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Glands and Glandular Structures

Adenohypophysis:
The anterior section of the pituitary gland that produces an
important number of hormones, such as the growth hormone, prolacti
n, ACTH, TSH, FSH, and LH.
Gonad:
A reproductive gland, such as the ovary or testis, whichproduces sex
hormones and gametes.
islet of Langerhans:
Any of the small groups of endocrine cells in the pancreas thatsecrete
s insulin and glucagon.
neurohypophysisThe posterior section of the pituitary gland that sec
retes oxytocin and vasopressin.

parafollicular cell;
A neuroendocrine cell in the thyroid gland that produces calcitonin.

parathyroid glandAny of four glands behind the thyroid gland that pro
duces the parathyroid hormone.

pineal glandA small endocrine gland in the brain that secretes melat
onin.
Thymus:
A glandular lymphoid organ in the neck region that is involved
in the development of the immune system and tends to atrophy
with age. It produces thymosin, a hormone that promotes the
development of lymphocytes.

Hormones
ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone)
A peptide hormone secreted by the anterior section of the
pituitary gland that stimulates the adrenal cortex.

ADH (antidiuretic hormone)


A polypeptide hormone secreted by the posterior section of the
pituitary gland that increases blood pressure and reduces urine flow.
Aldosterone
A steroid hormone secreted by the adrenal gland that controls
the balance of salt and water in the body.
Calcitonin
A polypeptide hormone from the thyroid gland that decreases
the level of calcium in the blood and has no function in adults.
cortisolThe main steroid hormone secreted by the adrenal gland that
regulates the immune system, blood pressure, and certain
metabolic activities, such as glucose metabolism.
Dopamine An amino
acid found in the brain that contributes to the normalfunctioning of th
e central nervous system. It also acts as aneurotransmitter in the sub
stantia nigra, basal ganglia, andcorpus striatum of the brain.

Epinephrine An amino acid hormone released by the adrenal gland in


response to stress that raises heart rate and blood pressure, among o
ther things.
Estrogen
Any of the female steroid hormones secreted by the ovariesand respon
sible for female sexual characteristics.
FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone)
A peptide gonadotropic hormone secreted by the anterior
section of the pituitary gland that stimulates sperm-producing
cells in males and the growth of ovarian follicles, which are egg-
containing vesicles, in females.
Glucagon
A peptide hormone secreted chiefly by the islets of Langerhansthat in
creases the level of sugar in the blood.
growth hormone
A peptide hormone secreted by the anterior section of thepituitary gla
nd that stimulates cell growth and the developmentof bodily tissues.
Insulin A peptide hormone secreted by the islets of Langerhans that
controls blood sugar level and metabolizes proteins, carbohydrates, an
d lipids.
LH (luteinizing hormone)
A peptide gonadotropic hormone secreted by the anterior
section of the pituitary gland that mainly stimulates the
production of testosterone in males and ovulation in females. Together
with FSH, it stimulates the production of estrogen in
the ovarian follicles.
Melatonin
An amino acid hormone secreted by the pineal gland that is associate
d with the regulation of sleep cycles.
Norepinephrine
An amino acid hormone secreted by the inner layer of the
adrenal gland that controls physiological activity and also
functions as a neurotransmitter.
Oxytocin A peptide hormone secreted by the posterior section of the
pituitary gland that stimulates the contraction of the uterus as
well as the secretion and ejection of breast milk.
Progesterone A female steroid hormone secreted by the ovaries that
prepares the uterus for the implantation of the fertilized egg.

Prolactin A peptide hormone released by the anterior section of the


pituitary gland that is responsible for the secretion of milk.
PTH (parathyroid hormone)
A hormone secreted by the parathyroid gland that regulates
phosphorus and ionized calcium levels.
Testosterone
A male steroid hormone secreted mainly by the testes that is
responsible for male secondary sex characteristics.
Thyroxine An amino acid hormone secreted by the thyroid gland that
raises the metabolic rate.
TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone)
A peptide hormone secreted by the anterior section of the
pituitary gland that stimulates thyroid function and growth.