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2017,29(4):542-551

DOI: 10.1016/S1001-6058(16)60767-9

methods *

Liu-chao Qiu (邱流潮)1, Feng Jin (金峰) 2, Peng-zhi Lin (林鹏智)3, Yi Liu (刘毅)4, Yu Han (韩宇)1

1. College of Water Resources and Civil Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083, China,

E-mail: qiuliuchao@cau.edu.cn

2. State Key Laboratory of Hydroscience and Hydraulic Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China

3. State Key Laboratory of Hydraulics and Mountain River Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065,

China

4. State Key Laboratory of Simulation and Regulation of Water Cycle in River Basin, China Institute of Water

Resources and Hydropower Research, Beijing 100038, China

Abstract: This paper presents the simulation of tsunamis due to rigid and deformable landslides with consideration of submerged

conditions by using particle methods. The smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH), as a particle based method, is for solving

problems of fast moving boundaries in the field of continuum mechanics. Other particle based methods, like the discrete element

method (DEM), are suitable for modeling the displacement and the collision related to the rigid landslides. In the present work, we

use the SPH and the DEM to simulate tsunamis generated by rigid and deformable landslides with consideration of submerged

conditions. The viscous free-surface flows are solved by a weakly compressible SPH and the displacement and the rotation of the

rigid body slides are calculated using a multi-sphere DEM allowing for modeling solids of arbitrarily complex shapes. The fluid-solid

interactions are simulated by coupling the SPH and the DEM. A rheology model combining the Papanastasiou and the

Herschel-Bulkley models is applied to represent the viscoplastic behavior of the non-Newtonian flow in the submarine deformable

landslide cases. Submarine landslide tsunamis due to rigid and deformable landslides are both simulated as typical landslide cases in

this investigation. Our simulated results and the previous experimental results in the literatures are in good agreement, which shows

that the proposed particle based methods are capable of modeling the submarine landslide tsunamis.

Key words: Landslide tsunamis, fluid-solid interaction, free-surface flows, smoothed particle hydrodynamics, discrete element method

The movements of massive rigid and deformable localized than seismically generated water waves, they

bodies such as landslides, slump, rock falls, debris, can overtop dams and destroy tail water villages, or

snow, or avalanches, volcano eruptions and quick clay they may run up along the shore line to destroy the

slides in or into geometrically confined water bodies villages on the shore. As an example, the Vaiont

such as reservoirs, lakes, estuaries and bays may disaster in 1963 killed about 2 500 people when the

produce catastrophic impulse water waves which are dam was over-topped by as much as 245 m of water

often referred to as landslide tsunamis[1]. Although the wave. The prediction of the generation, the propaga-

tion and the transformation of impulse water waves

can help reducing the losses caused by these pheno-

* Project supported by the National Natural Science Foun- mena, as it may provide an estimation of the hazar-

dation of China (Grant Nos. 11172321, 51509248), the Scientific dous areas and the intensity of the hazard, and for

Research and Experiment of Regulation Engineering for the working out the appropriate protective measures.

Songhua River Mainstream in Heilongjiang Province (Grant Therefore, over the recent centuries, the scientific

No. SGZL/KY-12).

Biography: Liu-chao Qiu (1971-), Male, Ph. D., interest is significantly increased with respect to the

Associate Professor landslides and the landslide-generated water waves for

the understanding of such problems. At present, the

543

laboratory experiment, the analytical solution and the contrast to the mesh-based techniques, the meshless

numerical modeling are three main methods to investi- methods do not require an interface capturing scheme

gate the landslides and the landslide-generated water nor the moving mesh technology, which is a clear

waves. The analytical solution is generally available advantage when the problem involves breaking waves

only for simple cases and is unable to account for the and moving boundaries. In this respect, Qiu[9]

whole process of landslides. The laboratory experi- successfully applied the SPH method to simulate the

ment is the most important and straightforward way to landslide-generated water waves, Fu and Jin[10] used

study the landslides and its induced water waves and the MPS method in predicting the landslide pheno-

the resulted experimental data can be used to validate mena. However, in most numerical simulations, the

numerical models. However, a scale model experi- rigid body landslide is treated as a series of moving

ment may be both time-consuming and costly to carry particles with a pre-defined motion. Hence, it is

out. By contrast, the numerical modeling, if properly difficult to predict the landslide movement, especially

validated with laboratory experiments, may serve as a for practical cases. As for a rigid landslide dominated

more flexible and efficient tool. Moreover, the nu- by discontinuity, numerical methods, including the

merical modeling can more easily provide flow discrete element method (DEM) and the discontinuous

variables at any point of space and, hence, is better deformation analysis (DDA), are capable of modeling

suited to a detailed study of physical processes. Follo- the movement and the interaction between discon-

wing Wang et al.[2] and in terms of the mathematical tinuous slides. Wang et al.[2] developed a coupled

formulations, the numerical models can be categorized DDA-SPH model to simulate landslide-generated

into the Boussinesq-type model[3], the shallow water impulsive waves with consideration of the solid-fluid

equation model[4] and the fully Navier-Stokes model[5]. interaction. For deformable landslide simulations, the

In particular, the depth-integrated shallow water equa- rheology models are desirable. As in most numerical

tion is widely used to simulate the water wave pro- studies of landslides, the prediction of the motion and

blems and is solved by using the standard finite di- the deformation of non-Newtonian fluids such as soils

fference or finite volume methods. However, the and clays relies on the rheology model. The available

application of this method requires knowledge of the rheology models in literature can be classified into

evolution of the bathymetry, the velocity of the sliding three groups: the viscous models, the viscoplastic mo-

mass and an estimation of the drag coefficients. In dels, and the frictional models. The linear viscoplastic

addition, neglecting the vertical acceleration leads to Bingham model is most widely used to describe the

inaccuracy in the generation zone where the depth rheology of a debris or mud flow.

changes rapidly, and on the shore, where the run-up This work aims to describe and validate the nu-

and the wave-breaking occur[6]. Heidarzadeh et al.[7] merical methods combining the SPH and the DEM to

made an excellent review of the state-of-the-art nume- simulate the submarine rigid and deformable land-

rical tools for modeling the landslide-generated waves. slides and the induced water waves. The SPH, as a

The wave generation mechanism depends on the particle based Lagrangian method, was originally de-

initial position of a landslide with respect to the sur- veloped for astrophysical simulations and was then

face of the water at rest. Therefore, three types of extended to simulate free surface flows. Instead of a

landslides can be identified: the subaerial type, the mesh, the SPH method uses a set of interpolation

partially submerged type and the submarine type. The points placed arbitrarily within the fluid, with several

present work will mainly focus on the numerical advantages as compared to the mesh based methods

modeling of the impulse waves generated by the when simulating a complex flow involving free sur-

submarine landslides. faces and moving boundaries. More complete reviews

Numerical methods used for modeling the of the SPH can be found in Refs.[11] and [12]. The

landslide generated water waves can be divided into DEM is also a particle based Lagrangian method

two major categories: the mesh-based methods and the which was developed to describe granular materials

meshless methods. The traditional mesh-based me- and is nowadays widely used in particulate flows.

thods such as the finite difference method and the Within the meshless framework, some effort was

finite volume method are widely used for modeling made to couple the SPH and the DEM to model solids

the landslides, as very mature methods[8]. However, moving in free surface flows. Ren et al.[13] developed

due to some limitations in the mesh generation, the a two-dimensional SPH-DEM model to simulate the

remeshing and constructing the approximation scheme. wave-structure interaction by describing the move-

the public interests turn to use the meshless methods ment of the solids based on the multisphere DEM.

that remove the limitations of the classical mesh-based Canelas et al.[14] used a coupled SPH and DEM to

methods. In the past decades, the meshless methods, describe the motion of arbitrarily shaped solids in

like the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) and viscous fluids based on the concept of the distributed

the moving particle semi-implicit (MPS) method, contact DEM introduced by Cummins and Cleary[15].

were developed within the Lagrangian framework. In In this study, the viscous free surface flow is solved

544

avoiding the solution of the pressure Poisson equation. f (xa )

b

f (xb )W (xa xb , h) (4)

b

The movement of the rigid slides is modeled by using

a

arbitrarily complex shapes to be modeled. The fluid- where b = 1, 2, , N and N is the number of

solid interaction is simulated by coupling the SPH and particles in the support domain of particle a denoted

the DEM. A rheology model combining the Papana- by a . mb , b , and xb are the mass, the density,

stasiou and the Herschel-Bulkley models is used to and the position of particle b , respectively.

represent the characteristics of the non-Newtonian The kernel function is one of the most important

fluid in the deformable landslide simulation. To inves- components of the SPH method. It determines how the

tigate the performance of the proposed method, the fluid variables are interpolated. Consequently, its

results of previous scale model experiments of rigid[16] choice affects the accuracy, the efficiency, and the

and deformable[17] landslide generated waves are stability of the calculation. The Gaussian, the Cubic

taken for comparison. Spline, and the Wendland kernel are commonly used

kernel functions in the SPH method. The Wendland

kernel has some advantages over the Gaussian and the

1. Numerical method Cubic Spline[18]. It is shown, in some cases, that the

particle clumping[19] and the numerical dissipation[20]

1.1 SPH method

can be reduced. The Wendland kernel is thus used in

For the landslide simulation in this study, we use

this paper. It is defined as

the following governing equations for the fluid phase

in a fully Lagrangian frame given as: 4

q

W (rab , h) = D 1 (2q +1) , 0 q 2 (5)

d 2

= v (1)

dt

where rab = xa xb is the distance between par-

dv 1 ticles, D is 7 / 4h 2

in the 2-D case and 7 / 8h3

= p + 2 v + g (2)

dt

in the 3-D case, q = rab /h .

Following Lo and Shao[21], Eqs.(1) and (2) can be

where t is the time, v is the velocity, p is the written in the SPH discretization form as

pressure, g is the gravity acceleration, is the

kinetic viscosity, and is the density. d a

= mb vab aWab (6)

The basic idea of the SPH method is that the dt b

fluids can be represented as a discrete set of particles,

each assigned with a set of physical variables such as

dv a p p

the density, the pressure, the velocity and the position. = ga mb a2 + b2 aWab +

Any function and its derivatives associated with a dt b a b

given particle can be approximated by a kernel

interpolation over the known values at its neighbour- 4 r W

hood. One of the major advantages of the SPH method m b ab a ab

2

vab

( a + b ) rab

(7)

is the ability to represent derivatives without a compu- b

tain position x , the kernel approximation of f(x) is where vab = va vb , a denotes the gradient taken

defined as with respect to the coordinates of particle a .

In this study, the fluid phase is treated as weakly

f (x ) f (x ) W (x x , h)dx (3) compressible where the density in the fluid is allowed

to vary slightly. The closure problem is solved by

using an equation of state, as a relation between the

where h is the smoothing length that indicates how the pressure and the density. Following Monaghan[12],

far a particle is influenced by the other ones. is the relationship between the pressure and the density

the support domain determined by the smoothing for a particle a is given by

length h . W (x x , h) is the kernel function. For a

particle a located at xa , Eq.(3) can be rewritten in

pa = B a 1 (8)

a discrete form as the sum over a set of particls as 0

545

where the constant B = c02 0 / , 0 is the reference plastic model using a pseudo-Newtonian viscosity in

the un-yielded region and a Bingham viscosity in the

density, c0 is the sound speed at the reference

yielded region. The Herschel-Bulkley model is a com-

density and = 7 for a fluid like water. The speed of bination of a Bingham model and a power law model.

sound c0 is generally chosen as 10 times of the In the Herschel-Bulkley model, as in the Bingham

maximum velocity in the fluid to ensure that the model, no shear stress appears before the yield stress

fluctuations of the density are less than 1%. point with a singularity at the point where the shear

It is a challenging task to implement the solid strain is zero. To avoid this occurrence, Papanastasiou

boundaries in the SPH due to the kernel truncation. In proposed the regularization of the Bingham fluid

this work, the so-called dynamic boundary condi- model by introducing an exponential term, which

tions[22] are adopted for both the moving and fixed decreases quickly with m D , where m is an adjus-

boundaries. This method consists of creating boundary table parameter, thus smoothing out the viscosity

particles that satisfy the same equations of continuity function in a Bingham fluid. With this idea, a model is

(6) and state (8) as the fluid particles, but without created, that is valid in both the liquid and solid

updating their positions using the momentum Eq.(7) regions of the material. In the present work, we use

and their positions remaining fixed (fixed boundaries) the Papanastasiou adaptation for a Herschel-Bulkley

or moving according to some externally imposed fluid, which takes the following form

function (moving objects).

Finally the particle positions are updated every n 1 y m D

time-step using the XSPH variant[12] τ = [2 p D + (1 e )]D (11)

D

dxa m

= va + b vab aWab (9) where y and p represent the yield stress and the

dt b ab

plastic viscosity, respectively, and m is the stress

where ab = ( a b ) / 2 and is a constant, with growth exponent. In the limit case of m , the

Herschel-Bulkley model is recovered and hence the

its value in the range between 0 and 1, = 0.5 , as is

choice of the parameter m is actually a tradeoff

often used. This method is a correction for the

between the numerical issues and the accuracy of the

velocity of a particle a . This correction makes the

mechanical response. All simulations in this work are

particles more organized and, for high fluid velocities,

performed by using m = 1 000 s .

helps to avoid the particle penetration.

The present work simulates the deformable sub- We use the DEM and the SPH combined to

marine landslide as a non-Newtonian fluid. Generally simulate the interaction between the rigid body slides

speaking, the viscosity of incompressible generalized and the viscous free-surface flows. The motion of

Newtonian fluids depends only on the second pri- each slide is tracked based on Newton’s laws of mo-

ncipal invariant of the shear strain rate and a classical tion as follows:

constitutive law for these generalized Newtonian

fluids is in the form dU I

MI = FIc + FI f + M I g (12)

dt

τ = ( D )D (10)

dΩI

II = TI (13)

where the shear strain rate D = 0.5(v + v T ) and dt

its second invariant D = D D ij ij . This formu- where the mass M I , the velocity U I , and the angu-

lation can also be used to handle visco-plastic fluids. lar velocity ΩI are for the solid I , and g is the

The Bingham model is one of the simplest model

and provides a satisfactory description of the visco- gravity acceleration. The force FI f is due to the fluid-

plastic behaviour of the non-Newtonian fluid. A solid interaction and the force FIc represents any

variety of other Bingham models such as the bi-visco- solid contact that might occur. Integrating Eq.(12) in

sity and Herschel-Bulkley models are often used for time advances the linear motion of the solid whereas

submarine sediments to simulate the Bingham rheo- Eq.(13) accounts for the rotational motion.

logy of a viscoplastic material in low and high stress In order to calculate the fluid-solid interaction

states[23]. A bi-viscosity model is a piecewise visco-

546

force FI f , the boundary of a moving solid is sphere centres. vij , n is the normal relative velocity,

represented by groups of SPH particles and these and n is the normal damping coefficient given by

moving boundary particles have an inter-particle

spacing equal half of the fluid particle spacing to

prevent the fluid particles from penetrating the mo- 2 lg eij m* kn

n = (18)

ving solid boundary. The fluid-solid interaction is ( lg eij )2 + 2

ensured through the interactive force balance condi-

tion based on the Newton’s third law of motion. Follo-

wing Ren et al.[13], the fluid-solid interaction force where eij is the restitution coefficient. The effective

FI f can be determined as mass m* = (mi + m j ) / mi m j , where mi and m j are

the masses of surface spheres i and j , respectively.

p p The tangential component of the contact force

FI f = mi ma a2 + 2i aWai (14)

i a a i fij , t is calculated by a Coulomb friction law using a

coefficient of friction ij . It can be expressed as

where the inner summation means the total force on a

moving boundary particle i belonging to solid I

due to the neighborhood fluid particle a . f ij , t = kt δt tij t vij ,t , f ij , t ij f ij , n (19a)

Following Latham et al.[24], a multi-sphere app-

roach is used for modeling the complex-shaped multi-

f ij , t = ij f ij , n tij , f ij , t ij f ij , n (19b)

body dynamics, in which the surface of each solid is

represented by a cluster of small spheres of a diameter

equivalent to the spacing of the moving boundary par- where kt , δt and t are the tangential spring sti-

ticles. The solids are allowed to interact via the con- ffness, the tangential overlap, and the tangential dam-

tact forces when the surface spheres of different solids ping coefficient, respectively. The tangential relative

overlap. No relative movement between spheres of the velocity vij , t = vij vij , n and the tangential unit vector

same body is allowed. Based on the multi-sphere app-

roach, the resultant contact forces and torque acting tij = vij , t / vij , t . The tangential damping coefficient is

upon a solid I are evaluated as given by

FIc = (f ij , n + f ij , t ) (15)

2lg eij mkn

i j

t = (20)

( lg eij )2 + 2

TI = (Ri nij f ij , t ) (16)

where kt = 2/7kn and m = 2/7m* , The value of 2/7

i j

where Ri is the radius of surface sphere i be- similar time scales.

longing to I , nij represents the normal unit vector

pointing from the center of sphere i belonging to I

to the center of sphere j belonging to J. f ij , n and 2. Results and discussions

fij , t are the normal and tangential forces, respectively, 2.1 Submarine rigid body sliding

on surface sphere i of solid I due to surface As the first numerical validation case, the sub-

sphere j of solid J . The normal contact forces merged rigid landslide is investigated in this section.

The numerical model used in this simulation is based

f ij , n are calculated by on a laboratory experiment in literature[16]. In this

experiment, the landslide was modeled by a rigid

fij , n = kn δn nij n vij , n (17) wedge sliding freely into the water along a 45o

inclined slope. The cross section of the wedge is an

where kn is the normal spring stiffness, The overlap isosceles triangle with a length of 0.5 m. The initial

water depth is 1m and the top of the wedge is slightly

δn = (Ri + R j ) xi x j , where Ri and R j are the below the water surface. The initial configuration used

surface sphere radii, and xi and x j are the surface in our simulation is shown in Fig.1.

5477

r compared

with the expeeriment results

d water surface

with the expeerimental resultts

n springg stiffness of 105 N/m andd

a cooefficient of restitution off 0.8. The friiction coeffi--

ciennt of the conntact face beetween the slide s and thee

sloppe was not given

g in literaature[16]. We set the fric--

tion

n coefficient as 0.287 folllowing the work of Wangg

Fig.3 (Color online)

o Snapshoot sequences off the rigid landsslide

simulatiion at different times a [2]. A time step of 1×1004 s is used in this simu--

et al.

latio

on. In order tot achieve a particle spaccing indepen--

The deeveloped SPH H-DEM methhod is applieed to dennt solution, the

t particle sspacing is sy ystematicallyy

the simulatiion of the suubmerged rigid landslide pro- reduuced till furtther reductionn does not allter the solu--

t modeled fluid is the water

cess. In this simulation, the w tion

n. Figure 2 shhows a typicaal convergencce study withh

of density ofo 1 000 kgg/m3 and kinnetic viscosityy of WE E representing water eleevation. An initial fluidd

= 1 106 m 2 / s . The soolid slide hass a density off the partticle spacing dp = 0.01, 00.008 and 0.0 005 m is usedd

for the convergeence study annd as can be seen that thee

548

most matterial propertiies are the sam n literature[25].

me as those in

4

the same. A time step off 1×10 s annd an initial fluid f Figuure 7 shows a snapshot aat t = 1 s wiith the color--

particle spaccing of 0.0055 m are used in the follow wing bar indicating thhe velocity m magnitude. Figgure 8 showss

simulations. The entire coomputation tiime is 2 s. Figgure the tangential velocities

v (TV

T ) obtaineed using thee

3 shows the subsequent snaps shots off the impact water

w pressent SPH meethod and the analytical so olutions[25]. Itt

wave at diffferent times byb the rigid laandslide usingg the is seen

s that in this case thhe solution is in a closee

coupled SPH H-DEM method. The colorbar indicaating agreeement with thet analyticall solution.

the velocityy magnitude in all snappshots. Figurre 4

shows the tiime history of o simulated vertical

v displlace-

ment VD of the rigidd slide com mpared with the

experimentaal results. It is indicated thhat the numerrical

computed displacement

d agrees well with the expperi-

mental dispplacement, which proves the accuracyy of

the SPH-DE EM method in i reproducinng the rigid land-

slide motionn under the solid-fluid interaction. The

comparison between thee numerical and a experimeental

results of thee water elevattion (WE ) proofile at times 0.5

0 s

and 1.0 s is shown

s in Figg.5. From thesse graphs, wee can

conclude thaat the overalll behavior off the free surrface

produced by b the SPH H-DEM methhod is in good g

agreement with

w the dataa obtained inn the experim ment. Fig.8 Comparison of

o tangential veelocities

The comparrison indicatees that the lanndslide-generrated

impulsive waves

w could beb simula- teed accuratelyy by 2.3 Submarine deformable

d saand sliding

using the SP PH-DEM metthod. The SPH-D DEM simulaation of thee submergedd

rigiid landslide is validated inn the previou us section. Inn

thiss section, a submerged

s deformable saand landslidee

willl be investigaated. The nummerical modeel used in thiss

sim

mulation is bassed on a laborratory experim ment in litera--

turee[17]. This expperiment conssists of generating the wa--

ter waves by alllowing a maass of sand to o slide freelyy

dowwn a frictionleess inclined pplane with a slope

s of 45o

(seee Fig.9). The channel is 44.00 m long, 0.30 m widee

Fig.6 Schemattic diagram of annular

a viscomeeter problem

andd 2.00 m higgh. The sandd mass is as wide as thee

chaannel, so thaat the experim ments involv ve a verticall

planne, as a 2-D problem.

p Thee initial verticcal profile off

the sand mass is i triangular. This mass is i held in itss

initial position by

b a vertical gguillotine watter gate. Thiss

gatee is lifted upp very quicklly at t = 0 s . The dimen--

sionns of the crosss section of tthe mass are 0.65 m0.655

T water deppth is 1.60 m and the top of

m. The o the triangu-

lar mass

m is initiaally 0.1 m below the waterr surface.

o A snapshhot at t = 1 s

In this section, a beenchmark prooblem of the tan-

gential creeeping flow inn a viscometter made of two

coaxial cylinnders is studiied to demonstrate the cappabi-

lity of the proposed

p metthod to solvee non-Newtonian

fluid flow problems.

p As shown in Fig.6, the outer o

cylinder is kept

k fixed whhile the innerr cylinder rottates

with a constant angularr velocity = 1 . An innitial

fluid particlee spacing of 0.015

0 m is ussed in the com

mpu-

tational dom main. The tiime step t = 1 104 s . All

Fig.9 Initial configuuration of subm

merged deformaable landslide

549

material is approximated as a non-Newtonian fluid.

The visco-plastic behaviour of the deformable

landslide is modeled by using the Papanastasiou

model. In our computations, the density and the

kinetic viscosity of the water are 1 000 kg/m3 and

110-6 m2/s, respectively. The mean apparent density

of the sand is 1 950 kg/m3. The rheological parameters

of the sand were not measured in the experiments but

chosen by trials and errors in literature[17] for the

numerical simulations. In the simulations of this study,

two different rheological coefficients are taken with

the yield stress y = 200 Pa and y = 1 000 Pa , res-

pectively. In both cases, the viscosity p is set to

0.002 Pas, which is different from the values used in

the numerical simulations in literature[17]. This is due

to the necessity of our particular rheological model to

have a non-zero value for the viscosity, as is indeed

the approach used in literature[17] to have an imme-

diate liquefaction of the material. A time step of

1×10-4 s and an initial fluid particle spacing of 0.01 m

are used in this simulation. The smoothing length is

h , defined as 1.2 times of the initial particle spacing.

The entire computation time is 1.5 s.

Figure 10 shows the comparison of snapshots

among the experiment in literature[17], the previous Fig.11 Comparison of experimental and computed water sur-

numerical results in literature[17], and the present SPH faces ( y = 200 Pa)

results with the yield stress y = 200 Pa at t = 0.4 s results agree well with experimental results. Figure 12

and 0.8 s. The deformation of the sand sliding and its shows, respectively, the sliding process and the water

induced water wave at two different time steps velocity contour of the submerged sand landslides for

behaves similarly in these three different methods. the two yield stress values of y = 200 Pa and

Comparisons between the experimental and com-

y = 1 000 Pa . In the simulation with a higher value of

puted water surfaces at t = 0.4 s and 0.8 s are shown

in Fig.11. It is indicated that the present SPH simulated the yield stress y , the sand mass is so rigid that it

550

Fig.12 (Color online) Sliding process and water velocity contour of submerged sand landslides

this graph, the wave amplitude and the slide velocity This work was supporeted by the Open Fund of

depend on the yield stress of the sand. The slide with a the State Key Laboratory of Hydroscience and Engi-

larger yield stress moves much more slowly and neering of China, Tsinghua University (Grant No.

generates smaller waves. sklhse-2015-C-03), the Open Fund of the State Key

Laboratory of Simulation and Regulation of Water

Cycle in River Basin, China Institute of Water Re-

3. Conclusions sources and Hydropower Research (Grant No. IWHR-

We present a particle based method to simulate SKL-201505) and the Open Fund of the State Key

the full process of the landslide tsunamis due to the Laboratory of Hydraulics and Mountain River Engi-

rigid and deformable submarine landslides. In this me- neering, Sichuan University (Grant No. SKHL1425).

thod, a weakly compressible SPH is applied to solve

the viscous free surface flow. The movement of the

rigid landslides is modeled by using a multi-sphere References

DEM approach to enable landslides with arbitrarily

complex shapes to be modeled. The fluid-solid inter- [1] Heller V., Spinneken J. Improved landslide-tsunami pre-

diction: Effects of block model parameters and slide

action is simulated by coupling the SPH and the DEM.

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