typed view that it would be the socially inept who would gravitate toward the anonymous
have been amazed by a Mindfreak performed by Criss Angel or the perfor-
nature of online networking (Mikami et al., 2010). Those who are less well adjusted either
mance and edgy antics of Penn & Teller. If you are one of those people, you
did not use social networking sites or used them in more negative ways: using excessive
bad language, making hostile remarks, showing aggressive gestures, or posting unflatter- likely witnessed a performance that included many various illusions. And like many of us,
ing or suggestive photographs. you probably wondered at some point in the performance, “How did they do that?!” Did
Finally, one study’s findings suggest that users of social networking sites spend a lot you think the tricks were due to some type of special device (such as a fake thumb tip for
more time on “social searching,” which is defined as searching a site for specific information hiding a scarf), or perhaps they were accomplished with “smoke and mirrors,” or maybe
about a certain person, group, or event, than they do on “social browsing,” defined as sur- the magician distracted the audience with one movement while actually doing something
veying the site without any specific target in mind (Wise et al., 2010). Users were also found else to pull off the illusion? Magicians use many techniques to take advan-
to be more emotionally and positively engaged when searching rather than browsing. Again, tage of, or manipulate, our actual level of awareness of what is happening
this runs counter to the complaints of some who feel that such sites encourage time-wasting right in front of us or perhaps to manipulate our attention.
browsing. Instead, people are actively searching for information they desire. Though magic is not a new topic of interest in psychology, there has
been renewed interest in recent years, especially in the neuroscientific
queStIOnS fOr further dISCuSSIOn
study of magic. This view suggests that researchers can work alongside
1. Were you surprised to see that older Canadians are frequently using social networking
magicians in order to gain a better understanding of various cognitive and
sites? How would your reaction to these statistics relate to the previous discussion of
perceptual processes by not only examining the sensory or physical
stereotyping?
mechanics behind magic tricks, or even the psychological explanations, but
2. How do you find yourself using networking sites, and how does that relate to the find-
to look further by examining what is happening in the brain (Macknik &
ings of these studies?
Martinez-Conde, 2009).
Dr. Stephen L. Macknik and Dr. Susanna Martinez-Conde of the Barrow
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development story
Insight and Collaboration
The creation of this text and package is the result of the most e­ xtensive development
investment in a text that this discipline has ever experienced. Over 1000 instructors
and students contributed to decisions regarding issues such as organization, content
coverage, pedagogical innovation, and writing style through feedback from reviews and
focus groups. A full-time development editor analyzed this feedback and worked with
the authors, editing the prose line-by-line for clarity. Student reviewers who had used
the book in their introductory psychology class provided valuable input by evaluating
the writing style and in-text learning tools; you will see some of these student
­reviewers in the photos included with the Student-Voice questions. The Canadian
­edition ­continues to carry the ­benefit of this input and has been even further improve
based on specific feedback from Canadian reviewers, including expert ­reviewers for each
major topic area who provided feedback on the currency and accuracy of the research.
We are grateful to all who provided feedback on changes for the Canadian edition text
as well as changes to the design—which we hope you find as ­inviting as we do!

xix
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acknowledgments

We, the authors, would very much like to express our sincere appreciation to the many
colleagues and friends who through either their patience, interest, or advice helped us
put the words down in a coherent fashion and more importantly guided us with their
inspiration through the tough times.
We are especially indebted to all the reviewers who gave us both positive and
critical feedback during the development of this Canadian edition:

Patrice Esson Sheridan College


Stephanie Gaskin, Dawson College
Deborah Gural, Red River College
Anick Legault, Dawson College
Karen Moreau, Niagara College of Applied Arts and Technology

We cannot forget the overwhelming support of the publisher, Pearson Canada,


and their many exceptional personnel who kept us on track—specifically, Ky Pruesse
for originally choosing us to participate in this endeavour; Matthew Christian, our
acquisitions editor; Paul Donnelly for being such an understanding and supportive
developmental editor; and Marissa Lok f or her project management. Finally, we
acknowledge all the Canadian psychological researchers we cited or not, whose tireless
efforts made this book possible

xx
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about the authors

SAUNDRA K. CICCARELLI is a professor operates an active lab and with his students is
of Psychology at Gulf Coast Community College in currently investigating the psychophysiological
Panama City, Florida. She received her Ph.D. in characteristics and neuropsychological performance of
Developmental Psychology from George Peabody adults with and without ADHD. Outside of the lab,
College of Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Dr. White is engaged in collaborative research
Tennessee. She is a member of the American examining the effectiveness of incorporatin
Psychological Association and the Association for technology in and out of the college classroom to
Psychological Science. Originally interested in a facilitate student learning. He also serves as a mentor
career as a researcher in the development of language for other faculty wanting to expand their use of
and intelligence in developmentally delayed children technology with their classes. In 2008, he was a
and adolescents, Dr. Ciccarelli had publications in the recipient of the Georgia College Excellence in
Journal of Mental Deficiency while still at Peabody. Teaching Award.
However, she discovered a love of teaching early on in
her career. This led her to the position at Gulf Coas V. HEATHER FRITZLEY is a full-time
Community College, where she has been teaching professor at Sheridan Institute of Technology and
Introductory Psychology and Human Development Advanced Learning in Ontario and also a sessional
for over 30 years. Her students love her enthusiasm instructor at the University of Toronto. She received
for the field of psychology and the many anecdote her doctorate in social psychology from Queen’s
and examples she uses to bring psychology to life for University in Kingston, Ontario. Her research
them. Before writing this text, Dr. Ciccarelli authored interests include the effect of various questioning
numerous ancillary materials for several introductory techniques on young children’s responses and
psychology and human development texts. young children’s eyewitness abilities. She
teaches a variety of psychology courses,
J. NOLAND WHITE is an associate professor including Introductory Psychology, Social
of Psychology at Georgia College & State University Psychology, Personality Psychology,
(Georgia College), Georgia’s Public Liberal Arts Cognitive Psychology, the
University, located in Milledgeville. He received both Psychology of Cults, the
his B.S. and M.S. in Psychology from Georgia Psychology of Prejudice, and
College and joined the faculty in 2001 after receiving the Psychology of Good and
his Ph.D. in Counseling Psychology from the Evil. She is very passionate about the
University of Tennessee. As a licensed psychologist, quest for knowledge and believes strongly
Dr. White has worked as a consultant in a variety of in the idea that the best teachers are
settings, including adult mental health, developmental the ones who are always learning
disabilities, and juvenile justice. Back on campus, he themselves.

xxi
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xxii PREFACE

TOM HARRIGAN has taught thousands of the support of Pearson Education Canada, led to
undergraduate students at Red River College, the the development of HandsOnPsych, a CD-ROM
University of Manitoba, the University of based set of interactive psychology modules. Tom
Winnipeg, and Lakehead University over the past currently holds a position in the nursing department
17 years. Tom received his undergraduate degree in at Red River College, where he teaches Introduction
Science from Laurentian University, then completed to Psychology, Statistics, and a variety of other
his master’s degree in Experimental Psychology at psychology related courses. He is researching
Lakehead University, and continued his move west student perceptions associated with the use of cheat
to complete a Ph.D. in Behavioural Neuroscience at sheets and is becoming increasingly fascinated with
the University of Manitoba. Tom’s research interest applying evolutionary principles to learning.
in helping students learn more effectively has, wit Go Jets Go!
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