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W O R K S .

1 By S A M U E L J O H N S O N .

L O N D O N :
? X I W T L B F O X C. B A T U V R S T , J. B V C I L A N D , W . I T R A H A N 1 J . X I V I N Z -
T O N A N D SOEfS, T . D A V I E S , T - P A Y N B , L . D A V I S , W . O W E N , B . W H I T E ,
S. C R O W D E X , T . C A S L O N , T . L O N G M A N , B. L A W , C. D l L L Y ,
J. D O D S L L Y , J . W I L K I L , ' J . ROB SO^, J. J O H N S O N , T . L O W N D L S ,
T. L V A N S , P . E L M S L Y , J. R I D L E Y , R. B A L D W I N , G . NICOL,
L E l G H A N D S O T H E B Y , J. B E W , N. C O N A N T , W. N l C O L L ,
J. M v n x n u , S. H A V E S , W. F O X , A N D J. P O W E X ,



ATTHEW PRIOR is one of t h o ~
have burn out. from an obfcure
. th&
r>riginat t o great eminence. H e was borri
July 2 I , , I 664, according to iome, at Win-
burne in Dorretihire, of I know not what.
parents; others fay that he was the ibn of a
Joiner of 1,ondon: he was perhaps willing
enough to leave his birth unfettled, in hope,
like ~~n:?&l?ote, that the h i ~ o r i a nif his
. . . find hLp fome i'lluitrious alli-
n c e tic.
I .
' . , I.

.6 . - . . He
The difficultp o f fettting Prior's birth-pke is great. '1n
. the regiRer o f his College he is called,- at his admitlion by
'the Prcfidmt,' Mdttbnu Prior of Winbarn id M~AI&Z ; by
:hintelf next day, Mattbr;w Prior of Do./;tP{re, i n which
county, not. in Middlefex, Winborn, or ~imOorne. as it
dands in the F'ilfarc, is fouid. When he Rood candidate for
fiis'feilo~lhi~;five years afterwards; he was regibered again
by himfelf as of Middk/cx. The lafi rrtord ought to ha
B2 ' preferred,
He is fuppofed to have fallen, by his fa.
thgr's death, into the hands of his uncle, a
*vintner near Charing-crofs, who knt hi*
for fome time to Dr. Buiby at Wt3fiminifer;
but, not ifitendfng to give him any education
beyond .that of the fccbool, took hip^, when
he was well advaficed iri literature, to hia
own houfe; where the earl of Dodet, celea
brat& for patroiqe of genius, h& hisn kq
chance, as Burrlet relates, reading Horace,

and was fo well p l d d with his pGfciency;

that he undertobk the C& asd coif of hia
,audeyicaleducation,. . , .

:at HeCambridgehisinn 1682,

k e i? St. ]ohxi%- College

' : i n his eighteenth
'year; and it may be reafonably ib9pokd that
he wag diftinguiihed among his oontempod
iaries. H e became -a-Bachelor, as is ufual, ia
four years ; and two pears afrerwatds' wrote
'the poem an the Dciij, which Ran& firR h
, his vdurne. ,

It is the eitabliihed prru2ke of that COP*

t o fend t v a y year to the earl of Exeter Conr
preferred, beeauk it war made upon wth. h h o b t m b l ~
that, as a native of Winborn, he is Riled k i h G q ' i Pn'e,
gmcro/i; nat confitcntly dth tho -00 m a t of the
meanaefs. of his birth.
P R I O R . J
poems wpon iacred Eubjeas, in acknowledg-
ment of a benefaion enjoyed by them fionl,
the bounty of his ancefior. On this occafion
were tlmfe vedw.writtm,' which, though no-
thing ie &id of their fuceefs, feem t~ have
recommended him to fome noticei for his
pr?ife of the countefs's mufic, and his line4
OP the famous piahre of Seneca, afford rea-
ibat for itnagidsg thqt he ww more or l&
convcriPnt with that family.

The &me year he pbliihed the Cdy MO@

gad Country MO&, to ridicule Dryden'a Hnd
and Puatbsr, ia corljun&ion with Mr. Mon-
T h a c is a b y f of great pain fuf-
fend,- md d fear6 bed, on this accdon, by
pryden, who thought* hard that an old'nan
/bould b e 4 trrcr~dd j tba/r towbom be bad 01-
ways bee^ civill py tide8 like the[@ is the
epvy raifed by Ebperigr abilities every day
gratified; when they are attacked, every one
hopes to ke them humbled; what is huped
its readily believed, and what is believed is
mnfidently told. Dryden had been more ac-
ctdiamed to hoftilitia, than that fuch enemieo
@odd break his quia; and if we cm fuppde
. . . Gpraa.
13 3 him
him 'vexed, it 'would.& hard to deny h i e
fenfe enough to conceal his qneafind.. 'a ' ,

; .
The City Moz@ atld Country Moge prdcurc:
ed its author8 more folid advantages than the
pleafure bf.fietting Dryden;, for they were
both fpiedily p r e f ~ d . l4lontagui )indeed
obtained the firfi notice, with fome degree of
difcontent;. as it feems, in .Prior, who-gkbaz
bly knew that his o w n part of the pbrfmml
ance was the beit. He had not, however, -,

much rearon. to cornplain; for! he cimd ' td

London, and obtained fuuch notice, ,th'at (in
r 69 I ) he. was Cant' to the congrefs., at: The
) l a p 6 4s fecfeiae to the: &b8f+. . In this
%ffernbiy bfip*incei and hob~ks,to which. EU;.
rope has pishhs*'s f i a r c h ~ y : h e n , ithing
n ~ equal,
was fokried: the 'piddGllia& agiihlt Lewis ;
which at b ~did- not p r d u c c 'effeas prbpor:
tionatc tothe &gnifice&e if the trinla&bnion,
. ..
. , :

. ..
$ . ..... .. . . . . ,

I T h e condtiEt of~rio9; i n this Tplehdid

ihitiatidn int6 public
. . biifinih; wad fo. pleafing
. .

io..king William, that hdl.rnade him one of

jhc g e n r ~ & e n o fhis bedchamber;
- . . and he is
.. i p ~ f e d
G ha& patfed foke of the next
. thg
. cultivation of literature and poetry.
-The death of Mary o n I 6g5ypro2
dtrcea ii 'fubjeQ-.far :all the writeis: *rhaps%
nd ~ n ~ i swasl . evkr fo poetically attended..
Dryden, 'indeed, as a man difeountenaileeck
add depiiveb,' was :fikiiti-but icarcely an$
other mikir! of verfes omitted- to bring--his
tiikute of ;tuxkful'forrb*. 6An:emuldon of
degy w i i bniverial. ' Wi-ii's prrxe I+&.xioi
confined to the Engliih language, but .fills ' i
great part of the Mzfe . Anglcana.
. I
. .
. L
- .
I . .
.. .-.
prior, "wd8'was both a poet and a coiu-tier;
l was not *likeijto mifi this opportunity of re-
I fpeQ. He wrote's ... long
F . . ode, which was pre-
#$ be . . . . by
. _&ng; . whom 'it was npt like17
to be. evd ieaa: .- I .

, ,

. ... C I !

I[n two years hq was fecretary to another .

emba* at the treaty efirfwick (in 1697);
and next year had the f q n e office at the
CO& cif'!~.r.a ,n i k.-,- 'he ::is fiid to have
, ,

$ten &ih&:deksd8*th
. great ai[tfnltion: , ,,

. , , . . I

$ ' , * I
. . one, day furveying tbe apart-,
-.he .w3s
men.ts at ~erfaijles,being hewn the Vi&oriq
~f ,fe;5~is,:p<ytedby ;Le Brun, and afire4,
B 4. \vT~etbqr

w ~ the WLSw af Eaglaod's- M a c s bad
My C& :aea~@fons;?hi mlra~mtcdny
M&er'~ adifjdm; faid he, my 46 6 0 J m ewrp
-6 bir -bo& T k @&urea of
Le 8- )w usnot only ia thernWves i&dqtlp
&qtitio~g but were, enplaimed by inlcrip
tiom fa arr~gaat, that Boileau wd RGnu
t?qught it n e c a f f q t~ make 44s? euwe,
fimp#. a -7 .- ' .

He was in the foll&ing year at Loo with

the king; from whov,- after a long audience,
he + orders to EqzjaJ, and upon his
arriyal became under-fecret&y pf it& in tha
earl of Jerfey's office;a pofi which he' did
not retain long, becaufe Jerky .was removedi
but hawas ioon made ~omqiffionerof ~ & d e ,
- Ws (1790)p d u c c d QIU d .his
long& and mofi fpfendid mmpofitions, thq
Camcn &mla1"~,in which he exh&uits all his
powers of celebmtja. I: mean nN to accuie
him of flattery; hiprobably thought J that
he writ, and retained as much veracity as
be propdy exa&ed h a a poet prw
fifkdly endorniisftic. King Williarn fupph-
Cd topiOlg matdab for either re& or pmfc.
Hif whole-life.had been &ion, and no man
ever deuied him the reblcpdent qualities of
Ready refolution and perf04J courage. He
was ~ e d l yin Prior's .kind what he repreiimts
him Ln his ve&s ; be eonfidured him as a

her9 and wa accufiomed to fay, that he

p~a%!d'othersin compliance with the faihion,
but that in celebrating king Wiliam lie fol-a
lowed his inclination. To Prior patitude
would diaats . praife, which redon.wsuld not.

f&e. . . .
.. .

. . .. .
Among the advantages to. M e &om
future.xeaeg of Will~amS reign, he mentionr
.!i'oiict;&$f, .. Jt&hZ
. . . h
. i&. and among them

Some that with care true eloquence hall teach,

&od *;jtl& idi- fixadr doubtfsll +eecP-i
That from our .writers diRant realms may know
T h e thanke we to our monarch owe,
And fchods profcfs wr tongue through every
. land,
m a t has invok'd his aid, o r blcfiOddir hand..

Tickell, in'hii Pro$& cf P w , has the

b e hope of a new academy:
In happy chains our daring language bound,
. eN.6pert ne Fore i q sybitrary f w d . ,

L Whahu
Whet& the . ~iirnilhude of thofe .'p&ig;~

which exhibit he Lme thought on-thd iam'e'

6ccaGon proceeded from accident or imitation, .
is not eafy t o deterniine. T'ickelt might have
been imprefed with his +peaation by Swift's-
P T O ~ &for
Z 40-ttoinin~j-',r& EyZp Lam.'
. . . .., , , . ,

6 . -0 S then lately
.. . .
. 1
. .- ..-.- . .
... ..

t h e parliament that met in 1701,~hq

was ciiofen reprefentative of E-aft Grinfiead:
Perhaps it was about this time that he chan-'
@p his fi?rgr; for he . voted
-. for the impewh-

cE t h d e . lords who had ,pe&adt$i-thp
. .
king h ihe partition-tr=aty, , a treaty ift whict)
he h~d1ihirniel~'been~ininiit'erially &mploi&l; -'
. . .. . . ..,
. I
., . - .
. .

' A great part 'of queen Anne's reign l r s s a

time af:br, i n theie was lit& em-'
ployrnent fbr negotiators, and pidr.' had
th'erkfbre 1kfure make o r to pblifi iieifes:
When the battle
, ,
I # . . of, Blenheim called .forth all
the 'verfe-men, prior, Lmong t h e ieR," tooG
Care to h e w Gs delight ill the incredng. bo-
d his coiritry @Epi?l~ td'~';iiI&,
- -. . ........... I.\

. .
H e pAb~ified foori afie'rwards a vol*me'of
- ..,.'with
Foems, .
the encfiqiaflic charader of h a
I deceafed patron the duke of Dorfet : i t b-4
wit6 the -College Exercie, and ended with
the Nut-brown d.
. . . , : '
. .
he battle of Ramillies - feon afterwards
(in 1706) excited [hid 'tq aAothh efforc of
poetry. this a k f i o n h e Kad 'few&''?i
lefs formidable rivals; ?n'& it whld be not
,ear7 to name anp other com$iifit,ion produbeh
by that event which is . now
. remembered.
.." .
, .
. .
- . .7

Every thing has; its.'day. T h ~ o ~ .;the

reigns.of Wifiam and Anne n o -profpekLii
event p a s d undignified by poetry. I n -the
lait 'war, . whea .,France; was1 dirdraced) and
overpbwkrgd. in 'everp quartet of rho glob'i;
wh&* Spain coming m her oifiltaaci oil$
fhared her cahiriitieg, and the namd cif. ad
Iingliihman was igvereqced through Eurape;
no poet was heard amidit the general acelay
mation; the fame of our coun~ellors.and he-
roes was intrufted:to' .the.Gizeueir. '.. .: -
. . . . . . .- .. , . .
.. ,

The nation in time grew weary of the

war, a n d the queen grew weary of her mi-
niiters. The war was burdenfome, and the ,

piniRer6. were:
. .iddent. * ~ a r l and
. Ie ~ hi;,.

friends 'begin to hopb thu they' might, bp
Mving the Whigi fiom court and fim
power, gratify at oncc.'thn qween and the
people. There was now a call for writers,
who might convey intelligence of pa$ abufes,
. a ~ dihew the waee of public money, t h
unrealonabk - Costdzd3 of tbe AIlip~,the nvar
af g d 5 me tytanny of minions, apd
@e,-r ,p a ld a q p of approaching ruin.

. - - ' :
For this purpofe a paper called the Exa-
m i p e ww
~ pt?riodicBlly pubBhd; 'written; as
it ksppened, by my wit of W party, a d
&iqpgtheg as b faid by Mrs. Mahley. fionao
c$wnd-tlph i f t ; plod one, ip ridicule of
FmB's,verfss -6oddphin pppdrr the lufe of
Bie place, wae writtea Prior, ahd a d w e
i d by AddXon, ' w b appaks to have kmwg
$he artthdr rrirtdaer by m & € t u e or ina&h

The T&s9 who wcbe lrow in power, w m

in hafie to end the war; and Prior, being
recalled -(X 7 re) to his hrnw mplopment of
pakbg treaties, was f a (July' 1711),p&
vgdy to Paris with pro+- of peace,
Ji$e was' rernwbqred at the tow;
I ' and,
md, rimking h about a month, biought with
him,M. Mefnagv, a lhinifier h m 'France,
imeited with - full powers, and the &M
Gaultiet, .
-. .

- Thia trada&on not being avowed,Mackaf,

the m a h d the bwu packet-boatB either
zealody br officioufly, feized Prior and his
liTociatez) at Cadterbury. It is eAly fuppofed
that they &re foon'releafcd. .

The fiepiation was begun at Prior$ houfc,

where the Qeen's minifias met Mefnaga
(sePt&b& 20, I 7 r S), arid =entered ~ r i d p
ipon the great bufinefi* importance of
Prior appears from the mention made of him
by St. John in his Letter to the @eenb

My Lord Treafimr mmed, and dl m7

9 Lords were d t h e fame opinion, that Mr.
'.Prim &odd be added to h&wbo are
c ' m r p o d to &p;the ~ a f b nfor which
U is, becadk he, having p e r f d y treated
with Mmf~utde Torcy,. i s the befk wit-
s d wd cm produce of the fence in which
'& the gemral pidiminay engagement$ are
entered into: befdea which, as he ie the
5 beit
14 R . 1: a R.
" befi vetfed ,in matters of trade of all ybwr
". ~ $ e i t ~ ' fervantswho
. s have been truRed
" . in this fecret, if you h11 think fit t,q e q d
ploy him in the future treaty of commerce+
" it will be of confequence that he h'as been
66 a concluding that .con-
." vention, which muit be the ru1e:of this
a treaty."
A . .

The aFembly of this impbean; night war

in fome degree clandeftine, the deiign of
treating not being yet openly declared, .and,
'when the Whigs returned to power, was
aggravated to a - charge of high. tieafon ;
though, as Prior.- re&rks
A.. . in his ;mperfe&
. . to the Report of the ~omhrittrrof $r-
rrrry, no treaty ev&. ,was ,made without,pi-

vate interviews and preliminary dikulfionu.

. .
. 4 . .:.
1 My bufinefs' is no4the hifigry of the peace,
b t the life of WO*. T h e <onfeqe~esbegan
at 'Utrecht on the -fitit,of Jmuary (1.7f .I - I 2),.
- .and the Englifi plenipotentiaries. a;riyed
o n tbe fifieenth. The minijl-ers of the dif-
ferent potentates mdeerred and copferred ; but,
the' peace advanced fo..$owly, that fpeedier
Ibroke..-was Grit to Paris to adjuit differences
with lefs formality; Prior either accoppanied
him or followed him; and after his departure
had the appointments and authority of. an
ambaffador, though no public charaaer.

By iome miitake of the e e e n ' s orders,

the court of France had been difgufied ; and
Bolingbroke fays in his Lettek, " Dear Mat,
* hide the nakednefs of thy county, and '

give the befi turn thy fertile brain fur-

,&' niih thee with to the blunders of thy soun-
trymen, who are not. much better politi-
- than the French are poets."
U cians

Soon &er the duke of Shre+ury went

on a formal embairy to Paris. It is relateh

by Boyer, that the intention was to have

. joined Prior in the fame. cornmi~on, but
that Shrewibury refufed to be aff~ciatedwith
'a man fo meanly born. Prior therefore cod-
tinued to a& without a title till the duke re-
turned next year to England, and then he
dumed the fiyle and 'dignity of embaffador.
. ,
But, while he continued Ln appearanctt'a
private Inan, he was treated with confidence
8 by
by Lmis, =ha fat him with I l&r te &(
*cm, d t t c n in h t i r of the clettor of
Bavaria. U I fhdl ex@&," f a p he, U S#
:U impatience, the return of Mr. Prior, vthofo
condue ia very aflcable. to .me.'*. M
while the Duke of Shrewfbury was itill at
Paris, BolingbtbLe m e to ,hior .thus:
cc M d e u r d o Torcp has a & b a 'in

I yoa; make d c of it, once for all, +on

this occkifion, and convince him thoroughly,
-W that we muit give -
a different turn to our
prfiament and oar peeple, atcarding tb
U 'thqirrefolutim at this &ifis? 1 , .. ,

Prior's public dig$tg' and fplendout cqm-

mnced in Augufi r 713, and eoatinuqd
the AuguR following; but I m ;Ifraid tbv,
according to the ufual fate . ..of
- &atntip, it
was attended with h e perpledties yrd -P
tifications. He had not all that i8 cuaQm?
~ i l ygived to ambagadorar he hipts ta the
queen, in an im~erf& poem, that he. had
no fervice of plate) ral it appeared, by &e
debts' which he cootraaed, that his rcmit-
taaces were not puOuaUp made
o n the firR of Auguft J 714, eniijed the
ddwnfall'of the Tories abd the degradation
of Piior. He was recalled; but Was not able
to return, being detained by the debts which
: he had found it ndceff'arf to e0ntraQj and
which were not dilcharged before March;
though bis \old friend Montague was now at
the head of the treafuryb ,

R e ' returned theri as foon as he could, and

was welcomed on the 25th of March by a
wartant, b i t +as, however, fuffered to live
in his own houie, under ihe .cufiody.of the
meffenger, till he was examined before 1
committee of the Pkvy Council; of ivliich
Mr. Walpole was chairAan, and loid CO:
ninglby, h r . Stanhope, i n d Mi: Lechmere,
f ere the pr;ncipal interrogators ;who, in-this
examination, bf which there i9 printed an- , -

account not imintertaining, behaved b.ith the I

boiderouinefs of mixi elated by re&t 'QU-
thoritl. ,They are reprefefited -as a k i n g
yuekiois rometirnes vague, forhetimes i.nfidi-*
oui, and writing anfwers
.. different hdm thofe'
tehi'ch they received. . Prior, however,, leems'
. . .
to have been overpowered by their 'turbd-, i
knee ; for h e ronfedes that h i figfied. what, C

VOL.111. C if
if he had ever come before a legal judicat~re,
he mould have contradiQed or e x p k i n d
away.. The <o*h was adminitiered b,y Bofr
who at lJt yas

cawen, a M.Wlefex j*e,

going to d e his atteitation cm the wrong
iide of the paper. . . I

They were very induftrious to find f o m ~

tharge againfi Oxford, and afked Prior, with
great earnefinefi, who was prefent when the
preliminary articles were talked of or figned
at his houfe. He tbld thein, that either( the
earl of Oxford or the duke of Shrewibury
was abfent, but he codd not ,remember
which; an adwer which perpIexed them, -
becaufe 'it hpplied no acclmfation againfi
either." Could any thing be more abfurd,"
fays he, " or more inhnman, than to propofk
to me a cpeition, by the ani'wering of
which I , might, according to them,
prove myretf a traitor? Add notwithitand-
'' ing their folemn promife, that nothing
U whkh I could fay ihould hurt myfelf, I
cc had no reafon to ~ u i them
t :for they vio-
lated th& prowife about five 'hom'afier. .
F. However,
I owned I was the prefenr.

P R I O R . 59
. Whether this 'was wifely done-or no, I
'' leave .to my fricnda to determine." l


When he had .iigned the p a p , he w a ~

told by - Walpok, that the committee
were not latisfied with his behadour, nor
could give fuch an account of it to the Com-
mons as might merit favour; and that they
now thought a iLiaer confinement n s e f f q

than to his owa haufe. Here," iays he,
Boleswen playid the moralilt, and Co-
'' ninplby the ehrifiian, hut both very auk-
'' wardly." The meffenger, ih whofe cuf-
tadp k *as to be placed, was then called,
and very decently aded by Cmingiby, if bir
c dbari and bolts? T h e qiefr
bouJe ~ a ~ j c u r by
fe~gerenfwered, with afianiihrnent; qc
which Coniqgiby very angrily faid, Sir9 yeu
w ~f..~bRcrg it ir for the $4)~ of
~ . P J ? Ftb;l
dh W i o n:jfha ~c~pe,yeu@aZI m i r r for it.

They had already printed their repart; and

in this examination were endeavouring to find
prode. -

He continued thus confined for fome time;

cad Mr. Walp~le(June I o, I 715) moved for
G 2) na
an impeachment againft him. What made
him ib acrimonious does not appear: he was
by nature no thirfier for blood. Prior was a
week after committed to' cloCe'cuftody, with
orders that ao pegoonJ;Soecld be admitted t o j c
.him witbout leavefrom tbe S'eakei.. .

When, two years after, ah A& of Grace

was paired, he was excepted, and continued
Rill in cultody, which he had mjde lefs tedi-
ous by writing his Alma. He was, however,
Soon after difcharged.

H e had now his liberty, but he had no-

thing elre. Whatever the profit of his em-
ployment~might have been, he had always
fpent it; and at the age of fifty-three was,
with all his abilities, in danger of penury,
haviag yet no iblid revenue bdt from the fel-
lowihip of his college, which, hen in his
exaltation he was cenfured for retaining it,
he f&d, he could live upon at lafi.

Being however generally known and ef-

teemed, he was encouraged to add other PO-
ems to thofe .which he had printed, and pub-
.li&ed them by fubfcription. . - The expedieilt
P R I O R ; 2 I-.
fimeeded by the indufirp of many friends,
. who circulated the propofals", and the care
of fome, who, it is faid, yithbeld the mone7
from ,him, left he fhould fquander i t . T h e
k ,

price of the volume was two guineas; the

whole collefiion was four thoufand ; to which
lord Harley, the fon of the earl of Oxford,
to whom. he had invanably adhered, added
an equal fum for the purcl~afeof own-hall,
which Pear was tp enjoy during life, and
- Harley after hib deceafe. *

He had now, what wits and philofopheri

have often wifhed, the power of pafing the
day in' contemplative tranquillity. But it
feems that bufy men feldok live long in a
fiate ~f quiet. It .is not unlikely that his
health zedinkd. H e cornplains of deafnefs;
for, fays he, I took little care of my earr whilc
I was notfi,rg
. ifmy bead was my owlr,
Of any occurrences in his reinaining life
I have found no account. In a letter to
Swift, I have,', fays he, " treated lady Har-
'' riot at Cambridge. A Fellow of a Colleee
C' treat! and Goke verfes to her in a gown

6' and Gap What, the plenipotentiary, i'o fw

Swift obkaincd many fubfcriptions for him in Ireland.
C 3 " concerneq
cc concerned in the damned peace at Utrecht!
the man that makes up half the kolume of
U terfe profe, that makes up the report of
the committee, keaking vedesl Sic
bomo fum."

He died at WimpoZe, a fgat of the earl 04

.Oxford, on the eighteenth of September I 72 t ,
and was buried in Wefiminfier; where on a
monument, fpr which, as the Zaz pitce o f
burnan vanity, he left five hundred pounds,
i s engraven this epitaph :

Sui Temporis HiRoriam meditanti,

Paulatim obrepens Febris
Qperi iimul & Vita: fill~mabrupit,
Sept. 18. An. Dom. 1721.Btat. 57,
H. S. E. '
Vir Eximius
In CongreRione Federatorum
Hag= anno 1690 celebrata,
Deinde Magna Britannia: Legatis
Tum iis, *
Qui anno 1697 Pacein RYSWICKI copfecerunt?
Turn iis,
Q u i apud Gallos annis proximis Legationem obierunt;
Eodem etiam anno r697 in Hiberniae
Sgc RE-
. P ' R I O R. 23
Net non in utrtbquk Honorabili sonfefi
Qui anno 1700 o r d i n i d i s Comrnercii negoriis
Quique a ~ h i03 J t dirigendis Portorii rebuf
( ~ M M ~ B S I O K A R I U)S
Pcllicifll~memorie &legin8
A d . L u ~ o v ~ XIV.
c v ~ Gallie Wegem
M i i h anno 171r
De Pace Rabilienda,
(Pace etiamnum dorante
Diuque ut boni jam omnes fperant duratura)
Cum hmma potefface Legatus.
Q1 i
Hos omnes, quibus cumulatus eft, Titulos
Humamtatis,-Ingenii Erudicionis Laude
Superavi t j
Cui enim nafcenti faqiles arriferant Mufz.
Hunc Puerum Schola bic Regia perpolivit ;
Juvenem in Collegio 3ti. Johannis
Cantabrigia optimis Scientiis infiruxit ;
Viri~rbdenique auxit & perfecit
Mulb aum virie Priucipibus confuetudo;
115 narus, ita infiitutus,
A Vatum Choro avelli nunquam potuit,
.Sed fdebat Cipe erurn Civilium gravitatem
A m ~ n i o r u mbiterarum ~ t u d i i condire
s :
c 4 Et
E t cum omne adeo Poetices genus
Haud infeliciter feetaret, . *-
Turn in Fabellis concinne lepideque texen$iq.
Mirus Artifex
Neminem habuir pareip,
Haec liberalis anirni obleaamenta 3
Q a m pull0 Illi labere copititerint,
Facile perfpexere, quibus ufus eit Amici 4
Apud quos Urbanitaturn & Leporum plenus
Cum 'ad rem, quzcunque forte inciderat,
Apt2 vari2 c~piofequea l l u d e r ~ t.~
Jntereo nihil qwditurn, nibil vi cxpreirum
Sed ornnia ultro eftluerc,
: E t quafi jugi t fonte affatim exuberare .
Ita SUDStandem dubios reliquit,
Effetne in Scriptis, Poeta Elegahrior,
An in Convihu, Cp~nesJucundior.

Of Prior, eminent as he was, both by his

abilities and itation, very few memorials bave
bee; left by hi c,ontemporaries f the + c ~ p n t
therefore niuit now be defiitute of hi9 pridate
charafier and familiar praCtices. H e Iiwd at
a time when the' rage of party deteaed all
which it was any man's interefi t o bide ; an4
9s little ill is heard df Prior, it is certain that
not much was known. He was not afraid of
. . . cenfure ; for when
provoking ' > - . he forfook t h e
Whigs +, under. whofe patronage he firit en-
tered the world, he became a Tory To ardent
and determinate, that he did not willingly
conibrt with men of different opinions. He
was one of the fixteen Tories who met weekly,
and agreed to addreCs each' other bp the title
I of Brotbcr ; and feems to have adhered, not
only by concurrence of political deiigns, but
by peculiar afFeaion, ,to the earl of Oxford and
his family. With how much canfidence hg
was truited, has been already told.
. .

. . H e was however, in Pope's * opinion, fit

~ n l yto .make verfes, . and 1eG .qualified f o ~
bufinefs than AddXon himfeif. This. was

furely faid Githout

.- , confideration. Addifon,
exalted to a high. place, was forced into degra-
dation bp the fenfe ~f his own incapacity 3
frior, who w a ef~lployedby men very capa-
ble of efiimating his value, having been hire-
tary to one embaffy, had, when great abilities
were again wanted, the fame office another
time; and was, after fb much experience of his
knowledge and dexterity, at lafi fent to tranFddCt
a negotiation in the highee degree arduous
and important ; for which he was quxli-
- ,

26 , P R I O R .
f i ~ d among
, other requiiifes, in the opinion of
Bofiagbroke, by his influence upon the French
ninifier, and by %ill in quefiions of commerce
above other mkn.

Of his behaviour in the lighter parts of life,

it is too late m get much intelligence. One
of his anfivers to a boafifid Frenchman has
been related, ahd to an impertinent: he made
a n ~ K c requally proper. During his embaffy,
be fat at the optm hya man, who, in his rap-
ture, accompanied with his own voice the prin-
dpd.fihger. P36r fell'to railingeat the per-
h r m r with alt t h ~ ~ mof t stepmach that 5e
coald r d l l e ~~in-(lle:~femhrna;l,
, eeafing from
h5s hngj be@& to &k'poTtul&e&tli him for
his harih ~ e r d i i eof d m a n wfi&&& ceonfeKedly
the ornament 9f tke itage. I know ail
C-L that:' Igysth aniba%dar, '.naif d c b a ~ t c j l
h a t , q u e j n e h u r o i s vous ea:ntendre,"

In a gay Frerich conipany, where every one

fung a little long or fianza, of which the bm-
den was, Bann&n~ kr Mci~~cbdie; when it
came to his turn to fing, after the performance
of a young lady that fat naxt hip, he produced
there extemporary lines ;
Mais celle mix, et ces beaw yeux, ' '.
Font Cupidon mp dangerem,
Et je his triite 'quand je xrie .
, A
BanniKons la lklelancholie.

Tradition reprerents him as willing to de-
fiend fro& the-&i&tf': bf the poet and tlie

&tefkan to the low defiihts of mean cbmpany.

His. ~ h l o k.p&bab~y'jii fometimesideal,,. ;,but
the koigah with whom. h cohabited'.:Was a
defpkable drab * of the' lowefi fpecies. One '

of his wpnches, pqbap Ghloe, was

abhnt from his ,hodk,, . . . fiolq his plate, a d ran
away ; as was related by a woman who had
been his fervant. OF this dropenfity to fordid
r o n v d e I have feen an account fo feiioufly
ridiculous, that it feems to deferve inf'ertion.

I have been affured that Prior, after hav-


'L ing ipent the evening with Oxford, Baling-

" broke,Pope, and Swifi, would go and fmoke
*' a pipe, and drink a bottle of ale, with a
common foldier and his wife, in Long-
'' Acre, before he wept to bed ; not from any
fb remains of the lownefs of his original, as

!! pne faid, but, I Cuppofe, that his faculties

-Strain'd to the height,
cc In that ccleftial colloquy iublimci :

cc Dazzled and fpegt, funk down, &h-fought

. l . ..


Poor Prior ! why was he foJrained, andin

fuch want of rep&-, after a converlration with
men not, in theopini6nof the world, much
wifer than h i d e l f ? But fu& are the eonceits
of fp&datifis, whopr'aif~theiifacuZtiir to find
in a miiie what lies upon the &face.
is-opinions, fo f& as the means
. of judging
, .
are left us, feern to :h+ been right; but his
-. .

,Efe was, it feems, irregular,. negligent, and

fenfual. . . ,. , .

. .
.. ' PRIOR,
P R I O R . 2!J

P R I O R has written with great variety,

and his variety has made ,him popular. 'He
has -tried all ftyles from the grotefque to the
iolmn, and has not fo failed in any as to in-
cur &erifion or difgace. ..

His works may be diflinttly confiderad a,

cornprifing Tales, L&-vedes, Occafional
Poems, Alma, and Solomon.

IIisTales have obtained general approbation,

being written with great familiarity and great:
fpritelineis : the language is eaCy; but Lldom
groL, and the numbera h o o t h , without ap-
pearance of care. Of there Tales thete atr
only four. The -Ladle; which ia introduced
by a Preface. neither neceffq nor $eafing,
neither grave nor merry. Paulo Pwganti ;
which has likewife a Preface, but of more vaa
lue than the Tale. Nan~Carvel, not over-
decent; and Protogene$ and A p t l I e ~ , an old
fiory, mingled, by an affeaation not difagree-
able, with modern images. The Young GC*
$0 P R t O 8 .
\ tkman in b v e has hardly a juA claim to the
title of n Tale. I know not whether he be
the original author of any Tale which he has
given us. The Adventure of Hans Carve1has
pded through many fuccefions of merry mits ;
for it is to be found in Ariofio's Satires, aqd is
perhaps petZ.older. But the merit of h&
fioriea is the art of telling them,

fn his Amorous EEufions he is lefs happy ;

fer: they are not d i h t e d by nature or by
p&i~a, ti~ld have d t k e r gdlantry nor ten-
dernsfs. They h+ve the coldneis of Cowley,
without his wit, the dull exerciies of a fkilful
veriifyer; refolved at all adveptutes to mite
- fomething about Ghloe and trying to be .a-
m e w s by Qirl€PS fid-y, His fieions there-
for.e 4rq jpytholqgicd. Venus, after the ex-
awpb & the Orsek Epigram, afks w h a ihe
w a e fwn rded bgthirrg. The? Cupid jq
s$aRetz j then C'#$ is &'M;then he lofeb
his d a ~ to
8 Gunypedg j then Jupiter fends him
a funmons by Mexcury. Then Cbdrle goes
a-hunting, with an .isor-+vet. graceful at ber
Jde;. Diana miRakes her for one o f her
nymphs, and Cupid laughs at the blunder.
All, this i~ furely dekicabie ; and even when
P R I O R . 31
he tries to a& the lover, without the help af
gods or goddeffes, his thoughts are unaffeeting
o r remote. He t a l b not lihp a man oJf t&s

m e great& of all hiss-ouji effayaie L4wr-y

and E m ;a dull and tedious dial** whih
excites neither efteem for the man nor tendsr-
nels for the woman. The exampk of Emrna,
who relolves to follow an outlawed murderer
wherever fear and gu.ijt &all 'drive . him, *

d e f e ~ e sna iqitatbq l qn8 the exp&ea

by whicb Weary tries the lady's conitancy, is
Eucb as muit. end either in infamy to %er, or
in dil'appointment to himfew.

- His occafional Poems neceirariiy lofl part

d$ their value, as their occafiorts, being l& re-
membered, railed lefi ernbtion. Some af
them, however, are preferved by their inhs;
rent excellence. The'burlelque of Boi.1eau9p
Ode on Namhr has, in fome parts, ' h hairi;'
&is and levity as will always procure it .readd
ers, even among thofe who cannot compare
it with the original. The Epiftle to Boileau
h' not lo happy. The Poems to *theKing aie
I now
how peruCt!d only by young fiudents, who read
merely that they may learn to write; and of
the C a m n Seculare, I cannot but fufpea that
I might praife or cenhre it by caprice, with&
out danger of deteeion ; for who can be Cup-.
poied t~ have laboured through it? Yet 'the
time has been when this negle&ed work was
fo popular, that it was trarlflated into Latin br
no cdmmon maiter,

His Poem an the battle of RamilIies is ne-

ceffarily tedious by the form of the fianza : ari
uniform mafs of tdn lines, thirty-five times
tepeated, inconCequefitial and nightly con-
, neaed, muit weary both the ear and the un-
deritanding. His imitation of Spenfer, which
coniifis principally in I ween and I weet, with-
out excluiion of later modes of fpeech, makes
&is poem neither ancient nor modern. His
mention of Mars and BeZZona, and his mm-
, pariibn of Marlborough to the Eagle that bears

the thunder of Jupiter, are all puerile and uw

d e Q i n g ; and yet more defpicable is the l o ~
tale told by Lwis in his defpair, of h t e and
rroynovante, and the teeth of Cadmus, with
his fimilies of the raven and eagle, and wolf
P R ~ O R . 33
ahd lion. By the help of fhch eafy fiaions,
and vulgar topicks, without acquaintance with
life, and without knowledge of art or nature,
a poem of any length; cold 'and lifelels like
this, may be eafily written on any fubjea.

In h& ~ ~ i l o ~tou Pbrcdrcz

es and to LZIC~UJ,
is very happily facetious ; but into the Pro-
logue-before the Qeen, the pedant has found
his way, with Minerva; Pedeus; and Arfdro--

: His Epigrams and lighter pieces are, like

thofe of others, fometimes elegant, fometimes
trifling,' &d fometimes dull; among the beR
are the.-~amelin, and the epitaph an John and
pan. . ,
i . . . .- . .

Scarcely any one of our poets has written

fo fiuch, and tranflated fo little : the veriion
6f Caliimachus is fufficiently licentious ; the
paraphraie on St. Paul's Exhortation to Cha-
rity is eminently beautiful.
Alms is written in profeffed imitation of
Hudibras, and has at leait one accidental re-
femblance : Hudibras . wants a plan, becaufc it
VOL.111. P is
34 P R J O R .
is left, imperfelt
. . . ; Alrna is irnperfea,. %eca& .

it. fesms never

...U. . . . - . to have
,., ,.-. had a plan. Prior - . ap:
pears not,. to. have .-proppied
. . to
I . . . . . any
. hirnfelf , ..
_._ .drift
or defign?.. have ...~.written the d u . .d di@tea
.+ .,
of the.. pxeient
..-- .. moment...
I . , - . I
.., . . . . - .

What .. .Horace faid .when

-U,i- .. . he- imitated
. . .. +-.. Luci-

Gus, rnigh!. be faid, 4.g.utly-by Prior, . his d . -.

numbers. were not. fxnooth . . . or. neat . :. .Prior
. . ex-.

celled: hi='
. - . in vehfication,
, . : . - -.-- but - h c , y ~ . ,l .i k i
Horace, inventore minor ; he had not 'Butler'% .-.- -L ..
exuberance of matter and variety of illuitra-
tion. The fpapglgs. of wit which he cpqldaf-
ford, h e . h i * h6iy to lpb;liih;'but he faa*teq ,

the bullion, . of his mafier. Bqder pours. OK);

a aegligcnt
. ...- profufion, certain. of th.e . weight,,
Lt carelefs of the itamp. Prior has compara-
tively little, but with that little he makes a
fine .,iheuy. Alma has many admirers, and.was ''
the onl,y,piece among Prior's work of which.
Pope laid that,he ihonld~wiih , to. be the author. .. . .
S Z is the~ w&k & which he en&$k4
the -proteaion of his name, and which he ex-
peAed fucceeding ages t o regard with . .Tenera- .L

tion. His &e&ion was natural ; it.had u n t

doubtedly been . - U&
. .great
. written .with .- ,
. . a d U .

* . . .. . * .
wd6 8
P # # . 3s
khb b willing to think taat he has been I r
bouring in train ? We had'idded into it much
knowM$p and much thmght ;had d e n p
Wed itto elegancq aften dignified it with
$lendourb and fomedmea hGghtened it to fub-
e t y : he perceived in it m q cdlencies,
a d did not difcaver thd it wanted that with;
mt which dl others are of fmall avail, thd
of engaging attextion and during

s the &A
T e d i d ~ f is fatal' of all h i t s ;
ne@gtnces or ekrom are fingle and heal, but
'kdiautin'eib.p e ~ a d e sthe whole ; other faultis
m =hCd*d; andr fb~goten~ but. the power of
~diadfiefs.piqhpte8itklf. He that is wcaky
ClPe M-kou,is more weary the liiond ; as
b d e & f w t d into -ion,. contrary to theii!
'retibeq;paf. more arnd rrione flowly through
every Eia~effiveimmiai of {pace:

tTnhgppib thk pernicious failure, is that .

which an author is leait able to difcover. We
are feldom tireibme to ouriklves ;and the a&
d cotnpofitiari~fills anddelights tlie mind ~ i t h
change of language and - fucdflion 4-images.;
every couplet when produced i s rie** and
novelty is the great iburce of pledwei Pet.-
D 2 haps
haps no man ever t b ~ u g h ta line fuperfluous
when he firfi wrote'it, or contraaed his work
till his ebullitiqns of. invention had fubfided.
If he ihould coptroul his deiire of immediate
renown, 'and keep his work nine years unpub-
lifhed, he will be Ai'll'the author, and ~~ in
danger of deceiving himfelf; and if he con-
fults . his friends, he will pro.bably find men
who have more kindnefs than judgement, or
more feai to offend than deiiire to i n h a .'

r The tedioufnefs of this poein proceeds not

from the uniforinity of the fubjea, for it is
fufficiently diverfified, but from the continued . .
tenour. of the narration,; .in which Solomon
relates the fucceifive' viciDitudes of his own .
mind, without the intervention of app other
fpeaker, or the mention of any dther agent, un-
, lefs it be Abra ;,and.the reader is only to learn
what he thought, and to be told that hhe'&ought
wrong. The event of every experiment is fore-
ken, and therefore the proce$ -is r.ot . . much
regarded. . . .

. Yet the work is far from deferving to be

negle&e&. He that hall perufe it will be able
t o mark n a n y pafiges, to which he may re-
. cur . for initruaion or delight ; many from
P R I O R . 37
which the poet may l;& to write, and the
philofopher to reafon.

.If Pri,or's poetry be generally confidered,

his praife wfl be that of corretlnefs and in-
duitry, rather than if cornpafs of comprehen-
Fon, or aQivity of fancy. H e never made
any effort of invexition : his greater pieces
vere all tiffues of .fentiment; and his hailer,
which confi4 of light,images or iingle con-
ceit~, were not always his own. I have
traced him among the French Epigramma-
tifis, and have been informed that he poached
for prey among .obfcure aathors. The Tbief
i d tbc Cord'rler is, I fiippofe, generally confi-
dered as. an original produ&ion; with how
much jufiice this Epigram may tell, which was
written by G,eorgius Sabinus, a poet now lit-
tle known or read, though once the friend of
Luther and Mdanahon:

De Sacerdote Furem confolante,

Quidam facrificus furem cornitatus euntem
Huc ubi dat ibntes carnificina neci.
N e fis mceitus, ait; fummi conviva Tonantis
Jam cwm coelitibus (fi mod0 credis) eris.

Ille gernens, fi vera mihi folatia przbes,

H o f p apud fupcros fin era, refert. ,

.D3 Sacri-
Sacrifiqus contra; mihi non convivia -&rcR
* Ducere, jejunans hac edo lucc nihil.
- ,

What he has valuable . be .m~s

. to his dilis
gence and his judgemgqt. His diligence h*
juflly placed him amongit the xnc$ ,cone&
-'of the Englifh poets; and he was one of the
firit that refoluteiy endeavoured 'at correaneib.
H e never facrifices accuraey to hafie, . . nor in-
dulges himfelf in eontemptu~usnegligence.
or impatient idlenefs he ;
. has
. no cirelefs lines;
or entangled fentiments; his words are nicely
$ele&ed, and his thoughts hHy expanded, If
'this part ofhis Ehari&&'fuffers
. . any abate-
rnent, it mug' be from t h e diiproportion of
his rhymes, which have not always fuficient
conionanca, and from the' a&niflion of broken
lines into his oho on ;but pgrhaps hethought,
like ~ o w l e i ,that hemiltichs ought
. . to: be
. . . ad;

rnitted into hcroic poetry,

' "

H e had apparently fuch qeaitgde of judge:

ment as fecured him from every thing that
approached to the r i d i ~ q l o qor a g u d ; bUt
ps laws operate in civil agency ~ p t t a the
excitement of virtue, byt t b repfhan, of
. fo judgement itq thk op-ions of
- .

Z intellea
:inteIlii&. can hhder f a h , but .not pioduce
excellence. Prior is never low, nor very
often fublime. It is faid by Longinus of
:E~ripiSes,that lie ffries himfelf fimetihes
into grandear by violexice 'of effort, b th'e
lion kindles his -fury bp Mielhiheb of his o+&
taiI. Whatevek Prior obtains 'atiove medL
bcrity iiehs t h i iffbrt d itmggle Bnd of toil.
'He has many vi&o'ious but few happy link ;
he his everything 6) bbrchafe, and nothink
.by gift; hk had no &$it8 v$taiidrrr bf th'e
.Miiikj no infufiohd of Lhtlkent or felicities

His diaion, however, is more his own

than that of any amdng b e fuiceffors of
. . . . . . . I

Drt;diii; he borrows no lucky turris, or com-

kiodio~$modes of lahkiage,. from his prede-
ebK6i-i~. H i i $ i k a ~ d are dri ?nil; but thejr
ark f6hktim"el hirffi; 'kh e id 'ericed no ele- 1
gances, none has he .bequeathed.
His ex-
preflion has eve;p marE of- laborious Rudy ;
) I.

the line. feldom kerns to have been formed at

once ; the words did nor come tiii they were
calied, and were then put by confiraint into
their places, where' they do their duty, but . .
do it i'lmly. H his greater Cohpofitions.
P4 there '
there may be found more rigid Aatelinefs thai~
graceful dignity.

Of vedification he was not negligent:

what he received from Dryden he did not
1ofe;- neither did he increak the difficulty af
writing, by upneceflary feverity, but u k s
Triplets and Alexandrines without fcruple.
I n his Preface to Solomon he propofes fome
improvements, by extending the fenfe horn
one couplet to ap~ther,with variety of paufes.
This he has attempted, but withcut fuccefs;
his interrupted lines are unpleafing, and his
fenfe as lefs diftine is Icfs firiking.
H e has altered the Stanza of Spenfer, as
a houfe is altered by building another in its
place of a different form. With how litrle
refemblance he has formed his new Stanza tg
that of his malter, thefe fpecimc;ss will 6ew.

She flying fafi from heaven's hated face,

-And from the world that her difcover'd wide,
o walt.eful wildcrnefs apace,
~ l e h - t the
From living eyes her open ihame to hide,
And lurk'd in rocks 3nd caves long unefpy'd.
3 But
But that fair crew of knights, and Una.fair,
Did in that cafile afterwards abide,
To reit themfelves, and weary powers repair,
Where fiore they found of all, that dainty was
I and rak.

. To the clofe rock the frighted raven flies, .
Soon as the rifing eagle cuts the air: .
T h e fiaggy wolf unfeen and trembling lies,
When the heal-fe roar proclaims the lion neat..
Ill-itarr'd did we our forts and lines forfake,
T o dare our Rritifh foes to open fight :
Our conqueft-we by ftratagem ihould make : ,'

Our triumph had been founded in our flight. '

'Tis ours, by craft and by furprife to gain :
.?Tis theirs, ts meqt in arms, and battle in the
plain. . . I

By thiS new itruaure of his lines he has

avoided difficulties; nor am I Cure that he
has lofi any of the power of pleaiing; but
he no longer imitates Spenfer.

Some of his poems are written without re-

gularity of meafures; for, when he com-
menced poet, we had not recovered from
. our-Pindarick irrfatqation ; but he probably
I lived
lived re be convihceil tkat the e&iice ^& 3-&
is order and .confonance.
. .
Wis riuinbers are fuch aS mere 'diligence
may attain; they feldom offend the ear, and
feldom footh it; they commonly want airi-
nefs, lightnefs, and facility; what is fmooth,
is not'hft. His verfes always rdl,.'bht -they
kldorn, ,BOW.
. .

A -fumey of the lffe and writings of Prior

rnaf bxanpllfp a feptence which he doubtlefs
underfiobd W-ell*when he .read Home at his
unje's ; i'h v@ lmg r r t d n ~tbc$rnl which
it$$: +tmives. In hik private relaxauan he
ydn;ed the iavern, and,iii hi8 anioious pi-
dantry he exhibited the college. ;But on
higher occaiions, and nobler hbjeas, when
.h$bit'was .overf>owercdby fhe . neceflifp of re-
ftkaidn, hc wanted not wjSiin d i itttihm,
-ndr phgance as a - p t .

C O N G R E V E ,
W from; P familJ i n StafFordih'ie, of
great antiquity that it claims a place among
the. few
. that extend their line beyond the
Norman Conqueit; and was the ion of Wd-
fiam Congreve, fecond ibn of Richard Con-
greve of Congreve a i d Stratton. H e Gfied,
once at leait, the re~denceofhis ancefiors; and,
I believe, more places than one are itill ihewn,
in groves and gardens, where he is related to
have written his Old Batcbelor.~
, .

Neither the time nor place of his birth are

1 certainly known: if the infcription upon his
monument be true, he was born in 1672.
For the place; it was faid by himfelf that he
1 owed his nativity to England, and by every
ern mentioned him with iharp cenfure, as a
man that meanly difowned his native c a n 2
tq. T+ Biog~apbrsaGgn his *tivity. t~ ,

Bardfa*, near Leeds in Yorkfhire, from the

account given by hidelf, as they fuppofe, tci ,
Jacob.. . - .-
.. -'. . . ,
. .

Ciio 'doubt khetger a man of eminence

has toId the truth about his own birth, is, in
-, 'to, kvuy' &fki&t ib Eahkbaq
p t :B O ~ ~ & ~k e . ,beg wlth~ut,k&wirg
t b a ~falWs& ~ fqoaveiniwa'
. ar vanityi
3 i
k w fiolg; whiab no evil immediately
vi&k-entutur,excent the general degradation
d &m&tc&qwhyi, "e veep &$dy uttered,

er& o w u t t k d , , are fullenly iiqprted,
Boileau, who &fired to. be thou&t.a rigorous
and-Read2 mralia, having dd.a pet5 lie tc,
Lewis.XLV. cantinued it afterwards by falfi
dates ; thinking himfelf obliged in &ondurt
lays his admirer, to maintain what, when he
5;id h, .was ih well iec.eived. .. .. . I _

' Wherever Coagreve ivas bofii, h e &as rdh.

sated:,firit . it. Kilkenny, h d afte&vardsAa t
Dublin, hisfathi; havibg b m e milit* em;
ployhe& that ffationed him in Ireland! but
.. . . , ..- . d . ...
.. The Villare has no Bart$a, noi a Bar&, -
in Yorkfhire.
after 'havipg p m though,the dud prep*
1 xatory Rudi,e~,~ iy may be, redonably fugpokQ
with gre3t qelq&y. 4 , k c e i ' s , h.b ktlaep
rhought i%~ q x m. t him a p r o f d w
bp: which .bg,ethiw qight be gotten;.
h u g . the, OX the &volutior, i e ~ khim,
at. the; age sf. fixtea, to fiudy law ib h e
1 Middle Temple, where hp lived fbr- ye^&
years, but with .v little attention to. %tai
tutes*or.Repori.e. . . . . . I

... .,-

His difpofKion to become an author ap-

p ~ q ~ $m a q e ~ + , - ag .b.v i ;w t y felt:&at
@FC~-. of @g!;Irnatbp; ~ d pofleffed.
: tbt. W
piopfh& -of;kntitpe-. by which in&l@q&
$Ipd~e c+g be g k n ; M.ip fir& p l e r f o w
W*. a, wve!, called IqcognJta,.OK- LBW.( id
D* reco,qiircd:: ~t is . pal~ed the biogrw
, .. who Q W F ~ ~ Q W Fp& of theiprdice,
that is-indeed, for fuch a time of life, unt..
commonly, k d i c i ~ ~ 1 , would, ratkr, paiG
, . .i t ,
it than-read ,

I His 6+. drawtiJ. la*r .

au ihe OM
B~tcbdoc;of ~ h i c hhe rays, in. his defence

Collier, '' thak comedy. W* writteq-,


i !L as .i ~ ~ ~know,
a l . iome yeaxr, before. . it.
@ was atled. When I wrote it, I had little
thoughts of the itage; but did it, to imufe
" 'mpfelf, in a flow recovery from a. tit of
, ficknefs. Afterwards 'through' my indif-
" cretion it was feen, and in ibme little time

more it was aaed; and I, through the re-

mainder of my indifcretion, hKered myfelf
GC to be drawn in, to the prokcution of a

'G difficult and thankleiis fiudy, and to be in-

" volved in a perpetual war with knaves and

" f0016." . - - .

: There ikems to he a itrange affeaation 'in

authors of appearing to have d&e :every
' thing by- chance. The Old Batcbclor was
written for amufement, in the languor of
convalefccence. Yet it is apparently compofed
with great elaboratenefs of dialogue, and in-
ceffant ambition of wit. The age of the
writer confidered, it is indeed a very wonder-
ful performance ; f k ,whenever written, it
was a&ed (1693) when he was not more
than twenty-one years old; and was then re-
commended by ~ r.'Dryden, . ~ r Southern,
and Mr. Maynwaring. Dryden faid that he
never had feen fuch a firfi play; but they
found it -deficient in fome things rquifite to
the fuccefs of its exhibition, and by their
peater experience fitted it for the itage.
Southern ufed to relate of one comedy,
probably 'of this, that when Congreve read
it to the players, he pronounced it fo wretch-
edly that they had almofi rejetled it; but
they were ailerwards fo well peduaded of its
excellence, that, for half a year before it
was aQed, the manager allowed its author
the privilege of the hode.

Few,plays have ever been fo beneficial to

the writer; for it procured him the. patronage
of Halifax, who immediately made him one
of the comrniilioners for licenfing coaches,
and foon after gave him a place in the pipe-
office, and another in the cufioms o f fix
hundred pounds a year. Congreve's conver-
fation muit furely have been at' leait equally
pleafing with his writings.

Such a comedy, written at fuch an age,

requires fome coniideration. As the lighter
ipecim of dramatick poeti-y profeffes the imi-
tation of common life, of real manners, and
daily incidents, it apparently prefuppofes a
familiar knowledge of many charaoers, and
VOL.111. E exaa
50 C O M G k E V E;
, k ~ a t tobfervatioh tif hi pdi'ili2 j the
diHiculty therefore is, to rdhCeive how .&is
knu%ledgc can be obtairied by a bbF

But if the bidi b a t c b d i be indre heltlf

eiirniried, it illbe found tb br: kin6 of t h f e
kon$&dieb inrhich k i y be .hide bp- P mihd
ir;giirbub aha aciite, ihd luliiiffied with CO-
Gick cbaii'Etkii by the pertlfil of . O&&
poets, without much ~Ltual&inrnkrkti with
mankind. The dialogue is one. coneant reci-
procatid* *k - . . :..
conceits, 6i clafi of wit, in
which nothing flows necelfarily fro'm the
iic'cifidh, bi is didited by nature. The chA-
?ader$ both of ihed wdinen Are either
fi'&itioiis a r ~ d~rtifidia!, ns thoik of UeimmeA?
and the Ladies; or eafy and .common, as
Witjot a tame idiot, Blu$ a f~iwaggeringcow-
r d , and- PandehifE a fialous puritan; and
the catafirophe ariles %in a hihake hot verg
probably produced,, by marrying a woman in
a maik.

Yet this gay comedy, when all thefe de-

duCtibns are made, will frill remain the work
of a very powerful and fertile mind: the
dialogue is ,quick and [parkling, the incidents.
fuch as ieize the aitintign, and the i i t To
kxubrmnt that it o'm-infm its Cennireitt.

Nekt year fit -gaveanother fpe5men of his

. abifities ifi f i t ~ o l r b z efiialer, which was
h i t recdped with Cqual kihdneh; We write?
to his patron the lord Halifax a dedi~atibn;
in which he endeavours to reconcile the reader
td that which found few friends among the
audience. There apologies are always ufe-
kh'; .dr ju&bus non eJ d#utanhm ; men '

inay be c6minckd, but they cannot be pleafed,

dgainff their will. But though taRe is obfli-
bate, it iE Geiy variable, arid time often p i e
vails when arguments have failed.

*eeh Miry conferred upon both thofi ,

Plays the honour of her prefcnce; and when

he died, ro6n after, CongreGe tefiified his '
batitude by a derpicable .eKufion of elegiac
pailoral.; a combofition in which all is Liina-
.turd, and yet nothing is new.

' In ahother yeat- ( 1 6 g ~ )his prolific pen

bfodiickil ~ ~ v i f Love
o r ; a Comedy of n&fei'
aIliahCti idlife, and &hibiting more real
manners, thin either of the formei-. T h e
. .
E 2 charaaer
charatter of For+gbt was then. common.
Dryden calculated nativities; both Cromwel!
and king William had their licky days ; and
Shafteibury himfelf, .though he had no reli-
. -

don,, was faid to regard predioions.. - The


Sailor is not accounted very natural, but he *

is very pleaiant.
. .
. With
. this play was opened the New The-
atre, under the direaion' of Betterton the
tragedian; where he exhibited twb

afterwards ( I 697) Ibe Mourning Bride, :a

tragedy, fo written as to ihew him f&cientIy
qualified for either kind of diamatick
1 .,
In this of which, when he afterwards
revifed it, he reduced the verfhcation to
greater regularity, there is more buitle than
fentiment; the plot is bufy and intricate, and
the events take hold on the attention; but,
except a very few paffages, we are: rather
amuGd with noife, and perplexed with fira-
tagem, than entertained with . any true deliy'
neation of natural charaoers. This, how-
ever, was received with more benevolence
. than any other of'his works, and hill con-
tinues to be aRed and applauded. '
. . ...
. , 8 -. . But
*- But whatever objeaions may be made
either to' his comick or tragick excellence,
they are loA at once in the blaze of admi-
ration, when it is remembered that he had
produced thefe fdur plays before he had paired
his twenty-fifth year; before other men, even
fuch as are fome time to ihine in eminence,
have pairdd their probation of Kterature, or
prefume to hope for any other notice than
h c h as is beitowed on diligence and inquiry;
Among all the efforts of early genius which
literary hiRory records, I doubt' whether a n y
one can be produced that more iurpaffes the
common limits of nature than ~e plays of
Congreve, .

About this time began the long-continued

controverfy between Collier and the -poets.
In the reign of Charles the Firit the Puritans
had raifed a violent clamour againit the
drama, which they confidered as an enter-
tainment not lawful to Chrifiians, an opinion
held by them in common with the church of
Rome ; and Prynne publifhed Hgrio-maJtix,
a huge wlutne, in which hge-plays were'
cenfursd. The outrages and crimes of the
Pu~itansbrought afterwards their whole fyf-
- . I
tern of doQrine into difreputp, and $iom the
Reitoration the ppets and Qe ptayers were
left at quiet; fur to have molefted tbsw
would have had the appearance of teqdesrcy
to puritanical xaaligpity.

%is dmger, however, was wora away by

time; a d Collier, ;a fierce and implaeabl~
wonjuror, knew that ap attack u w n the
theatre would never make him fuf$&ed h
a Puritan; he therefare (1698) publi,hed d
Qort Kew of th4 hmcorahtya d P~cy%ment$
ef the Eng/@ Skage, I believe with 0th
potive than religious zeal and hooe& i n k ?
nation. He was formed for a cpntmmt- .
iit ; with fufficient learning ; with diQion
vehement and pointed, though ~ R e n
vulgar and incorrd ; with unconquerablq
pertinacity; with wit in the higheft degreg
keen and farcaitick; and with all thofe powers
exalted and i~vigorptedby juit confideqce is
his caufe.

Thus qualified, and thus incited, he walk-

ed out tq battle, and sailed at once m08
of the living writers, from Dryden to Dur-
fey, gis onfqc was violent; thok paffag-es,
... '
2 which
.which while t k y fipad iipgle bad pared with
4ittle notice, w f t p they were accpmulated.
qnd Fvpo(Fd tqgether, excited, h. o ~ p r ; thp
qnd the pious caught the alarp, and the. .

- . wo&red why it had fi*.l'ongfifered
ipeligion ad licehtioufqd ts be openly
taught. . at the
. . publick
... chqrge.

Nothing now remained for the poets but

to refifi or fly, Dryden's confcience, or his
prudence, angry as he was, withheld him
fmxp the goqflip; Copgeve and Vanbrugh
- I

, attempted anfwerb Gongreye, a very young

. .,
mar), elated with j i p e f s , arld jmpgtient af
p ~ f p r e , qlfumed an a k of c~qfjdenceqnd
iecurity. His chief artifice of controverry is
to retort upon his adverfary his own words :
he is veyy aqgry, and, hoping to conquer
Collier with his own weapons, allows him-
felf in the ufe of every term of contumely
1 and contempt; hut he has the fword with-
out the arm of Scanderbeg; he has his anta-
gonift's coarfenefs, but not h i s firength. Col-
l lier replied; for conteit was his delight, he
was not to be frighted from his psi-pofe or
his prey.

he caufe of Congreve was not tenable:
whatever gloffes he might ufe for the defence
or palliation of fingle paffages, the general
tenour and tendency of his plays muit always
be condemned. It is acknowledged, with
univerfal conviaion, that the perufal of his
works will mak,e no man better; and that
their ultimate effeQ is to reprefent pleafure in
alliance with vice, and to relax thoik obli-
gations by which life ought to be regulated.

The itage found other advocates, and the

difpute was protraeed through ten years; but
at lafi Comedy grew more modefi, and Col- ,
lier lived to fee the reward of his lahour in
the reformation of the theatre.

Of the powers by which this important

I viQory was atchieved, a quotation from Love
for Love, and the remark upon it, may afford
a fpecimen.

Sir Sampi: SampSon's a very good name;

for your SampSonr were JZrong dogs from tbe

Angel. Have a care-F you nmmber, tbc
J m n - Sanpjn o f your name @Zrd an blk
bouj over bir bead at ZaJ.

Here you have the Sacred HiRory bur-

Iefqued, and Sampfon once more brought
'' into the houfe of Dagon, to make Eporc
for the Philiitines !"

Congreve's lait ' play was The Way of tbc

World; which, though, as he hints in his
I dedication, it was written with great labour
and much thought, was received with fo little
I , favour, that, being in a high degree offended
: and difgufied, he refolved to commit his quiet
I and his fame no more to the caprices of an
1 audience.

From this time his life ceafed to be p u b


lick; he lived for himfelf, and for his friends;

and among his friends was able to name
every man of his time' whom wit .and ele-
gance had raifed to reputation. It may be
therefore reafonably fuppofed that his rnan-
ners were polite, and his converfation
.' He Ccew not trl barre fpkeq mqch plsafurure
'in*tipg, .as he c~qtributedno%wg to the
SPcEfator, and only p4e pqper {Q the T'azZer,
though publiihed by men with whom. he
might be fvppafed willing to qffmiate, and
though he lived rpanp yelrs Pfter fhe publi
~ i a of n hie 'viice&newp P ~ ~he ~ ,
added nothing to them,, but lived . an
. in
. . tite-

rary indolence ; engaged in no controverfy,

gontendin~with na nut& neither f~lici~ing
flattery bp publjck commepdations, nor pray
yoking engify by malignrlnt criticil~,
pan,, his time qmgng the great and fglendic&
j~ the pJwid enjoyraept of bis fame and £oe

Having owed his fortune to HalifBx, bE

continued always of his ~atron'sparty, but,
~g it ieerns, without violence qr acrimany;
qnd 4 i s firmngib was naturally deemed, fig
)jis abilitiq were reverenced. His iep&
&eyefoye was never violqteh; and whppp
vpon the extrufion of t h p Whigs, iome inr
ttxceifi~nwas ufed lea Congreve fhould b9
&{placed, the =arl of Opfprd made thip
d w e r;

- abtufa ades geRamus peCtor? P s n i ,
N e c tarn averfus equos TyriP foljungic ab urbe,
, . -

He that was thus hopoured b . the.

~ advede
party, r n i ~ h tnatur~llyexpea to be advanced
when his friends returned to power, and he
was made fecretary far the ifland of Jarnaicai
a, plqce,
. I iuppde,' without trufi or,care, but
. .
which, with his poit in the cufi~ms,is faid
to have afforded him twelve hundred ,pounds
a year,

His honours were yet far greater than his.

profits, Every w~iter
. . mentioned ~ .~. J .wi!b
reipeEt; and, among other teftimopies to his
mefit, Steele. made 4im the patron' d his
Mifcellany, and Pope idcribed to birn hi4
panflation of the Iliad.

- But he treated the Mufes with i q ~ a t b d 1e

. for, having long converfed familiarly wit4 ,

the great, he wiihed to be confidered rptbeq

G. a .man of fafiioion than of wit; g d , when
he received a vifit from Voltaire, difgp#~d
biq by the defpicable foppery o f defiring ta
be confidered not as an author but a
Tap i to wbicb the Frenchman replied, t h a ~
66 if
'L if he had been only a gentleman, he fhould
" not have come to vifit him."

In his retirement he may be fuppoikd t o

have applied himfelf to books; for ha dk-
covers more literature than the poets have
commonly attained. But his fiudies were
in his latter days obAruCted by cataraos iri
his eyes, which at Iafi terminated in blind-
nefi. This melancholy fiate was aggravated
by the gout, for which he ibught relief by a
j o p e y to Bath'; but being overturned in his
chariot, complained from that time of a pain
in his fide, and died, at hi8 houfe in s u b
itreet in the Strand, Jaq. 29, 1728-9. Hav-
ing lain in Aate in the Jerufalem-chainber,
he was buried in Wefiminfier-Abbey, where
a monument is ere&e'd to his memory by
Hendetta dutchefs of Marlborough, to whom,
for reaibns either not known or not mention-
ed, he bequeathed a legacy .of about ten
thoufand pounds ; the accumulation of atten-
tive parcimony, which; though to her hper-
fluous and ufelefs, might have given great
afiitance to the ancient family from which he
dercended, at that rime by the imprudence of
his relation reduced to difficulties and diitrek,

1 CONG R EVE has merit of the higheit

kind ; he is an original writer, who borrowed
nbther the models of his plot, nor the aanner
of his. dialogtle. Of his plays I cannot
fpeak diltinaly; for fince I idpetted -them
many years have p a i d ; but what remains
upon my memory is, that his charaQers are
commonly fieitious and artificial, with very
little of nature, and not much of rife. He
formed a peculiar idea of comick excdence,
which he fuppofed to confiR in gay remarks
and .unexpe&ed anfwers; but that which hd
ende&o&d, he ieldom failed of'petformirig.
. .
His fcenes exhibit not much of hdmour,
imagery, or paifion: his perionages are a
kind -6f intelle&ual gladiators; every . . fen-,
tence is to ward or firike; the contefi of
fmartnefs is never intermitted; his wit is a
meteor playing to 'and .fro with alternate
corukations. His comedies have therefore,
in fome degree, the operation of tragedies;
they Xtirprife ,rather:than divert, a d raife ad-
miration oftener than merriment, But :they
are the works of a mind, replete with images,
' and quick in combination. ' ..:-(
. . I . of
Of his poetry, I cannot iBy
any thing very favourable. The 'powers of
Co"greve- fern to del& him when. M 1e-e~
the itage, ak Antkm wat3 m bq&et #ox'g
than he doohl touchth~groand. It &tnl;or
be &k~%ed dsithaht !tderr that a d a d $3
w i p ~ fertile ~ In
, draatick
~ c ~ G t i o q
hbutdon dhy other i k ~ a h qd%cQyern o t h i ,
but i m ad pmeFra
~ He hash .the&

ittfe @ i k s.n*her elevation of fafit%
ta& of kiiguage, .nor . itill in verfifkad~n! ;

ret, S£ l.FMXrequird :to feleQ frMn W hr

n*n*&-meii.~f~nglib.pqetrythe rgqit,paP, .
&al paregraph, I kca~w RC& what , I CUUU
prefer to. an exclamzthn in 2% .&&aw#iq$
Bride.: . '. . ,

L L ~ M O I I ..
. . . ..
It bore. tk
. accent of a.hwnan voice, . . .
A L M E X ~ A . .,.
, .

It w u thy fear, m elf2 reme trantleht kind

W.hiftlingib'holiowe af ;-thisvaked ifk :
We'll fin-
Hark l
' A L M BA.~ I
No, all is hulh'dj 'and itill as death.-'Tis
dreadful 1
3 % ~ rkverend'is the face of this tall pile I
.Whofe ancient pillars rear their marble heads, ..
?k6 bear aloft iti atch'd And bondkioii roof, - l

By its own weight made Redfait and ihmdreable,

Lookihg tranquillitf 1 It f i i k t s ari awe
And M m r 61-imy achihg bgli't; thk tbhbi
Ahd nlonumental caves'of .death look cold, ' :
And hdot a chilnbfs to mij tiernblidghkair. '
Give me thy hand, and let me heat t h y voicei ,
Nay, quickly rpeak t o m?, hind Itt 'me hear
Thy voic-my own affrights iiie with ils'ecboes.,
. . . .
He who reads th&lines 'enjoys for a in*
ment t h e prjwlerg af a poet; h* feels what i&
remembers 26 . have . dk1.t befort+, h t .h .
f&!s it with great inctkaFe of hifi?Slitg; ht
ftikiigiiiiei B fi~niliarimage, But l h b e t ~it tagia
ampliked and expanded, kmbellilhid with .
beautg, and knksged wi<h rnajefip . .

Yet coxdd phe anthdr, who -appears he* m

have enjdytd the corifidence .ofN w e , h*
rnent the death of queen Misy in Xnes l&
theie : . .
. -

T h e roclts are cleft, and new-defcending rills
Furrow the brows of all th' impending hills.
T h e water-gods to floods their rivulets turn,
'And each, with itreaming eyes, fupplies his
wanting urn.
The Fauns forfake the woods, the Nymphs the
And round the plain in fad diitraAions rove :
In prickly brakes their tender limbs they tear,
And leave on thorns their locks of golden hair.
With their fharp nails, themfelves the Satyrs
An'd tug their ihaggy beard; and bite with grief
the ground.
La Pan himfelf, beneath a blatled oak,
D e j d e d lies, his pipe in pieces broke.
See Pales weeping too, in wild defpair,
And to the piercing winds her bofom bare.
And fee yon fading myrtle, where appears
T h e Queen of Love, all bath'd in flowing tears 3
See howihe wrings her hands, and beatsher breait, i
And tears her ufelefs girdle from her waifi : I

Hear the fad murmurs of her iighing doves l

For grief they dgh, forgetful of their loves.

And m a n y years after he gave no proof that

time had improved his wifdorn or his wit;
for on the ' death af the marquis of Bland-
ford this was his fong: 1
.. And
And n& thewinds, which had ralGgbeen. Bill,
Began the fwcllirg air wirh f@hs m .fill:.
T h e water-nymphs, who motionlefs remain'd,
Like ima* of ici, -while he cornplainsd, ,'
Now loossd their Areams i as when defcending
. .
.riins. '

Roll the fieep torrents headlong o'er the plains,

?Ae . p r w creation, wbu fi, long had gaz'd, .
Gharm'd with her cries, and at hcr griefi arnaa'd,
Began to roar and howl with horrid yell, .
Difmal to hear, and terrible to tell ; ..
Nsthing but groans and fi&s were heard around,
And Echo
. . .
multiplied each mournful found.

In both there. funeral poems, when h.e. has . .

je£Zcd out many jjiZabZelcr of fenfelefs dolour,

he difmiffes . liis reader with fenfelefs conib-
lation: 'frpm the grave of. Paitora riles a.light
that forms a fiar; and, where Amaryllis
wept fo? Alpyntas,- fiow euery.tear fprung up
a violet.
. . .
But Williarn is his hero, and of William
he ,+ill Gng;
. .
I T h e hovering winds on downy wings hall wait
~ n cakh,
d and wdr to foreign lands, the flying
found. .
VOL. 111. F . ~t
It cannot but 'be 0 e w what they
hall have to catch' and carry: ' '

'Twas now, when flowmy lawns

And flowing brooks beneath a foreit ihadc,
A lowing heifer, lovelieR of the herd,
Stood feeding by ;while two fierce b& prepar'd
Their armed heads for fi&t; by fate of m to;
T h e vi&or worthy of rhe,fair-one's love.
Unthought prefage of what met next my view;
For foon the i h d y kene withdrew.
And now, for woods, and fields, and $ringing
Behold a town arife, bulwark'd with walls and
lofty towers i
Two rival armies. all the plain o'cripread,
Each in battalia rang'd, and ihining arms array'd;
With eager eyes beholding both from far,
Namur, the priie and miRrefs of ehe war.

7%; Birth of th Mujc is . a miferable fic-

tion. .One good line it has, which was bor-
rowed from Dryden. The concluding uerfes
q e thefe:

This faid, no more remainyd. Th'etherial hofi

Again impatient crowd the cryital c o d .
I The
The father, now, within his fpacious.hands,
Encompafs'd all the mingled mars of feas and
lands ;
And, having heav'd aloft the ponderous +here,
He launch'd the world to float in ambient air.

Of his irregular poems, that to Mrs.*Ara-

belfa Hunt feems to be the befi: his ode for
Cecilia's Day, however, has lome lines '

which Pope had in his mind when he wrote

his own.

His Imitations of Horace are feebly para-

phraitical, and the additions which he makes
a r e of little value. He fometimes retains
. what were more properly omitted, as when
he talks of veroain and gum to propitiate

Of his Tranflations, the fatire of Juvenal

was written very early, and may therdbre
be forgiven, though it have not the maffy-
nefs and vigour of the original. 10 all his
verfions fiength and fprightlinefs are want-
ing: his Hymn to Venue, from Homer, is
1 perhaps the b e k His lines are weakened
with expletives, and his rhymes are frequentlp.
Fa )Iio
. .
H~S' poems a r e feldom WO& the
coft of xriticifm: iometimes the thoughts are
falfe, and ibmetimes.common. an his v e r h
o n lady Gethin, the latter part is an imitation
of Dryden's ode on Mrs. Killigrew; and
Dork, that has been fo lavik1y flattered by
Steele, hasindeed fome lively fianzas, but
the exprelfion might be mended; and the
moR &king part of the cha&&er . . Bad lken
;heady mew; in Love for LOVE..His. Arf-.
of PleaJng is founded on a vulgar but per-
haps impraaicalde principle, and . t&, fiale-
nefs of the fenfe is not concealed by any no-
velty of :illufiration or elegance of difiion.

. This tiKue of poetry, from which he ferns

to have hoped a lafiing name, is totally neg-
le&ted, and known only as it is appended t o
his plays.

While cornedy or while-tragedy is rigarded,

his plays are likely to be read; but, except
what rdstes to the itage, I know not .that he
has ever written a fianza that is fung, or a
couplet that is quoted; T4e general charac-
ter of his Mbicellanics is, "that they hew fittk
kit, and little virtue.
L - 7 . - Ycr
Yet to him it mufi be confeired that we
are indebted for the correQion of a national
error, and the cure of our Pindarick madnefs.
He firfi taught the Engliih writers that Pin-
dar's odes were regular; and though certainly
he had not the fire requifite for the higher
fpecies of lyrick poetry, he has ihewn us
that enthufiaiin has its rules, and that in mere
confufion there is neither grace nor greatneib,


men whofe writings have attraRed
,much notice, but of whofe life and manners
very little has been communicated, and whofe
lot it has been to be much oftener mentioned
by enemies than by friends.

He was the fon of Robert Blackmore of

Corfham in Wiltfhire, flyled by Wood Gen-
tleman, and fuppofed to have been an attor-
ney : -having been for fome time educated in
'a country-Cchool, he was fent at thirteen to
'Wefiminiter ; ,and in I 668 was entered at
Edmund-Hall in Oxford, where he took the
degree of M. A. June 3, 1676, and refided
thirteen years ; a much longer time than it is
ufual to +end at the univeriity. He after?
wards travelled : at Padua he was made doaor
.pf phyfic ; and, afier having wandered about
a year
a year .and a half on the.Continent, returned

In fome part of his life, it is not known

when, his indigence compelled him to teach
a ichool ; an humiliation with which, though
it certainly lafied but a little while, his enemies
did not forget to reproach him,. when he be-
came conipicuous. enough to excite male&-
lence ; and let it be re'membered for his ho-
nour, jhat to have been once a fchool-mafier ,

is the only reproach which all the perfpicacity

of malice, animated by wit, has ever fixed
upon his private life.

When he firR engaged in the fiudy of phy-

fic, he enquired, as he fays, of Dr. Sydenham
what authors he fhould read, and was direQed
by Sydenham to Don Quixote ; wbicb, kid
he, is a very good book ; I read it Jil. The
perverienefs of mankind makes it often mif-
chievous in men of eminence to give way to
merriment. The idle and the illiterate wiU
long ihelter thernfelves under this foolifh

Whether he reAed fatisfied with this direc-
tlon, or fought for better, he commenced
phyfician, and obtained high eminence and
extenfive practice. H e became Fellow of
the College of Phficians April 12, 1687, be;
ing one of +he thirty which, by the new
charter of kmg James, were added to the
former Fellows. His refidence was in Cheap-
fide, and his friends were chiefly in the city.
In the early part of Blackmore's time, a citi-
zen was a term of reproach; and his place
of abode was another topick to which his
adverfaries had recourie, in the penury of

Blackmore therefore was made a poet not

by neceifity but inclination, and wrote not
for a livelihood but for a fame; or, if he may
tell his own motives, for a nobler purpoie, to
engage poetry in the caufe of Virtue.

I believe it is peculiar to him, that his

firR publick work was an heroick poem. l
He,was not known as a maker of verfes, till
he publifhed (in 1699) Prince Artbur, in ten
books, written, as he relates, by fucb catcbe~
a n d j a r t ~and
, infuch occajorza( uncertain &ours 1
or pofifion aforde, -andfor the gre~leJ7
prt in mfee-hdqes, or ilr adgixg- q.apd down
tkJrcets. For the latter pal? of this a p
iogy he was accded of wciing to tke rm-
$&rigof bis chariot-whek. He had read, he
fay4 brit Zitclr poetry tbrougbovtpis wb& Zifc; .
and forfifteeeen years before bad not written an
bundrcd ve@s, except onc copy of Latin verfis
in prug of afrignd'r book,

. H e thinks, and with fome rearon, that

from Kuch a performance perfeaion cannot
be expeaed; but he finds another reafon for
the feverity of his cenfurers, which he ex-
preffes in language fuch as Cheapfide eafily
furniihed. I m not free af jhe Poets Corn-
&ny, having never bged tbe govemor'~bandr;
mine t~ tberfore not j mucb as a ~ermlflont
.poem, but a downrigbf interlaper. Tboj gcn-
t h e n wbo carry on tbeir pottic& trade in U
joint Jod, would certainly do what they could
t o j n k .and ruin ran unlicenz adventurer, not-
witbJanding I dyfurbed none o f theirfu8ories~
nor imported any goods they bad ever deah in.
He had lived in the city tiU he had l e a r d
its note.

. .
. That Prince Artbur fbund many readers,
is iertain; for in two years it had three edi-
tions; a very uncommon infiance of favour-,
able reception, at a time when literary curif
cfity was yet confined to particular claffeep of
the nation. Such iucccfs naturally raifed ani-
mofity; and 'bennip attacked it bp a -formal
triticifm, more tedious and d&fting than
the work which he condemns. . T o ihis'cen-
fure may be oppofed the apprebation of Locke
ind.the admiration of ~ b l ? n e u x ,which are
found in their printed Letters. Mblineux is
particularly delighted witli the fong of Mo-
pm, which is therefore fubjoined to this nar-
. .
It is remarked bg Pope, that what raijrr
tbe hero oJlen,Jinks the man. Of Blackmora
it may be faid, that as the poet Bnks, . t h e
.man rifes; the animadveriiorls of Deunis, in-,
,iolent and contemptuous as they were, railed
i Gm' no bplacable reikntmint: he and
his critiek were -afterwards friends ; and in'

one of his latter

. works he praifes Dennis. as,

equal to ~oileuhin poetry, a?id/firior to him

, . . ..

. - ... He
He feems to have been more delighted
with praire than pained by ceniure, and, in-
Gead o f zflackening, quickened his career.
Having in two years produced ten books of
Prince Artbur, in two years more (1697)
he fent into the world King Artbur in twelve.
T h e pravocation was now doubled, and the
refentment of wits and criticks may be f u p
pofed to have increafed in proportion. He
faund, however, advantages more than equi-
valent to all their outrages; .he .was this year
made one of the phyficians in. ordinary to
king William, and advanced by him to. the
honour of knighthood, with. a prefent of a
gold chain and a medal.

The malignity of the wits attributed his

knighthood to his new poem ; but king W i d
liam was not very itudious of poetry, and
Blackmore perhaps had other merit: for he
Gys in his Dedication to Ayred, that be bad
a greater part in the fuccefin o f tbe bo@ of
Hanovef than ever be bad boaJed.

. What .Blackmore could contribute to the

Succefion, or what he imagined himfelf to
have contributed, cannot now be known.
4 That
That he had been of confiderable ufe, I doubt
nor but he believed, for .I hold him to have
been very honefi; but he might eafily make
a falfe eitimate of his own importance: thofe
whom their virtue reitrains from deceiving
others, are often difpofed by their vanity to
deceive thernielves. . Whether he promoted
the Succefion or not,, he at leait approved it,
and adhered invariably to his principles and
party through his whole life.

His ardour of poetry Rill continued; :and

nat long after (1.700) he, publiihed a e r a -
fibrajo i t b e Book of Job, and other parts .of
the Scripture. This performance Dryden; ,
who purfued him with great malignity, lived
long enough to ridicule in a Prologue.

&Thewits .eafily,confederated apinfi .him,

as Dryden, whofe favour they almoit all
courted, was his prefeffed adverfary. -He
had 'beGdes given them reaibn for refentd
ment, as, in his Preface to Prince Artbur,
he had faid of the Dramatick Writers alrnofi
all that' was alleged afterwardsby Collier; but
Blackmore's-- cenfure was cold and generat,
.- Collier's '
Collier's was .perional and ardent i Blackmore
taught his reader to diflike, what. ColPefi
incited him to abhor.
.. , .

: In hi&Preface to Kng Arthuc he a n d w

' troured to. g& at leait: one-friend; and prm
pitiated Congreve bp higher praik of his
Mourning B&& t h a c it has obtained from'

any other critick.

The fame year he pubIiihed a Satire on

WzS ; a proclamation of defiance d i c h united
the p e t s - almoit all againit him, a d . whWr
b m g h upon him 1a.mpoons and. ridicule

fiom every mel This he -doubtlefsforefaw,


and evidently defpiled-; nor ihould his. d i i

nity of .mbd be without its praife, had: he
not paid the homage to greatnefs which he
denied to genius, and dsgirkded Umlelf by &at auth&y &er the national
tafie, which he takes- &m 'the poets, upon
men of 'blgh:ra&. a&, wide i d u w o , but of
re6 wit, .wt g a e r vktue.
. .
. . .. .

Here is - dilcovered the. inhabi.tant of

Gheapfdc,, whp@ hwql,caago~keep' his: poetry
umingled with trade. T o hinder, that in-
telleeual bankruptcy which he affeQs to fear,
he will ere& a Ba?tRfor RTitb

In this p m he juNy cenfured Dryden's

igpuritli, but praifid his powers; though
in a fafequent edition he retained the iatire
and omitted the praiik. . What was his reaibn
1 know not;. Dryden was then no longer in
hii way.

His head Itill teemed with hqoick poetry,

and ( I 705) he publifhed EZiza in ten book&
I am afraid that the world was now weary
of c ~ n t e ~ d i nabout
g l3lackrnbr~'sherpq ; fot
-j&I .not,remember that .by any author, feerid
ous M &l, I h a v ~found EZi* either
praift or blamed. She dropped, as it {kerns,
&o&byn frmn the p$. , It is never men-
coned,.asd was never feen by me till I bor-
roarqd it h r the prefknt .occafwn~ Jacob
Gys, it ir correRed, annd rev@d for another
~mpr@on; but the .labour of r e v i h n was
thrown away.

From this time he turned fome of his

thoughts to the celebration .of living characd
ters; and wrote a poem on the Kit-cat Club,
VOL.111. G and
and Advice t o the Poets bow to celebrate ib&
Duke of Marlbsrougb; but on occaiion of
another year of fuccefs, thinking himieif qua-
lified to mare inftruttion, he again wrote
a poem of Advice to a Weaver of rr'ap@ry.
Stesle was then publiihing the Batier; and
looking round him for fbmething at which
he might laugh, unluckily lighted on Si?
Richard's work, and treated it with fuch cow
tempt, that, as Fenton obferves, he put an
end to the fpecies of writers that gave Advice
to Painters.

Not long after ( I 7 J 2) he publ;ihed Cm-

tion, a fbiZojOpbfcaZ Poem, which has been9.
by my recommendation, inferted in the late
colle&ion. Whoever judges bf this by any
other of Blackmore's performances, will do
it injury. The praife given it by Addifon
(Spec. 339) is too well known to be tran-
fcribed; but fome notice is due to the tefii-
many of Dennis, who calls it a cc philofo-
" phical Poem, which has equalled that of

" Lucretius in the beauty of its veriification,

'' and infirlitely furpaired it in the foliditp
" and firength of its reafoning."
w h y an author iurpaffes himfelf, it is na-
tural to enquire. I have heard from Mr.
Draper, an eminent boofiller, an account
received by him from Arnbroik Philips, " That
" Blackmore, as he proceeded in this poem,

laid his manufcript from time to time be-

" fore a club of wits with whom he affociated; .
" and that every man contributed, as he

" could, either improvement or correttion;

" fo that," faid Philips, " there are perhaps

" no where in the book thirty lines together,

<' that now itand as they were briginally

" written."
- The relation of Philips, I fuppofe, was
true; but when all reafonable, all credible
allowance is made for this friendly revifion,
the author will itill retain an ample dividend
of prave; for to him muit always be afigned
the plan of the work, the diitribution of
its parts, the choice of topicks, the train of
argument, and, what is yet -more, the gene-
ral predominance of philofophical judgement
and poetical.fpirit. Corfedion ieldom effeas
more than the fupprefiion of faults: a happy
line, or a fingle elegance, may perhaps be
added; but of a 1,arge work the general cha-
G 2 raaer
facer muit always remain; the original con-
fkitution can be very little helped by Iocal re-
metfies ; inherent and radical dullnefs will
never be much invigorated by extdnfic anid

?'his poem, if he had writtm nothing elfe,

would have tianiinitted him to pdterity
anlong the firlt favourites' of the Engliih Muh ;
but to make verfes was his trahi'cendent plea-
hre, and as he was not deterred by cenfure, he
was not fatiated with praii'e,

He deviated, however, fometimes into other

tracks of lifetafure, and condelcended to en-
tertain his readers with plain profe. Wheo
the Spe8ator fiopped, he confidered the polite
world as deititute of entertainment; and in
aoncert with Mr. Hughes, who wrote every
third paper, publifhed three times a week the
Lay Monr@ery, founded on 'the 'fupofition
that tome literary men, w h f e cbraaers are
defcribed, had retired to a houie in the cound
try to enjoy philalbphical leifure, and reiblved
to initrutl the public, by communicating their
difquifitions and arnufernents %bather any
real perfons were concealed under fieitidus
.. . - names,
names, is not known. The hero of the club is
one Mr. Johnfon ; fuch a conftellation of ex-
cellence, that his chara&er hall not be i i i p
preffed, though there is no great genius in the
deiign, nor &ill in the deliwation,

" The firR Z: ihall name is Mr. Johnfon, a

U gentleman that owes to Nature excellent
U faculties and an elevated genius, and to in-
" duitrg and application many acquired ac-
" ~omplilhmento. His t& b diltinguifhing,
'' juil and delicate ; his jdgement clear, 2nd
'' his d o n itrong, accompanied with an
" imagination full of fpirit, of great compafs,
" and itored with refined ikas. H e is a
" .critic of the f'lrit rank ; and, what is' his
" peculiar ornament, he is delivered from the

" dtentation, malevolence, and fupercilioue

" temper, that fo often blemiih men of that

" charaeer. His remarks refult from tha
nature and reafon of things, and are formed
'' by a judgement free, and unbiared by the
authority of thofe who have lazily followed
" each other in the fame beaten track of think-

iqg, and are arrived only at the reptation 'of

acute grammarians and commentators 3
*' men, w h ~have been copying one another
G 3 ~xlany
86 B L A C K M O R E .
" many hundred years, without any improve-
" ment ; or, if they. have ventured farther,
(C have only applied in 3 mechanical manner
" the rules of antient critics to modern writ-
'' ings, and with great labour difcovered no-
" thing but their own want of judgement and

'' capacity. As Mr. Johnfon penetrates to

Cc the bottom of his fubjea, by which means

" his obfervations are iblid and natural, as

well as delicate, ib his defign is always to

' bring to light fomething ufeful and orna-
<' mental ;whence his charaaer is the reverfe
" to theirs, who have eminent abilities in in-
*'fignificant knowledge, and a great felicity i~
finding out trifles. H e is no lefs induitri-
" ous to fearch out the merit of an author,
" than fagacious in difcerning his errors and

defeQs ; and takes more pledure in com-

" mending the beauties than expofing the

G blerniihes of a laudable writing : like Ho-

" race, in a long work, he can bear forne de-'
f ~ r m i t i e sand
~ jufily lay them on the im-
perfellion of human nature, which is inca-
". pable of faultlefs produ&ions. When an
excellent Drama appears in public, and
its intrinfic w o i h attraasa general applaufe,
he is pot fiung with envy and fpleeri ; no;
does ,he exprefs a favage nature, in fafiening
cc upon the celebrated author, dwelling upon
'' his imaginary defeas, and 'pa&ng over his
" +nfpicuous- excellences. Ile treats. all
" yriters upon !he. fame . impartial fopt ; and
" is not, like the little critics, taken up entirely

in finding out only the beauties of the an-

'' cient, and notbing but the errors of the mo-

'F dern writers. .Neverdid any one exprefs more

kindnefs and goori nature to youhg and unfi-
niihed aithors.; he promotes ;heir infereits,
prote&s their reputation, extenuates their
. off their virtues,and by his can-
faults, and. fets

L! dour ., . from thefeverity of his

" judgement. H e is not like, thofe dry critics,
who are &rife becauce they cannot write
themfelves, but is himfelf mafier ofagood vein
'L in poetry ; and though he does not often em-
!' ploy it, yet he has fometimes entertained
his friendq with his unpqblihd
. . . , perform-
(' ances,"

The refi of the Lay monk^ feem to be but

feeble mortals, in comparifon .with the gigan-
tic Johnfon ; who yet, with all his abilities,
pnd the help of the fraternity, could drive the
publication but to forty papers, which were
G 4 after-
afierwards colleaed into a volume, and called ,

in the title a Sequel to tbc ~~~~~~~~S.

E r n e years afterwards ( I 7 I 6 and 7 7 J 7) he

publifhed tmto volumes of EGys in profe?.
which can be commended only as they are
'written for the highefi and nobleit purpofe,
the promotion of religion. Blackmore's profe
is not the profe of a poet; for it is languid,
fluggiih, and lifeleC9 ; his diaion is neither
daring nor exaa, his flow neither gapid nor
eaiy, and his periods neither h o o t h nor firong.
His account of Wit will h e w with how little
clearnefs he is content think, and how little
his thoughts are recommended by kis l a w

'' Afi to Irs efficient caufe, Wit owes it$ pro-

fS duaion to an extraordinary and peculiar
temperament in rhe conftitution of the pof-
6' feffor of it, in which is found a-concur?
'6 rence of regular and exalted ferments, and
C' an affluence of anihal fpirits, refined and

reaified to a great degree ofpurity ;whence,

'' being endowed with vivacity, brightnefs,
and celerity, as well in their reflexions
fL as dire& motions, they become proper in-
" firuments
*C fimrnents for the fpritely operations of the
" mind ; by which mearis the imagination can

with great facility range the wide field of

" Nature, corrtemplate-an infinite vqriety of
- " objeas, and, by o b f e ~ i n gthe fimilitude and
I 'c dilagreement of their feveral qualities, fingle
I out and abitraa, and then Euit and unite
6' thoie ideas which will bee ferve its purpofe.

CL ~ e h c ebeautiful allufions, furprifing meta-

9 phom, and admirable Pentimerits, are always
6' ready at hand : and while the fancy is full
' !' of images colletled from innumerable o b
j&s and their different qualities, relations,
" and habitudes, it can at pleafure d d s a

common notion in a i)range but becoming

'' garb; by which, as before obferved, the
", h& thought will appear a new one,
f 6 to 'the gat delight and wonder uf the hear-

. ,

whit .wo call genitl~ refulta from this
happy complexion in the fire - .
f o r a & of the @on that enjoys it, and
1 @C is pdature's gift, but diverfified by various

" fpecific charaaers and limitations, as its

a&ive fire is blended and allayed by differ-

4' ent proportions of phlegm, or reduced and
" regulated by the contrafl of oppofite fer-

t' ments. Therefore, as there happens in the

" corn-
compofnion of a facetious genius a greatw .
or lefs, though Kill an inferior, degree of
' judgement and prudence, one man of wit
will be varied and difiinguiihed fiom a n o ~.
- ther."

I n thefe Effays he took little Care to propi-

tiate the wits ; for he fcorns to avert their ma-
lice at the expence of virtue or of truth.

Several, in' their books, have many far-

" caftical and fpiteful itrokes at religion in
'' general ;while others make themfelves plea-
+' fant with the- principles of the ' Chriitian,
Of the lafi kind, this age has feen a moll
audacious example in the book intituled,
A %le of a 5%. Had this writing be&
4' publifhed in a pagan or popiih nation, who
" are jufily impatient of all indignity offered
to the efiabliihed religion of their country,
n o doubt but the author would have received
the puniihment he deferved. But the fate
eb of this impious buffoon is very different;
f' for in a protenant kingdom, zealous of their

civil and religious immunities, he has not

only efcaped afionts and the effeQs of pub-
" lic refentment, but has been careffed and
patronized by perfons of great figure, and
" of
a of all denominations. Violent party-men,
who differed in all things befides, agreed in
'L their' turn to ihew particular refpe&t and

'I. friendhip to this infolent derider of the

" worihip of his country, till at lafi the re-
'' puted writer is not only gone off with im-
punity, but triumphs in his dignity and p r e ~
U ferment. I do not know that any inquiry
" or fearch was ever made after this writing,
+ or that any reward was ever offered for
the difcovery of the author, or that the in-
U firnous book was ever condemned to be

U burnt in public : whether this proceeds

from the excefiive eiteem and love that
men in power, during the late reign, had for
wit, 'or their defe& of z e d acd concern for
the Chriitian Religion, will be determined
beR by thofe wbo are heit acquainted with
!I their charaaer."

I n another place he fpeaks with becoming

abhorrence of a g06ZleSJauthor who has bur-
lefqued a Pfalm. Tkis author was fuppofed
to be Pope, who publiihed a reward for any

, one that would produce the coiner of the ac.

qufation, but never denied it ; and was after-
5 wards
wards the perpetual and inceffant enemy of

One of his Effays is upon the Spleen, which

is treated by him fo much to his own fatis-
fa&ion,'that he has publiihed the fame thoughts
in the fame words ; firit in the Lay Monajery;
thin in the Effay ; and then in t h e Preface
to a Medical Treatife on the Spleen. . One
pdige, which I have found already twice, I
will here .exhibit, becaufe I think it better ima-
gined, and better expreffed, than could be ex-
pe€ted from the common tenour of his prole:

" --As the feveral combinations of iplene-

" tic madnefs and folly produce an infinite

a variety of irregular underitanding, ib the

" amicable accommodation and alliance be-
' c tween feveral virtues and vices produce an
equal diverfity in the difpofitions and man-
fib rier3 of mankind ; w h e w it-conics to pafs,
6' that as many monltrous and abfurd pro-
w duaions are found in the moral ao in the in-
5' telieeual world. HQWfuufpaifing is it to
obferve among the le& iulpable men, { m e
6' whole minds are attraaed by heaven and

earth, with a feeming equal force; fome

B L A C K M O R E 93
who 'are proud of humility ;others who are
cenforious and uncharitable, yet feu-deny-
ing and devout; fome who join contempt
of the world with fordid avarice; and others,
who preierve a great degree of pietys with
ill-nature and ungoverned paGons : nor are
a' inftances of .this inconiifient mixture lefs .
frgquent among bad men, where we ofien,
" with admiration, fee perfons at once gene-

" rous and unjufi, impious lovers of their

country, and flagitious heroes, good-natured
U iharpers, immoral men of honour, and li-
e~ bertines who will fooner die than.change
" their religion; and though it is true that

repugnant coalitions' of fo high a degree

Cc- are found but in a part of mankind, .yet

none of the whole mafs, either good or

bad, are intirely exempted from fomk ab-
Ir fwd mixhre,"

H e about this time (Aug, za, 1716) be*

came &e of the EIcar of the College of Phy-
iicians; and was foon after (O&. I ) chafen
Ccnfor. He kerns to have arrived late, what4
ever was the reafon, at hie medical hunoum

Having iueeeeded ib well in his book on,

~ r c d i o n , by
' which he efiabliihed the great
X principle
principle of all Religion, he thought his unh
dertaking impede&, unlefs he likewife en.
forced the truth of ~evelation;and for that
purpofe added another poem on Redempion. ,
H e likewife wrote, before his Creation, three
books on the Nature Qf Man*

lovers of muGcal devotion have a]-
ways wiihed for a more happy metrical ver-
fion than they have yet obtained of the book
of Pfalms; this wiih the piety of Blackmore
led him to gratify, and he produced ( I 72 I )
a n e w VerJion of the Pfalms o f David,jtted t o
the tune$ scjd in C b u d e s ; which, being re-
commended by the archbifhops and many
bifhops, obtained a licenfe for its admiffon
into public worihip; but no admidion has it
yet obtained, nor has it any dght to come
where Brady and ate have got poffefioa
Blackniore's name mufi be added to thofe of
many others, who, by the fame attempt, have
obtained only the praife --ofmeaning well.

H e was not yet deterred from heroick poetry;

there was another monarch of this ifland, for
he did not fetch his heroes from foreign coun-
tries, whom he confidered as worthy of the
kpipid Mufi, and he dignified Alfred ( I 723)
with twelve books. But the opinion of the
fiation wis now fettled ;a hero introduced by
Blackmope was not likely to find either refpea
or Undnefs ; Aped took his place by EZizn
in .filence and darknefs : benevolence was
afhamed to favour, and malice was weary of
inhlting. ' Of his four Epic Poems, the firit
had h c h reputation and popularity as enraged
the critics j the fecond was at leait known
enough to' be ridiculed; the two lafi had
.neither friends nor enemies.

Contempt is a kind of gangrene, which if

~tFeizes one part of a charatter corrupts all
the reA by degrees. Blackmore, being de-
fpifed as a poet, was ~ I time
I negleaed as a
phyf~cian; his pra&ice, which was once invi-
dioufly great, forfook him in the latter part of
his life ; but being by nature, or by principle,
averfe from idlenefs, he employed his unwel-
come leifure in writing books on phyfic, and -
teaching others to cure thofe whom he could
himfelf cure no longer. I know not whether
1 can enumerate all the treatifes by which he
has endeavoured to diffufe the art of healing;
foi there is Earcely any diitemper, of dread-
ful name, which he has not taught his reader
how to oppofe. He has written bn the
fmall-pox, with a vehement i n v d i v e agaluit
inoculation; o n coniumptions, the fpieen,
the goy^, the rheumam, the king's-evil,
the dropfy, the jaundice, the h n e , the dia*
betes, and .the plague.

Of thofe books, if 'I had read them, it

could not be expe&ed that I ihould be able
to give a critical account. I have been told
that there is fomething in them of vexation
and difcontent, difcovered by a perpetual at4
tempt. to degrade phflck from its fublimity,
and to reprefeent it as attainable without much
previous or concomitant learning. By the
iranfient glances which I have thrown u p o i
them, I have obferved an d e f i e d contempt of
the Ancients, and a fuperciliuus derifion of
tmnfmitted knowledge. Of this indecent arro-
gance the following quotation from his Preface
to the Treatife on the Small-pox will afford a
fpecimen; in which, when the reader finds,
what I fear is true, that when he was cenfur-
ing Hippocrates he did not know the difference
between aphorym and ap~pbtbcgm,he will not
pay much regard to his determinations con-
cerning ancient learning.
" As for this book of Aphorifms, it is
like my lord Bacon'e of the fame title, a
" book of jefts, or a grave colleLtion of trite
and trifling obfervuions; of which though
many are true and certain, yet they Ggnlfy
nothing, and .map afford diverfion, but no
i n h a i o n ; moit of them being much in-
'L ferior to the iayinga of the wife* men of -
" Greece, which yet are ib low. and mean,

" that we are entertained every day with

'' more valuable ientiments at the table-con-

vexfation of ingenious and learned men." -

. I am unwilling however to leave him

in total difgrace, and will therefore luote
from another Preface a pagdge lefs repre-
1 henme.

Some gentlemen have been difingenuous

" and unjuft to me, by wreiting and forcing

" my meaning in the Preface to another book,

as if I condemned and expofed all learning,

" though they knew I declared that I greatly
' " honoured and efieemed all men of fuperior
literature and erudition; and that I only
" undervalued falfe or fuperficial learning,

'' that iignifies nothing for the Cervice of

VOL. 111, H , " mankind ;
'T mankind; and that, as to phyfick; I ex-
!! ~refslyaffirmed that learning muit be joined
'' with native genius to make a phyfician of
the firA rank; but if thole talents we iepa-
rated, I agerted, and do itill infilt, that rt.
fc man of native faagacity and diligence will
'' prove a more able and ufeful praEtifer,
than a heavy notional fcholar, encyipberect
!' with a heap of confukd.ideis,"
H e was not only a poet and a phyfician?
b;t produced likewife a work of a different
kind, A true a n d impartial H i o r y ofibe Con-
j3iracy againz K* William, of gloriom Me-
inorj~,in the Yenr 1695. This I have never
feen, but fuuppofe it at leafi compiled with .
integrity. H e engaged likewife in theological
controverry, and wrote two books againfi the
Arians; Prejudices ogainJ tbc Arian Hy-
potht$~ ; and Moderjt Arians unmaJed. Ano-
ther of his works is Natural 2-beology, o r
Moral Duties conzdered apart from PoJitivc;
witbJorne OEJcrvationr on the DeJrnbten@ a n 2
Necegity of a fiernatural Revelation. Thi$
was the iafl book that he publilhed. H e lef;
behind him The a~comp~y2~dPreacber, o r on
EJay upon Divine Eloquence; which was
printed afier his death by Mr. White of Nay-
.land in Effex, the minifier who attended-his
-deathbed, and tefiified the fervent piety of
.his lait .hours. He died on the eighth of
Oltobr, I 7tg.
, BLACKMORE, by the unremitted en-
mity of the wits, whom he pravoked more by
bis virtue than his dulnefs, hqs been expaded
to work treatment than he defqed; hia
name was ib long ufed to point every epi-.
gram upon dull writers, that it became at
lafi a bye-word of contempt: but it deferves
obicrvation, that malignity takes hold only of
his writings, and that his life paired without
reprdach, even when his boldnefi of repre-
henfion naturally turned upon him many eyes
defirous to efpy faults, which many tongues
would have made hafie to publiih. But
thofe who could not blame, could at leait
forbear t~ praife, and therefore of his pri-
vate life and domgfiqk chara@er there arp
PO rncqorials;

As an author he may juAly claim the B o ~

nours of ,magnanimity. The inceffant attacks
of his enemies, whether ferious or merry,
Fir(: qever difcovered to have diiturbed his
quiet, or to haye leffend his confidence iq 1
fiimfelfj they neither awed him to filencc:
P& to caqtiofi; they neither provcked him
to pethladce, nor depreffed him to complaint;
while the d&ribbt~tsof literary fame w e d
&nde&ouring to depreciate and degrade him,
he either defpifed or'defied them, wrote on
as he had written before, and never turned

afide to quiet them by civility, or tepref6 them

by confutation.

He depended with gteat fecuritp on his
bwn powers, and perhap was for that reaibn
lefs diligent in pending books. His literature
was, I think, but fmall. What he knew of
antiquity, I fufpeQ him to have gathered .
fiom modern compilers : but though he could
not baafi of much critical knowledge, his
mind was Rored with general principles, and
he left minute rerearches to thok whom he
confidered as little minds.

With this difppofition he mote mofi of his

poems, Having formed a magcificent defign,
he was carelefs of particular and hbordinatt
elegancies; he itudied no niceties df verfifi-
cation ; he waited for no felicities of fancy;
but caught his firfi thoughts in the firit words
I h which they were prefented: nor does it
appear that he faw beyond his own perform& \

1 H 3 BnCe6,
gnces, or had ever elevated his views to that
ideal perfeQion which every genius born td
excel is condemned always to purfue, and
never overtake. In the firft fugeitions of
his imagination he acquiefced; he thought
*ern good, and did not feek fm better.

The poem on Creation has, however, the

appearance of mdre circumfpe€tion; it wants
neither harmony of numbers, accuracy of
thought, nor elegance of dieion: it has either
been written with great care, or, what cannot
be imagined of i~ 10.q a work, with iuch.
felicity. as made catre lefs neceffary.

Its two confiituent parts are ratiocination
dnd defcription. To reaion in ~ e t f e is
, allow&
ed to be difficult; but Blackmore not only
reafons in verfe, but very often reafons po-
@cdly; and finds the art of' uniting orna-
ment with firength, and eafe with clofeneh,
bs is a Bill which Pope might have con,
deicended to learn from him, when he need-
sd it io much in his Moral Effays,

.In his defcriptions, both of life and nature*

the p !and the philofopber happily co-ape+
rate j
rate ; truth is recommended by elegance, and
elegance fufiained by truth. .

I n the hu&ure and order of the poem,

l not only tbe greater parts are properly cod-
fecutive, but the didatlick and iHuitrative
paragraphs are fo happily mingled, that la-
bour is relieved by pleafui-e, and the attention
is led bn through a long fuccefion of varied
excellence td tlie original pofition, the fundaa
mental principle crf ~ i f i o mand of virtue,
AS the heroick poems qf Blackmore are
now littIe read, it is thought proper to i~ifert,
as a fpecim~nfrom P h c e Artbur, the fong
of Mvar mentioned by Molineux. '
b u t that which Arthur with rnoR plerfure 1
Were noble ftrains, by Mopas Cung the bard,
W h o to his harp in lofty verfc began,
And through the fecret maze of Nature ran.
H e the great Spirit fung, that all things fill'd,
T h a t the tumultuous waves of Chaos itill'd;
Whofe nod difpos'd the jarring feeds to peace,
And made the wars of hoitile Atoms ceafe.
All Beings we in fruitful Nature find,
Proceeded from the great Eternal Mind ;
Streams of his unexhauRed Ipring of power,
And cherilh'd with his influence, endure.
H e fpread the pure cerulean fields on high, i

And arch'd the chambers of the vaulted ky,-' .!

Which he, to h i t their glory with their height,
Adorn'd with globes, that reel, as drunk with
His hand direRed all the tuneful fpl~eres,
H e turn'd their orbs, and polifh'd all the ftars.
He fill'd the Sun's vafi lamp with golden light,
And bid the filver Moon adorn the night. l


He fpreld the airy Ocean without mores,
W h e r e birds are wafted with their fearher'd oars.
Then fung the bard how the light vapours rife
From rhe warm earth, and cloud the fmiling kies.
H e rung how fome, chill'd in their airy flight,
Fall fcatter'd down in pearly dew by night.
How fome,rais'd higher, fit in fecrct Beams
On the refleEted points of bounding beams;
Till, chill'd with cold, they bade th' etherid plain,
Then on the thirity earth dcfcend in rain.
How fome, whofe parts a flight contexture ihow,
Sink hovering through the air, in fleecy fnow.
How part is ipun in iilken threads, and clings
Entangled in the grafs in glewy firings.
How others itamp to itones, with rulhing found
Fall from their cryQal quarries to the ground. .
H o w fome are laid in trains, that kindled Ay
In harmlefs fires by night, about the iky.
How fome in winds Mow with i~npetuousforce,
And carry ruin where they bend their courfc:
While fome confpire to form a gentle breeze,
T o fan the air, and play among the trees.
How fome, enrag'd, grow turbulent and loud,
Pent in the bowels of a frowning cloud;
That cracks, as if the axis of the world
Was broke, and heavepps bright towers were
downwards hurl'd.
He fung how earth's wide ball, at Jovepscommand,
Did in the midR on airy columns fland.
And how the foul of plants, in prifon held, .
And bound with fluggiih fetters, lies conccalpd,
Till with the Sptirig's warm beams, dmofi relea4
From the dull weight, with which it lay oppreft,
Its vigour fpreadsj and makes the teeming earth
Heave up, and labour with the fprouting Girth 3
The; atlive fpirit freedurn feehs in vain;
It only works and twins a itronger chain.
Urging its prifon's fides to break way,
It makes that wider, where 'tis forc'd to itay:
Till,.having form'd its livifig houfe, it rears
Its head, a& in a tender plant appears.
Hence fprings the oak, the beauty of the grove;
W hofe itately trunk fierceitbrms can fcarcely movG
Hencc grows the cedar, hence the {welling iiine
Does'round the elmi its purple cluflers twine. I
Hence painted flowers the fmiling gardens blefi,
Both with their fragrant fcent and gaudy drefs. 1
Hence the white lily in full beauty grows, I
Hence the blue violet, and bluihing rofe.
H e fung how fun-beams brood upon the earth,
And in the glebe hatch fuch a numerous birth ; .
Whieh way the genial wafmth in Summer fiorms
Turns putrid vapours to a bed of 'drorms ;
How rain, transform'd by this prolifick power,
Falls from the clouds an animated ihower.
H e fung the embryo's growth within the womb,
'And how the parts their. various hapes affume.'

With what rare art the wondrous firu&ureYs

From one crude mars to fuch perfeaion brought';
T h a t no part ufelek, none mifplac'd we fee,
None are forgct, and mbre would monfirous be;''
I F E N T O N .
T H E brevity with which I am to write
the account of ELTSHA FENTON
fs not the effeQ of indifference or negligence.
1have fought intelligence among his relations
in his native county, but have pot obtained,it.

He was bosn near Newcafile in Stafford-

&ire, of an ancient family, whore eAate was
very confiderable; but he was the youngefi of
twelve children, and being therefore neceffarily
defiined to fome lucrative employment, was
ient firfi tofchool, and afterwardsto Cambridge;
but, with many other wife and virtuous men,
who at that time of difcord and debate con-*
fulted confcicience, whether well or ill informed,
more than interefi, he doubted the legality of
the government, and, refufing to qual~fy
bimfelf for publick employment by the oaths
required, left the u~verfity without a de-
4 F e e;
, gree; but I never heard that the enthufiaim of
oppoGtion impelled him to feparation from
the church, . .

By this perveriaqfs of integrity he was

driven out a commoner of ~ature,:excluded
from the regular modes of profit and pro-
fpgrity, and reduced to pick up a livelihood
bpcktiin and fortpitbus; but it muR be E-
inembered that he kept his name upfullied,
and never i'uffered himfe1f to he reduqed, like
too many d the Lme fee, to hean. arts
ahd diihonourable hifts: Whoever mkntioned
Fenton, mentioned him - with honour,
4 -
. -
The Iife that pares in penury, muR neceG
farily pafs' in obfqurity. It is impofible to
trace Fenton from year to year, or to .dif-
cover what, - means he ufed for his fupport.
H e was a while fqcretary to Charles earl of
Orrery in Flanders, and tutor to his young
Ton, who afterwards mentioned .him with
great efteem and tendernefb. H e was at one
time afG8iitant in the fchool of Mr. Bonwicke
in Surrey ; and at another kept a fchool for
himfeIf at Sevenoaks in Kent, 'which he
brought' into reputation; but was peduaded
te leave it. ( I 710) by Mr. St. John,with
prcrpifes of a more honourable employment, :

H i s opiqions, as he was a Nonjuror, feem

'not to have been remarkably rigid. He
wrote with great zeal and affeeion the praifes
s f .queen Anne, and vey willingly and libe-
rally extolled the duke of Marlborough, when
he was (r707)at the height of his glory.

H e expreffed itill more attention to Marl-'

borough and his family by on elegiac Pailoral
on the marquis of Blandford, which could
be prompted only by refpett or kindnels; for
neither the duke nor dutcheis defired the
praife, or liked the CO? of patronage.

The elegance of his poetry entitled him to.

the company of the wits of his time, and
the amiablened of his manners made him
loved wherever he was known. Of his
friendflip to Southern and Pope there i r e
laiting monuments. He publiihed in 1737
a colle&ion of poems.

-By Pope he was once placed in a itation

$hat might have been of great advanragd.'
. - I Craggs,
112 F E N'T 0 N.
Craggs, when he was advanced to be fecre-
tary of fiate. (about 1720), feeling his own
want of literature, defired Pope to procure
him an inftruaor, by whole help h e might
fupply the deficiencies of his education. Pope
recommended Fenton, in whom Craggs found
all that he was feeking. There was now a
profpeQ of eafe and plenty; for Fenton had
merit, and Craggs had generofity: but the
fmall-pox fuddenly put an end to the pleafing

When Pope, after the great fuccefs of his

Iliad, undertook the Odgey, being, as it
feems, weary of tranflating, he determined
to engage auxiliaries. Twelve books he took
to hirnfelf, and twelve he diRributed between
Broome and Fenton: thk books allotted to
Fentorl were the hA,the fourth, the nine-
teenth, and the twentieth. It is dbfervable
that he did not take the eleventh, which he
had before tranflated into blank verfe, neither
did Pope claim it, but c~mmittedit to Broome;
How the two airociates performed their parts
is well known to the readers of poetry, who
have never been able to difiinguiih their books
from thofe of Pope,
h,i 7 i ) w u perfo*ed his tragedy of
&izriamnc; to which Squthern, at whore houk
it arittai is fpid to *hake Soutrib+ted
iuch hints as his thiiatrical experience ftip-
plied. When it was the& to Cibber it Gas
?jetted by him, 4 t h the additional i&
l m c e of advifiq Fenton to engage himfelf
in fome employment of hone& labour, by
which he d g h t obtain that f~pporiwhich he
could never hope kiom his poetry. The play
*Yi atted at the other theatre; aail the brut4
-petulance of &bbiir was conf;ted, though
perhaps - not &amed, by general applaufe.
Fenton's profits are fpid to have amounted to
near a thouiand pounds, with w&ch he dg.
charged a debt contratted b i hid ittehdadce
i t court.

Fenton fiiems €0 have had fume peculiar .

ryiteh of verlificatiotl. Jkat'iaiane is written
h lines bf teh fyllables, with few of thofe
reduri&nt .terminations which the .drama not
bnly adniits but requirb, as more nearly ap-
proaching ;,tb real. dialoguei 'The tenor of ,

his veric is To uniform that it cannot be

thought cdual ; and yet upon what principle
- fo ebditu&id it, ip &&cult to diG~ova.
Voz. UI. 1 . ::
.- .,
The mention of his play brings to .kg
mind a very trifling occun'ence: Periwri wag
bne day in the company of Broome -his ilffo-
ciate,: and Ford a clergyman, at &;at cime
too well known, whofe abilities, hitead of
fmnifhing convivial merriment to.the vorup-
tuous a n d diffolute, might have enabled him
to excel among the virtuous and' tbe wife,
They determined a l l to fee the Mehy W h
of Win@r; which was seed fhat night ; iind
Fenton, as a dramatick poet, took 'them to
the itage-dooi; where the door-'keeper m-.
+ring 6 h o they were, was tdd tliit #&heJ
were three very necefhy mm, h r d , & m e ,
and Fenton. The' name in the play, 'which
Pope rebored to BmoR, w a s then &U&' .

It was perhaps after his play that he un-

dertaok to revife the pun&uation of Milton'sl
Poems, which, as the author neither wrote
the original copy nor correlied the preh wag
iuppoied capable of irmendme~t. To this
edition he p & x d a aart and h a n g account
of Milton'-s life, smitten at me ,wit4 tender-
tlefs and i n t e t y ,

H e p~bl,i$edlikewik (X pi) a very fflep-

&d edition of Waller, with notes. .pften
9 . .
2 ful,
aftkn entertaining, but too much extend-
kd by long quotations from Clarendoa Illuf-
trations drawn from a book fo eafily c~nfulted,
fhould be made by reference ratha than
. trdriptionc

The latter pa& of his life *as calm and

pleafant. The relia of Sir Wiliim Trumbal
iayited him, by Pope's xeeommendatiop, to
gducate her foe; whom he fir8 i n h e e d g
horn, and then attended to Cambridge. T h e
lady afterwards detained him with her as the
auditor of her accounts. He ofien vaq-
dered to Loadon, and amuEed hidelf _+tb
$he convdatiori of big fiend%

He died in 1730, at EaRhampfiead in

Berkibire, the feat of rhe lady Trumbal~
p d Pppe, w h ~had bcen aIways his fri,end,
bonouFed him with an spitaph, d ,which
horrbwed the m firfi lines frpm Craih3p.

Penton was tall and hub, ia~liadd to

corpulence, which he did not Men bp @U&
exercife; @r he was very dugg;ih md ;tideo-
tary, mfe late, and d e n he had r&n, iit
down to, his book or pagers. A woman,
I 2 that
&at once waited on him in a lodging, told
phi^, as the faid, that he would lie a-bed,. rmd
k fed ~itb'aSpoon. This, however, was not
h.wadi that might have been prognoiti-
cated; for Pope fays, in his Letteis, that h
died of indolence; but his immediate difiemper
'was th;e gout.

Of his morals and his convedati6n the


account is uniform: he was never named but

~ t praife
h and fondnefs,'as a man in the
bigheR degree amiable and excellent. Such
was the eharaaer
. given him by the earl of

Orrery, his pupil; fuch is the t&imonp of 1


Pope*, and fuch were the f u f i g e s of all who

could boait of his acquaintance.

By a former writer of his Life a Aory is

told, which ought not to be forgotfen. He
ded, in the latter part of his time, to pay
his re2atims in the country an yearly vifit.
At an entertainment made for the family by
his eider brother, he obferved that one of his
Wen, who had. married unfortunately, .was
abfent; and found, upon enquiry, that difa !

tr& had -made her thought unworthy of l

, , .
' - ~pencc. ' ' :
:. i invitation,
P . E N - T Q N.' k17,
invitation. Ad f4e was at no great . d b e ;
he refded to fit at the table till fhe was called,
and,. &hen. ihe hid taken her. place, wai
careful to ihew her particular attention.

His col1eaion of potms is now to becon-

Bdered. The od; tb the Sun is written +on
B common plan, without uncqmmQq fcpti-
rnents; bui its' greatefi fault is its length.
No poem fhould be long of which . . the
- pur-
pore is only to firike the fancy, withoui
enligktenhg the underitanding. , by pyecept,
ratiocination, sr narrative. h bl<zq f$$
pleafes, and then tires. .the..fight,

Of FZortlio it is fufficient to fay that it is

an occafional paftoral, which implies Come-
thing neither nqtural' qor grtificial, . neitha

The next ode - is irregular, and therefore

defeaive. As the fentirnents are pioui, they
cannot eaiily b&new; for what can be added
to topicks 01%which ,fuccefive ages have been
. .
'gmployed!- . ,

. ... ..

Of the Parapb~ajQ ~ J@iab pothing' very

favowable wn be hid. Sublime and folemn
14 prcfe-
l prdc gains little by r change td blank v e t h i
and tbe paraphrait has deferted his original,
by admitthg images n ~ t . M a W at, .lipit qot
Judaicd :
- Returning,Pace,
Dwe-eyed, and rob'd ih whirc--
.. . .

Of his petty poems fome are very trifling;
'without any thing to be praifed either in thb'
thought or exprellion, H e i s 'unlucXy in
his competitions; he tells the fame idle tale
bpith Congreve, and does not tell i t io well,
He tranflates from Ovid the fame epifile
as Pope; but I: am afraid not whh equa!
Tb examine his performances one b'y m e
would be tedious. His tranflation from Ho-
mer into blank vqrfe will find few readeri
while another can be had in rhyme. The.
piece addreKed to Laqbarde is no difagreeabk
@ecimen of epifiolary poetry; and his ode tq
the lord Gower was pronounced by Pope the
n u t &e in the Englilh language to Dryden's
Cecilia. Fenton may be juitly fiyled an ex-.
d e n t vgrflfp-er aqd a good poet.

QHN 'GAY,defcended froni an old fi?
3 mily that had been long in poffeffioi of
the manour of Goldworthy in Devonihi*
was born in 1688, at ar near BamRaple,
where he. m educatsd by Mr. Luck, who
taught the f c h d 0s that town with good re-
putation, and, a little before be retired fibm
it, publfied a uolvme of Latip and Engli&
yedcs. Under fuch a &its hc wat3 likely
to form a tafte fwpoetry. Being born with-
out prgfpett sf hereditary riches, he was h t
to Loadan in his youtb, and placed apprentick
with a filk~mercer,.

mlong &econtinued behind the counter,

or with what degree of MneG anddexterity
be received ad accommodated the ladies, u
pqobablg tpak nQ delight in telling it, is
G d d w m b ~does not a p p ip the F&;.
not known. The report is, that he was fmn
weary of either the reRraint or fervility of his
occupation, and'eafily peri'uaded3is mafier-tq
difcharge him.

The dutchefs of Monmouth, . remark-

able for 'inflexible perfeverance in her de-
mand to be treated as a princefs, in I 717
~k Gay hno her fenice lebetti'p' 1 by
quitting a Qop for fuch fervice, he might g&
leilute, but he ~ r t a h i yadvanotd'hk in the
of independence. Of MB k i f i e he
made fo g o d ure, that he pubKR\ed kxt year
a *poem on Rural S'rt.r, a ~ inhibed
d i& to.
Mr. Pope, who was then riling &t,ism q n i ~ -
pation. Pope was pleakd with the W&;
qnd d e n he became acquainted with Gap,
found &h attraaions fnhis m m n e r s . 4 oon-
d a t i a , that he-ferns to have mitd hiaa
dofo hi i d , d r t e n c e ;a i d 'a fibdlip
was formed between them which' lafkd t-a
their feparation by death, without any knowq
abgtement on eithr pm. Gag wai a t h e g%
n&nldhvourire of the whole aflbeiation of
vip ; but they regarded him aa a pf8'4"elllea
sawr ahm r Fa-, and treated him avita
more fondpefs than reipeo,
Next .
N- year he publiIh4 Tk Sbi$khd'*
Wed,fix Engliih Paifiorals, in wbieh the irhages
ars drawn from real life, fdch as it appears
among the ruRicks in parts af Engla~dremete
fiom London, S t e l e in fame papeie of the
Guardian had praifed Ambrofe Philips, as the
PaRoral writer that yielded only to Theocrims,
Virgil, and Spenfer. Pope, who had a&
publiihqd Pafiorals, not pleafed to be over-
looked,. drew up a coinparifon of his own ,
eornp&ticms with thofe of Philip, in which
be covertly gaaye bimfelf the preference, while
he feemed to difown .it. Not content with
this, he is fuppofed to have in6tted O a
Y P'
wrice the ~hepberd's.'Wee'k,-to ihew, that if n
be neceffary to copy nature with minutends,
rural life mufi be exhibited iirch as groflnefs
a i d ignkance h a ~ c p a d e'it. So far the plan
bvas reafonab'le ; b,pt 'thk Paitorals are i11tr6-
duced by a Proem, writ& with fiuch imita-
tion as .they cmld attain of obfolete language-,
and by coniequtnce in a fiyle that was never t
ipokerinor *ritten in any age or h any place:

the effe& of reality and t m h b s a m c


~onfpicuous,even when the intention was to

mew groveling ;md degraded. Thefe
Paftorals became popular, and were read with
delight as juft reprefentations of rural man-
ners and occupations by thofe who had no in-
tereit in the rivalry of the poets, nor know-
ledge of the critical diipute,'

In I 713 he brought a comedy called TZe

Wfe of Baih upon the fiage, but it teceived ho
applaufe ; he printed I$ however ; ;md ieven-
teen y e w after, having altered it, and, as he
thought, adapted it more to the publick tafle,
he offered it agaiq to the town ; but, though
he was flufhed with the fucceis of tfie Be8;gar9j
Opera, had fie moflificatipn tp fee i t agair)


I In the l& year of queen Anne's Me, Gay

was made recretary to the earl of C l a ~ d o n ,
1 +mbaffidor to &e court of Hanover. -is
was a itation that naturally gave him hopes
I df kindnei from every party i but the €&een9+
dcath put an end to h q favours, and h i ha4
dedicated his ~bqbcrksWecl to Bolingbrokel
which Swifi confidered as the crime @at ob-
ttruaed all kindnefs from the bode of H+
G A Y. 1h3
Re did not, however, o d t to improve
the right which his office had gi*en him to
the notice of the royal family. On the
arrival of the princefs of Wales he wrote a
poem, and obtained CO much favour that both
the Prince and Princefs went to fee his What
caN it, a kind of mock-tragedy, in which
'the images were comick, and the aQion
grave; fo that, as Pope relates, Mr. CromwelI,
,who could not hear .what was laid, was at a
lofs how to reconcile the laughter of the au+
dience with the folemnity of the fcene.

Of this performance the d u e certainly is

but little; but it was one of the lucky trifles
that give pledure by novelty, and was fo
much favoured by the audience that envy
appeared againit it in the form of criticifm ;
and Griffin a player, in conjunCtion with Mr.
Theobald, a man afterwards more remark-
able, produced a pamphlet called the Key to
tbr Kbat d'ye call it; which, fay$ Gay,\ calls
me a blockbead, and Mr. Pope a Knave.

But ort tune has always been inconfiant.

Not long afterwards ( I 7 I 7) he endeavoured
to entertain the town with Three Hi#r~after
' Marriage ; comedy writt~n, as tide is;
Sufficient rearon for believing, by the joint
;Jliitqnce of, Pope and Arbvtbnot. Onrj pur-
poSe of it was to bring into contempt Drd
Woodward the FoGliA, a man not r.e$y or:
juitly contewptible. It had the fate which
fuch outrages deferve : the icene in which
Woodward wae direely and apparently ridid
cuIed, by the jntrodyeiotr ,of a mummy and
a crocodile, difgufied the ahdience, and the
performance was driven off the itage with
general condemnation. ,

, G,ay i s rcprdented as a man eafily incited

$0 hope, and deeply depreffed when his hopes
,were difappointed. 'This is not &e charade

of a hero ; but it may namally fuppfy f w a

thing more generally welcome, a iofi and civil
companion. \V.Vhwver is apt to hope good
from others is diligent to pleafe them3 but he
that believes his pokers &ng p o u g h to f o q . i
their own way, c&.monly tries. anly t o plea@


H e had been fimple enough ko imagine &at I

M e who laughed at the Wbat d)e caN ,a

s ~ y l d,raife the fortune of its iqt,~&w; a$
bndkng nothing done, funk into- dej&ioa,
His f i i d s endeavoured to divert him. The
earl of Burlington k n t him ( I 7 I 6) into Deb
vonfhirc ; the pear after, Mr. Pdteney took
him to Aix; and in the following year lord
Hancourt iayitgxl him t~ his feat, where, dur-
iag his vifit, the two rural lovers were killed
with lightning, as is particularly told in Pape'o
I Letters.
Being now generally known, he publifhed
II (1720) his Poems by rubicripti,on with .fuch
fuccefs, that be rqed a thoubnd pounds ;and
called his fsends to a codultation, what ufe
.might be be& d e of it. Lewis, the fieward
I of lord oxf fad, dvifid him to intrufl it to the
funds, ar~dlive 'upon ,the interefi ; -Arbuthno)
,bad Bi in& Providence, and live upon
the principal; Pope dire&ed him, ,and was
l feconded by Swift, to purchafe an annuity.

. Gay in that difaitrous year * had a prefent

from young Craggs of fome South-fea-flock,
and once fuppofed himfelf to be mafier of twenty
thodand pounds. His 6r'inds -pe&adcd him
to fd! his hare ; but he dreamed of dignity

hd'fplendoui, and cotild not beif tb (QRM&
his own fortune. H e was then impoihlned
to fell as much as would purchaie an hundred
a year for life, which, fays Fenton, will m a k
jou/..c . f a ;(can~hi?tatid rfiouIderr of muttori
every day. This counfel was 'rejetled ; the
~ r o f i tand pririciial were 10% and Gay funk
under the calamity fo low that his life became
in danger.

8j7 the care of his fiiendsi among W%

poke appears to haki: ih&n padcular tendeti
nefs, his health was refiored ;' and, 2eturning
to his hudies, he wrote d tragdydalled The
Captives, which lie Was ihvited tb read before
the princefs of wales. When the hobr came,
he faw the princefs And her ladies all in en-
@e&t:ori, and advancing with reverence, tod
great for any other attention, iturnbled at a
fidol, and falling forwards, threw 'down a
weighty Japan fcreen. The princefs fiarted,
the ladies fcreamed, and pobr Gay .after ad
the d h b a n c e was flill ta rkad his play;

The h e of CIbc ~ a ~ t i v *e sI know not ;

but he x i c ~thought himfelf in favour, and
It waa atled n DruryLLancin 1723.
bdderrook .(I 726) to ?rite a v&e 8fiF&bles
gor the ihprovement' of.t l ~ kyda$: dulke' of
Cumberlan$ . - For' t& hi: is faid to - . have

; bden prmiired a reward, &hich- be. had

doubtlefs magnified with $1. t8e wild exp&
tations of.indigeince and ?hi-tp '.
-. ..

,I ::: ",,,, '. # '

* - - a
Next pear the Wnce and PnnceP: heamr
King and Qeen, and Gay was to be great
hnd happyl. but: upn..thb-:fettlerncni of the
houfehdd he f&nd .hin?ieif appointid-
deman to the pri&efi L~uid.:: 'Bp.rhis
offer he thought himi'elf infulie4, :And fent' a
meffage to the Qeen, that he was too old
for the plaue, There: ike to .&am! - bten
many.niaohinations emplayed. e r w a r d s iii
his favaur ; and :diligent. sourt. was paid.
Mrs. Hodard, afterwads countgfs of Suffolk;
who 'was:niuch b e b e d by the ,K.iag. k d
Qeen;, to engage her interafi fir his.promrF
tion ; :bit Glicitations, v t l s , .an&-fhtteties
were thrown away; .the,.lady heard them;

and did nuthing. ... _ . . .

r. . . . ... .

All the which he' h $ . from the

tieglefi, or, as he perhaps terniied ,it, the in-.
gratitude of the court, may k
' VOL.111. K . have
havs .,&ra::drfren -away by dx - hojrxampled
~fuwa1:i'.of the Bqgm's Opwa. This play3
wrirteo, ridicul! &.the rnufqal TtaIian
@xbrnai was firit'diwed to Gibber. and his
, been: at Drury-Lane, and rejeLted; it
being then, had the.&&, ~ Z I
was ludicroufly faid, of making Gay rich, and
Pihgtv;. :. . . , . , ., ..,.. . .. ,

. . , L.
r . ,
. . . .. 1 . . .
1 , ,

.. . df this .lgCkY:pidce,. ae the'resder cannot *

bNt. ,nhihi;to-kiow.,the,.original md @ b g ~ f %
: thPI A t i o n which Speme.has
giMen in.P*'s. &ch.&:. : . .
. - . .
r .
< . d .. .
. .
. h ... .

.. Dt.: swift .had1:bkn tibfming ante- ta

!L- M r . - - W , : what :an odd pretty: fort of a
iC: t h i q a:.-Nowgate..Pabral. might m&e~
!C . G q -was i~nclinedltm. try at Tuch a thing
!!..hrfame time ; b r xdterwards thought it
6' mould 'be. better to:mite)a comedy m die

tr fame: $an, This was what. gave ri& to

tb Beggar's Q j ~ a ,. H e b p son it;
and when firit he mentioned It ta SW*,
the DoRor did not much like the projee.

16 As. h5 ianied it .on, her&iswed &hat -he

m & e to both. of a d ..we .nc+w-anda

" then .gpe :a corre&ian, ot' a word.

. .. .
..,A A
. or.tttira
- ' 'is Of
. .

cd'of advice; b;rt it ibis wholl~.ofhis own. .

i+fitiiqj.-when it ~ i hrie, i &ither of
ki i s though€ ii w'ou1'd fucfiid.-%i' hewed -
& ,

U:It to Congreve; who, a t e r reading it over,

" faid, It would 6 th iiki. , gfiitlf, 6 ~ . 6
damnedc ~ o d o u n d e d l y . ~ W & all, at
. ,were.
"' , .,

fid night of it, in grist unceftaintjr

1'. df the weni; till pre w=re Gerf much exi-
-.:.. .
by overhearing the.. duke. ...
of Ai-
le,. who fat in t h e n6it box to dsi. /ayb
''-.. It -w';ii d'&t &fi do! I f e i it C thieyes
6f thk.i.' TGii .was a geed while befor9
'' the firR A& kis &irj and B gave us eafq
" foon; f o that~ duke (befidcs h6 6Gn good
* Jya knicg, as any 6ne
now living, in' difmirering tlie tait'e of the
U' Pdbli&. He' tkai quite rigfit in this,
" as ukial ; the good natilrti bf the audience
.., ..
appear&' &ib'iigef' and' hi&* every 63,
.. aiid,%dli;leaib a clamoui of ippli,GfidV

Its reception is thrts recorded in'& notes

to the Duftciad:

'' S i g piece received wi,th g e a t r Q-

CC' pfaufe than .was eier knee. "BeGdes be-'
, fi
L- i+ aaedh .London &ty-t&& d q d
W; a without
without interruption,, and renewed the

" next . feafon with equal applaufe, 'it fpread

" into a11 the great towns of England; was

" played in many places to the thirtieth and

" fortieth time; at Bath and Brifiol fifty, &c.

" It made its progrefs into Wales, Scotland,
" and Ireland, where it was perfirmed twen-
" ty-fob; days fuccefli+ely. The ladies car- -iit

" ried about with them the favourite fongs

" of it-in fans, and houfes were furniftied

" with it in fcreens, The fame of it was

" not confined to' the author only. T h e
" peribn who a&ed Polly, till then obfcure,
" became all at once t l e favourite of the

town; her piaures were engraved, and

" ibld ip great numbers; her Life written,

books of litters and verfes ' t o her pub-

Iiihed, and pamphlets made even of her
fayings and jefis. Furthermore, it drove
out of England (for that feeaibnl the Italian
" Opera, which had carried all before it for

" ten years."

Of this performance, was printed,
thc. reception was different, according to the
different opinion of its readers. Swift
. . com-
mended it for the excellence, of its morality,
-G -A Y. "33
as a piece that plocedall Iindr of vice in t h '
Prong@ and'mojt 0diou.r lkht; but 'others, and
among them Dr. ,Herring, afterwards arch&
bihop of Canterbury, cenfured it as . giving
encouragement n i t only to vice but to crimes,
by making a highwayman the hero, and

difmifilng him at l& unpunifhed. It has

been even faid, that after the exhibiiion
of the Beggar'$ Opera the gangs of robbers
were evidently multiplied.
, .

Both thefe decifions are iilrely exaggerated.

I The play, like many others, was. plainly
written only to divert, without any moral
purpofe, and is therefore not likely to do
good; nor can it be conceived, without more
1 fpeculation than life requires or admits, to
1 be produRive of much evil. Highwaymen
and houfe-breakers feldo~nfi-equent the play-
l houfe, or mingle in an) elegant divercon;
I nor is it poable for any one to imagine that
he may rob with hfety, becaufe he fces Mac-
heath reprieved upon the Rage.
l A .

. .
i his objeaihn 'however,; or &me other
rather political than' mor'il; obtained fuch
prevalence, that when Gay produced a fe-
K 3 , cond
$ part under the,. .name
. .. of FO~J; it -W#
P. .. . by the Lord Chapbexjaje; and h.9
. .. ... t o &compenfe big yepg#fe . g
wq 'forced
Eubfcription, which iq faid to haye, &yr!-ig
, . befiowed,
. . . that what he ,called op;
p ~ ~ f i qpnd ...e d. in. profit.. . ~ h ~iJ$licatioq
., . lo
- - much,
..- .. fivoured, th;)! thptgh {he fir&

part gajnqd .him. four :hund~ed-pop&, aeay

- . +S.mqch
fhrice . the profit of the iecoqd.
. .. . -. .
H e received yet another recompenfe for
tbis fuppofed hardihip, in the
tenrib* of the duke and dut&e@ 6f Qegof-
berry, into whofe houfe I\e y a s taJce6, .$kd
p i t h whom he paffe;d the rirnainjng pqt of
_ _ .The*
bi6 life.. ,. . i duke,,'chnfide$& hig'wpnt of
Fconomy, undertook the rnana@&nt . , of . . his
pphey, and' i t td him as he waoteb . it;

- it is
But that the d i f c o w t,w
. , . ~ p c. eof . S

the C o q t uhk'deep into his heir!, and gave . I

bim clifcontent than the applaures or

. . o f . his Liends. could bverpbwer,
~e iopn fell in!; his old difiep~er, ar+
habitual colick; -and Ianguifhed, though with
many interyals of eare and cheerfulnefs, till
7 .' '

$ , . . . . , i t ail feized
kiolt$ . . . ,him, ?nd..hurried
l .
. . .. . .
i .
Mm to the gravei :as -sPrb\!thno\.-reported,
with. .mgre prccjpitagce :he : &d .e m
known. H e died on the fburth of ikcern-
ber 1732, and was buried iq Wgfimlnfier
Abbey. The letter %h.brought i s acoouit
l ' qf his death to Swifi-was laid $p for ibw
days unopened,. beeauk .when.he.pkeived i( .
be was imprcR with ttK: p~conwption of
Erne misfortune, - . .I.

M e r his death was -publifhed Bcond a

lume of Fables more political than tbb former.
Hi s opera of 2cbilb.r was a&d, a d the prd,
fits were gken .to. ~ F - w i d o wfiRersi whd
inherited what, he'left, as Ms lawfuI heirs;'
for he died without. will, ihbugh he hid.&
thered* three thbufand pounds. - have'

appe&d 4e+fc u n d i hi$ 'name i c6nikdy

klled' the D@@ Wife; and tb,& R't&e$fi! &! .
:' . '
&tb, a piece af humoqr,
.. . - - '' .
.. , -

I l . . . , >.r

T& charahr given him by Pope* is.thi,s;

that ,h- w a ~a nuturd man, - witbotrt &Jgix '

wbo Jpke r d a t be tbougbt, and j r @ OJ be-

. . it; and that Sd wor pj. o rimid tern&,
. -
.: a Sp*. - . . . .

$4 B ~ A
a'd fla$uZ of :gidrzg - oJcnce /o . .tbr -.gnatl
which kutiun :howevert ~Tays.Pope; ,was d
. .
RO avail?" -. 1 .

-. . .-, . .,
, v . .

. .,.
. - , .. .. . ... - , , , -

As . a poet, hccanndt be rated v e r y high,

He wss, as I once heard a , f a d e critick
remark, ofa Zswer ordt~. H e had not in any
greati degree.the: mcm iiiuhiov, the dignity .

of genius, Muc4 however mufi be allowed i

to tbe author of a new fpecies of compofi-
tiop, thorgh it be .qot of the hi&eit kind.
We owe to Gay the ~ a l k d ' O p e n ;D &o&
of cqmedy .which at Erfi .was fqpofed tq I
delight pnly by itynoyeky,..
. . qcpsrisn~e,
. , , . b i t has now by

of half, a .century been. ,found

iq ye8 acc~mrnodatecjto the difpofitiQn of
. . pudience, t h y ,it-.h likely
a .papdar . ..keep
. _ to
lqng p o ~ i l i o nof t h e ' hge, . Whether this
new drama w3s the produ+of judgement or
, .
ii L&, the praiie' of it -x-qufibe given tq !
the inventor; and there, are many writers
read with more reverence, to whom iuch o;les !
rit. of'
,. oTigingliti cannpt beqtribgt$d;

fir$ penformanc~ the. R u d @ o r f ~ ~ l

i s &ch as was eafily planned and executed j l

it is never contemptible, nor evqr elrcell&t; ~

. . . .- T4e
The Fun is one of thofe mythological fittione
which antiquity delivers ready to the hand;
bul which, .like other things that lie open to
cvery one's ufe, are of little value. The at-
tention naturally retires from a new tale of
Vepus, Diana, aiid Minerva.
a .

His Fables feem to have been a favourite

work; fbr, having publiihed one volume, he
left another behind him. Of this kind of
Fables, the authors do not appear to have
formed any diitina or fettled notion. Phz-
drus evidently confounds them with Tale.r, and
Gay both with %h and Allegories. A
Fable or A!ologue, fuch as is now under con-
fideration, feems to be, in its genuine flate,
4 parnative in which beings irrational, and
fometimes inanimate, arb0re.s loqrirrtztrlr, non
tantunz fern, are, for the purpofe of moral
initruttion,' feigned to a& and fpeak with
human interefis and paifions. T o this de-
1 fcription the compofltions of Gay do. not
I qlyrays cpnfgrm. For a Fable he gives now
1 and then a Tale or an Allegory; and from
i bme, bp whateker name they may be called,
it will be difftcult .to extrdA any mokal prin-
the^ are, .however, .told with live-

15.8 G- A Y,
liwfs;'. the v~rrifktttion. is Emooth; and th6
&&&p, tttough now-and-then a little con-
iLined by the rneafure Qr the rhyme, is ge4
nerally happy.
T o T~izriamay be allowed all that k claims3
it is ipritely, various, and pledant, The
fubjea i s of that kind which .Gay was by
Datqre qualifie4 .t9.adorn ; yet 'fame of his
.decorations may he.jumy ,wp&txi-away, AQ
boneit blackiinith might have dme -for Patty
what, i s gerformed by Vu1-n. The appur-
rnce of Claacina is .nauCeovs and luuperfluous ;
a ihoeboy could have. been produced by thq
iaiua1 coh;lbirati.on of mere lnortals. Horace's
rule is b r ~ k e nin both caCs; there is no dig,'
nur.vindice nodw, no, diiliculty that required
any f~perR'~t~d.interpofition, A patten may '

be made by the harptser of a m s d , and q

l&wd- may .be dropped by a human itdin-
pet. O n great o&fions1 and on {mall, rhg
mind b sepellgd .hpufelqQ an4 qpparent
, -
. . . . . a .'. .

hi lids Pmmr the ~ Wjdge-

: .... ' 2,
&ems to be- GgM j&y. 9 3zr?), .~sitbk
twp .
,Thok that
the pieces to which GuZZivcp
occafion; for who can much delight in
of an unnatural fiaion l
L _ Dionc is a counterpart to Amynta, and
P @ O Fido,
~ and other trifles of the fame.
kind, eafil;. imitateri, and unworthy of imi-
tation. What t!le Italians call comedies from
a happy conclufion, Gay calls a tragedy from
a mournful event, but the nyle of the Italians
and of Gay is equally tragical. There is
fomething in the poetical Arcadia fo remote
from known re~lityand fpeculative pofibility,
that we can never fupport its reprefentation
through a long work. A Panoral of an hun-
dred 'lines may be endured; but who will
hear of fheep and goats, and myrtle bowers .
and purling rivulets, through five aQs ? Such
fcenes pleafe Barbarians in the dawn of lite-
rature, and children in the dawn of life; but
will be for the mofi part thrown away, as
men ~ o vile, w and nations grow learned.

. .
0Fothe~s af-
write GreanvilZir, or Gt-<nl~liZZe~
tmards lard LandMoivn of Biddeford in the
county of Devon, M is known t h e hjo
name and rank rnighi give reafon to expea.
H e . was born about I 667,. the ibn of Ber?
nard-~Genville,who was entkfied by 'Monk
with the mofi private tranfaaions of the
Reitoration, and the grandf2n of Sir Bevil
~reeniille,who died in the King's caure, at
th; battle of Landfdowne.

-, His early educarion was $uperintended by

Sir William Ellis; and his progrels was fuch,
that before the age of twelve he was fent to
Cambridge, where he prtmounced a copy of
his own vedes to the princds Mary d'EitC of
Modena, then dutchels of York, when fhe
vifited the 'univerfity.
At thea ccefiion of king James, being now
at eighteen, he again exerted his poetical , ,

powers, and addreKed the new monarch ia

three fhort pieces, of which the firit is pro-
fane, and the two others fuch as a boy might
be expetled to produce; but he 6 s .cdmd
mended by old Waller, who perhaps was
pleafed to find hirnfeif imitated, in fix lines,
which, though they. begin with nonfenfe and
end with dulnefs, excited in the young author
a rapture of acknowledgement, in ambers
as Waller'rjymigbt .)U

It was probably about this time that he

tvrote the poem to the earl of Peterborough;
upon his orcomp(ZJmetlt of the duke of ~ o r k ' s
marriage with die princefs of ~ o d e n a whore
charms appear to have gained a ftrong prei
valence over his imagination, and upon whoni
nothing ever has been charged but imprudent
piety, an intcmpaste and rnifguided zeal fog
the propagation of popery.

However faithful Grarlville niighl have

been to the King, or however enamoured of
the @een, he has left no reafon for T L I ~
pofing that he approved either the artifices or
4 the

. G ~ A N V I L L E . :=45
the violence with which the King's religion
Was infinuated or obtruded. He endeavour-
ed to be true at once to the King and t o the

Of this regulated loyalty he has tranfmit~

ted to pofierity a fufficient proof, in the letter
hhich he wrote to his father about a month
before the prince of Orange landed*

'' Mar, near Doncaiter, Ott. Bj r 68B1

T o the hbnourable Mr. Barnard Granville,
at the earl of Bathe's, St. James's;
Your having no 'profped of obtaining a
commiflion for me, can no way alter OI!
c&l my defire at this important junaure
*' to. venture my life, in &me manner or'
" other, fcr my King and my Country.

' I cannot -bear living ilnder the reproach

" of lying obfcure and idle in a country ri-
*' tirement, when- efery man who has the
H leaf? fenfe G [ honour fhould be preparing
You may remember, Sir, with what re-
" luAance I fubmitted to your commands
" upon Monmouth's rebellion, when no im-
" . portunity could prevail with you to permit

'c me to leave the Academy: I was too young

to be hazarded; but, give me leave to
fay, it is glorious at any age to die for
country, and the looner the nobler
'c the lacrifice.

I am now older by three years. My

uncle Bathe was not ib old when he was
" left among the flain at the battle of New-
" bury; nor you yourfclf, Sir, when you
'" made your efcape from your tutor's, to
" join your brother at the defence of Scilly. l

- " The fame caufe is now come round about l

CL again. The King has becn mifled; let l


" thocg who have mifled him be anherable

L' for it. N ~ L Ocan~ deny
~ but he is facred ,
'' in his own percon,. and it' is every honeit

man's duty to defend it,

" You are pleafed to fay, it is yet doubt-
" ful if the Hollanders are rafh enough to
" make fuch an attempt; but, be that-as it
' 4 ‘c will,
*ill, I beg leave to infiR upon it, that I may
'' be prefented to his majefiy, a s one whofe
'' utmofi ambition it is to devote his life to his
'' fervice, and my country's, after the example
" of all m y anceitors.

" The gentry aflembled at York, to agree

" upon the choice of reprefentatives for the
'' country, have prepared an addrefs, to affqre
his majeity they are ready to facrifice their
" lives and fortunes for him upon this and all
" other occafions; but at the fan& time they
'' humbly bkfeech him to give them fuch ma-
'' gifirates as may be agreeable to ' t h e laws
of the land; for, at pteieht, there is no au-
" thority to which they can legally fubrnit.

They have bee'n beating bp far v ~ l u n -

" teers at York, and the towns' adjacent, to
" fupply the regiments at Hull j but nobody
" will liit.

'' By what f can hear, every bdywifhes

" well to the King; but they would be glad
" his minifiers mere hanged.

The winds continue io contrary, that no

g6 landing can Le fo focn a-vas apprellendcd ;
L 2 " therc~
"-therefore I'may hope, with your l e a ~ e ' m d
" afiltance, to be in readinefs ,before any aRion

can begin. I befeech you, Sir, molt hurnblJ

'! and mofi earnefily, to add this one a& of
" indulgence more to io many other tefii-
" monies which I have confiantly received of
" your gcddnefs ; and be pleded to beiieve -
" me always, with, the utmofi duty and fub-

miflion, Sir,
'' Your moit durifuI i'ioon,'

and moft obedient i'iervant,


. Through the whole relgn of king Williant

he is fuppafed to have lived in literary retire- Il
ment, and indeed had for fo~netime few other l

pleafutes h t thofe of f
ein his powe.1'1 He
was, as the biographers obferve, the younger
Ibn of a youfiger brother ;a denomination by
which our anceltors proverbially exprded the
lcnyeit Aate of penury and dependance. He
is faid, however, to have preferved hirnfdf a t
this time from difgrace and diaculties b j
economy, which he forgar or ncgleaed i n
life mare advanced, and in better fortune.

' * Abca

About this time he became enamoured ,of
$he countefs of Newburgh, whom he has
celebrated with ib .much ardour by the name
of.Mira. ,He wrote vdee to her before he
was three and twenty, and may be forgiven
if he regarded the face more than the mind.
Poets are fometimes in too much hafie to praife.
1n'the time of his retirement it is probable
that he compofed his dmnatick pieces, the
Sbe-Gallants (a€ted I 696), which he revifed,
and called Once a h e r and a1wny.r a Lover;
f i e . Jew of Venice, altered fiom Shakfpeare's
Merchant of Venice ( r 701 ) ; Herotck Love, a
tragedy ( I 698) ;5% Britfl~Enchanters ( I 706)~
a dramatick poem; and Peleu~and fbetir, a
maipue, written to accompany B e Jew of

The comedies, which he has not printed

ia his own edition of hi works, I never faw 4
Once a Lover and always a Lovcr, is faid to
be in a great degree indecent and grofs.
Granville collld not admire without bigotry ;
he copied the wrong as well a8 the right fi-om
his maiters, and may be fuppofed to have
learned obfcenityfrom Wycherley as he learned
mythology from Waller.
L 3 In
In his Jew of Venice, as Rowe remarks, the
~ h a r a o e rof Sbilock is made comick, and wer
are prompted t~ laughter infiead of detefiation,
It is evident that He~oickLeve was written,
pnd-prefented on the itage, before the death I
9f Dryden. It is a mythological tragedy,
upon the love of Agamemnon and Chryikis, !
and therefore eafily funk into neglea, though iI

praifed in verfe by Dryden, and in profe by


I t is concluded by the wife Ulyffes

with this fpeech:

Fate holds the firjngs, and men like childreq

But as they're led ; fuccefs is from above.

At the accefiion of queen Anne, having his

fortune improved by bequefis from his father,
and his uncle the earl of Bathe, he was choikn
into parliament for Fowep. H e ibon after
engaged i~ a joint tranflation af the Inve8ive.r
pgainz Philip, with a defign, furely weak and
puerile, of turning the thunder of Demoithe-
nn u p ? %F head of Lewis,

H e afterwards (in 1706) had his efiate

again -augmented by an inheritance from his
elder brother, Sir Bevil Granville, who, as he
returned from the government of Barbadoes,
died at &a. H e continued to ferve in parlia-
ment; and in the ninth year of queen Anne
was choien knight of the h i r e for Cornwall.

At the memorable charige bf the miniitry

( I 710), he was made fecretary at war; in the
place of Mr. Robert Walpole.

Next year, when the violence of party

made twelve peers in a day, Mr. Granville
became Lord Lanfdown Baron Riddefod, by
a promotion juitly remarked to be not invi-
dious, becauie he was the heir of a family in
which two peerages, that of the earl of Bathe
and lord Granville of potheridge, had lately
become extin&. Being now high in the
@een's favour, he (1712) was appointed
comptroller of the houfehold, and a privy
counfellor ; and to his other honours was
added the dedication of Pope's Wingoor ForeJ.
He was advanced next year to be tredurer of
the houfehold.
Of there favours he foon loA all but his
title; for at the accefion of king George his
place was given to the earl Cholmondeley, and
he was pcdecuted with the reit of his party.
Havipg protefied againfi the hill for attainting
Ormond and Bolingbroke, he was, after the
infurreQion in Scotland, feized Sept. 26, I 715,
as a i'ufpeaed man, and confined in the Tower
till Feb. 8, I 7 47, when he was at lafi releafed,
and rpitored to his feat in parliament ;where
( I 7 1g) he made a very ardent and animated
fpeech againfi the repeal of the bill to prevent
OccaGonal Conformity, which however, though
it was then printed, he has not infprted into
his works,

Some time afterwards (about 1722), being

perhaps embarraired by his profufion, he went
into foreign countries, with the uCual pretenee
of ,recovering his health. I n this itate of
leifure and retirement, he received the firR:
volume o f Burnet's HiRory, of which he cub
no: be Ellppofed to have approved the general
tendency, and where he thought himfelf able
to detett fome particular falfehoods. He
therefore undertook the vindication of gene-
rql Monk f;om ibme cabumnies of-.Dr. Bur-
net, and fome mifreprefentations of Mr.
Echard. This waa anfwered civilly by Mr.
Thornas Burnet and Oldmixon, and more
by Dr. Colbatch.

His other hiAorica1 performance is a de-

fence of his relation 'Sir Aichard Greenville,
whom lord Clarendon has h e w n in a form .
very unamiable So much is urged in thia
apology, to jufiify many aaions that have
been reprefented as culpable, and to palliate
the refi, that the reader is reconciled for the
greater part; and it is made very probable
that Clarendon was by perfonal enmity dif-
pofed to think the worft of Greenville, as
Greenville was dfo very willing to think the
worit of Clarendon. TheEe pieces were pub-
w e d at his return to England.
Being now defirous to conclude his la-
bours, and enjoy his reputation, he publifhed
( I 732) a very beautiful and fplendid edition
- .
of his works,' in which he omitted what he
diiapproved, and enlarged what feemed de-

He now went to Court, and was kindly

feeeived by queen Camline; to whom and
154 G R A N V I L L E .
to the princefs Anne he prefented his works,
yith veriks on the blank leaves, with ,which
he concluded his poetical. labours.

H e died in Hanover-fquare, Jan. 30, I 735,

having a few days before buried his wife,
the lady Anne Villiers, widow to Mr.
Thynne, by whom he had fouf daughters,
but no ibn.

- Writers commonly derive their reputation

from their works; but there are works which
owe their reputation to the charatter of the
+niter. The publick fornetimes has its fa-
vourites, whom it rewards for one fpecies of
excellence with the honours due to another.
From him whom we reverence for his bene-
ficence we do not willingly withhold the
praife of genius; a man of exalted merit
becomes at once an acco~npliihedwriter, as
a beauty finds no great difficulty in paffng
for a wit.

Granville was a man illufiriuus by his birth,

and therefore attraeed notice: fince he is by
Pope fiyled the polite, he muit be fuppofed
elegant in his manners, and generally loved;
b e was in times of conteA and turbulence
fteady to his party, hnd obtained that efiecm
which is always conferred upon firmnefs and
confifiency. With tbofe advantages, having
karned the art of verfiing, he declared
1 himfelf a poet; and his claim to the laurel
w i s allowed.

But by a critick of a later generation who

takes up his book without any favourable
prejudices, the praife already received will
1l be thobght fufficient; for his works do not
ihew him to have had much comprqhenfion
from nature, or illumination from learning.
H e feems to have had no ambition above
the imitation of Waller, of whom he has'
copied the faults, and very little more.
He is for ever amuiing himfelf with the pue- '

rilities of mythology; his King is Jupiter,

who, if the @een brings no children, has
a barren Juno. The @een is compound-
ed of Juno, Venus, and Minerva. His
pcem on the dutchefs of Grafton's law-fuit,
afier having rattled awhile with Juno and
Pallas, Mars and Alcides, Caifiope, Niobe,
and the Propetides, Hercules, Minos, and
phadamanthus, at laft conclydes its folly with

His verfes to Mira, which are moR fie-
quently mentioned, have little in them of i
either art or nature, of the fentiments of a
lover, or the language of a poet: . there may
be found, now-and-then, a happier effort;
but they are commonly feeble and unaffeeing,
or forced and extravagant.

H i s little pieces are feldom either GriteIy


or elegant, either keen or weighty. They

are trifles written by idlenefs, and publiihed
by vanity. But his Prologues and Epilogues
h v e a juft claim to praife.

The ProgrG o f Beauty feems one of his

moit elaborate pieces, and is not deficient in
fpfendor and gaiety; but the merit of ori-
ginal thought is wanting. Its high& praife
i 3 the fpirit with which he celebrates king
James's conibrt, when fie was a queea no

The EJay on urznatl,rrcZ FZigbfs in Poetry is

not ineIcgant nor injudicious, and has Some-
thing of vigour beyond mofi of his other
performances;, his precepts are jufi, and his
vutions proper; they are iqdeed not. new,
I but
but in a didaQick poem novelty is to be ex-
petted only in the ornaments and illuitrations.
Qis poetical precepts are accompanied with
agreeable and inftruQive notes.

The Mafque of PcIcaz atld T b e t b has here

and there a pretty line; but it is not alwaya
melodious, and the conclufion is wretched.

I n his Bii@ Encbclnterf he has bidden de-

fiance to aH chronology, by confounding the
inconfiitent manners of different ages;. but
the dialogue has often the air of Dryden's
rhyming plays; and the fongs are lively,
though not very correlt. This is, I think,
far the beit of his works; for, if it has many
faults, it has likewife paffages which are ag
leait pretty, though they do not rife to any
high degree of excellence.
1 Y A L
. Y A-L D E Ni
~ the fisth Ton of
Mr. J o b YJden of Suffex, was born
in the city of Exeter in I 67 I. Having been
ducated ip the grarnmar4khool belongiog to
Wagdalsn College in Oxford, he was in I 690,
et. the age of nipeteen, admitted commoner
of Magdaleh Hall, under,the tuition lpS 30.. ,
$ab PuZZen, a man whofe name is itill ge- 2'
.. .in the univerfity. H e became
qext year one ~f t$ebfchdars of M ~ d a l e p
Ccdlege, where .he w p $iRinguimed by a

i t was his turn, .one dzy, to pronounce a

declamakon ; and Dr. Hough, the. prefidat,
happening to attend, thought the combofition A
too gmd to he the Epeaker'.s. Somc - t h e
@er, the +@or, finding him a little irregv-
l_arlybufy in the library, Cet him an exerae
. VOL.111, '
M for
162 ' Y A L D E N .
for puniihment; and, that he might not be
deceived by any artifice, locked the door.
Yalden, as it happened, had been lately read-
ing on the iibje€t .given, and produced with.
little difficulty a compofition which ib plealed
the prefident, that he told him his former
fipicions, and promifed to favour him.

Among 'his contempor~iesin the colleg2


were Addifon and Sacheverell, men- whd

were in. thofe times friends, and' who both
adopted YaIden to their intimacy. Yalden
continued, throughout his life, to think' as
probably he thought at firfl, yet did not lofe
the friendhip of Addifon.

When Namur was taken by king ~ i l l i a r n ,

Yalden made an ode. There was never any
reign more celebrated by the poets than that
of William, who had very little regard for
fong himfelf, but happened to employ minx-
tern who pleafed themfelves with the praife of

Of this ode mention is made in an humor-

ous poan of that time, called The O x f d
Lzwtat; in which, &er many Jaims had
Y A L D E N . I 63
been made and rejeaed, Yalden is reprdent-
ed as demanding the laurel, and as being
called to his trial, infiead of receiving a xe-

H i s crime was for being a felon in verfe,

And prefenting his theft to the kings .

The firit was a trick not uncommon or fcarce,

But the laft was an impudent thing:
Yet what he had Rol'n was fo little worth flealing,
They forgave him the damage and coft; . .
H a d he ta'en the whole ode, as he- took it
They had fin'd him but ten pence at moit.

The poet whom he was charged with robbing


was Congreve.

He wrote another ppem on the death of

the duke of Glouceiter.

In I 710 he became fellow of the college;

and next year, entering into orders; was
prefented by the fociety with a living in War-
wicklhire, confiltent with his fellowihip, and
chofen kaurer of moral philoiophy, a very
honourable office,
On the acceaon of queen Anne he wrote
another poem; and is faid, by the author of
, !he Diograpa, to have declared himfelf of
the party who had the honourable diltinaion '

of High-churchmen.

In I jo6 he was received into the family of

the duke of Beaufort. Next year he became
doQor i n divinity, and foon &er reiigned
- - his 'fellowihip and .leQure; and, as a token
of his gratitude, gave the college a p i h r e

i f their founder.
H e was made reQor of ~ b a ~ t oand
n &an- l

S e(ittc, two adjoining towns and benefices in

kertfordhire; and had the . prebends, or
, finecures, of Deans, Hains, and PendZe~in
L)evonfhire. H e had before been chofen, in
I 698, preacher of Bridewell H+ital, upon I
the refignation of Dr. Atterbury.
., From this .time he feems to -have .fed a 1
quiet and inoffenfive life, till the .clamour
was raifed about Atterbury's plot. Every
loyal eye was on the watch for abettom or ,
partakers of the horrid confpiracy; aid Dr. 1
Yalden, having-fome acquaintance with the
bifhop, and being familiarly conredant with
I Kelly his fecrethry, fell undet fufpicion, and
' was taken into cuitody, . -

Upon his examination he' was charged


I with a dangerous correCp~ndencewith Kellyc

T h e correfpondence he acknowledged J but
maintained, that it had no treafonhle tend*
ency. Hi$ papers were feized ; bltt nothing
was found that could fix a crime upon him,
except two words in his pocket-book, tbos
rougrb-paced do#rine. This exprefion the
imagination of his examiners. bid .impreg-
1 nated with trcdon, and the do&dy was en;
joined to explain them. Thus preflied, he
, toid them that the words had Jain .unheeded
in his pocket-bo& from the tinic 9f queen
Am'e, and that he .was aihamd. to, givc AIJ
accohnt of them; but the trutth-was, &at h@
had gratified his curiofity one day, hy hem
l ing Daniel B I L Y ~ $in the pulpit, and thofe
word's was a meVm&idhint of-;& re-marka%le
h t e n c e by. which Ile warned hi's congregat
t b n to beware. rf thd~ough-paced doOri~~.e,
I that doHrine, &hid, cami,ng ilt at onc
paced &jT)ugb ntiC head, a ~ d ~ g o out
i r at the
other, . - .' ,

i .. ,
M 3 'Nothing
Nothing worfe than this appearing in his
papers, and no evidence arifing againit him,
he was {et at liberty.

It will not be fuppofed that a man of this

charaoer attained high dignities in the church ;
but he itill retained the friendhip, and fre-
&nted the converfation, of a very nume-
rous and. fplendid body af acquaintance. He
died July 16, 1736, in the 66th year of his

Of his poems, many are of that irregular

kind, which, when he formed his poetical
charaaer, was fupp6fed to be Pindarick.
Having fixed his attention on Cmley as a
model, he has attempted in fome fort to r i d
him, and has written a Hymn to BarknCJJ,,
evidently as a cmtercpart to Cowley's B'jvnn
to figbt,

This hymn feems to be his beit pedorm-

ance, and is, for the moft part, imagined
with great vigour, acd expreired with great
propriety. I will not tradcribc it. The
feven firft bnzas are good; hut the. third,
fourth, and fcventh are the beit: the eighth
3 fcemo,
Y A L D E N . : 167,
.fcems to involve . a contradiaion; the tenth
is exquifitely beautiful; the thirteenth, four-
teenth, and fifteenth, are partly mythological,
and partly religious, and therefore not hit-
able to each other: he might better have
made the whole merely phiioiophical.
There are two fianzas in this poem whve
Yalden may be fufpeakd, though hardly con-
vi&ed, of having coafulted the Npnm ad
Umbram of Wowcrur, in the fixth fianza,
which anfwers in fome fort to thde lines:
Illa fuo preeR no&urnis numine facris-
perq& vias errare novis dat fpc&ra figurir,
Manefque excitos medios ululare per agrai .
Sub no&em, et quefiu notos complcn penatco.
And again, at the conclufion:
Illa fuo fenium fecludit corpore toto
Haud numerans jugi fugientia fecula lapfu,
Ergo ubi poflremum mundi compage folutt '

.Hanc rerum rnolem fuprema abfumpferit hora

Ipfa leves cineres nube ampJe&etur opacii,
Et prifco impcrio rurf~sdominabiur UMBRA.
is Hymn to Ligbt is not equal to the other.
H e reems to think that there is an Eafi aMo-
lute and poGtive where the Morning rifes.
M4 In
Ih the 1aR' &anza, habink menti6n.d the
I d e a eruption of new created Light, lie
- ,
. .. ~hlAl6ighty
.-c wolldering Ltood.
.* -
He ought to have -i.mem%eredthat Tnfihite
e never wonder. All wopder
~ n o w k d ~can
fithe ,<ffeii-
. ?d n&eity upos i&orahce.
. . . . -,
, ? . .

, . -.
Of his bthet poems it is fufIiciin;'to fiythat
they deferve per&[& though they aie nbt alwaiq
exi&tIppoliilied,b gnd 'the . rhyme's aie !oxni-.
times very ill fortedi and though. his faults
<eem:+b& ths omiffionsd i d l ~ d f stbaptha
.~. e.$ i ~. i n c. -e of
. s . eathuQai& . . ,

.. ; . . .. . -.

T I C K E L L .
1 H O M A S TICKELL, the fon of the
reverend Richard Tickell, was born in
1686 at Bridekirk in Cumberland; and ia
I April 1701 became a member of Qeen's
College in Oxford; in 1708 he was made
Mailer of Arts, and two years afierwards
1 was chofen Fellow; for which, as he did not
comply with the fiatutes by taking orders, he
obtained a difpenfation from the Crown. He
held his Fellowibip till I 726, and then vacated
it, by marrying, in that year, at Dublin.

Tickell was not one of thoik fcholars who

wear away their lives in clofets; he entered
I early into the wodd, and was long bufy in
bublick affairs; in which he was initiated
under the patronage of Addifon, whofe no-
tice he is faid to have gained by his veries in
praiie of RoJamond,
1 .
, To
l?z T I C K E L L .
To thofe verfes it would not have been
&A to deny regard ; for they contain fome l
of the moR elegant encomiafiick h a i n s ; and, 1
among the innumerable poems of the fame I
kind,-it will be hard to.find one with w5ch
they need to fear a comparifm. It may de- ,
ferve obfervation, that when Pope wrote long
afterwards in- praife of Addifon, he has co-
b i d , - a t leafi has refembled, Tickell.
. . -. . . .
' : Let joy ,falute fair Rofamonda's fhade,
32-d'eiPeaths 6f myrtle crown the lovely maid, .
*bile nov perhaps with ~ i d o ' s ~ ' g h ohf ie roves,.
.' And hears and reils.the fiory of their loves, .:
Alike they mourh,' d i k e they blefs .their fate,
eihce Loye, which made them wretched, rmdC
them great;.
EI& longer ;hat relcntlet doom btrnoan,
*which gain'd a Virgil and an Addifon. ,
..- . .:
f. .-Then future ages with .delight h a l l fee.. .
.Horn plate's; &cons;, - Newton¶!, looks agree;
J :
Or in 'fair ferigi l&dYdbards be fhown, ..

- there, Bqd here an Addifon. POPE;
., - . , .,. .. . .
.-- .
. . .

ptbdured another piete of the fame kind ..

iit 'th apptaHBk bf-Ciztb,. with .equaI &ill2
. . .
not equal happinefs!
When the miniftea of queen Anne e e
hegotiating with France, Tickell publifhed
The ProSpea of Peace, a poem, of which the
tendency was to reclaim the 'nation from the
pride of ionquell to the pleafures of- tran-r
' ' '

quillity. How far Tickell, whom Swift

afterwards mentioned as WhiggzJTrnus, had
then connetled himfelf with any party, I

know not; this poem cer,tainly did not flatter

the praaices, or promote .the opinions, of the
men by whom he was afterwards befriended.

Mr~Addiibn,however he hated the men

then in power, fuffered his ffiendfhip to pre-
vail over his publick fpirit, and gave in the
~pe&i'atorfuch praifes of TickeU's pqern, $hl*
when, after having long wi@ed to perufe it,
I laid hold on it at lait, I thought it unequal
to the honours which it had received, an4
found it a piece to 'be approved ratbet than
admired, $ut the hope excited by a work
,of genius, being general apd indefinite, i s
rarely gratifie.d. It was read at that time
.with fo m J r f&~ur, that fw editiws were
At the arrival of king George he i i
Tbe R y d Progrrjr ; which being inferted in
the S'e8dor is well known, and of which l

it is juit to fay that it is neither high nor

low. 1
The poetical incident of m08 importance
in Tickell's life was his publication of the
firit book of the Iliad, as tranflated by him- *
felf, an apparent oppofition to Pope's Nomer,
of which the firit part made its entrance into
the world at the h e time.

Addifon declared that the rival verfions

were both but that Tickell's was the
beit that ever. was made ; and with A d d i h
the wits, his adherents and followers, were
certain to concur. Pope does not appear to
'have been much difmayed; for, fays he, iT
bave tbc town, tbat if9 tbG mob, on myJ&
But he remarks, that Q ii common for tdt
f d e r party 20 male U ! in dil&tnct wbat t h y
want in numbm ; he appeals to tbe pcofic as
bir pr0pcrjudge~; and tbey are not inclinedd
to1 condemn bim, be b in little care about tbc
bigb--ycrz at Button's. 1
Pop ~
T I C K E L L . l75

Pope did not long think Addifon an im-

partial judge; for he confidered him as the
writer of Tickell's vedon. The reaibns for
his Cuipcion I will literally tranfcribe from
Mr. Spence's ColleQion.

There had been a coldnefs between Mr.

" Addion and me for Come time; and we
had not been in company together, for a
good while, any where but at Button's
coffee-houfe, where I ufed to ke him ai-
moA every day.--On his meeting me there,
one day in particular, he took me afide,
and faid he ihould be glad to dine with
me, at' Zufh a tavern, if I itaid till thofc
people were gone (Budgel and Philips).
We went accordingly; and after d i e r
Mr. Addifon faid, ' That he had wanted

for fome time to talk with me; that his

friend Tickell had formerly, whilft at Ox-
'' ford, tranflated the firit book of the 2 7' 4
that he dtfigned to print it, and had de-
U fired him to look it over; that he muit
therefore beg that I would not defire him
to look over my fidl book, becauie, if
'' he did, it would have the air of double-
'' dealing.' I affured him that I did not
1" at
" at all take it ill of Mr. Tickell that he r i s
' " going to publiih his tranilation ; that he.
f' certainly had. as much right to .tranbte
" any author as myielf; and that publiking

" both: was entering on a fair fiage. I then

U added, that I would not defire him to look

" over my firR book of tbe fiiad, becauie

" he had looked over Mr. Tickell's; but

" could wilh $Q have the benefit of hi9 ob-

U .fervatiop on my iecohd, which I bad

" then,fin&qcj, - and which ~ r . Ticltell

. had
'' not to,uched upon. ~ c c ~ r d i h g lIy ient
. " .him the .fecond: book .the neyt. q o r n i ~ g l

G< and Mr. bddiSq,n a few days after returned

; it, with yery high comrnendati9ns..-%oon -

C' after it wag generally k n ~ w nthat Mrb
Tikell y ? s ..p.ublilhingtbe Mt book . of
. ihd
;C IZiud, I met Dy. Y o p g in the iLegt; and,
Y w o n our GUing iqto that fvbje€t, t&
DoLtor expreqed ,a g e a t deal of furprize
" at Tickell's having had {*ch a qanfla&on
" fo long by him. . He faid, that it was in-
" conc&vagle to him, and that there mu@
.be fir& emifiakei n t l ~ emattet; that each
." uled t o communicate
. . , to. the
. other whath
ever verfes they wrote, even to the
I' t h i s ; that Tiokell could not have been
I * bufied
bufied in fo long a work there without hie
'C knowing fomething of the matter; and

'' that he had *ever heard a fingle word of

it till on this occafion. This furprife of
Dr. Young, together with what Steele has
faid againA Tickell in relation to this af-
" fair, make it highly probable that. there

" was h m e underhand dealing in that buG-

'' nefs; and indeed Tickell hirnfelf, who is

a very faii. worthy man, has fince, in a
manner, as good as owned it to me. Mr.
'' Pop~.--[When it was introduced into a
Anverfatidn between Mr. Tickell and Mr.
U Pope by a third perfon, Tickell did not
'' deny it; which, confidering his honour
'6 and' zeal for his departed friend, was the

" b e as owning it.]".

Upon there fufpicions, with which Dr.

Warbul-ton hints that other circumitances
concurred, Pope always in his Art of Sinking
quotes this book as the work of Addifon.

T o compare the two tranflations would be

tedious;. the palm is now given univerially
to Pope; but I think the firfi lines of Tic-
VOL.,111. N kell's
kell's vere rather to be preferred, and Pop+
f i s to have fince boywed fomethiqg frcm
them iq the correaion of his
4 ,

Whed .the Hanover Lccefion was diiputd

ed, Tickelk gave what afiiftance his pea v ~ u l d
fupgly. 1 3 s Letttr io'A'~&npnfiands,-high
runong party-poems; it expreires kontempta
+thou! eqayfeqe@, aqd fuperijority. withoug-
i ! ~ f o l ~ ~ c , eIt, . had the phi& 'it &A

Md was now iotimately united to Mr. Adid
diCon, who., when he went into Jreland a@
fecretary to the 1drd Sunderland, to& him thi-
ther, and em.playedhim'in publick bufine&; and
when ( I 7 I 7) afterwards he rofe to ,b,e iecre-
t a g of Aatk, made him under-fieretarpi
Their ffierrdfiip, feems to have cop~inhed
without &batewent; for when AddiLbn died,
, h e . lefi him the charge of publiflning hi$
works, ,yith,a iblemn recommendation to the.,
patronage oE Craggs,
, ' i

To ,ththc& works he prefixed an elegy cni:

the . a. d o r , which could owe, none of its
.. . . beautie
ik&utiei to the aIRance which might be i u f ~
petted to have Rrengthenea or embelliihed
tiis earlier compofiti~ns; but neither he nm
dadif& oier produced nobler lines. t h a n an
contained in the third add fourth paragraphs,
nor is a more fublime or more elegant funeral
poem to be found in the whole compsfs of
Englilh literature.

H e was afierdards (about I 72j) made ika

cretary to the Lords Jufiices of Ireland, a
place of great honour; in which he continued
till I 740, when he died on the twenty-third of
April at Bath,- -
Of the poems yet unmentidned the long&
eft is KenJington garden^, cf which the ver-
fification is fmooth and elegant, but the fieion '
unikcilfully compounded of Grecian Deities
and Gothick Fairies. Neither fpecies of thofe
exploded Beings could have done much ; and
when they are brought together, they only
make each other contemptible. T o Tickell,
howeyq,, c ~ n o fbe refuikd a high place
amohg the minor poets; nor ihould it be
forgotten that he was one of the contributcm
N z to
I 80 T I C K E t f i :
to the SpcAator.. With refpea to his perfon$
charaaer, he i s kid to have been a man of gay
converhtion, at leaR a temperate lover of win$ ,

and company, and ip his 4omeQick relations

withoyt ~enCure-

. -
Mr. H A M M 0N D, though he be well
OFremembered as a man eiteerned and ca-
reffed by the elegant and great, I was at firit
able to obtain no other memorials than fuch
as are fupplied by a book called Cdber's Lives
of tbe Poefsg of which I take this opportunity
t o tefiify that it was not written, nor, I believe,
ever i'een, by either of the Gibbers;. but was
the work of Roberr Shiels, a native of Scot-
land, a man of very .acute underitanding,
though with little lcholaitick education, who,
not long after the publication of his work,
died in London of a confumption. His lifg
was virtuous, and his end was pious. Theo-
philus Cibber, then a priibner for debt, ,im-
parted, as I was'.told, his name for ten guineas.
T h e mnnufcppt of Shiels is 11ow in my pof-
N 4 I have
I have fince found that Mr. Shieln, thodgh
he was no negligent enquirer, has been willed
by falfe accounts ; for he relates that James
Hammond, the author of the following Ele-
gies, was the b n of a Turkey merchant, and
had fome ~fficeat the prince of Wales's court,
till love of a lady, whdfe name was D&-
wood, for a time diibrdered his underitand-
in& H e was unextinguifhably amorous, and
his mifirefa inexorably cruel.

Of this narrative,.part is true, and part fa&

H e was the fecond fon of Anthony Ham-
mond, a .man of note among the wits, poets,
and parliamentary orators i n the beginning
of tlris.centuty, who was.allied to Sir. Robert
Walpole bp marrying his fifier. H e was
born about I 7 X 0, and educated at Wefimin-
iter-fchool ;but it does not appear that he was
of any univerfity. He was equerry to the
prince of Wales, and ferns to have come
very early into publick notice, and to kave
been difiinguiihed by thofe whofe patronage .
and friendihip prejudiced mankind at that
time,in favour of thofe on whom they: were
beitowed ; for he was the companion of Cob-
ham, Lyttelton, and Chefterfield. He is laid
4 to
to have divided his life between pledure and
books ; in his retirement forgetting the town,
and in his gaiety lofing the fiudent. Of his
literary hours all the effeQs are here exhi-
bited, of which the Elegies were written very
early, and the Prologue not long before hi8

fn 1741;he was chofen into parliament for

Truro in Cornwall, probably one of thofe who
were eleaed by the Prince's influence ; and
died next year in June at Stowe, the famua
&at of the lord Cobham. His miitrefs long
outlived him, and in 1779 died unmarried.
The charahr which her lover bequeathed
her was, indeed, not likely to attraQ court-

- The Elegies wete publifhed afiet hi6 death 8

and while the writer's name was remembered
with fondnds, they were read with a refolu-
tion to admire them, The recommendatory
preface of the editor, who wati then bdieved,
and is now affirmed by Dr. Maty, to be the
earl of Cheiterfield, nifed Atong prejudices in
their favour.

But of the prefacer, whoever he'was, it hay
be reafonably iufpeaed that he- n&er read
the poems; for he profeffes to value ihem for
a'very high ipecies of excellence, and recom-
mends them as the genuine e~ufions01 the
mind, which exprefs a real paGon in the land
guage of nature. But the truth is, thefe
elegies have neither pafion, nature, nor man-
hers. Where theie is fiaion, there is no pai-
fion ; he that defkribes hirnfelf as a ihepherd;
and his Neaera or DeIia as a ihkpherdeis, and
talks -of goats and lambs, feels no paflion.
He that courts his rniftrefg with Roman irna-.
gery defemr to lore her ; for fie. may with
good reafon fufpea his finterity. Hahrnond
has fkw feentiinents drawn from nature, and
few images from modern life. H e produces
nothing but frigid pedantry. It would be
ha;dzio find in all his produQions three' ftanzas
that: dekrve to be remembered

l i k e other lovers, he threatgns the 1-dp

wkh dying; 2nd what thm ihall follov?
. . , .-
W i l r thou in tears thy.lover's corfe attend;
W i t h eyes averted light the folemn pyre,
Till ail around the dolefill flames afcend,
'Fhen, Cowly linking, by degrees expire ?
I To
T o fboth the hovering bul be thine the care,
W i t h plaintive cries to leod the mournful band,
Jn fable weeds the golden vafe to bear,
And cull my afhes with thy trembling hand ;
Panchaia's odours be their coffly feaft,
And all the p;ide of Afia's fragrant year,
Five them the treafures of the fartheft Eafi,
And, what is Dill more precious, give thy tear.

burely no blame can fall upon the nymph

who reje&ed a fwain of fo little meaning. '

H i s serfes are not rugged, but they have

90 fweetneis; they never glide in a h e a m of
melody. W h y Hammond or other writers
haie thought the quatrain of ten fyllables
elegiac, it is difficult to tell. The charaeer
of the Elegy is gentlenefs and tenuity, but
this fianza has been pronounced by Dryden,
whofe knowledge of Engliih metre was not
inconfiderable, to be the mofi magnificent of all
the meaiures vhich our language affords.
. .., ,

. .

E's life I am. -nota
iay iriy thing can* iatkfi-

. , . . .

fiewas- a gentleman whofe &dte

WamicBfiire; his houfe is, called Edfton, a
Eat inherited frop a 10% liue of ancei;tozs.;
Gr he was fa'aid to be of: t,he iirfi family iris
his country. He telb of' himlklf; that h e
Was . borp near :the.:& Q ~ ' s banks. He
was bred at winchefter-khool, but I know
sot whe&er he cwaS,;gfmy upiverfity., t
have never heard oi hi* bul as of .a poet, B
country gentlemanl an4 a ikilfql and ufeful '

Ju&e of,t h Peace

Of the dofe of his life, thori whm, his.

poems have delighted will read with pain-th*
following account, copied from the Letters
of his friend Shenitone, by whom he waa
too much refembled.

" --Our old fiend Somervile is dead! I

" did not imagine I could have been io forry

" as I find myfelf on this occafion.4ubla-

" turn querimu.r. I can now excufe all his

'' foibles; impute them to age, and to diG
treis of circumfiances: the Id%'of thefi
U confiderations wrings my veiy :foul to
" think on. For a man of high fpipirit, con-.
" fcious of having (at lea& in one produc-

" 'tion) generally' pleafed the world, to be

'' plagued and threatened by wretches that'

a arc low in every fenfe; to be forced to
drink himfelf into pains. of the body, 'in'
order to get-rid of the pains of the mind,
U is a mifery.'*-He died July 14, 1743.
. .
It is with regret that I find myfielf noi
better enabled to exhibit' memorials of a-
writer, who at leait muR be allowed to havea
let a good example to men of his own clds,
by devoting part of his time to elegant know-
ledge; and who' has - hewn, by the fubjubjetts
which his poetry has ado~ned,that it is prac-

kicable to be at ,once a fkilful fpoqhjn and

a rnan of letters.

Sornervile has tried many modes of poetry;

and though perhaps he *Itasnot in 'any reached
fuch excellence as . t o raife much .envy, it

may, commonly be laid at denR, that Ly writer

very zcrcZZfor a gentleman. His Eerious pieces
are ibmetimes elevated, and his trifles are
fbmetimes elegant. Id his verfes to Addifoh
the couplet which mentions Clio is written
with the mofi exquifite delicacy of praife; it
exhibits .one of thofe happy ftrokes that are
feldom attained. In his Odes to Mnrlborough
there are beautiful .lines; but in the fecond
Ode he, fhews that he knew little of his
hero, b h e n lie talks a f his private virtues
H i s fubje&s are fuch as require no great
depth of thought or. energy of expreifiori.
His Fables are generally flale, and therefore
excite-no curioiitp. . Of his favourite, The
Tao S'ring.r, the f&ion . is unnatural; nod-
the m-oral inconfequential. In his Tales
there is too much coarfgncfq, with too little
care of lanp a g e , 2nd.-not.'fi~Gcieilt.rapidity
p f narration.
His great work L his Cb@, which he
undertook in his maturer age, when his ear
was improved to the approbation of blank
verfe, d which however his two firit lines
give a bad fpecimen. T o this poem praik
cannot be totally denied, He is allowed by
ipoktlmen to write with great intelligence of
his fubjett, which is the firit requifite to ex-
cellence ; and t h ~ u g hit is impoGble to i n t e
reit: the common readers of vede in the d a d
gers or pleafures cif the &ale, he has done
all that tranfition and variety could eafily
effd; and has, with great propriety, snlarged
his plan bp the modes of bunting dd in
other countries,

With Ail1 lek judgement did he chde blank

verfe as the vehicle of Rural Sport$. If blank
verfe be not t u d a d gorgeous, it is crip-
pled profe ; and familiar images in laboured
langvage have nothing to recommend them
but abfurd novelty, which, wanting the at-
traaions of Nature, cannot pleafe long. Qne
excellence of the Splendid Shilling is, that it
is ihort. DiEguife can gratify no longer thau
it deceives.

S A V A G E .
T has -been obferved i n all ages; that the
advantage8 of nature or of f6nllne have
caitribuied very little to the promotioxi of
happinefs; and that thofe wh'om the f p ~ n d o u r
of their rank, or thk extent of their capacity,
have placed upon the fummits of human life,
have not ofien given any jufi occafion to envy
iii thofe 'who look up to them fi& a lower
itation': ,whethit it be thai apparknt iiipetlb
ority incites great defigns, and great defigns
aie naturaliy liable, to fatal rniicarriiges; o t
that the geneial lbt of mankind is mifery, and
tfie misfortunes of thofe-'wkofe eminence '

drew upon-them an.univda1 attention, have

been more carefully recordedi becaufe they
were more gerierally oblerved, and have in
reality been -only. more confpicuous than
. . 0 3'- ' thofi
thcke of others, not more frequent, or more

That d u e m e and power, advantages ex-

trinfic and adventitious, and therefore eafilg
feparable from thoia by whom they are pof-
feffed, fhould very often flatter the mind
with expeaations felicity which they can-
not give, raifes 90 afionifiment; but it feems
rational to hope, that intelleaual greatnef~
%odd produce better ereas; that minds
qualified for great attainments fhouN firft
chdeavour their own .ben&; and that t b y
who are m& able to .teach otheqs the waig
t o -happinefs, fiould with mo# certainty fd-
low i t h m k l v e s .
a t this sxpCtation, however pJauGble,
has been very frequently diiippointed. The
bsrogs of literary as well as civil hifiory have
$een very often RO leji remarkable for what
6e.y -have atchieved ; and volvmes have be-
&$ten only tp enumewte the d e r i e s of the
-]earned, and relate their anhappy lives, and
pntimely deaths.
To thefe mournful narratives, 1 am about
'p add tbr: Qf Pisbwd -Smage, a man .
S A V A G E . 499
i whole writings entitle him to an eminent
rank in the cldes of learning, and whofe
misfortunes claim a degree of cornpallion, not
always due to the unhappy, as they were
often the confequences of the crimes of others,
&$er than his own.

In the year 1697,AnneCountefs of Mac-

clesfield, having lived for fome time upon
very uneafy terms with her hufband, thought
a public confefion of adultery the moit ob-
vious and expeditious method of obtaining
her liberty; and therefore declared, that the
child, with which &e was then great, was
begotten by the E.ar1 Rivers. This, as map
be imagined, made her hufband no lefs de-
firous of a kparation than herfelf, and he
profecuted his defign i n the mofl effeeual
manner; for he applied not to the ecclefi-
a i c d courts for a divorce, but to the parlia-
s e n t for an a&, by which his marriage
tqight be diffolued, the nuptitl contraa to-
tally qnnulled, and the children of his wife
illegitimated. This a& after 'the uhal de-
liberatian, he obtained, though without the
approbation of fome, who confidered marrid
age 4s an affair only cognizable by ecclefiaf-
O r tical
. . tical judges*; and on March sd was feparated
from his wife, whore fortune, which was
very great, was repaid her; and who having;
as well as her huiband, the liberty of making
another choice, was in. a fhort time married
to Colonel Brett.

While the Earl of Macclesfield was profe-

cutkg this affair, his wife was, on the loth
of January I 697-8, delivered of a ibn, and
the Earl Rivers, by appearing to confider him
as his own, left none any reafon to doubt of
the fincerity of her declaiation; for he W-as
his godfather, and gave him his own name,
which was by hi3 'dkeQion iniirted in the
regifier of St. Andrew's parifh' in Holborn, -
but unfortunately left h i m to the o r e o f ,his

This year was made remarbble by the diffolutien of a

marriage folemnized in the face of the church. SALMON';

T h e foll&ng piuteil is regiitacd in the bonks.~of'the

H o u e of Lords. ..

Diffentient. .
BecauCe we conceive that this is'the firR bill of that nature
&at hath paffed, where there, was not a divorce firQ obtained
in the Spiritual Cburt; which we look upon as an iH precq
dent, and may be of dangir&s confequence in the future.
. HALIFAX. R o c n m ~ e n . ':
S A V A G E . *of
mother, whom, as ihe was now fet free front
her huiband, he probably irndgified likely t6
treat with great tenderneis the child that had
contributed to ib pleafing. an event. It is
1 not indeed eafy to difcover what motives
could be found to over-balance that fiatural
a f f a i o n of a parent, or what intereit could
be promoted by negleft or cruelty; The -
dread of 'ihame or of poverty, by which
'fome wretches have been incited to a b a d o n
or to' murder their children,. cannot be fup-
pofed to have affeQed a woman who had
proclaimed her crimes and iblicited reproach,
l and on whom the clemency of the legiflature
had undeie.peedIy beitowed a fortune, which
would have, been very little dimininled by
I the expences which the care of her child
c ~ u l dhave brought upon her. It was there-
fore not likely that fie would be wicked
without temptation, that ihe would look upon
her fin from his birth with a kind of relent-
merit and abhorrence; and, infiead of h p -
porting, aflifiing, and defending him, de-
light to fee him firuggling with mifery, or
that f i e would take every opportu~lityof ag-
gravating his miafortunes, and obfirueting
.his refouces, and with an ir~placnble and
202 S A V A G E . ,
reitlefs cruelty continue her perfecution fiolq
the fir# hour of his Sic to the lafi.

But whatever were her motives, no ikon=

was her [on born, than fhe difcovered a rdb-
lution of difowning him; and in a very ihog
time removed him from her fight, by com-
mitting him to the care of a poor woman.
whom h e direQed to educate him as her
own, and injoined never to inform him of
his true parents, ,

Such was the beginning of the life of Ri;

chard Savage. Born with a legal claim to h*
nour and to &uence, he was in two months
illegitimated by the bkrliament, and dirowned
by his mother, doomed to poverty and o b
fcurity, and launched upon the ocean of lifeq
only that he might be iwdlowed by its quick..
finds, or dafhed
. - upon its racks,

His mother could not indeed infeQ others

with the fame cruelty.. . As it was impofiblc
to avoid the inquiries which the curiofity ar
tendernefs of her relations made after her
child, f i e was obliged to give fome acco+
' -QT
of the meafuxts that f i e had taken ; and her
mother, the ~ a d yMafon, whether in ap-
probation of her defign, or to prevent more
criminal contrivances, engaged to tranfaCt
with the nurfe, to pay her for her care, and
t o {uperintend the education of the child.

Ia this charitable office ihe was afified by

l& godmother Mrs. Lloyd, who, while ihe
lived, always looked upon him with that
tendernefi, which the barbarity of his mo-
ther .made peculiarly neceiT'; but her death,
which happened in his tenth year, was an*
ther of the misfortunes of his childhood ; for
though fie kindly endeavoured to alleviate
his loii by a legacy of three hundred pounds,
yet, h he had none to profecute his claim,
to fieltex him from oppreEon, or call-in law
totheaifiance of jultice, her will was elud-
ed by the executors, and no part of the mo-
ney was ever paid.

He W&, however, not yet wholly a b a 9

doned. The Lady Mdon itill continued he^
.care, and direeted him to be placed at a
finall grammar-fchool near St, Alban's, where
be a* called by the same of his nurfe, with-
204 ~ A V A O E ;
out the Ieafi intimation that he had a ciaid
to any other;

Here he was inkiated in literaturk, and

pared through feverai of the claffee, with
whaf rapidity or what applaufe cannot now
be known. As he always fpoke with refpea
of his maRer, it is probable that the mean
rank, in which he then appeartd, did not
hindet his genius frbm being difiinguifhed,
b1- his inddfiry from being rewdrded ; and if
in fd Idtv a Adte he dbtained difiid&tim dnd
re~varrIs, it is hot likely that they were gained
but by genius and induftry.

It is very reafonable to conjeaure, that
his application was equal to his abilities, be;
caufe his improvement was more than pro&
portioned to the opportunities which he en;
joyed; nor can if bc doubted, that if hi$
earlieit Frodu&ions had bten prefervtrd, like
thofe of happier fiudents, we might in fome
have found iigorous illies of that fprightly
humour, which diftinSuifhes The Aatbor t o
be let, and in others Arong touches of that
ardent imagination which painted the folemn
fcenes of The Wunderet-. ...- .
While he was thus cultivating his genius,
his father the Earl Rivers wak Eeized with a
diiternper, which i~ 9 fhort time put an end
to his life. H e had frequently inquired after
his fon, and had always been amufed with
fallacious and evafive anfwers ; but, being
pow in his own opinion on his death-bed,
he thought it his duty to provide for him
among his other natural children, and there:
fore demanded
. , a pofitive account of him,
prith an importunity not to, be diverted or
denied. His mother, who could no longer
refufe an a n h e r , determined at leait to give
fuch 3s aould cut him off for ever from that
pappinefs which competence affords, and
therefore declared that he was dead; which
is perhaps the 'firf infiance of a lye invented
by a mother to deprive her f i n of a rovi-
fion which was defigned him by a n o t h g anh
which fhe could not expelt heyfelf, though
be ihould lole it.

This was therefore an a& of wickednefs

which could not be defeated, becaufe it could
not be fufpetted; the Earl did not imagine
that there could erzifi in a human form a
pother that would ruin her ibn witiiout en-
riching herfelf, and therefore beflowed upoa
fome other perfon fix thouiand pounds, which
he had in his will bequeathed to Savage.

The &me cruelty which incited Ks moth&

to intercept this provifion which had been
intended him, prompted her in a ihort time
to another projelt, a projea worthy of fuch
a difpofition. She endeavoured to rid herfelf
horn the danger of being at any time made
known to him, by fending him fecretly to
ihe American plantations*.

By whofe kindnefs this fc,heme was. couna

teraeed, or bp what interpofition fhe was
induced to lay afide her defign, I know not3
it is not improbable that the Lady M h n
perfuade or compel her to defiit, of
S fie could not eaiily find accomplices
wicked enough to concur in fo cruel an
a&ion; for it may be conceived, that thofe
tvho had by a long gradation of guilt harden-
ed their hearts againit the Ienfe of common
wickednefs, would yet be Lhocked at the dc+
fign of a mother to expofe her ibn to flavexy
and want, to e x p f e him without interefi, and
. .5
Savage's Preface to his Mifcellany.
, - .
.&thout provocation ; and Savage might on
this occafion find proteaors and advocates
among thofe'wllo had long traded in crimes,
and whom compafion had never touched

Being hindered, by whatever means, from

baniihing him +to another copntry,ihe formed
'foon after a fcheme for burying him in poverty
and obfcurity in his own; and, that his itation
'of life, if not the 'pl&e of his refidence, might
keep him for evcr at a diitance from her, f i e
ordered him to be placed ,with a ihoemaker in
Holborn, that,'after the ufual time of trial, he
might become his apprentice *.
It is generally reported,that this projea was
for Come time hccefihl, and that Savage was
employed at the M longer than he w8s wil-
ling to confeiii ; nor was it perhaps any great
'advantage to him, that an unexpeoed dif-
coverg determined him to quit his occufiation.

About this time his nude, who had always

keated him as her own ion, died; and it was
natural for him to take care of thafe effees,
Preface to Savage's Mifccllanics.
~ D Q S A V A G E
which .by her death were, as he imagined,
become his own; he therefore went to her
houfe, ~ p e n e dher boxes, and exapined her
papers, among which he found fpmc letters
written to her by the Lady Mafon, which in-
formed him of his birth, and fhg reafpns for
whkh it was concealed. - . , -

' H e was PO longer fatisfied with the emr

ployment which had been allotted him, but
thought he had 9 right to jhare the affluence
of his mother ; and therefore without fcruple
app!ied to her as her ibn, and made ufe of ,
every art to awaken her tendernefs, and attraQ
her regard. But neither his letters, nor the
intcrpofition of thofe friends which his merit
pr his difirefs procared him, made any impref-
fion upon her mind: She fiillfrefolved to ne- -
gIeB, though fie could no longer diibwn -him.

Jt was to no purpole that he frequently foli7

cited her to admit him to fee her ; ihe avoided
him with the rnofi vigilant precaution, and or-
dered him to be excluded -from her houfe, by
whornioever he might be iptrodsced, and what
rearon foever he might give for entering it. .
S A V . A G E. 109
kavige was at the &me time to touched with
ilie dircovery of his real mother; that it waa
his frequent praaice to walk in the dark even-
ings * far feveral hours before her door, in
hopes of Eeing her as ihe might come by ac;
l cidtnt to the window, or crofs her apartment
1 with a candle in her hand;
But all his aaduity and tendernois were
without effeCt, for he could neither fofien her
heart, nor open her hand, and was reduced to
the utmofi .dl'eries of want, while he was
endeavouring to awaken the aKe&ioxi of a
inother : H e wis therefore obliged to feek
rome other meaqs of fupport ;add, havidg no
profeflion, became by necefIity, an author.
Ai this tide th2 attention of all fhe.literaqt
Woild was engroffed by the Bangorian coniroi
verfy, which filled the prefs with pamphlets,
iind the coffee-houfiis with tl!fputant& Of
this fubjea, as mofi popul~,he made choice
for his hrfi a t t e m p ~ ~ a n dwithout
, any other
knowledge of the &eitipn than be had ca-
fually colleaed from convcrhtion, publiihed a .
poem againit the Biihop.
See the Phin Dealcr.
I VOL.111. P . What
$113 S A-.V;.A , - G',.E

m a t 'was.the iitliccdb .or merit nf &S pet's

fomance, I b o w ndt ; it was *r&blY l& :

among -the iinudrable pomphl;ts to which

&it difpute gave otcpfion Mr. saw& F V ~ ,
hirnfel'f in a little time aibamed d .it, .and en-
deavoured to fupprefi it, by deitroying . aU the
copies that he could colle&
C .

.'. H . e then attempted a more gainful kind of

writing *, and in his eighteenth year'offered
( . . '
. the . itage a comedy borrowed fr0m.a Spaniih
.;, which was refufed by the players, and
p' lot, - 7

was therefore givin by him to Mr. Bullock, '

I 'having &ore interefi, made lame sight
' . .
alterations, and brought it upon the itage, u'n-
der the title. o f t WOMAN'SA a r m l n , but
qllowed the unhappy author no p% of the
profit. . . .
. . .
Not difmura~edhowever a his repulfe, he
,wrote twq years afterwards LOVFI N A V 4 i b
another comedy, borrowed likewife from the

sPilniib, but with little better ~ U C C ~ G*an

before; for though
-.-.. ... . . . it was received.,and aQed,
Jacob's Lives of Dramatic Poets.
T& play was printed firfi in 8vo;. and afcerwprdr h
&-the fifth edi&on. . . .
3:; .L :, 2 yet
6. - v,.A ,6 jE.
late in the year, that the
5;it *it .appeared fo
author obtained no other advantage from it,
than the &quaintme bf E& RiAard Stede,
and Mr. W i s ; by whom he was pitied, ca-
hEd, and t$ievedb
I l

Sir ~ i c h a r dSieele, hiving declared in his .

favour with a11 the ardour of benevolence
which mdituted his charatler, promoted ii*
interefi with the utrnofi zeal, related his m%-
fortunes, applauded his merit, took all the o p
portunities of recommending him,and aITerted,
that " the inhumanity of his mother had
\' given him a right to find tvcry gobd man
his father."

NO^ wasMr. Savage admitted to hi, Z-

Quairitance only, but to his confidewe, of
khich he fonietimes ?elated an infiance too
extraordinary to be omitted, as it affords
irery jliP M u of his patrods cfiaralker.

H e &AS once defred by S i Richard, with

an air of the utmolt importance, to corneavery
early to his h d e the next morning.. Mr.
Gavage came as he had promad, found the
Plain Dealer.
.., .. P a chariot
212 S A V A G E
chariot at the ddor, tuid Sir Richard waiting
for him, and ready to go oat. What was ih-
tended, and whither they were to go, Savage
could not;conjehrc, and was not willing to
enquire; but immediately f e d himfelf with
Sir Richard; the coachman was ordered t o
drive, and they hurried with the utmofi expe-
dition to Hyde-Park Corner, where they fiop
ped at a petty tavern, and retired to a private
room. Sir Richard then informed him, that.
he intended to publifh a pamphlet, and that he
had defired him to come thither that he might
write for him. They fmn fat down to the
work. Sir. Richard ditlated, and Savage
wrote, till the dinner that had been ordered,
was put upon the table. Savage was fw-
prized at the rneannefs of the entertainment,
and &er fome hefitation ventured to. a& for
wine, which Sir Richard, not without re-
IuBance, ordered to be brought. They then
finiihed their dinner, and proceeded in their
pamphlet, which they concluded in the &er-

S Mr. Savage then imagined his taik over, and

expetled that Sir Richard would' call for the
reckoning, and return
.. home ;but his expeaa-
tions deceived him, far Sir Richatd toId him;
that he was without money, and that the pam-
phlet muit be fold before the dinner could be
paid for; and Savage was therefore obliged to.
go and offer their new produ&ion to file for
two guineas, which with Come difficulty he
obtained. Sir Richard then returned home, '

having retired that day only to avoid his cre-

ditors, and compofed the pamphlet only to d i E
charge his reckoning.

Mr. Savage related another fa& equally un-

common, which, though it has no relation to
his life, ought to be preferved. Sir Richard
Stecle having one day invited to his boufe a
great number of ped~nsof the fire
they were furprized at the number of liveries-
which furrounded the table; and after dinner,
when wine and mlrth had [et them fiee from
the obfervation of rigid ceremony, one of them
enquired of Sir Richard, bow fuch an expen-
five train of domeRics could be confifient with
his fortune. Sir Richard very frankly con-
feffed, that they were fellows of whom he
would very willingly be rid. And being then
aiked, why he did not difcharge them, de-
glared that they were bailiffs who had intr-
p3 duce4
duced themfed*& W anexecution,and whrmq'
iince he.could not fend them away, he*had'
thought it converlientto embellifi with liveries,
@at they might do him credit while they itaid!

His friends were &ertod with,tho apodi-.

ent, and, by paying the debt, difchargedltheir
attendance, having obliged Sir Richard to pr*
d e that they ihauld. never again find fTirp)
graced with a retinue of .the iama hind.

- Under bch a tytor, Mr? Savage was not

&ke&)zto.1- e fiugdty ;and per-
p d e n ~ or
basa:-mnyof the misfortunes, which the want-
d ,.tW#h u e s brought upon him in the f ~ k .
]ming puts of his life, might be jdUy i m ~
p u f & t ~ ~ $unimpr~ving
~ an example. ,
- ..
3 ,

,N ~ did.
P the kiqdrrefs of Sir Richad end iq
~ ~ ~ t ~j ~i vl o~u n ~ . ~i propofed
! ta have e h
pliiJaqdh i p f-iettlled fcheme of life, apd
$0 ' have contraed: a ,kind of allisnce with
him, by marrying bihn to a natural- daughter,
- ep w h m he &endadd to beltow s thodand
pounds. But though he was always lavi&
9f future bounties, he eondu&ed his &airs iq
r W D ~ @ , he was very fcldom able
S A, A-. o v- a
to -h*his;pmmifes, or .execiuta his d n in+
tentim,;, and,. as be wab -Jiev& able,to raiiis
die Lm)::Hhich he had or&& the &wriagu
was delii~d;. the Wan tide hs.W;ai&fEq
cioully informed, that Mr..Savage had +&C,
culed him; by which he was io.rnuch e x a f p
fated, :that he :.+if.b%kathev. &ch
hi hab;$ai&'hih,...lld.nqsr idkitkindo ad- .
miued hw us U..&:. , '. :. .: '
' -
. ,'

. ..' . ,,......
. ^ ) . I
, ..W . . ..._,
I 4

~iib i&kK&@ m;ght,

by , h W ~ ~ ~ i g t p d eenxcpe~, ,f ehirnfelf .. .to. . the
m d i d a&~la.i:talo-b&dr~ifarhis patran:.had
ma:nyf@A&i" +hiih;,'ass bis:difttrnnie~eifi!.f
. # . ),

a ~ c o ~ d i;rimagin,itlon
. might i&eS&~
incitt him' to mentibn. too ludicroufl~... Ai
little knowledge
. . .. ., .
J .
o f the 'edo+~iti i, fiflubiait t@
difcover that fuch weakdhfs is very cqplgo*,
and hat-thete ate few who do not birr=ti#n&&
in. t%r .~a;~t.bnjefi
. ,. . .. .,
. . jfldir@tle~ rij!!&i!?;-d
the heat ok7.n&fit& di$itdent..'~ppal:df
. , . .fn'w~?I?$'a~d
. .,... . b&e'fa&of d+Wth',k9w
, , . . .
, ,,
an8. . .,

contenip't, thou'gh in th6r cooler monients

they . wadr *either f d k of their . kind&,
nor r'evii&ice for theii: virtue, ' The fault
I . , , . ..
8 .' 6.

thereforcGi*. Savage was r9ther ,nedigeni'.

ehen idifi&ude; but Sir,Rich& m&- l i b
P &'. ; : . . . ..,. -. . +iG? ..* , . .
L -

. ;
1'6 $AV?A(P.ri,
wife be acquitted .of EeveGty, for who them
that can patiently bear contempt from o m
whom he ha$ relieved and fupported, whofe
eitablifhment he h a laboured, and vyhofe in?
~c2:c#4q promoted i!
. .
, He -as now qg+ie abandoned to for-.
-tune, - without any athcr friend than Mr,
Wilks; a man, who, whatever were his abi-
lities or &ill as an aaor, deferves at leait to
- . . , for his virtues*,
bq remembered . . . w w are not
. .
As it is a lofs' to karikiid when any good &on is for-
gotten;. l hall inf& a n d g . i d b & of Mr. ged*
roiity,. vuy little knoym. W. Smith, a gentlem~edycated
at Di61in, being hindkid by an impidimGntin his pronun-
- hation frdm+ngaging in &rders,'forwhich his friends 'diiigncd
him,left. Gs mm counuy, and came to Lopdon in qpee of
tmploym,ent, but found his felicitations fruitlefi, and his
iecehties every day more preffing. In this diiefi he wrote
a tragedy,, and offered it to the players, by -w%m it was rc-
jetted. .Thw ~ m bin s I# bopc? d?G?td, 4 .he h 4 as
~ f b eprofpeft
r than of the-mqftdeplorable poverty. Fut Mr.
Vtrilkj' i I i ~ " ~ hh&
t ' peaforplance, though not ,perfelt, at'leihl
iusrtky:d:fome rewktd, and therefore ,o&red him a bentht.
Thi f a ~ q he r impropd with fo pluch giligence, that the
houfe afforded him a coddyable. fupl, with which ha went
to ~eydkn;";pp'iied him?elf to the &dy of phyfic; and
e o t e d h& dafiin 'with h mu+ 'diligence and -fscrrbs, .thnt,.
when Dr, Bqcrhaave was $fired by thg C e n a to recommend
proper perfohs to introduce into 'Ru0ia the 'pr&ce and ftudy
i f phyfic, Dr. Smith was one of .&ofe-'whom he fele&ed.
He.had a cqnfiderable penfion Oultd'h him at hii a ~ i v a l ?
p dwas one of +e chief phyyillqs at the R U ~ & court.
d e n to be found in the world, a ~ perhaps
kij&en. in his prafeffioa than in others, To
be humane, generous, and candid, .is a very
high degree of merit in any cafe; but th&
qualities deferve itill greater praXe, when
they are found in.that.conditipn, which makes
dmoit every other man;. fot y h w e r re&,
contemptuoue, irdolent,. petulant; f a , a d
b d * . .

. .
As Mr. wilk was me of <bore to whom
calamity feldom complained without relief, he
naturally'touk an unfmtunnte wit intg it

pmte&ion,. +-id not only.afified him h aI1.p

cafiual. diitreffes, but continued an equal and.
Peady kindnefs t o the time of his death.
By his interpofition
. . Mr. Savage once ob-
tained from his mother* fiftp pounds, and a
promife of one hundred and Hty more; but
it was the .fate of this unhappy man, that
few promifes of any advantage to him were*
performed. His mother was infeeed among
others with the general madnefs of the South

This I wn'te upon the uedit of the author of hb life,

war publiihed 1727.

Sea t d i t ; asd, . having be&
dihp$omted ia
her exp&tions, tefirfitd t o pj&bit: pirh*~!
aorhing :%Ubutthc#nfpe& of fuddm
prordpted her to-prode. . '

-. - ,. i .. ..... . . .. .,
L.',.. , ._ .
I . . ,
2': &rrg&jt& &p&&. the-
&?&fiV-d.NI:r.%%M,h e was confaqutmly
dnidiit#iWffplut&#r &frhc t h r m t ~: ;and in
a fhort time the amdcments of the hge'tmk
fuch poffefion of his mind, that he never

Thi'ti ~OnBanttauendance: .natttra.HP-$mxuM.


&:hiai rhi .'&qdintdce d. the:playasi, andi

&dn'g::ahas, of & Oldfield, a h t ~ . ~fi, a$
much..pleafed with. his ' convahidri, mb-
touched with his misfortunes; that ihe allowed -
higr) a a t l e d p e n f i : of ,*.pounds;...- a year, A

vbcb was dbrieg ka .HQ faqguIa.$y p#. - .

.- - .
. , ' . _ .
. I . . . . . *. ., .
.A..; .", -
--. ..,n%of!ry.may.fgeive. its'
That this ,a&
due .praiic, a*d .that the gqqd-@ions of ~ r s . .
Oldfield may not. be, i G e d bp her .general'
c&o@er, it,-is proper to ?enti&ahat Mr;. . .
Savage often declared in the itrongiR terms,
that he'.never faw .her alone, or ,in any other
place than behind the fceaess. . . . * .
IA- her death he e n d e a w ~ e dto' ihew his
ptitude , i n the:,mofi decent manner, by'
wearing wurx$lg ae. for a mother; . but &&
aqt celebrate her in.elegie~,becaule he knew
@ ~too t great prahfion of !ptaife wobld only
have revived. th& fdults which his a a t a r a l a
equity did P O ~allow @m m-think lef$ be-
they were committed by one wtro fa-
voured him j - but-~f-,~wki&~,thoughhis.+irt=:
would not endeavour to pdlittte t h e , :his,
gratitude tw~u1dnot.fuffer-h h to pm- the
mmory, or.di.ffde the'c9nEtnA. . ' . .

In.bis W:an&rict:, h9 ba idctd.taken ark

~ ~ t q n i oft 'rnmtiening
y h e , but cdebratw
her not for her viwe; But har b e h y , ar$
exccUencc which none ever dci~iedhtk : thia
the only cncQqthar with which he hai re4
w u d d her liberality, ahb- perhap Ae: has .

even in $hie:been too lavi-ihof his praXe; He:

&ems.t o have thegllt6 that to e t i o n
bis benefa0refs would have an appearitnc'e &
idgatitudk, though to hiwe dedicatkd any
particular perf~marsrrto het mehmry w@uld '

have only betrayed an officiouspartiality, that,

without exalting her charaaer, wodd have
eeprered his own. . .
. . , . . - .- .
H e had fometimes, by the kindnefi of Mr.
Wilks, the advantage of a benefit, on which
occafion6 he often received uncommon marks
of regard and compflion; and was once told
by the Duke of Do&, that it was jufi to
confider him as an injured nobleman, and
that in his opinion the nobility ought to
think thedelves obliged, without iblicitation,
to take every opportunity of fupporting him
by t b i r countenance and patronage. .But he
' bad generally the mortifcation to hear ttut
the whole intereft of his mother wis -em--
ployed to fruftrate his applications, and that
ihe never left any expedient untried, by
which he might be cut off fiom the pofi- i
biity of Zupporting life. The Game d i f p
fition. iht endeavoured to d f i f e among all,
thofe over whom nature or brtum gave her
any influence, and indeed fucaeeded too we1
in her defign; but could not always propa-
gate her efkontery with her cruelty, fbr fime
06 thofe, whom ihe incited againft him, were
afhamed of their own condu&, an4 boafled of
that relief which they never gave him, ~
In this cedwe I do not indikriminatel~
inv~lveall his relations; for he has mention-
d with gratitude the humanity of one Lady,
whofe name I am now unable to recollea,
and to whom therefore I cannot pay the
praXes which &c defmes for having a&ed
well in oppofition to iduence, precept, and

The puniihment which our laws infliEt

upon thde parents who murder their infants
Gael1 known, nor has its juRice ever been
contcRed ; but if they deferve death who de-
Bray a child in its birth, what pains can be'
here enough 'for h a w h o forbears to deRroy
him only to inflitt fharper d e r i e s upon him ;
who prolongs his life only to make him mi-
krable; and who expofes him, without care
and without pity, to-the malice of oppreflion,
the caprices of chance, and the temptations
of poverty ; who rejoices to fee him over-
whelmed with calamities ; and, when his
own induitry, or the charity of others, has
enabled him to rife for a fhort time above:
his miferies, plunges h i m again into his
former d i e t ?

T h e kindnefs of hi fiiends not affording

him any conitant fqply, and the proipea of
., impraving
imProvbg his fortune by enlarging his is&
quaintance neceffsily leading him to .place6
of expence, L found it neceffary * to endea;
vour once reore at dramatic poetry3for whicli
he was now better qualified by a more. exten-
five knowledge, and longer obfervation. But
having been unfuccefsf~lin comedy; though
rather Eor want of. oppprtunities -than genius,
he reiblved now to try whether he ihoulQ
not be mbre fortunate in exhibiting a m-
. ,
ged~b -
. .

The Lt~q
which he chore for tbe l~&&~
?as that af Sir Thoixw Overbury, a f t o q wt$i
adapted to the h g e 3 though pwhaps mt fav
enough removed - from the prefkn~age, to &a
tnit properly the fiaions neceffary ta COW
plete the plan : for the d h d , which naturall~
loves truth, is always m& ~ffcndedwi* the
violation of thofe truths bf which we a*
moit certais ;a d we ef cm& conc$qe t b k ,
ti&s 94 eert+in, which apprqcb nc-fi t ~ ,
our OWQ timer

Out of this i t ~ r ybe forked a trageq,

~ & h ,ifthe Qrcupitantes in whkh hc , * ~ c i
. *I@>*yc
it be co~fidered,wiil aff~rdat once an un-
cornmop proof of itrength of genius, and
evenndi of mind, ~f a ferenity not to be
maedb and an imaghatian not to be
-Woga conGdcr4ble pat of the time in
which he was employed upon thii p d o r r n ~
ance, he was without lodging, and ofien
had P: any pther xonve-
- . ...
without meqt; .nor
&ewes fpr qudy thap the fields qr the itreef
allowed kip; there he uied to wdk and f ~ r m '

qs Ceeches, a* aftemads itep into a hop,

beg for s few mownts the ufe of the p
- . i*, and write down what he had corn-
pokd, UQQR paper whiqh he h d pigked up
by =GM

: E the pedo,nuance of a writer thus diitrefP

d 'is not perfea, ito hults ought furely ts
be imputed to a cade very differerit fiom
want of genius, and muit rather excite p i v
.than provoke cenlme;

But when under thek dikouragements

tragedy was finiihed, there yet remained the
of introducing it on the hge, an un-

. . dertaking,
dertaking; which, to an ingenuous mind, d&
In a very high degree vexatious and difguA2
ing; forl having little mtereA or repatationj
he was' obiiged to. fubmit himfelf whblly td
the players, and admit, with whatever relus
tance, the emendatio& of Mr. Cibber, which
he always codsdered L the' clifgrace of hib

He had indeed in Mr. H ill anbthei cr$ik

d a Vcky different cm, from whofe friend&
fhip he! r e d e e d great & h n u on many oc3.
caiidnS, and whom lie never mentioned but
with the utmofi tendernefs and regard. He
had been for fomk firhe diftinguiihed by him
with very particulii kindhefi, and on this
occafion it was natural to apply 3 him ad
author of an ehbliihed charaaer. He there
fore fent this tragedy to him, with a iliort,
copy of * vedes, in which he defwed his
correaion. Mr. Hill, whofe humanity' and
politenefi are generally known, readily com-
plied with his requeit ; but as he is rernark-
able for fingularity of fentiment, and bold
qeriments in language, Mr. Savage did not

Printed in the late colle€tioxr of his pOCItl8~

ihink his play much improved by his inno-
vation, and had even at that time the CDU-
rage to reje& ievenl paf?gages which he could
not approve; and, what.@.itill more laudable,
Mr. Hil1,had
., the 'generdty not to refent the
ncglea of his alterations, but wljctre the
logue anfi epilogue, in which he touches ~a
the circumitances of the author with great
I f .
- .
After all the& obflru&iotis and complid
ances, he was only able to bring his play
upon the itage in the fummer, when the chief
attors had retired, and the reit were in pof-
ikfion of the houfe for their own aduantage.
Among thek, Mr. Sa$age was admitted to
play the part of Sir Tbxnas Overbufp, by
which he gained no great reputation, the
theatre being a province for which nature
feemed to have deiigned him; for nelther
his voice, look, nor gefiure, *ere fuch as
we- expetted on the itage; and he was fo
much aihamed of having been reduced to
appear as a player, that he always blotted
but his name from the lifi, w h q a copy of
his tragedy was to be ihown to his friends.
DHL& more I~~cef&l,- f& the rays of genius
&iit glimmered i n itc:thatglimrntkcd thrdugh
dl t i n . hifig which poverty and Cibbrr hid
&d~able to fpreadowr it, procured him the
no'ti=e azld efieem of many p e r h i ~rninent
for.theirrank, their vinue, and their wit.

Of this play, aoed, printed, and dedicated,

the accumulated profits aroi'e to an hundred
pihmds, which he thought at that time a vey
lage fum, having been never maRkr of lo
much before. , . , .

- ..- . . . -
. .
. ,.,
...,, ,

.: Dedication*,.-fawhich he-received
ten .- gtlineas, there i6 nothhg- . -r&mzrkaMe.
The fieface contaim a very &rid eticomim
on the - blooming- rxcelkncik 6f l& .,
philur Gibber, ~ h . i c h.&:. satage.c~uldnot
In the latter plii ' Pfe $& ee' .&ieds ~
iboGt to readrwi&o~~ifiat:8hing .&s fliy out ~
af their haklg. . .fhe ef M. f l i A ~
did -not .en.d on this oc~aficin;-foitrft~rwards~
&hen Mr. S~vryFe'b.nkceWi. rietmb.e& he
'encouraged a fuMcri-ption aW & 1md
. .
I S A ) V A ' G E. 937

Poems in a very extraordinary manner, by .

publifhing his fioy in the .Plain Dealer*,
with l i e affeQing lines, which he afferta to
have been written. by Mr. Savage upon thi
treatment received by him &om -his mother,
but of which he .was hid&, .the a h o r , as
Mr. Savage afterwards declared. Thefe lines,
and the paper in which they were inferted,
had a very powerli effeo upon aH but his
mother, whom, by making.her auelty more
public, they only hardened in her 'a~erfion. -

Mr. Hill not only promoted the liubfcrip-

tion-to the Mifccllaay, but furniAred l&wife
the great& part of,the ?oe& of which it is
.compofed, and garticuhriy Tbe Happy M15
which he publifhed as a @eci3Pw.

The fubfcriptions of thofe whom thefe

papers &odd influence to patronize merit
in diilrefi, wkhmt any other ibficitation,
'nTere direQed to be lefi at Button's coffee-
. * The PI& Dealrr was a periadi~alpaper, writtenby
Mr. Hill and Mr. Bond, whom Mr. Savage called the two
contending powers of light and darknefs. They wrote by
turns each ii~ERBya; a ~ dthe charatkr of the w k was
d&rved regularly to rifein Mr. Hill's weeks, and fall-in Mr.
houfe; .
houfe ; and Mr. Savage going thither a feft
days afterwards, without expeltation .of an7
effelt .from his propofal, found to his iurprife
fetenty guineas*, which had been fent him
in confequence of the compaaion excited by
Mr. Hill's pathetic reprelentation.

T o this r if cell any he wrote a Preface, in .

'which he gives an account of his mother's
cruelty in a very uncommon itrain of hu-
mour, and with a gaiety of imagination,
h i c h the fucccfi of his iubfcription probably
produced. .

The Dedication is addreKed to the Lady

Mary Wortley Montague, whom he flatters 1
without referve, and, to confefs the truth, 1
with very little art. The fame obfervation ,

The names of thoik who To generoufly contributed to his

relief, having been mentioned in a former ac'munt, ought not
to be omitted here. They were the Dutchefs of Cleveland,
Lady Cheyney, Lady Caitlemain, Lady Gower, Lady Lech-
mere, the Dutchefs Dowager and Dutchefs of Rutland,
Lady Strafford, the Countefv Dowager of Warwick, Mrs.
Mary Floyey, Mrs. Sofuel Noel, Duke of Rutland, L o ~
Gainiborough, Lord Miliington, Mr. John Savage.
, -
t This the following extra& from it will prove,
Since onr country has been honoured with the'glob of
your wit, as elevated and immortal as your foul, it no
may be extended to all his Dedications: his
aniplirnsnts are conitrained and violent,
heaped together without the grace of order,
or the decency-of introduc2ion; he. feems to
have written his Panegyrics for. the perufd
only of his patrons, and to hark imagined
that he had m 'other talk than to pamper
them with praifes however grds, and that
flattery. would make its .way to the-:heart,-
without the afiltance of elegance or i~vention.

Soon afterwards, the death of the king fur-

nified a general f~bje€tfor a poetical contefi,
in which Mr. Savage engaged, and is allowed
to have carried the prize of honour fiom his
competitors i but I know not whether he gained
" longer remains a doubt whether your fex have Rrength of
" mind in proportion to their fweetnefi. There is fomething
'+ i n your verfes as diftipguibd as your air.-They are as
" &osg as truth, as deep as tealon, as clear as innocence,
" and as fmooth as beauty-They contain a namclefi and
Cc peculiar mixture of force arid grace, which is at once i~
" movingly ierene, and fo majefiically lovely, that it is too

* # amiable to appear any where but in your eyes and in your

9' writings.

As fortune is not mare my enemy than L am the enemy

of ffatteq, I know not how I can forbear this application
to your Ladyihip, becaufe there is fcarce a pofibility that
I mould fay more than I believe, when I am facaking of
'! y6Uf ExccIJc~cc."-
by.his pirfkimakce any othb .advantagd than
the :iierde: oE his roputTgisn ; thou& it
~ u crtainly.
B have .:be.eri..wilh farther-ykwg
t H a ~he prevailed.upon hi@elf, to attempt 4
fpkcies of:writin& o f . which all the t?p&r
h a d been h@before.exkaufied, and wh&I~ ...
was made at tmce difficult by tht multitudes
that h& failed in it, and thofe that had (U&
-ceeded.:. ,
- .
. *

H e was now advancing in repqtation, and

though fieqbeetlp involved in very diltr&ful
perple;xit(ie$, . w e a r e d however to be gaining
upcm rnirkiad, when both his.fame. ..... and his
lifC wexk ..eodsagrred by ap event, #of.whi&
it is not yrt:defetmieed, whether it aught t.0
be .mentioned
.. * .
as a crime'or a calamity.
. .
.a .
. .
On the 20th d ~ o v ~ k b e1717, r - Mr. Sa-
vage came . , ffom
. ~ichmonh,where he then
lodged, that he might purfus hie firdies with
lefs inrertuption, with an intent todifcharge
another lodging pvbich h e had in Wefirni+
fier; and arcidontally meeting two gcnrlcmn
b,is ~quainrances,~. . h* . o .f - enqmes were 'Mer-
cllant. and Gregory, ,lie, yeiit iri.. with' .. . them
to a peighboliring coffee-houfe, ..and fat
dAnki~g..fill ?it wm h&) it' being in -m 'time
of &l~,.-S;t~@eIs- l i f b ~ r t ypart. of his - charac&
t q ,W . k t thee firit. .of.;the ~cotnp8~ly tbat'.det
. ,.& &prate.
Gred would'wiUingfy hive
gplc W.;W: in -B:.* b~ui?. ; bm rhsn
was not room for the whole company, aild
therefore they agreed to ramble about the
jh-eetq. and divert thcrni'ehes - - with . -,fnch
amufements 3 ihwld o&r t4e.qi'elpea. till
. . .
momirkg. ..
. -.
,. -
. .
. .
0 l .

. In rhia walk th$ happened unluekilg

difcovs~'a light in -Robinfon's c & W e ,
near Charing-crofi, . a i d : theieforg--*tnt iri.
Merchant, with fom'e*.-rudenefs,dedanded :b
Toam, and: wis & d + l d there'w& a goad
fire in the mxt parlow,. whichnthe&ihpnp
lpere ;bout to leave, being then paying their
r e c k M g . . Mercilyp!, ~ n .krisfi84
a .~&]rl,this
qder,rulhd iqt(c:: the. r-, anti MM.&&
!pwed hy bia: ooqq+~i9!~s,-.He. th?q.!p~~-
h + y . pkeed hjn? the1-a-
,and+?F,; k e y a 4 ,hq*ftez Icick4..rF,wn-.@
.hbAe, ,rThiF wodyFCd a. ~ I S ~ )C& K ~ ~~I w a
A~we.;an r . $ ~ fidqsr,:~d
h a*:. J~am
&M 7::;S?%!$%.:
:W. ,kiw. bvi~~w4-
Ji-1 S A%i$i,*t,.Qdd,:$iw,
.! 4 4 his
"3? S. A. -v:.AV' G' E,.
his ,way .with Much* put of ' the houfe
but*being intimidate@and cotlfded, . .
refolution. either .to flp .or Ray, they were
rakci! .h a back-court by one of the-company
and. Come' fokdias, whom he h a d.d l. c d.. t o his
. .. -
. .. A .

,. .
... . . . ., a

-Being fecured and guarded that nigk,they

&ere - in the nioinini carried befor: thm?
j ufices, who committed them to the:'~ate:
'houfe, fi-om whence, upon the death of Mr.
&n g&,' which happened the iaxqe day, they
4.. in the night to Newgate, where
.*ey!. yere however treated with' h m e . dif-
rfin&jo~.r,., - ~xempted..fipm the ignainihy of
.Chains, 4d;confiqed:not among the cofnmon
-fFim. i m ,l , , , b t in
. the.Prefs-yard!
." C

' , -, . .1,- ,, r , , . ! . . .
, . . (

~ r d& d a y of trjil came, the court wag

i U % e %

!iiir:a 'cry unufual manner, and thp '

. . . . , itfelf as in a cauk
$ublic'~tpbedredto intereft
'@rit?rd-:$oneern. ' T h e witieffis
$ . & a. i d ..

' 1 ~ r ~ d ; h & a r ;liiifiiends

d keie, the wbmq
<l& %a,; h i c h . ;is a 'houfc of
'91 ;ind her l a i d , . ..
'the men who. were

.ik-kEE~w~b:*tkkk~r;&inelaiIj and a
. ..., . .
. .
ePg . a..

. .2
.r ,
. Ik3
. .
S A V A G E . . 23$
&cm; i-nq with whom one of them had
been feen in bed. They fwore in. geneial,
that Merchant gave tbe provocation,, which

Savage i$iii, G r e p r y drew their fwords to

juKiy; t b d :Savage .drew firfi,' and that he
'hbbed Sinclair when he was not in 'polture
of defence, or while Gregory commanded
his fwor4;' that after he had given.the thruif

4 e turned. p i e , and would have retired, but

thd ~ n ~ him, and .bne - of
maid c i ~ round
the cdnipabYJ cddeiivoured to detain- him,
from whom he Groke, by ;wing the maid
i o n the head,, but y a .i ifterwards takgn in a
- .

l . There was. ibme differeqce in their depofi-
I tiona; one did not fee Savage give the wound,
another law it gives when Sinclair held.. his
. .
point towards the ground; and the woman of ,

the town afferted, that ihe did not fee Sin-

clair's {word -at all: t&s difference- however.
.was very far from amounting to incodif-
tency; but it was f d c i s n t to mew, .that the
. hurry
. . of the difpute was fuch, that. it was i
. . eaig. to diicover the puth with relation to
riot l
particular circumfiayes,
. . ,, and that therefore
. .. ,.
forqe deduQions were to be made from the
ci-edi6il'ity of theteltimonies. . ., . '

Sinclair had declared ieverai tirriei before

his death, that he received his W O & ~from
Savage, nor did savage at his trialideny the
fa&, but endeavoured partly to extenuate , . . it,
by urging the iuddennefsof the &ion,
arid the irnpofibikty' of any ill defign, ',or
p-ernkditated malice, and t~ juQZf it
by.. th;
. ..nicefity of felf-defence, and the ba-
zara of: his own lifi, if h i had IoR thit bp-
poituniti of . . 'giving. *? thruRi he'bbkked,
.. ., . _...
that neither reaion nor law -obliged man

to wait for the blow which was threatened,

and which, if he i h o ~ l dfuffer it, he might
nevir be able to iet&fi, that 'it-was always t

allowable to privkni. i n iffauli, i n d to pre-

ferie life b i takirig away'that o f the adver-
fary,' by whom it &as
I . '
With regard 'to the violdnce with which he
endeavoured t o ercape, he declared, that it
was not -his defign ,to fly from julticr, or
'decline a trial, but to avoid the expences and
feverities o b ~a prihii ; and that he intended to
%ave ahearkd at the bnr- withut compdfion.
.... A. V - A; G
S*: .. . E.

. ,, This
. defqn~,.which took up more thaq ;in
hour, was heard by the multitude that throng-
ed the 'court with the moit attentive and re-
fpe€tful . . . . . , thole
. Qence; . , though; he
. , who- . .. gught
pot .be.. -acrju,itted,
. tp_ _.., . owned that applaufe
I !:

. he. rqfded him;, and thofe who
. . , pitied-hjg misfortunes, now reverewed
. - .
hjs Mities. ;:,- '
. .. -
- . -. -..-
,- . ..
a . #
. I
, . a .
- .. ,
. -.*
. .
-..,-. 2

The witnefTes which &peared gg&R

were;proved to be perfins of $ga&erslvv~kich
did not entitle them to much'.~~edita &xpmoa
humpet, a woman by whom itrumpets were
citertained, and a man by whom they atere
fupported ; and the charaQer of S e v a s
by feveral perfons of diitinRion aRerted to be
that ,of a modeit. ...-.-
inofknfive man, not inclin-
ed,to, b~oils,
. . ,pr to. iofolence,
. and who had,

. G&, been only known for his mis-

-to- that
fortunes.anrd . his., wit. .
. '.
' ... . ...,.. .. ....
A,.. h..
- .
. . 1.

I . .
wad his. abdience betp his judges,. he.hqd
.1+~3oubt,ed) y, .been . acquitted;, but . M?. _Ragg,

with hi8 i t f ~ p.infolence

l iiM&u4rky, qnd wh-m
i l e had furniqed up. the -&da~e, endernod
to exafperitte the jury, as Mr. Savage ufed ta
Xlate it, with this eloquent harangue;
- . .- . . -.

't r
- ~ i ~ i t f e r n eo nf th,e jj r j , you &e to con:
bder that Mr:f&age .is'a.very . .
great man, a
much geater min than you or I, gentlemen
of the jury ; that he wears very fine clothes;
much finer clothes than you or I, gentle-
' men of the jury; that he has abundance
h d honey inshispocket, much more money
.b than youor I, *gentl&e.n of the.jury ; bur,
gentlemeh of the jury, is it not a very hard
' cde,' gentlemen of the jury, that Mr. Savage
~ . . h u l therefore
d kill you or. me, -,gentlemen
.'V&.thejury?'. . . . ,
.r .
Mr. Savage, hearing his defence thus mifre-
preiknted, and the men who were to decide
his fate incited againit him by invidious com-
parifons, reiolutely afferted, that his caufe was
not candidly explained, and began to recapi-
d a t e what he had before faid with regard to
his condition, and-the necefity of endeavour-
ing to efcape fhe expences of irkprifonment ;
'but the judge h a v i ~ gordered him to be filent,
and repeated his .orders without effe&, corn- .
5 rnanded

handed that he i h o ~ l taken from the

bar by force. . ,

The jury then heard the opinion of the'

judge, that good charatters were of no weight
againit pofitive evidence, though they might
turn the kale where i t was doubtful ;and that
though, when two men attack each o&er, ,
the ,death of either is only. manflaughter ; but '
where one is the aggreffor, as in the d e be-
fore them, and, in purhance of his firfi at-
tack, kills ' the other, the law fuppofes the
aaion, however fudden, to be malicious.
They then deliberated upon their verdie,
and determined that Mr. Savage and Mr.
Gregory l were guilty of murder, and Mr.
Merchant, who had no fword, only of man-

Thus ended this memorable trial, which

lafied eight hours: Mr. Savage and Mr. Gre-
gory were condulled back to priibn, where
they were more cloiely confined, and loaded
with irons of fifty pounds weight : four aays
a f i e ~ a r d sthey were feht back to the court
to receive fentence ; on which occafion Mr.
238 S A V A G - E;
Savage made, as far as it could be retained in
memory, the following fpcech.

c c It is now, mp Lord, too late tb aaiany

thing by way of defence or vindication.;
nor can we expeCa from your Lbrdfhips, in
this court, but the fentence which the law
f c requires you, as judges, to pronounce agaidk -
f t ' men of our calamitous condition.-Bwt we
Cc are ,alfo perfuaded, that as mere men, and

out of this {eat of %gorouejuitice, you are

fufceptive of the tender paaoni, and too
" humane, not to conamiferate the unhappy
fituation d thofe, whom the law foixietirnes
perhaps--ex&s--frorn yau to pi ono^
fi upon. No doubt yotl difiinguilh between
*c offences, which arik oclt of preaeditation,
. .
and a difpofition habituated to vice or im-
morality, and rranfgrefions, which are the
'' 'unhappy arid uaforcfeeri &etis of eafual .
" abfence of reafbn, and O&dEn imp* c6
paffion: we thedare hope you will contri-
" bute all you can to an &on of t b ~
mercy, which the gentlemen of the jury
b m pleafed to ihew Mr. Mcrchsrat,
U who (allowing f&s as , f w m a g a i d us by
6 " the
U the evidence) has led us into this our cala-
CC mity. I hope this will not be conftrued;
a i if we meant to refleCt upon that gentle-
" man, or remove any thing from us upon
him, or that we repine the *ore at our fate,
becaufe he has no participation of it: No, ,
H my Lord ! For my part, I declare nothing
f o d d more {often my grief, than to be

" cortune ""

a w i t h d t my companion in fo great a mis-
. .

Mr. Savage had now no hopes of life.

h a from the mercy of the crown, which

'was very eafflefily folicited by his friends,

and which, with whatever difficulty the itory
may. obtain belief, was obitruRed only by his

- T o prejudice the @een againit him, fie

made ufe of an incident, which was omitted
in the order of time, that it might be men-
tioned together with the purpofe which it was
made to ferve. Mr. Savage, when he had
difcovered his birth, had an inceITint defirc
to {peak to his mother, -who always avoided

Mr. Savage's Life,

him in publick, and refukd him admillion intbl
her houfe. One evening walking, war
his cuftom, in the fireet that h e inhabited;
he Taw the door of her houfe by accident
open'; he entered it, and, finding no perfon
h t h e paffage to hinder him, went up itair8 '

to falute her. She difcovered him before he

. could enter her chari+er, alarmed the family
k i d i the moh difirifsful oiitcries, and when
ihe had by her {creams gathered them about
her, ordered them to drive out of the houfe
that villain, who had forced himfelf in upon
her, and endeavoured to'murder her, 8avage,
who had attempted with the mofi fubmiflive
tendernefs to foften her rage, ,hearing her utter
fo deteltable an accuiation, thought it
to retire; and, I believe, never attenipted af%
terwards to Cpeak to her.

But, ihorked as he w a i with her falfho~d

and her cruelty, he ifnakinkd that fie intended
no other ufe of her lye, than to fet herfelf
free from his embraces and folicitations, and
W& very far from iuipe&ing 'that ihe would
treafure it in her memory, as an infirumetlt
*of future wickednel, or that .fie would en* ,

S A V A G E %*
deavom fat this fi&itiotts a G & to a p t i v t
him of hi, lift,
But when the @em #as fdicited for his
pardon, and informed of tht fmere treatment
which he had futked from his judge, &e an-
itoered, that, however dnjufiifiable might be
the nr;mner of his trial, or whatever extenua-
tion the adioa for which he was condemned
. might admit, fhe could not think that man a
proper ~ b j & of the King's mercy, who had
been capable of etltering his mother's houk
in the night, with an intent to murdcr.hcr.

By tvhottl this atrocious calumny had been

kranfmitted to the @een ; whether ihe that
invented had the front to relate it; whether
fhe found any one weak enough to credit it,
or corrupt enough to concur with her in her
hateful defign, I know not : but methods had
been taken to pwfuadc the Queen fo firongly
of the truth of it, that ihe for a long time
refufed to hear any of tbofe who petitioned

Thus had Savage paifhed by the evidena

d a bawd, a ftrumptt, and his mother, h 4
VOL.111. R- pet
:not juitice and cornpailion procured him an
advocate of rank too great to. be rejeQed un-
heard, and of virtue too eminent to be heard
.without being believed. His merit and his
:calamities happened to reach the ear of the
Countefs of Hertford, who engaged in his
iilpport with all the tendernefs that is excited l

.by pity, and all the zeal which is kindled by

.generofity ;and, demanding an audience of the
Qeen, laid before her the whole feries of his 'l
mother's cruelty, expofed the improbatiilitp I
of an accufation by which he was charged
with an intent to commit a murder that
could produce no advantage, and ioon con-
.vinced her how little his former condue could
.dekrve to be mentioned as a reaibn for extra-
ordinary ieverity.

The inte~poiitionof \this Lady was fo; f u c ~

cefsful, that he.was loon afier admitted to bail,,
and, on the 9th of March I 728, pleaded the 1
King's pardon.
8 ,I . -
It is natural to enquire upon what motives
his mother could profecute him in a man-
$er ib outrageous and implacable ; for what
.reatan fie could employ- all the arts of mad
- ... I lice,

h e , and all the Cnares of calumny, to take
away the life of her own Con, of a Con who
never injured bet, who was never fupported
by her expeace, nor obitrut3ed any proCpeR
of pleaiure or advantage; why ihe ihould
endeavour to d e h o y him by a lye-a lye
which could not gain credit, but mufi vanifh
of 'itfelf at the firlt moment of examination,
and of which only this can be faid to make
it probible, that it may be obfeived froin her
condu&, that the mofi execrable crimes
are fomehmes committed without apparent

'I'his mother is r ill alive, iuid map per;

Laps even jet, though her malice was fo of-.
ten defeated, enjoy the pleafiire of refleaing,
that the life, which h e often kndea+oured to
d e h y , w a s at leafi ihortened by her mater-
nal offices; that though fie could not tranf-
port her ibn to the plantations, bury him in
the h o p of a mechanic, or hafien the hand
of the public executioner, ihe has yet had
the fatisfaaion of imbittering all his hours,
and forcing him into exigencies that hurried
on his death.

R 2 It
It is by no means neceffary to aggravate
the enormity of this woman's condue, by
pIacing it in oppofition to that of the Coun-
tefs of Hertford; no one can fail to obferve
how much more ainiable it is to relieve, than
to opprefs, and refcue innocence from de-
hruaion, than to d c h o y without an injury.

Mr. Savage, during his imprifonment, his

trial, and the time in which he lay under
fentence of death, behaved with great firm-
nefs and equality of mind, and confirmed by
his fortitude the efieem of thole who before
admired him for his abilities. The peculiar .
circurnfiances of his life were made more
gemally known by a fhort account*, which
was then publiihed, aqd of which feverd
thodands were in a few weeks dilperied cver
the nation: and the compaflion of mankind
operated io powerfully in his favour, that he
was enabled, by frequent preients, not only
to fupport himfelf, but to aaft Mr. Gregory
in prifm; and, when he was pardoned and
releafid, he found the number of his fiiends
not leffened.
W~ittenby Mr. Beckingham and another gentleman.
The nature of the a& fbr which he had
been tried was ip itfelf doubtful; of the evi-
dences which appeared againfi him, the cha-
raaer of the man was not unexceptionable,
that of the woman notorioufly infanious: he,
wh& teitirnony chiifly influenced the jury
to condemn him, &erwards retrdkd her aE
Qrtbn~: H e always himfelf denied that he
mas drunk, as had been generally ieportcd.
Mt.Gregory, who is 'now Colle'&or of An-
tigua, is faid to declare him far 1
4 criminal
than he was imagined, even by ibmc who

favoured him: and Page hirnfe~afhrwards
confeffed, that he had treated.him with un-

common rigour. When all thefe particulars

are rated together, perhaps the memory of
Savage may hot be much fullied by his trial.

Some tim &er' he had obtained his iiL

bcrty, he met in the . fireet the woman that
b;rd fmrn with. $0 much malignity again&
,him, She infarmed him, that ihe was in
diitrefs, and, vfith a . degree of confidence
not eafily attainable, defired him to relieve
her. He, infiead of infulting her miikry,
and t a k q pleafure in the calamities of one
w b had brought his life in@ dangerl reprov-
R3 ed
ed her gently for her perjury; and changing
the only guinea that he had, divided it.equally
between her and himfelf.

This is an aQion which in Fome ages

would have made a faint, and perhaps in
others a hero, and which, without; any hy-r
yerbolical encomiums, mufi be allowed to
be an infiance of uncommon generofity, an
a& of complicated virtue; by which he at
once relieved the poor, correaed the vicious,
and forgave an enemy; by which he at once
remitted the honongefi provocations, and exer?
cifed the moit ardent charity.

Compiffiop was indeed the difiinguifhjng

quality. of. Savage; he' never appeared .in7.
clined to .take advantage of weakneis, to at-
tack the defenceleis, or to prers upon the
falling: whoever was difirefid was certain
at leait of his good wifhes; and when ht
could give no ifiltance to extricate them
.. misfortunes, he endeavoured to' iooth
them by fympathy andtendern&.

But when his heart was not foftened by

the fight of mifery, he was fometimes o b
pinate in his refentment, and did not quickly
1 lore the remembrance of an injury. H e al-
ways continued to ipeak with anger of the
, infolence and partiality of Page, and a fhort
time before his death revenged it by a fGire*.

It is natural to ehquire in what terms Mr.

Savage fpoke of this fatal aaiori, when the
danger was over, and he was under no ne-
1 cefity of uGng any art to iet his condue in
the fairefi light. H e was not willing to '

dwell upon it; and,-if he tranfiently men-

tioned it, appeared neither to confider him..
I felf as a murderer, nor as a man wliolly free'
from the guilt of blood t.
H o w much and
how long he regretted it, appeared in a
poem.which he publifhed many years afier-
wards. On occafion of a copy of vedes, in
which the failings of good men were re-
counted, and in which the author had en-
deavoured to illuhate his pofition, that " the
" befi may fometimes deviate from virtue,"

by an initance of murder committed by Sa-

vage in the heat of wine, Savage remarked,
that it was no very jufi reprefentation of a
good man, to fuppofe him liable to drunken-
. . t~ cut throats.
nefi, .and difioied in his riots
Printed i n the late colle&ion.
t IL one o f his letters he ftyles it a fatal quarrel, but
too-weli known."
R 4 He
He wag now indeed at liberty, but was, ae
before, without any other Cupport than acci-
dental favour8 and uncertain patronage af9
forded him ; iburces by which he was foxnew
times very liberally fupplietl, and which at
other times were fuddenly fiopped; fo that
fpent ?is life between want and plenty;
or, what waa yat wode, between b e g g q .
and extravagance; for a whatever he ra-
ceived was the gifk of, chance, which might
as well favour him at. one time as another,
was tempted to Equander what Be had,
becaufe he always hoped to bq iqmediatelly

Another caufe of his prohfion was the ab-

fird @sdncfs of his friends, who at once re-
warded and .enjoyed his abilities, by treating
him at taverns, and habituating him to plea-
fures which he could not afford to enjoy,
and which he was not able to deny hidelf,
though he purchafed the luxury of a fingle
night by the any!# of cold an4 hunger fos
a week.

The experience of thefe inconveniences

&tqqiqed hiq. tp qndeqvour after fome {et-
tled income, which, having long found Cub-
rniDion and intreaties fiuitlels, he ittempted
te extort fiom his mother by rougher me-
thods, H e had now, as .he acknodedged,
loit that tenderneh for her, which the whole
feries of her cruelty had not been able wholly
to reprefs, till he.found; by the efforts which
fie made for his deitrultion, thai ihe was
wt content with refufing to aiIifi hiin, and
being. neutral in his Rruggles with poverty,
but was aa ready to fnatch every opporrtuility
of adding to hie misfortunes, and t b t ihc
was to be confidered as an 'enemy implacably
malicious, whom nothing but his blood could
f a t i e . H e therefore threatened to harda
her with lampoons, and to publifh'a~copious
m a t i v e of her condue, unlefs h e confented
to purcwc an exemption horn infamy, by
d!owiDg him a penlion.

This expedient proved fuccetftl. Whether

ihame itill iurvived, though virtue was ex-
tin&, or whether her relations had more de-
licacy than hedelf, and imagined that ibme
cif the darts which fatire might point at her
would glance upon them; Lord Tyrconnel,
whatever werF his motives, upon his promifa

to lay gfi& .his defign of expofing- the cru- !

elty af his mother, received .him. .into his I
. family,
. treated him as. his qqual, and end
pged to allow him. a penfign of two,hun-
dred p~.undsa.year. - .
, . . -
This was. the golden part of Mr.. Savage's
life; and for fome time he had no reafon to
complain of fortune; his appearance was

fplendid, his expences large, a n d hii =c-

quaintance extenfive. He' was courted by
all who endeavoured to be thdhght men bf
genius, and careffed by all who valued them-
Eelves upon, a . refined tafie. : T o admire Mr.
Savage, was a proof of difcernment; and to
be acquainted with him, was a title to poe-
tical reputation. His prei'ence. was fuffi-
ciem. .to make any place of public. entertain-
ment popular; and his approbation and.ex-
ample conitituted the faihion. So powerful
i s genius, when it is invefied with the glitter
of afflueqce! Mqn willingly pay to fortune
that regard which they owe to merit, and are
pIeafed when they have an - opportunity at
once .of gratifying their vanity, and pratfifing
their duty,

S A V A G E . 25s
This interval of profperity furnilhe& him
with opportunities of enlarging his knowledge
of human nature, b y contemplatiqj life from .
its higheft gradations to its loweit ; and, had
b e &erwards applied to dramatic poetry, he
would perhaps not have-had many fuperiors;
for as he never fuffered any fcene to pafs be-
fore hie eye$ without notice, he had treafured
in his mind all the different combinations of
palons, and the innumerable mixtures of
vice and virtue, which diitinguiih one cha-
ra&er from another; and, as his conception
-was itrong, his expreiIions were clear, he
caiily .reqeived impreffions from objeas, and
very forcibly tranfmitted them to others,

Of his exa& obfervations on human life he

* has left a proof, which, would 40 honour to
the greatefi names, in a h a l l pamphle~,

called,. The Aufbor to. be /@?C, where. he .in-

troduces. Ifcariot Hackney, a pra~i'tute
. '..i c. .r i:b .

. . . -edu-
bler, giving an account of his birth, his
cation, his difpofitiol; and morals, .habits .of
life, and.maxims of condua. In the idtrq-
(luaion are related many bcrct hiifories of

* Prigted in his WO&, vol. 11. p. 23 I .

. .
the petty writers of that time, but fomc-
times mixed with ungenerous refleaions on
their birth their circumitaaces, or thofe of
heir rdatiom; nor can it be denied, that
f h a c pdagcs are fuch as Ifiiriot Hackney
e h t hirnfelf have produced.

H e was accuicd likewife of living in an

appearance of friendfhip with iome whom be
ibtiriied, and of making ufe of the confi-
dence whi* he pined by r f&rning kind-
nefs to didcover fiilings and expofe them: it
muit be confeff'ed, that Mr. Savage's eittem
was no very mrtain @tfion, and tbat he
wouM lampoon at one time thofe whom hc
had praifed at another,

h may be alkged, that the fame man may

change his and that, he who was
oncc d d i e d l y commcnded, may be &c+
wads fitiriiied with equal jultice, or tbat the
' poet was dazzled with the appearance of vir-
tue, and found the man wham he had eel-
b t e d , when he had an opportuni~of ex-
amining him more narrowly, unworthy of
the panegyric which he had ,too h&ly be-
fiowed; and that, as a falfe fatire ought to .be
S - A v A G E.
recknted, for the f&e of him who6 'epud
tation may be injuied, f2lfe prpik ought
Iikewife to be obviated, lea the diitinaioa
between vice and virtue fhould be 10% h& a
bad man' fhould be 'truited upon the credit of
his encomiait, or leit others ihould endeavour to
obtain the like #CS by the &me means.

,But though thcfe elrcufa map be ofien

praufible, and iometimes juft, they are very
leldom iatisfaQorp to marskind J and,the wri-
ter, who is nor mnitpnt to his fubjea, quick-
ly finks into contempt, his &tire Ides its
force, and his panegyric its value, qnd he is
only confidered at one time ae B httqer, and
as a calumniator at another.

T o avoid thife imputations, it is only ne-

zeff' to W o w t.& riles of Srtue, md to
p r e f i e ad unvaried regard to &h. Fot
though it is tlndonbtedly poffible, that.a man,
however cautious, may be ibmetimes decei*

ed by an appearance of virtue, or by
falfe evidences of guilt, fuch errors will not
be frequent; and it will be allowed, that the
name of an author wouId never have been
made contemptible, had no man ever faid
what'ke did not think, or mifled otlim birt
krheri h&was h i d l f deceiqedr .
..-. . .

* 1f l'bc Aurbor be Z t t was'fid publifh;

ed in a fingle paniphlkt, And afterwards in-

'~ertedin a 'colle€ti~n6f pieees relating ta the

~ u n c t i d ;i~hicliwere addread by Mi. Sa-
vage t o the Earl of Middlefex, in a *dedi-
tation r which he wag prevailed II~OXI to Ggn,
' '

though'.he did not write it, and- in whiih

thefe'ar'e fome pofitions, that the true authof
would perhaps not have publiihed under his
own name, and on which Mr. Savage after-.
wards reAeEted with no great . fatisfaaion ;
the emmeration of 'the bad effe&s of .the
uncontroled freedom of. the pref3, and the
airertion that the " liberties taken by the
writers .of Jouinals with' their' iupekiors
were exorbitant and urijuftifialile,". very ill
became men,. who have themfelves not al-
,ways fhewn the' exaaefi 'regard ta t h e laws
-offubordination in their writings, and who
have. often fatirifed thofe that a t leaf? thought
thernie1t.e~their fuuperiors, as they were erni-
nent for their hereditary rank, and employkd

See his, Works, vol.'II. p. a33.

in the higheft offices o f the kingdom. But
.&is is only an inflance of that' paftiality
which almofi every man indulges with r e
gard to himfelf; the liberty of the p r e t is a
bleifing when we are inclined to write againit
'&hers, and a calamity when we find ourfel~es
overborne by the muhitude of our affaiianrs;
as the power of the crown is. always thought
too-great 6fr thofe who Cuffer by its influence,
.and too little by thofe in whofe favour it is
exerted; and a fianding m y is generalIy aci
counted . ncceffary by rhofe who command,
.and dangerous and opprefive by th'ofe who

.fupport it.

.Mr. Siiage was likewifeire'very far from t e -

lieving, that the letters annexed to each fpe-
- ?i& of bad p6ets i n the Bathos, were, as hc
'was dire&ed to affert, I' fet down at iarl-
dom ;" for when.he was charged by one of
his friends with putting 'his name to fuch afi
'improbability, he had no other aniser to
make; than that " he did not think of it ;"
and his friend had too much tenderne& to
reply, that next to the crime of writing con-
trary t o what he thought, was that of writ-
ing without thinking.
, After having remarked what is f a e in iGs
dedication, it ie proper that I obierve the im-
partiality which I recommend, by ~declaring
what Savage afferted, that the account o f the
circumfiariees which attended the publication
of the Dunciad, however iirangc ind- imp*
bable, was examy true.

The publication of this piece at this time

raifed Mr. Savage a great number of elnemiea
among thofe that were attacked by Mr. Pope,
with whom he was confidered as a kind of
confederate, and whom he was iufpetied of
iupplying with private intelligence and k e t
incidents: io that the ignominy of an in4
former was added to the terror of a iatiriit.

That he was not altogether free k m litea

r a y h y p o d y , and that he hmetimes fpke
one thing, and wrote another, cannot be
denied ; becaufe he himfelf confeged, that,
when he lived in great familiarity with Den-
nis, he wrote an epigram * againwhim.
This epigram was, I believe, never publilhcd.
Should Dennis publih you had Rabb'd yourbrother,
Lampoon'd your monarch, or debauch'd your mother;
S A V A G E . =S7
a . Mr. Savage ho*ever fet all the malice 6f
all the pigmy writeis at defiance; and thought
.the fricndfhip of Mr. Pope cheaply purchafed
. b y being expofed to their c d u r e and the?
h a t 4 ; nor had he any re& to repknt of
the pHerence, for he found Mr. Pope a
fiead7 and unalienable Mend almofi to the!
end of his life.

About this time, notwithitandtnng his avow..

ed neutrality with regard to party, he pub-
-1iihed a panegyric on Sir Robert Walpole, for
which he tewarded by him with twenty
guineas, a fum not very large, if either the
excellence of the performance, ds the a u -
enoe of the patron, be confidered ; but great-
er than he afterwards obtained from a peribn
of yet higher rank, and more defirous in ap-
pearance of being diitinguiihed as a patron of

Say,. what revenge on Dennis can be hod,

Too dull for laughter, for reply too mad ?
On one fo poor yopcannot take the law,
On one fo old your fword you Dorn to dmw. .
. .
Uncag'd then, let the harmlefs monRer rage,
Secure in dulnefs, madnefi, want, and age. .
As 'he *as tiefy fdr ' M m -1wuking'the
.canda& of Gir 'Robett Walpoie, m.ccwr-
' irerration mentioned Mm iiimhimcs di: 6
'mohy, brit1 .gmraily.with -cbritetnp)tl; &S ;he
-was ,brre & ihcife '-w%o were always -bus
'in their ;dErfions o f 'the Juntce d .C& d p ~
'oppiition, j e b ~ i r s-of 'the rfgkrs 6E she !pm-
ple, and alarmed by the long;conii&&dr*
umph of the court ; it was natural to aik him
'w3at: koultl.;induk him 'tb ~ n @ o j %%Sr >p&q ,
, -in pfziire of 'that. man who was, . i n hisyopiL
- nim, 'anieneWy.m lib-, and .an o p $ d i i
of %is m m t i y ? 'Re . ~ k g e d ,&at !he ;m
:then klepe&ciit iqon -the.k@T w ,

b&o wii an'imp1ici.t 'fdIollt$~er~&f.*lemiaritry;

'aridlhat-;bking enjoined :by, him, & wiekart
'men&es, .'to write in .praife ,of 'Ms.le;t&r, lie
h. 'h3d n b ~.rduhriion
~ . Hficknt . to &M&: &t
' p7&;tfme&af rafffuence-to that --of:intP&.

On this, and on many other occafion~,he
was ready. to lament the milery of liiriag at 1

the tables of-other men, which -was his fate

from the 'beginning fo 'fie end 'df fiis life ;
for- I knoy not mhether .he ever had, for
three months together,' a fettled habitation,
l - To this u~happy~dlate;
i t is juft .to .impute
l much of the inconhncy of his condu& ;,fa
though a readinefs to. comply ~ t the h incli-
nation of, others was nd .pvt,qf hjs natural
c h a r a h , yet he qas fometimes .obliged
' . . ,qo
,*elaxGQo$fiQa& ?&h @mit his. jl\dge-
, mept, pnd,qxn .hi,rique, .tp t b e . g ~ x e ~ k p t
of thofe b phom &e : ~ f k so r i e d : fits,
if his d e r i e s were fometimes the c o d e
-4wncecs~ fhis. . faults, he ought sot y@.tq be
mbqlly a+td,ed, fig-a &mpaqon, his
faults were :very .often,4h.e &is .QX-

In ,psrig&*I,pf.his ,life,.-while.

wis furrounded by d y e p w nndpldwe,';be
- - . -- ..-.
publifhed i'.Wandm, a m o d poem, of
: . ,the &fign . is compriied
I- .,. . in ,t+fe .,.i;ys
, 3

' 9 1 fly, all public care, ,all venal firif&

To try the Rill cornpu'd kth a&= lik
T o prove, by theh the fons of men '~JEL~,OWC
d blifs to )budkingl o d a j
:The . h i t s

: .:!?W
S P That
260 S A . V A G E.
' Thnt n'n calamity, by'thought refidd,
lnfpiriu and adorns the thinking mind.

And more d ' i d l y in the folldng p&-

. .
By woe, the ibul to daring &ion fweUs ;
By woe, in plaintlefs patience it excels; *

From patience, prudent char experience fprings,

And traces knowledge thro' the courfe of things!
Thence hope is form'd, thence 'forti'k~de,iucccfs,
Renown :--whatgm rnen covet md . cad.
. .
Thl performance was aIways confidered by
himfelf as his ' mafier-piece ; and Mr: Fbpe,
when he aiked' his opinion of'it, told him,
that he read it once over, and was not dif-
pleafd with it, that it gave him more plea-
fure at the fecbnd perufal; and' &lighted! hLn
Ail&more at the third;

It his'been generany obje&ed to T.t FA-

derer, that the diipofition of the parts is irre-
gular; that the defign is obfcutre, and the
plan perplexed ; that the images, however
beautiful, fucceed each &er without order;
and that the whole performance is not ib
much a regular fabric; as a heap of ihining
S materials
mate~ials'throwntogether by accident; which
ft'rikes rather with the f~lemnmagnificence of
a itupendous ruin, than the elegant grandeur
of a finifhed pile, .

This criticiim is univerfai, and ther!fbre it

is redonable to believe it at leafl in a great
degree jub ; but Mr. Savage was always. of a
'contrary ppinion, and thought his drift could
only be miffed by negligenee o r , fiupidity,
and that the whole plan was regular, and the
parts diitina,

It ww never denied toaSound with Rrung

repreientations of nature, and juit . obferva-
tions upon Iife; and it may eafily be obfer-
red, that moR of his pieures have an evi-
dent tendency to illuitrate his firfi great pofi-
tion, " that good is the confequence of evil."
The fun that burns up the mountains, hai-
fies the vales; the deluge that rufhes down
the broken rocks with dreadful impetuofity,
is feparated into purling brooks; and the
rage of the hurricane purifies the air..

Even ip this poem he'has not been able 'to

forbear one touch upon the cruelty of his mo-
S 3 ther,
&er,* wlii~fi,tliotr&i; tt%naika%lf d=lieb<e&&
-tendet; is rt' proof how deep an.itapi&m it
6 mind'

This muit be at leaf€ acknowledged, which

t o 68 thdhght eqiiv3iirit t o &aht otGa
~ I C C O R C ~ C ~t ~h, t . ttrirs p b e d d i n nd
&kdr #urp6fCs than thofi of +i+tihui, d n i &at
L g-&Ircefi with. a . ~ e itroiti i ~ ~ d OTk thit
Eflic4q+ of r&li'&oni

But my province is rather to giiie-tEe b&

tory ~f Mr. .Savage's performances, than to
difrjla'f &eir beauties, of fb bb+iite the criti-
- ;fin$ ~diririththti'f have dccalidned; a d diere-'
I &ill h6t-ddelf.hpoii fie pa.i+i'cuhr p&-
Ggei &11ith dekivii rppiauie : I Ball neicbei
(he+ he eiedeiitk of his defcn'fitigis, nqr
clipif'iatb on t& tiriific poitr4i iuirideq
i o i pbtn' iiyt the dr&ul tauches, bf bkich he
gad d;fiikgul&i~ tb.k ilitel1e&ltudl fk=fer~sof
the febt~i, whb: fu#eied death i& hi$ kR
, . .
eanio. It is, hovy&er, proper to obferve,
that Mr. Savage always declqred the cliar~.c-
ters wholly fitiitious, and without the leait
alhcb;titk iidy real pkfl01is or aCtidds.
.Eram a poem f~ diligently labouredb and
i~f'uccef%Eully f i n i b d , it might be reaion-
ably expeaed that he fhould have gained con-
fiderable advantage; nor can it, without fome
degree of indignation and coxkern, be told,
that he fold the copy for ten guineas, of
which he dterwards' returneb two, that the
two la@fheets of the work might. be reprint-
ed, of which he had in his abfcnce i e ~ r u b c t
the com€tion to a friend, who was too indo-
knt to pefferrn it 6 t h accuracy.

4 fuperititious regard to the' correaion

. .
i '

his & ~ t w sas;one qf Mr., Sav;)g9s peul@+-

tips : . he offen iltert$,.
,, revifed, +fed tg
his firq reaging or, punQuatio9
. and again
+bited the +ter+tiqx-i; he was dubibus
I . -. , and

i r ~ e f o w eyifhout end, on 1 guefiion of

the-l,# E T p p ~ y e , and a;t laR yapfeldom
fatisfied : . the intruGon or - orn@oa qf a
comma was fufficient to difcompofe him, *

aitb S* ~dd .m.eqpx Q& a, tingle

IRtw W ? kqy c a h i t y . In eve ~f his
1 IW
l a ~ i ~ 19 . ai ~l ~ ~ fPfiC qss~ ~~erfe~,
' . h$ T E W ~ , tb3f -kwM, yai* to the
! c~q&icy+ of the p r d , " a @ell WQShim;"
1 a d bdesd the gq&y uylth which ka dwett
264 S A V A G E .
upon the minutefi and moit trifling niceties,
. . name
deferved no other
, . . . than that
. . . of faicba-

That he fold fo yaluable a performance for
fo f i q d a price, was not to be imputed e i t h e ~
to necefity, by which the learned and inge-
nious are ofien obliged to fubmit to very h d
'conditions; or to avarice, by which the book:
.felle~sare frequently incited to opprds tlpt
'genius by which they are iupported ; But ta
that intemperate defire of pleafure, and ha-
bitujd Qavery to. his pafions, . . . which involved
him i n many perplexities. He. haGen?d at
that time to be engaged i n t h..e. iurfuii of
, . .
., trifling gratificationi and, being P;ith-
out money for the prkent. 4cafion, fold his
$ern so the' ,, . .. .bidder,
fi'rfi .. and perhapi. .for
. , . . t6e
firRhice that. was . . propofed; and wauld

bably have been content . . wiih 1 .9. >' if.. W


, . ,offered
. . - . hi?.
. ., .

This poem was a d d d e d to the Lord TF-

connel, not only in the firit lines, but in a
formal dedicatioh filled with the hi@& hains
of panegyxlc, and the parmeft profdOns
of gratitude, ' but by 'no means remarkable
for delicacy of conne&ion or elegancr of Rpk.
6. per$
Th&e praifm'io a koft time he fouhd hi&
' '

(elf inclined to retra€t, being difciirded'.by

the man on whom he had behwed the*,.
Ad whom he then immediately difcbv~red
not to have deierved them. Of this quakeI,'
vyhich every day made mpre . bitter, .Lord
Tyrconnel and Mr. Savdg~afiigned .very d. G . I

Eerent reafons, which ;night piihaPo .all

reality concur, tbbugh they were not all c&-
venient to be alleged by either party. Lord.
~ ~ r c o n n affirmed,
el that it ' was the conitant
kraOice of Mr. Savage to, enter- tavcrp
with any company that propofed it, dri*
the mofi expenhe wines' with great profu-'
Gon, and when the reckoning was demand-
ed, to be without money: -16 as i t often
happened, his company were - wiliing to ' d e
fray hi6 part, the afiir ended, without any.
ill c~nfgquences;bqt, if they were refiac-
toty, and expelted &at the wine fhould be
paid for by bim that drank it, his niethod 6f
qomppiition was, - to take .them with him tq
his own apastmeqt, affume the government
, of t b houfe, and arder the botler in ad
impetbus m;\nneE to fet the bek wineiri the.
Cellar before. his company,. who often 'drank
till they Forgo$ the refpe@ due t~ the h9.M~-
afs S:. A>IV A , G, E,
in, d k b tbq ,\8arc: entertainad, induiged
t b k l x e s in .the ut11u)A elFtrayag;PPlG .of.
m;mirilcnt, praWk&the xpoiE ljcepfiolls fror.
&lrs, arrd coauPritW all the 0- c$
W. e. &
Nor wal thig the only cdarge whichLord
brpuiht aggnf3 him: Having
a coI'Ie&ion of .vaIuahIe books,
&Inpeawith his own arms, he had the mor-
dfiktion ts ke them io a thort time expofed
tb' fde upon the fiafls,, it being.uhal with Mr.
savage, w l \ e ~hc kanhd a final1 rum, to take
books to the pawnbroker.

Whoever war acqnainted with Mr. Savage

eredited both tMe xcufations: fa,
having bem o W i d from his fid entrance
inte the world to IubfiR u p n expedients,
d h e n c e was not able PO exalt him above
t b m i and fo much w a s he delighted with
wine and. cmvt?rfaha, and CO long had Be
bee& ttecufiomed to li* by chance, that he
at any 6mc go to the tavern without
f a f i e , and t d for the reckoning to the li-
h l i t y of hi6 c q a n y , and Requently of
&mpany to whom be was very little known.
.-- . c o d & iadecb wry fddogl drew upon
fiim tlioiki~omelikdcee;t3r& e:
be . h r -
eb by dny,otAerp d o n ; h&:e:fm
was fo entertkiaing, a d hid adtlr& l b p~id. -.

iYg, d a f few tbm2@l! f%b p h d ~ r 8

tbep rixdve@ &m h $ ~&dar+.y
- pmahded,. b~
Hi* fir h& wie. IVW* ira psoutta b p
pinefs, that A s fcaed? c i found.~ a hanger,
*km h$ Q d rtot 1 ~ su lfriend
~ ; butl in m&
liI?tiHe be ;idde& &it he, I d ila sfielr z
Gmd bn'g; aithdnc obsging h;ni ca bmarr
d fftanger.

Mr.. &+age9 anr the other ha&, ik.hpddYrd+

tlid L d TyrcoweR* qwrrelled with him,
becaufe he would fubitraQ fiom his own lux-
ury and exttavagance what he had promifed
to allow him, and that his refentment was
dnty a for the n'otation d hi's po'mife:
H e an'eried, that he-had don4 nathitrg that
oighs to excInde hilii fr6m rharfirWft~m
which he tho%ht n6t fo much a hm,a$ '

a debt, fimce it w&i &ere& him apcn cm-

&ions, which he had nevet brokehi and that
h;s oh1y fault was, that he rmld mt be f u p
pdWa iirifi hcifiihihg.
Eh e r p n h ~ nin w e o f Iris ktiten m, &a L+
rn Tyrconnel had involved his eftate, and thucfore poorly
t* fought an o c d o n to'quarrc1 with him."
268 S A V A G E .
H e acknowledged, that Lord .Tyrconnel
oftenvexhorted him to regulate his method of
lie, and not to fpend all his nights in taverns;.
and -that he appeared very defuous, that he
would pds thofe hours with him, which he
'hfreely beitowed upon .others. This de-
mand Mr..Savage confidered as a cenfure of'
Pis condutl, which he could never
bear; and which,. i n athe latter, and cooler

part of his life, was fo offenfive-to,him; that

he declared it as his refol'ution, " to fpurn.
that fiiend who Ihould piefume. to diaate
(c' to hi& ;" and it is not likely, that in hib
earlier years he received admonitions 'with
pore calmnefs.

]He was likewife inclined to refent {U&

expe&ations, P tending to infringe his li-
berty, of which be was very jealous, when
it was neceffky to the gratification of his
paifions; and declared, {hat the requeit was
qill more unreafoonablh the ;ompany to
which he 'was ta have been confined was in-
iupportabl; difagreeable. This affertim d-
fords another infiance of that inconfifiency
df his wfitings with his converfation, which
was io pfien to be obierved. He forgot how'
,.L laviihly
S A V A G E . 2.%

lavifhly he had, in his Dedication to Tbe.

~arzdeier, extolled the delicacy and pene-
tratinn, the humanity and g m e r d i , the
candour and politenefi,' of the man, who&+
when' he no longer loved him, he declared to
be a wretch ,without underilanding, without . ,

good-nature, and without juitice; of who&

name he thought himfelf qbliged to leave
no trace in any future edition of his writ-
ings; and accordingly blotGd it out of that
copy of Tbi ;branderer which was i n hi;

a . . .
Durmg his continuance with the . L o d
Tyrconnel, he wrotC' %he brriumpb of Heal&
a d Mirtb, on,. the recovery of Lady Tyr-
.connel from a langgifhing illneii. This per-
. forrnqnce is reniarkable, not . only for the

gaiety. of the ideab; 'and the 'melody of the

numbers, bot for die. ibeeable fiLtion upon
which .it. is' formed. .* . Mirth, overwhelmed
with forkaw for-.the f i n d s of her favourite,
-takes a' 'fliighi 'in queP df hcr f i R u Health,
whom. fie finds:..redilicd upon the:bmw of p
lofty mountqi'n, amiillt':the fragrance of per-
petual' fpring, aith the breezes of the m m -
ing fporting about her: Being folicited by
- her
rlurFc, . $ A Y & @ E*
*.bar MWW, $a' ~prPrnXesSShar
atlinizn~,: h away in ,a dbd, and ;mPreg~
m e s &W . m e r s .of W with .new xirtuq,
%,wbicb rBe fid~.4~.%?f
&hda; i s .(~&bd.

)As &e :ropwatian S s abilities, the par-

drmnifiances uf':flis-birrh and life, the
qfilehdour cif his appearance, and the dif-
?in&iion which was 'for fome time paid him
:by Ldrd 'Tyconnel, W e d him to famili-
&tp. -with pdons ofi higher rank.than thofe
to whore converfation he had been befote ad-
mitted, he did not fail to gratify that curi-
&y, sxbhiuh' induced ifiim ao t&ke a nearer
8- hbaCe ,wham. their 4 i i , . heir ern-
..playnrents, or their fmtuncs, mc&;uily plaoe
-at .a d'iince. from the.greatefi part .c8man-
&d, .and .to examine whether-their merit
4 s -mqpified a r dimiqriihed bg &c m&
&m .through which: it was -cmtpmphd;
!,.arahether.&e @Lendour .x$th,whirrh&ey--daz-
.zled &air .admirers .iras .inhexnt in Phern-
, idvtx, or ohly reffraedpn .&ern;* .the s b
..j&s ,that furrounded &ern ; and ~oohether
-great men .were kleRed for hq$-i*atioqs, RK
-high itrrtioms made great Raen.

4 For
*Sor&is, p q & tobk 411 ~oppwtutlidcs
.uf~convdmgS d ~ l t r i ywith -Jl& mIro
. :roere -mofi .uop@aorts .sttbat t h e e r
power or their influence; he wat- ,tQleir
loofer moments, and examined their domef-
-tic behauiour, thrrt :ac& d a i i l a na-
bture -had &h,iand dhid-dre~)mmm-

mo* ~~vedetp f*f hh iiffe -hrul CO-
' .., ihcreak, isad &tt .inqditig~pl& *, -M
1 tdways heqmdtmad lhc a 4 g o ~ wdaj, s ,&
:aa -abMnte; M a m :ftwn .dpre@ -,or,&
-sae!&c -am. Wis Bs i-t -S
(quick, a d h e ibrm h a &in mtxy
p d i ,. A d m r q :&,. !bosabi@:that
* ' d & d ,attmtkm; ;he .:W= @ d :&y
&h, wdthora~np:;cetre& W,.d
,t&&foxe tat . S i r e .m + t d & e :his I&&-

wti~na' .

More circumitances :to -mnQitote:a:*

on human life could not eafily concur; nor
Sridd :odnld..any .@a, aPeO d b n d from
r a r c i a d -:adtpaota@. : - w e : praife .&an &.he
oeutd jdi)ldlaiin bmn:& real merit, ,id&

ampaintame rnobe dadg~rous,than ..&hat

af SavqJe;. .of * ~ ~ b bhmrXe ao 5 t . d .L
m d f i , .&at ,diMes.-?ly .fe~r&ed.aBoPe
272 S A V A G E .
the common level, or virtue refined f r m
p&&, or a g a i d corruption, could
not d y find an abler judge, or a warmer
. . . . . .
What was the refdt of Mq. Savage's ert-
quiry, though he was not much accufiomed
to conceal his dikoveries, it may not be eo-
tirely rafe to relate, becaufe. the perfons whore
~ h a r a a e r she criticifed are powerful; and
power and refentxknt are feldom itrangers;
n6r would it perhaps be wholly j&, b e a u k
what he afferted in conveaation might, though
true in general,. be heightened by foxpe mo-
mentary ardour of imagination, .and, as it
can be delivered only fiom memory, may be
- imperfeQly reprefented ; CO that the pi€ture

at firR aggravated, and then .unikilfully cop&

ed, may be jufily fufpe&ed to retain no great
refemblance of the original.
- .
It map Lowever be obfemed, that he did
not appear to have f m e d very elevated ideas
of thofe to whom the adminiitration. of af-
fairs, or the condutt of parties, has been in-
trufled; who have been confidered as thk ad-
vocates of the crown, or the guardians of
thepeople; and who have obtiined tlie d
implicit confidence, and the loudeit' applaufk.
Of one partictilar perfon, who has been at'.
one tinie fo ,popular as tb be generally efu
teemed, and at another fo firmidable as ta
be uniqerfally deteitect, he obferved, that hia
acquifitions had beerr fmall, or that his cali
pacity was narro-W, and that the whole range'
of his mind was from obfcenity to politics,
from iolitics to obfceditg. q

But the oRportunity of indulging his Ipe-

cuIations ~n . great charaQers was now a t an
end. He was banifhed from the table of
Lord* Tyrconnel, and turned again adriff
upon the world, without pro@e&kof finding
quickly any other harbour. As prudence
was not one of the viriues bp which he was
diiflngtlihed, he had made no p v i f i o n
agbinR. a midortune like thisr A d &m&
' it ibi not; be imftgined but that the fepam
don! mufl for fome time have been precccM'
by coWefs, peevifhnefs, or qk&, tbtrgb
it was undoubtedly the confequencc of accu-
mulate&ptovecations on b& fides;, peb every
one-that knew Savage wit1 readily believe, that
to him it was i'&m as a fkroke of thunder;
VOL. Ill, T that,
that, though he might have tranfiently fuk
peeed it, he had never fuffered any thoughr
fo unpleafing to fink into his mind, but that
he had driven it away by amufements, or
dreams of future felicity and affluence, and
had never taken any meafures by which he
might prevent a precipitation frbm pknty to
indigence. . :

This quarrel and feparation, and the d a d .

culties to which ~ ~Savager . was expofed by
&em, were ibon known both to his friends
and enemies ; nor was . it long before he per-
ceived, from the behaviour of both, how
much is added to the lufire of genius by the
ornaments of wealth. ,

: His condition did not apperti' to. excite

much compafion; for he had not always
been careful to ufe the advantages he en-
joyed 'with that moderation which. ought to
have been with more .than ufual cautiorr pre*
krved by him, who knew, if he had re-
fleaed, that he was only a dependant on the
bounty of another, whom he could expea to
fupport him no longer. than he endeavoured
to preferve his favour by complying with his
S A V A G E . 275
u;dclinations, ahd whom h& nevertblefs let at
.'defiance, and was obntfnually irritating by

.aegligence or encroachments.
- .... .-.

Examples need not be f i g h t at ahp great

difiance to prove;' that f i ~ ~ e r i o r iof' t ~fortune
..ha$ a natural ftendency t o kindle pide, and
that pride feldom fails to exeft itfelf &I c&&
:tempt -,-and infult ; and if this is often the
:effe&.of hereditary wealth, and of honours

..renjdyed anly by the merit .of others, it is

h m e extenuation of any indecent triumph;
.to which this unhappy man may have been
betrayed, that his profperity was heightened
by the force of novelty, 'and, made more in-
toxicating by a fenfe of the mifev in which
'be had fo long languiihed, 'and perhaps of
the infults which he had formerly borne, and
which he might now think himfelf entitled
'to revenge. It is too common for thole who
have unjuitly fuffered pain, to inflia it like-
wife in their turn with the fame injuf ice, and
t o imagine that they have a right to treat
s they have themfelves been treated. .
~ t h e r as
. '. -1.- '

That Mr. Savage was too much elevated

by any good fortune,.is generally known; and
., _ . T2 ibme
forne psffiges of. his Introd&on .to Tbc .A
tbor to be let fufficiently hew9 that be ,did
not wholly refiain from hch i k as he a&
terwards thought very ~njvcit,when he was
sxpofed to it bkkfj for w k 4 be Was
a f t e k d 8 ridiculed ie the cbr&er. of a
&&.refledpoet, he v- eafily dilcwe~ed,that
dids wiy not 3 prqer Mje& h: msmt.
rgent, or topic. of i~v+ive= HQ was than
able to difc~rn,that$ if wifery; bb the
~f virtue, it .wgh~. W bg ra~w~nced-: if of
ill-fortune, to be pitiad.; a d i f of 6ce,
to be_ iqfultqd, bey* it is- pm%aq;)sithlf
puniihmecpt': ;t.*quate to the csime by which
.it mwfpr+. A& €Be h r a p d of~ that
man cap &&rue no pnegyric, w b ;isa p
Me. of reprarching a cchiaat:in tha h;rads.d
h e .p c utioper.

But theb refl&ioqs,, though they &d]r

occurred .to.him in the fi& and l& g a ~ ; Q f
life, wee,. I a m .&ad, fpl a bqpi tim
forgotten;. at lea# they were, Wre maay
other maxims, treafured up iq his +&. rw
ther for h e w than u.fe, and operated very
little upon his condua, however elegantly, he
might fometimea explain, or $owevet fQrci:
bly he might.inculcate,..&ern. - --- -
His d@adation therefitre fidm the condi-
&n which he had enjoyed with fuch wintofi
tk-tkffn'cf~, ddnfideicd by many as an
tmcafim of tkiumph. Th-afe who had before
paid their cdhrt to him withmt fweefg, foon
=turned the contempt dthich they had fuflkr-
ed ; and they who had receivkd favours frbrk
him, for of fuch favours as he could beitow
be was very liberal, &d not al~rrysremern-
- ber rhem. So rrupch more certain are the ef-
feQs of refentni- than of gratitude : it is
not only to matly more pleafine; to recofl&
th& faults which place others below them,
than thok v i ~ u e sby which they are them-
iElves compararively jdeprefid ;but it is like-
wife more eafy to negle&, than tb rq6m-
penl'e ; aqd though there are few +ho will
praaife a laborilom virtue, thkre %ill never
be wanting mukitydes that will i ~ d * e an
eafy vice,

Bavage however *as very Wtile dllfvrbed at

the marks of 'cdtitehhpf wM& his ill-fodhc
brought upon him, &m thoie w h d he
never efleemed, and with whom he never
confidered himfelf" ae level4ed By any cahmi-
des: aad thabgh it %'BB %Pt dviihout fome
T 3 uneafinefk
978 S A'.V - A G' E.
uneaiinels that he faw fome, whole fri'id-,
fhip he valued, ahango their- behaviour ; h e
yet obferved their coldneis without ,much
emotion, confidei-ed them as the flaves 06
fortune and the worlbipers of profperity;
and'was more inclined t s defpife them, than
to lament himfelf.

It does not appear, that, after this return

of his wants, he found mankind equally fa-.
vourable to him, as at his firit appearance in.
the world. His fiory, though in reality not.
lefs melancholy, was lefs affeaing, becauls
it was no 19nger new j it therefore procured
him no new friends; and thole that had for-
merly relieved him, thought they might now
confign him to others. He was now like-
wife confidered by many rathet as criminal,
than as unhappy; h r the fiiends of Lord
Tyrconnel, and of his mother, were luffici-
ently induitrious to publifh his weakneffesl
which were indeed very numerous ; and no-
thing was forgotten, that might make him
either hat&\ or ridiculous., 1
It cannot but be imagined, that luch repre-?
* '
Ewtatio~e6f big faults muit .make $ra num-
# bers
bers lefs fenfible of his diltrefi ; many, who
had only an opportunity to hear one part;
made no icruple to propagate the account.
which they received; many aifified their cir-
. .

culation from malice or 'revenge ; and per-

haps many pretended to credit them, that
they might 'with a better grace withdraw
their regard, or withhold their aGfiance.

Savage however was not one of thoik, who

kf5ered'himklf to be injured without refiit-
ance, nor wr)s lefs diligent in expofing the
faults of Lord Tyrconnel, over whom he ob-
tained at leait this advantage, that he drove
him firit to the pratiice of outrage,and vio-
lence; for he was fo much provoked by the
wit and virulence of Savage,' that he came
with a number of attendants, that did no ho-
nour to his courage, to beat him at a coffee-
houie. But it happened that t.he bad left the
place a few minutes, and his lordhip had,
without danger, the pledure of boafiing how
he would have treated him. Mr. Savage
went next day to repay his vifit at his own
houfe; but was prevailed on, by his domar-
tics, to retire without infilling upon feeing
?l 4 Lord
280 S A V A G E ,
Lord .Tyrconnel was accukd by Mr. Sa-
vage of fome aQiens, which Ecarcely any
provocations will be thought fu&ient to juf-
efy ; fuch as fe'iziag what he had in his
lodgiqgs, d other idlances of wanton'cru- .

elty, by which be incream the difirefs o f

$avage; without any advanrage to kinifelf.

Thefe mutual accufations were retorted on

both fides, for many. years, with the utnsofi
degree of virulence and rage ; and time few1
ed rather to augment than diminiih their re-
ientment. That the anger o f Mr. Savage
fiould be kept alive, is not itrange, becaufe
, . felt every day the con&quences of the

quarrel; but it might reafonably have been

hoped, that Lord Tyrconnel might have re-
lented, and at length have forgot thofe pray
vocations, which, however they might have
Dace inflamed him, had n a in reality much
hurt him.

The fpirir of Mr- Savage indeed never fuf-

&re$ him to S l i d a recmcuiatiae; he r e
turned reproach fbc repoach, and inC& for
i'uatpiiad the diG
infdt; bj, fqeriority of w i ~
advantages of his fortune, and enabled him to
7 form
S A V A G E , 281

&mt~ party, and prejudice great numbers is

- $is h.0ur. .

But though this might be forne g r i t t i f i ~ ~ i o ~

of his vanity, it afforded very little relief to
his neceifities; and ha was very f ~ e q u e n t l ~
reduced to Uncommon hardihips, of which,
however, he never made any mean or im-
portunate complaints, being formed ruher to
bear miCery with fortitude, than enjoy pro-
fperity with moderation.

He now thought hidelf agai-nat liberty to

expie the cruelty of his mother, and there-
*,1- b e b e , a'bout this time, p u b W 4
The w a r d , a poem renoar-krrbb .fgy h vi.
vacious fallies of &h~\rght :,hthe beginai-
-where he makes a pompous enumeration of
the imagiqary advantages of bafe birth.; -and
the pathetic iehtiments at the end, where ho
recounts the real calamities which he fufered
by the crime of his patents.

T h e vigour a d fpirit of the verfes,

culiar circumitances of the author, the novel-
ty d the. fubje&, and the ndtoriety of the
ffory to which the allufiqns are made, pro-
* l
382 S A V A G'E.
eured this performadce a very favourable re:.
ception ; great numbers were immediate1j
difpeded, and editions were multiplied wi&
undual rapidity.

One circumfbnce attended the publicationl

which Savage ufed to relate with great fatis-
faaion. His mother, to whom the poem I
was with " dpe reverence" infcribed, happen- I
ed then to be at Bath, where ihe qould not I
conveniently retire ffom cedure, or conceal
herfelf from obfervation; and no fooner did I

the reputation of the begin to fpread,

than ihe heard it repeated in all places of con-?
courfe, nor could f i e enter the affembly-rooms,
or crofs the walks, without being i'alutcd wit4
Come lines from Fbe BaJard,

This was perhaps the firit time that e v q

fie difcovered
+.,. a fenfe of fhame, and on this
occafion the power of wit was very confpi,
cuous; the wretch who had, without fcru-
ple, proclaimed berfelf 3s adultereis, and who
had firft endeavoured to fiarve her fon, then
'to tranfport him, and afterwards to hang him,
was not able to bear the reprefentation of her
pwn. .condud; but fled from rsproach,'thou&
fhe felt no pain from guilt, and left Bath
with the utnioft'hafie, to ihelter herfelf among
the crowds of London.

Thus Savage had the fatisfatlion of find-

ing, that, though he could not reform his
mother,. he could pllnifh her, and that he did
not always fuffer .alone?.

The pleafure which he received from this.

increafe of his poetical reputation, was fuf-
ficient for fome time to overbalance the mi-.
h i e s of want, which this performance did
not much alleviate; for it was fold for a very
trivial fum .to a b~okfeiler, who, though the
hccefs was ib uqcornmon that five imprei;
iions were #fold, of which many were un-
doubtedly-very numerous, had not generofity
fifficient'to admit the unhappy writer to any
part of the profit.

-.The f& of this poem was always men-

tioned by' Savage with the utmoR elevation
of heart, and referred to by him as an in-
contellable proof of a general acknowledge-'
rnent of his abilities. It was indeed the.only
produaion of which he could juitly boall a
~enerplreceptioq . .

g84 S A V A G E
But thwgh he did not loiie the opportul
nity which fucccfs gave him; of fetting a
high rate on his abilities, but paid due&fe-
rence to the fuffrages of mankind when they
were given in his favour, he did not -fuger
his eiteem of himfelf to depend upoh others,
found any thing facred in r h voice of
the people when they were inclined ro een-
fure him ; he then readily hewed the folly
d erclpe€ting that the publick fiould judge
right, obferved how flow1y poetical merit had
often forced its way into the world; he can,
te~eQ himcelf with the appIanfe of men d
judgement, and was fbmewhat difpofed to
exclude all t h d e fiom the charaaer of men
6fjudgement who did not applaud him,

. But he was at other times more favtiurabIe

to mankind than to think them blind to the
beauties of his works, and imputed the flow-
nefs of their fale to other caufes ; either they
-re publied at a t h e when the town was
empty, or when the attention .of the publick
was engr&d by Kome firug#e in the pariia-
ment, or ibme other obj& of general con-
cern; Dr thej. were by tlie n@e& of the
publifher' not diligently dilperfed, m by his
s A V
.A . a- E:. $83
hirarke not adverttfed 'with fufficient frei
quency. Addids, or induftry, or liberality,
was always wanting; and the blame waslaid
rather on,any perfon ttiin..the authorc

By arts ilk& thefe, arts which every

praeifes in fome degree, and to which too
mpch of the little tranquillity of life is to*be
daiW, Savage WM &aJd abk to b e at
p a c e 4 t h -himielfi Had he indeed onIy
m& uk ofl thek expedients to ~llkvia'tethe
bfsor via& a$ fornine or reputation, pr any
@he &ntage~, which it Is not in
power- m b&bw upon himfelf, they mkht
k e been juitfy. mentioned as infiances cif is
phi1ofop)lieaI mind, and very prcperly. prop-.
fed to. the imitation of multitu&es, who, f o ~
want of dhedng h e i r haginati;ns with &
fawe dcaterity, languifh undhr d i i i o n s
which-might-be eafity &more&

,It were doubtleh t6 be wilhed, that truth

and ~ a f o nwere. unfverfally prevalent; that
thmg were efieemed rccorfing to ite
real valde; and-that men would f i u r t t h e w
felves from being difkppolnted in their en-
deavours after happinefs, bp placing it onlp
in virtue, which is always to be 0btained.j
but if adventitious and foreign plefures mu&
be purfued, it would be perhaps of lbme
beiefit, fince that .puriuit
. - muR fi-equqntly bc
fruitlefs,' if the praaice of Savage could be
taught, that folly might be ,an: antidote. to
one fallacy' be obviated bp another..
c ..

. 'ButThe danger of this pleafing intoxica-

tion muit not be concealed; nor indeed can
any one, after having oblerved the life of
Savage, need to be -cautioned againit it. By
imputing none of his miferies to himfelf, he
continued to a& ,upon the fame principles,
and tb follow the fame path; was never made
wirer by his fufferings, nor preferved by one
'kisfortune from falling into another. He
proceeded throughout his life to tread the
fame.: Reps on the fame circle; always ap-
plabdiag his paR condutt, or a t l e d forget-

ting it, to amufe himfelf with phantoms of

bappine&, which. were dancing :befare him ;
and willingly turned his eyes from the light
of reafon, when it would. have difcovcred the

illufibn, and h e w n him, what h e never wifh-

kd to fee, his real &ate.
, * H eis even accuied, after having lulled his
imagination with thofe'ideal opiates, of hav-
kgtried the fame exp&iment upon his con-
icience ; and, having aceufiomed himfelf td
impute ,all deviations from the right to foe
reign caufes, it is certain that he was -upon
every occafion too eafily reconciled to himfelf,
~ n that
d he appeared very little to regret thofe
praQices which had impaired his reputation.
The reigning error of his life was, that ha
miitook the love for the praQice of virtue,
- and. was indeed not fo much a good man, as
the friend of goodneis.

This at leait mufl be allowed him, that he

always preferved a firong fenfe of the dignity,
the . b;auty, and the necefity of virtue, and
that he never contributed deliberately to fpread
corruption amongit mankind. His aeions,
which were generally precipitate, were often
blameable; but his. writings, being the pro-
duQions of itudy, uniformly tended to the
exaltation of the mind, and the propagation
of morality and piety.

Thefe writings. may improve mankind,

when his 'failings hall be forgotten; and
5 therefore
. <
a86 . . .
S A V A ~ E .
therefore he muit be confidered, upon &C '
khole, as'a b e n e f a h -to the world; nor carr
liis perfonal example do an7 hurt, fincei
k h o e v i t hears o t his faults, will hear of the
miferies which they brought upon Iiim, and
which W O U ~defe&e ~ lets pity, had not his
m&-isri been h c h as made his faiiks para
donable. He may be confidered as a child
a@d. to all the temptations of indigence+
gt a i age when. rahludon m e nut pet
ihengthened by convl&€ion;, nor viit& conr
firme&bp habit ; ai ciicumfiance whiah in' his
BaJzard he laments in &very
ner :
. - .. . . .. .

N a Mother's care
Shielded. my infant inn.0ceni.e'with prayer :
No Father's guardian-hand-my youth maintain'd;
. .
~ a l l ' dforth my virtues, or from vice reltrain'd.

. Z 5 e BaJZaTd, howeser it might provoke o t

kortify hls motlier, could nat be expe€€ed to
melt her to cornpailion, ib that lie was Rill
under the fame want of the nece&ties of life;
and he therefore exerted ad the intereft
which his wit, or his birth, or his misfor-
tunes, coufd procure, to obtain, upon the ,
death of Edden, the place of Poet Lamear;
and profecuted his application with fb mueh
diligence, that the King publickly declared
it his intention to befiow it upon him; but
fuch was the fate of Savage, that even the
Ring, when he intended his advantage, was
. diiappointed' i~ his fchemes; for the Lord
Chamberlain, who has the difpofal of the
laurel, as one of the appendages of his office,
either did not know the King's defign, or
did not approve it, or thought the nomi-
nation of the Laureat an encroachment upon
his rights, and therefore bellowed the laurel
upon Colley Cibber.

. Mr. Savage, thus dirappointed, took a re-

folution of applying to the queen, that, hav-
ing once given him life, ihe would enable
him to fupport it, and therefore publiihed a
ihort poem on her birth-day, to which he
gave the odd title of Voluntetr Laweat. The
event of this eKay he has himfelf related in
.the following letter, which he prefixed to the
poem, when he afterwards reprinted it in
The Gcntlema~z's Mqazinc, from whence I
have copied'it intire*, as this was one of the
few attempts in which Mr. Savage fucceeded.
+ The poem is.inie;ted in the late colle&ion, I

VOL.111. U " Mr.

, .

ec I n your Magazine for February p'm
" publiihed thq lafi Volunteer Lau~eat,writ-
ten m a very ml$ncholy occafion, t h e
" death of the royal patsonefs of arts a n d
. , 6' literature in general, a d of the author of

that poem in particular; I now knd you

- the fir& that Mr. Savage wrote under that
C' title.-This gentleman, notwithfianding a
very confiderable interefi, being, on the
death of Mr. Eufden, difappointed of t h e
Laureat's place, wrote the before-mention-
ed poem ; which was no iboner publiihed,
but t h e late e e e n fent to a bookfeller for
it: the author had not at that time a friend
6' either to get him introduced, or his poem
- II
6' preknted at court; yet fuch was the un-

a Speakable goodnefs of that Princefs, that,

notwithilanding this a& of ceremony was
wanting, in a few days after publication,
Mr. Savage received 2 Bank-bill of
fifty pouncfs, and a gracious meffage
from her Majaty, by the Lord ~ o r t hand '
Guilford, to this effea; " That her Ma-
'' jeAy was highly pleafed with the vedes ;
that, ihe took particularly kind his lines
ph e

then relating to the that hi had

a permiflion to write annually on the fame
fubjee; and that he ihould yearly rekei*
c' the like yrefent, till ibmething better
(which was hhd Majeity's intedtion) could
'K be done for him." iWer this, he was
permitted to pident one of his annual po-
ems to hw Majefiy, had the honour of
k i n g her hand, and met with the mroR
gracious ~ p t i o n . Yours, &C."

Such was the performance, ahd f'ch It(s '

reception; a reception which, though by no
means unkind, was yet not in the high& dea
gree generous i to chain dowh the genius of
a ortriter to an anhual panegyric, fhetlred in
the @een too much deiire of hearing her
own praifees, and d greater regard to IierPelE
than to him on whom her bounty *as con-
ferred. It was a kind of avaricious genero-
fity, by which flattery was rather p~rchared~
than genius rewarded.

Mrs. Oldfield had formerly him the

fame allowance with mueh more heroic in&
tentioh; ihe had no other view than to ena-
ble him t~ profecute his Audies, and to let
U 2 ' himfelf
hidelf above the want of airiitance, and
was contented with doing good without iti-
pulating for encomiums.
Mr. Savage however was not at liberty to !
make exceptions, but was raviihed with the
favours which he had received, and probably
yet more with thofe which he was 'promifeed;
he confidered himfelf now as a favourite of
the Qeen, and did not doubt but a few an-

' nual poems would eitabliih him in ibme pro-

fitable employment.
8 l

He therefore affumed the title of Volunteer
.Laurcat, not -without fome reprehenfions from
:Cibber, who informed him, that the title of l

Lwreat was a mark o f honour confkrred by

the King, from whom all honour is derived,
.and which therefore no man has a right to
beitow upon himfelf; and added, that he
pight, with equal propriety, Q l e himfelf a
Volunteer Lord, or Volunteer Baronet. It
cannot be denied that the remark was juit;
but.Savage did not think any title, which. was
conferred upon Mr. Cibber, fo honourable as
that the ufuurpation .of it could be imputed to
him as an infiance of very esorbitantvanity,
and therefore continued to write uiider the-
fame title, and received every year the fame.
reward, . . , .

H e did not appear to confider there enco- '

rniurns as teRs of his abilities, or as any thing

more than annual hinfs to the. Q e e n of her
promife, or sets of ceremony, by the per-.
formance of which he was intitled to his
penfion, and therefore did not labour then1
with great diligence, or print more than fifty'
each year, except that for fome of the laR
years he regularly inferted 'them in Tbe ,Gen-
tZman's Magazine, by,which they were dif-
perfed over the kingdom,

Of fbme, of them he 'had himfelf fo low^ ,

an opinion, that be intended to omit ihem in

the collefiion of poems, for yhich he printed-
propofals, and iblicited fubfcripdons; nor
can it 'feem itrange, that, being confined to
the fame CubjeQ, he ihould be at ibme times
indolent, and at qthers unfuccef~ful; that h e
mould Bmetimes delay a difagreeable tafk,.

till it was too late to perform it well; or that

he ihould ibmetimes repeat the Came fentirnentl ,
Qn the fame occafion, or at others be miaed - .
U3 '2~
by an attempt aftqr novelty- to forcd c ~ r p
ceptions aed far-fmhed i m a ~ s .

He wmte indeed with a double intention,

wh.ich Eupplied hixq with iblsle waristy; for
his bufiqefs was to praife t h e ' 9 e e n for the.
favours which he had received, &d to
plain to he^ of the delay of t h ~ f which
e ih.e:
had promifed : iq k m e of his piece$; there?.
fore,,' gratitude i.9 predaminant, ;in4 in icme,
dikoqttent; in fo-me he reprefe~ts4imfelf as I
happy in her patronage, and in others as dif-
cqqf$?tg~ to fin4 himielf n e g l e ~ ~ d .

Her promi'fe, like d&eF p r o e f e s made m

this unfortunate man, was never perfhrrned, 1
though he took fufficient care that it Aould
not be forgoken. The publieatibn of his
Vdunteer Laureut procured him no other
~ e w a r dt h a ~a regular rernitta~ce of fifty

He was not fo,degref$ed by hb djfwpoint-

merits, ssto negleo any oppofiunity that w w
offered of dvancirg his interefii When
Princefs Anne vqs married, he wrote a,
poem* upon her departure, only, as he de:
ebred, U becaafe it was expeaed 'from him,"
and he was not ro bar hi; own pro-
,fpe&s by any appearance of negleR

H e never mentioned any advantage gained

by this poem, or any regard that was paid to.
it; and therefore it is likely that it was con-
iidered at court as an a& of duty to which
he was obliged by his dependence, and which
it was therefore not necxirary to reward by
any new favour: or perhaps tbe Qeen really
intended his advancement, and therefors
thought 3 iuperfluoos to lavih prefents upon
a man whom ibe intended to dablifh f o ~
, .

About this time not only his hopes were

$n danger: of being fruftrated, but his pen-
fion likewife of being obfirufied, by an
accidental calumny. The writer of Tbc
DaiIy Courant, a paper then pablifhed under
the direaion of the minifiry, charged him
with#.a crime, which, though not very great:
in idelf, would have been remarkably invi-
dious -in him, and might very jufily have
incenfed the e e e n againit him. H e was
accui'ed by. name of influencing eleQioils
g~air(fithe court, by appearing at the head
4 of
296 S A V A - G E.
of a tory mob; nor did the accufer f ail to
aggravate his crime, by ' reprdenting it as
the effe€t of the moft atrocious ingratitude,
and a kind of rebellion againfi the ' q e e n ,
who had firfi preferved him from an infa-
mous death, and afierwards diflinguiihed
him by her favour, and fupported him by
her charity. The charge, as it was open
and confident, was likewife by good fortune
very particular. The place of the tranfaoion
was mentioned, and the -whole feries of the
rioter's conduLt related. This exa&nefs made
Mr. Savage's vindication eafy; for he never
had in his life feen the place which was d d
dared to be the fcene of his wickednel, nor.
ever had been prefent in any town when its
reprefentatives were chofen. This aniwer he.
therefore made hafie to publifh, with all the
circumfiances neceffary to make it credible;
and v;ry reafonably demanded, that the ac-
cuhtion fhould be retraaed in the fame
paper, that he might no longer fuffer the
imputation of kdition and ingratitude. ?'his
demand was likewife preffed bp him in a
private letter to the author of the paper,
who, either trufiing to the proteaion of
thoi'e whafe defence he had undertaken, or
S A V A G E . 297
having entertained fome peribnal malice,
againp Mr. Savage,' or fearing, leit., by re-
tf&ing fo confident an affertion, he lhould
impair the credit of his gaper, rgf~fsdtq
give him that iatisfktion.

Mr. Savage therefore thought it neceffary,

to his own vi~dication,to profecute him in
t h ~King's Bench; but as he did not And
aqy ill effeas from the accufation, having
Eufficiently cleared his innocence, he thought
any farther procedure would have the ap-
pearance of rvenge, and therefore willingly
dropped it.

H e law foon afterwards a procefs commen~

eed in the fame court againit himfelf, on'an
information in which he was accufed of wrk
ting and publiihing an obfcene pamphlet.

It was always Mr. Savage's defire to be

difiinguifhed ; and, when any controverijt
became popular, he never wanted fome reafon -
for engaging in it with great ardour, and ap-
pearing at the head of the party which he
bad chofen. As he was never celebrated for
#is prudence, h i had no fooner taken his

298 S A V A G E .
fide, and inEormed himfelf d the chief tbs
picks af the dipute, than he taok all opporL
*ties of arming and propagating his
yrrincigles, without much regard to his own
intereft, or any other vifible deiign than
that of drawing upon himfelf the attention
of mankinrt,

' The difpute between the Efiihop of Lon-

don an$ the Chancellor is well known t e
have been fur fume time the chief. topic of

political. mnverhtion; and 'therefore MC.Sa-

wage, in. purfuance of his chm&er, endead
voured to become confpicuous w o n g the
controvertifis with which every coffee-houfe
was. fiM on that occaiioa H e was an in-
&fatiga,ble sppder of a u the claims of eccle-c -
fiafikd power, though he did not know on
what they were founded; and was therefore
PO friend to the B i a o p of London. But he ,

&d another reafon for appearing as a warm

advocate for Dr. Rundle; fot he was ths
friend of Mr. Foficr and Mr. Thomfbn, who
were the fiiende of Mr. Savage,

Thus remote was his. interelt in the q d y

d ~ n which
, however, as he imagined, con?
S A V A G E . 399
cersed hi& fo nearly, ' that it was not fug.
ficient to harangue and .difpute, but neceffiry
Iikewik to write upon it.
H e therefore engaged with great ardour in
a new Poem, called by him, 7be ProgreSJ OJ
Divtnc ;in which he condvtks a profligate
priefi by aH the gradations of wickednefs
from a poor curacp in the country, to the
fiighefi preferments of the church, and de-
icribes with. that humour which was natural
to him, a ~ thatd knowledge which was ,ex-
tended to all the diverfities of human life,
his behaviour in every ftatiqn; and .hfinu-
ates, that this priefi, thus accomplified, found
et kR 1pqtroQ kl t,hq WQP of Londou.

When he*was a&ed by one of his friends,

on what pretence he could charge the bifhop
with fuch m a&€ion, be had no more to fay,
than that he had only inverted the accufation,
and that he thought it redonable to believe,
that he, who ohitrulted the rife of a good
r a n without reaibn, would for bad reafons
promote the exaltation of' a villain.

The clergy were univerfally provoked by

this i'atite; and Savage, who, +I was his
? c~nitant
conRant praaice, had fet his name tb his
performance, was c&hred in 7dc . Weekly

M$dlany* with fevirity, which he did.not

feem inclined to forget
A &ort fatire was likewXe piblilhed in the fnmt p a p , is
which, wpre the following lines:
For cruel murder doom'd tq liempen death,
Sqvage, by royal grace? prolpng'd his breath.
Well'might you think he Qent'his !uture yews '
I n prayer, and f&ng, and repentant teais.
-But, 0 vdn hope !-the truly Saviige cries,
ss Priefis, and t4eir flaviih dotbines, I defpife.
shall I-
" who, by fiee-thinking to f r e ~allion fir'd,
I n midnight brawls a deathMs name acqair'd, . ,

* c Now itoop to learn of ecdetialtic men ?-

as -No, arm'd with rhyme, at priefis I'll take my aim,
!! Though prudence bids me murder but their fame."

Ap anfwer Was publified jn The Gcntlemrm'r ilfqaz~kc~

written by an unknown hand,' from which the followin
lines are GleRed :
Transform'd by thoug4tlefs rage, and midnight wiqe,
From malice free, and pufh'd without dcfign;'
In equal brawl if Savage lung'd a thruil,
And brought the youth a vittim to the duft i
So firong the hand of accident appears,
T h e. royal
. hand from guilt and vengeance clears,
Idlead of wafing all thy future years,
Savalp, in p r n e r and vain repentant tears;"
S A V A G E . 301

But a return of inveaive was not thought

a fufficient puniihment. The Court of King's'
.Bench was therefore moved againit him, and
he was obliged to return an anfwer to a
charge of obfcenity. It was urged, in his
defence, that obicenity was criminal ' when
it was intended to promote the praQice of
vice; but that Mr. Savage had only intro-
duced obfcene ideas, with the view of ex-
.poiing them to deteitation, and of amending
.the age, by hewing the deformity of wick-
ednefi. This plea was admitted; and Sir

Exert thy pen to mend a vicious age,

T o curb the prieit, and fink his high-church rage;
To ihew what frauds the holy veitrnents hide,
T h e neRs of av'rice, luit, and pedant pride ;
T h e n change the fcene, let merit brightly fhine,
A n d round the patriot w i R the wreath divine;
T h e heavenly guide deliver down tq fame;
I n well-tun'd lays tranfinit a Fofter's name;
Touch every pa5on with harmonious art,
Exalt the genius, and correCt the heart.
T h u s future times mall royal grace extol ;
T h u s poliih'd lines thy prefent fame enrol.
-But grant-
-Maliciou!ly that Savage plung'd the Reel,
And made the youth its lhining vengeance feel;
My foul abhors the a&, -the man deteits;
But more the bigotry in prieRfy breafts.

. .. . I Philip
3a2 S A 'Ct A - G g.
Philip Yorke, who then prefided- that ,
court, diiiniffed the information with enca- 1

miums upon the purity and excellence of Mr.

Savage's writi~gs.
The profecution, however, a n k e d in l

iome meaiitre the purpofe bf thofe by whom

it was fet on foot ; for Mr. Savage was fo fa
intimidated by it, that, when the edition of'
.his poem was ibld, he did not venture to lie- 1

print it; fo that it was in a ihort time f q t -

ten, or forgotten by all but thofe whom it of-

It is faid, that ibme eadeavours were uied

to incenfe the e e e n againR him: but he ,
found advocates to obviate at leaa part of their
effea ; for though he was never advanced, he
itill continued to receive his peniion.

This poem drew m m infamy upon him

than any incident of his life; a d , as his
condua cannot be vindicated, it is proper to
fecure his memory from reproach, by inform..
ing thofe whom he made his enemies, that he
never intended to repeat the provocation ;and
that, though, whenever he thought he had
S A V A G E .
redon to complain of the clergy, he uCca
to threaten them .with a new edition of. 5%
Progr~$of r Divinc, it was his calm and [et-

&ledreiblution to fupprefs it for ever. .

. .

H e once intended to have made a better

reparation. for. the folly .or injufiice -*ith
which he might be charged, by writing an-
. other poem, called Tbc ProgreSp of o Free-

thinker, whom he intended to kad through

all the Rages of vice and folly, to convert
him from virtue to wkkednefs, and from re'T
ligion to infidelity, by a11 the modiih f~phX-
try ufed for that purpofe; and at Iait to dice
mifs him by his own hand into the other
. ~orld, , .

m a t he did not execute this defign is a

real lofs to mankind, for he was too well ac-
quainted with all the fcenes of debauchery to
have. failed in MS reprerentations of them;
and too zealous for Bfrtue not to have repre-
fented them in fuch a manne'r as fhould ex-
pofe them either to ridicule or deteftation,

But this plan was, Kke other^, formed and

kid afide, till the vigour of his imagination
was fpent, arid tlie eSrvefcence of invention a

had fubfided; b i t foon gave way to fome

other dkfign, which pleafed by its novelty for
a while, and then was neglded like the

We was hill in his u h exigencies, having

no certain fupport but the penfion allowed
him by the Queen, which, though it ~hight
have kept an exa& ceconomifi from want,
was very far from being f d c i e n t for Mr. Sa-
vage, who had never been accuitomed to difi
mifs any of his appetites without the gratifi-
cation which they folicited, and whom nothing
but want, of money withheld from partaking
of every pleafue that fell within his view.

His condue with regard to his penfion was

very particular. No fooner had he changed
the bill, than he vanihed from the fight df all
his acquaintances, and lay for fome time out
of the reach of all the enquiries that friend-
ihip or curiofity could make after him ; at
length he appeared again pennylefs as before,
but never informed even thofe whom he
ieemed to regard mofi, where he had been,
nor was his retreat ever difcovered.
8 This
This was his conftant praaice during the'
w h o k time that,he received the ~ e n f i o nfrom
the Qeen: H e regularly difappeared and re;:
turned. H e indeed affirmed that he retired
to hudy, and that the money fupported him
in folitude for many months ; but his friends
declared, -that the ihort time in which it was
fpent Lfficiently confuted his ~wn'accountof
his C O ~ ~ U Q *

His politenet and his wit Rill raked hini

friends, who were defirous ,of letting him at
length free from that indigence by which he-
had been hitherto oppreffed; and therefore
folicited Sir Robert Walpole in his favour
with ib much earnefinefs, that they 'obtained
a promile,~fthe next place that ihouid %-
come vacant, not exceeding two hundred
pounds a .ykar. This promile w a s made
with an uncommon declargti.on, that it. .was :. .
" not the promife of a miniiter to a pet+
" tioner, but. of a friend to his friend," .

Mr. now concluded hirnlelf fit at

eafe for ever, and, as he obferves in a poem
written on that incident of his life, .truited
VOL.111. X 2nd
'306 S A V A G E .
and was trufied ; but foon found that 'his
-confidence was ill-grounded, and this friend-
ly promife was not inviolable. We Cpent a
.long time in folicitatio~s,and at l& defpair-
- ed and defined.

H e did not indeed deny that.he had given

-the minifter fome reafon to .believe that he
fhoild not frengthen his own interefi by ad-
vancing him, for he had taken care to diitin-
guiih himfelf in eofke-houfes as an advocate
.for the miniftry of the l& years of @een
'Anne, and was always ready to j uw the
condu&, and exalt the charaaer of Lord Bo-
'lingbroke, whom he melitions with great re-
gard in an epiMe upon authors, which h e
wrote about that time, but was' too wife to
-publiih, and of whieh bnly . ibrne fngments
:have appdared, incertrted by him in the Maga-
zine after his reti.rement. t

T o defpair was not, however, the charac-

ter of Savage; when one patronage failed,
'he' had recoirfe to another. The.pGnce' was
n o w e x t r e ~ l ypop~lar,and had, very libe-
-rewer&d the, merit of fome .writers
. 1
I whom I
wbom Mr. Savage did not think fuperior to
himfelf, and therefore he reiblved. to addrefs
a poem to him.

For this purpofe he made choice of a fub-

j&, which could regard only perfons of the
highefi rank and higheit affluence, and which
was therefore proper for a poem intended to
procure the patronage of a prince ; and ha-
ving retired for forne time to. Richmond, that
he might profecute his d e f p in full tranquil-
lity, without the temptations of plealure, or
the felicitations of creditors, by which his
meditations were in equal danger of being
difconcerted, he produced a poem On Public
spirit, with regard to Pu6lic Works.

. The plan of this poem is very extenfive,

and compriLes a multitude of topics, each of
which might furni# matter fufficient for a
losg performance, and of which forne have
already employed more eminent writers ; but
as he was perhaps not 'fully acquainted with
the whole extent of his own deiign, and

was writing to obtain a fupply of wants too

preifing to admit of long or accurate enqui-
ries, he paires negligently over many publick
X 2 works,
308. S A V A G E .
works, which, even in his own opinion, de-. ~
ferved to be more elaborately treated.
But though he may fometimes difappoint
his reader by tranfient touches upon thefe
fubjeQs, which have often been confidered,
and therefore naturally raiik expe&ations, he
mufi be allowed amply to cornpenfate his'
omiGons, by expatiating, in tlie conclufion'
of his work, upon a kind of beneficence notp
yet celebtated by any eminent poet, though ,
it now appears more fufceptible of embelliih-
ments, more adapted to exalt the ideas, and
affeQ the paifions, than many of thofe which
have hitherto been thought inofi worthy of'
the ornaments of verfe. The fettlement of.
colonies in uninhabited countries, the efia-
bliflrment of thofe in fecurity, whofe misfor-
tunes have made their own country no ldnger
qleafing or fafe, the acquifition of property I
without injury to any, the appropriation of
the wafle arid luxuriant bounties of nature,.
and the enjoyment of thofe gifts which hea-.
ven has fcarteted upon regions uncultivated
and unoccupied, cannot be confidered with-,
out giving rife to a great number of pieafing
ideas, and bewildering the imaginatian in de-
- . lightf~il
S A V A G E . 309
lightful profpeQs ; and, therefore, whatever
- fpeculatious they may produce i n thofe who
have confined themfelves to political fiudies,
nrtturaily fixed the attention, and excited the
applaufe, of a poet. The politician, when
he confiders men driven into other countries
for ihelter, and obliged to retire to foreits and
defxts, and pals their lives and fix their poC-
terity in the remotcit corners of. the world,
to avoid thofe hardhips which they fuffer car
fear in their native place, may very properly
enq;ire, why the legiflature does qot provide
a .remedy for thefe miieries, rather than e n ~
courage an efcape from them. H e may con-
clude, that the Aight of every honeit man is a
lofs to the community ; that thofe who are
unhappy without guilt ought to be relieved i
and the life, which is overburthened by acci-
dental calamities, let at eafe by the care of
the publick ; and thrtt tIrofe, who have by mif-
condua forfeited their.claim to favour, ought
rather to be made uieful to the lociety which
they have injureh, than driven f r h n it. But
the poet is employed in a more pleafing
undertaking than that of propofing laws,
which, however juit or expedient, will never
be made, or endeavouring to reduce $9. ra-
X 3 tional
tional'fchernes of jpvernment focicti& which
were formed by chance, and are condutted
by the private paGons of thofe who prefidc'
in them. H e guides the unhappy fugitive
from want and yerfeution, to plenty, quiet,
and fecurity, and feats him in fcenes of
.peaceful folitude, .and undiililrbed repofe.

Savage has not forgotten, amid6 the plea-

fing fentiments which this proCpec3 of retire-
ment fuggefied to him, to ceufure thofe
crimes which have been generally committed
'by fhe difcoverers of new regions, and to ex;
the emrmous wickednefs of making wai
upon barbarous nations hecaufe they cannot
yew, and of invading countries becaufe they
are fruitful ) of extending navigation only t~
propagate vice, and of vifiting diitant land4
only to lay them wage. -He has airerted the
natural equality of mankind, and endeavour-
ed to fupprefs that pride which inclines men
t o imagine that right is the codequence
.- , of

His defcription of the various miferie~

which force men to feek for rehge in diitant '

, ,
affords another
. -
inhnce of his pro-
S- A V . - A G E, 311 .
ficiency in the important and extenfive itudy
of human life; and the tendernefs with
which he recounts them, another p r o d of
hi humanity and benevolence.

It is obfemable, that the clofe of this poem

difcovers a cbs~gewhich experience had made
in Mr. Savege's opinions, In a poem qrritten
by him in his youth, and pubiiihed in his
Mikelhaies, he ;declares .his contempt. of the ,

contraeed views and narrow profpeas of the

middle itate of life, and declares his refolution
either to tower like the cedar, or. be trampled
like the ihrub ; but in this poem, thaugh ad*
dreffed to a prince, he mentions this h t e of
life. as comprifing thoie. who w g h t moit to
attraa reward, thok who merit mofk the
confidence of power, and the familiarity of
greatnefs ; and; accidentally mentipring this
yaffage to me of his friends, declared, that
in &s opinion all the virtue of mankind was
comprehended in that itate,

I n defcribing villas and gardens, be did not

.omit to condemn that abfurd cufiom which
prevails among the Engliih, of permitting
krvants to receive money from firangers for
X 4 the
the entertainment that they receive, there.
fore inierted in his thefelines ;

But what the flowering pride of,gardens rare,

However royal, or however fair,
If gates, which, co accefs could itill-give way,
U ape but, like peter!; paradife,. for. pay? . ..
If pcrquifitcd varlets frequent Rarid, ,

- And each new walk'mi~kg new tax demand 3

What foreign eye but ;with contempt'furrreys? .
B What Mufe &all f w ~ qobliyion . . friatch their
praire $ . .

But before the publication of his pedormt

ance he recolletted, that the Qeen .allowed
her garden and cave a t Richmond to .be
fiewn for money, and thqt f i e io openly
countenanced the pmLtice, that he.had be?
flowed the privilege of hewing them as a
place of profit. on a man, whpfe merit fie
valued halelf upon rewarding, t h ~ u g hihe
gave him only the liberty of difgracing his
country. . .

He therehre thought, with more prudence

than was often exerted by him, that the pub7
lication of thefe lines might be officioufly re=
,. . as an i n h l t upw the @een, to
wh&-iy,,he d d his life and his fubiiftence;
and that the propriety of his obfemtion
would be no fecurity .againit the cenfures
krhich thd unkafonablinefs of it might draw
upon him;; he therefore fippreffed the paKage
in' the firR edition, .but after ,the G e i n ' s
death thought the d m e caution no longer
neceffary, and refiored' it to the propor
*lace,, . - - - - - ., - ,
I .

The poem was theqpfoye publiihed with-

&it any- bliticil -faifis; and infcribed t o the
Pritlce; but Mr. ~ & a i e , having .no. . friend

upon' whom he could prevail to prefent it to

.him, had .no other ,.mkthod of attraating, his
dbkrvation than the. publication of frequent
ndvertifernents, and therefore received no re-
&&d from his patrqp, however generous on
.@her occafionb. : . .
.. , .
... .

: This difappojntment he never mentioned

'without indignation, being by fome means or
other confident that the Prirlce was not igno-
rant of his. addrei's to him; and infinuated,
that, if any advances in popularity could
have been made by diitinguifhing him, he l

4 had ,
had not written without naticc, OS without

. He was once iscliaed to b a v ~psedktd

his poem in perfos, and fent to tBe ptinter
for a copy with that d d p ; but either his
opinion, changed, or. his rdoiution deferted
him, and he continued XQ .rcknt negM
without 'attempting to force hiflf iw '

. . . . ,

~ b ,wras the publick mueh more favwmble

than his -patron, - for 'only kventy-two wae
'fold, though the performance W& much

'commended by fome whore judgement iq

that kind of writing.H g e n u a l l ~allowed,
But Savage eafily rec~inciledhimfelf to mm-
kind without imp{ti-ig myy l h$
work, b y . ~ b h r v i n gthat his p- was uw
luckily publilhed two days after the proro-
gation of the parliament, and by confequmce
at a time when all. thofe who could be ex-
peaed to regard it were in the hurry of pre-
paring for their departure, or engaged in
2aking leave of others upon their difrniaon
V -from public
. . affairs.
S.A: V A G E. 31s
It mu8 be however allowed, in juRifi&
-of the public,. that this performance is not
the- m& excellent of Mr. Savage's works; .
a d t h a t though it cannot be denied to cow
tain many itriking fentiments, majeitic fines,
and jufi obfervations, it is in general not rid-
ficigntlp poEfhed in the language, or er4iVe.n-
cd in the imagery, or d i g e h d in the plan, -,

Thrus his poem contributed nothing to-the

alleviation of his poverty, which was fuch
as very few' could have fuppurted with equal
patience; but to which i t . muR S i w X e be
confeffed, that few would have been expofed
who received pun&ualIy fifty pounds a year;
a falary which, though by no irteans equal to
the demands of vaxiity and luxury, i s yn
found fufficient to fupport families above
want, and was undoubtedly more than the
. . .
wcefities of life require.

But no fooner had he received his pencon,

than he withdrew to his darling privacy, from
which he returned in a ihort time to his for-
mer difireii, and for fome part of the year
generally lived hy chance, eating odly when
be y s invited to *e tables of his acquaint-
316 S A V A G.E
ances,' 'fro'm ' which the meahnefs of his
h i s .ofien excluded him, when the .polite-
n& and variety of his converfatio~ would
have been tho.ught a. fufficient rw.~mpence.fq
. .
his ihtertainment. . ..-

. . -. .

- He
, lodged as much by' accident as he
dined, and paged the night- iome$imes .in
mean .houfes, which are fet open at night to
ahy cafuft' wanderas, fornetiws . i n . cellars
among the riot. and filth of tht mpanefl arid
m& profligate of the rabble;. a& fometimes,
when' he had not money to . f u p p ~ . e v e nthe
expences of thefe kkeeptacles,. walked about
the itreets till he .pras weary,, and :lay - down
in the ium~neru p . = bulk, o r in,?& winter,
with his arociates . in poverty, among the
aihes of a gldshoufe. . . .. . . .
- 2 . . .
In this manner were' paged th&. days and
thofe nights which nature had enabled him
to have employed in -elevated fpeculatians,
uf'eful fiudies, or pleafing converlation. On
a bulk, in a cellar, or in a glds-houk among
thieves and beggars, was to be found . the

Author of I'he BTandercr, the man of ex-

alted fentiments, extedve views, qnd cue-
ous obfeivations; the man whofe remarks on
lifk might hare aifified the fiateiinan, whofe
ideas of virtue might have enlightened the
moraliit, whofe eloquence might have influ-
enced ienates, and whofe delicacy might have
polifhed courts.
..: . 4 . . .

I t cannot-but be imagined that fuch ~ e c e &

fities might fometimes force him upon dii-
reputable. pra&2ces: and. it. is probable that
thefe lines in Tbe Wanderer were occaiioned-
by his refleoions on his own condua :
.. - ,

Though mifery leads to happinefs, and truth,

Unequal to the load, this languid youth,
(0,iit none cenfurc, if, un&icdby grief,
If, arnjdfi woe, untempted by relief,)
He itoop'd reluttant to low arts of hame,
Which then, ev'n then he fcorn'd, and.bluihgd
m name. , ,

Whoever was acquaintid with him .was

certain to be iblicited for fmall fums, which
the .- frequency. of' the zequefi made in time
confiderable, and he was rherefore quickly
fhrtnned. by :thofe' who. were become ,fa&-
liar..enough:to be trufied with his necejlities ;
bir his' rambling :manner of life, and conitant
- . .I appearance
appearance at h d m of public di,al-
ways procured him a newr fucdxon of
friends, whore - kindnefi had not been ex-
Baufted by repeated requefts ;Ib that he ww
Mdom abiblutety without refources, but had
in his utmoit exigencies this. comfort, that
he always imagined himfez fiue of $eedr

- It m s obferved, that he always ailred fa-

murs of this kind without the kaft fubmifiion
or apparent confioulneiii of dependence, and
tha he did not reem to i d upon a corn-
pli~ncewith his requefi as an obligation that
dderved afiy extraordinary acknowledge-
ments; but a refufd was refented by him as
an &ont, or complained of as an injury;
hm djd he readily reconcile biwfelf to thofe
who either denied to lend, . or gawe him
&erwards any intimation that they expeaed
to be repaid.

Re wiu, ibmetimes b far c~unp-d

by th& who Enew both his e t and dif-
hteifes, .that they received hi= into their 6-
milk, but they foon difcomr:ed.hirpto be a
very incornmodiuuo %mate; for, king d-
ways accrdtomed txa m i r r r g u k manner of
l&, .he c d d not confine himcelf t o Bnj
Aated .hours, or pa7 regard $0 'the rules
of a family, but .W& prolong his- coner-
Cation till :midnight, without confi&ring that
bufmek might require his friend's application
in the morning; and, d e n he had perfded
hidelf to retire to bed, was not, without
equ,al difliculty, cal.kd up to dinner; it y;ls
therefore impoGble to pay him. any difiinc-
tion without the entire fubverfion o f , all
ceconomy, a k,iisd. of efiabliihment- which,
wherever he went, he always appeared am-
bitious to overthrow.

It muR therefore 'be ackneledged, in'

jufification of -mankind, that it was not al-'
ways b~ the negligence or coldnefs of 'his
Gentis that Savage was diitread, but becauie
it -was in 'reality verp' dScult to preferve 'him
long in a h t e of cafe. T o fupply him with
money was -a'hopelefs 'sattempt; for no fooner
did he-he .himklf rnafter of a fum fufficient
t o -Eet him fiee :fmm a r e for a day, than' h i
b&mc profuii and .luxurious. w h e n m e
he $ad entered a tavern, or engaged i n a-
&henrc of -pleaiure, he.'neyer retired fill want
320 S A V A G E :
of money obliged him to fome new e x p e
dient. If he was entertained in a ' family,
nothing was any longer to be regarded .there
b<t amufexnents and jollity; wherever Savage
entered, he immediately expe&ed that order
and bufinefs ihould fly before him, that all I
ihould thenceforward be left to hazard, and
that no dull principle of domefiic ,manage&
ment ihould be oppofed to his inclination, or
intrude upon his gaiety. ,I

His diflreffes, however affliaitre, never de-

je,&ted him; in his lomefi h e he wanted not
fpirit to affert the natural digriity of -wit, and
was always ready to reprefs that infolence
which fuperiority of fortune incited, and - to
trample on that reputation which rofe upon
any other bails than that of peri it: he never
admitted any grofs familiarities, or. hbmitted
. to be treated otherwife than as an equal.
Once, when he was without lodging, - - meat,
or tlothes, one of his friends, a maq not in-
deed remarkable for moderation in his pro-
fperity, left a meffage, that he defired to. fee
him about nine in the morning. Savage
knew that his intention was to a&fi him; but
upas very much difgufted that he ihauld pre-.
S A V A G E * 321

fume to prefcribe the hour of his attendance;

and, I believe, refufed to viGt him, and re-.
je&ed his kindnefs;

The fixhe invincible temper, whether firm-

nefs or obftinacy, appeared in his condue to
the Lord Tyrconnel, from whom he very
frequently demanded, that the allowance -
which was once paid him ihould be reitored;
but with whom he never appeared to enter&
tain for a moment the thought of ibliciting
a reconciliation, and whom he treated a t
once with all the haughtinefs of fuyeriority,
and all the bitternefs of refentment. He
wrote to him, not in a fkyle of fupplication
or reipea, - but of reproach, menace, and
contempt; and appeared determined, if he
ever regained his allowance, to hold it only -
by .the right of conquek

. As
, . many more.can dilcover, that a man
is richer than that he is wifer than themfelves,
i'uperiority of underitanding is not fo re,adily
'acknowledged as.that of fortune; nor is that
haughtinefs, which the coni'cioui'nefs of great ' i

abilities incites, borne with the fame hbmir-

VOL.111. 'Y iion
322 S A V ' A G E.
fion as the tyranny of afftuence; and thetp-
fore Savage, by aKerting his claim to dkfe-
rence and regard, and by treating ihofe with
contempt whom better fortune animated to
rebel againR him, did adt fail to raife a great
number of enemies in the different daffes of
mankind. Thofe who thotrght themfelves
raifed above him by the advantakes of riches,
hated him becaufe th+ fodnif do prot&ion
from the petdance of'hls wit. Thofe who
were eiteemed for th&r writihgs fkhfed him
as. a critic, and maIigned liim a rival, and
drnofi all. the f d l e r wits were h b pi6feffd

Among the6 Mr. Miner To far indulge-d

- his rekntment as to introduke hit& in Tard,.
and difea him to be perionated on the &ige,
in a drefs like which he then wore; a:
mean infult, which only infinuated that Sa-
vage had but one coat, and which was there-
fore defpifed by him rather than rdented;
for though he wrote a lampoon againit
Miller, he never printed it: and as no other
perfon ought to profecute that revenge from
\vlGch the perfon who was injured defified,
I ftlall
3 A V A 6.E. 32 j
I i h a i nbt p r e i e h what Mr. Sa+age fup-
pieied :' of t~hichthe publkadon Would in-
deed have been a puniihrncnt too ievere .&
fo impotent an arault. .

TI& great had&ips' d pciveitp were to

Sa+age not the want of lodging or df food;
but thd" &&l?& and contempt which it drew
upon him. He c.omplained, that as his
A%irs grew defpekte, he found his repu-
tation for tapacity vifibiy decline; that his
6piriiod i h qiefiions .of criticif? w a s no
loiiei i+rded; ++hen h i s coat was out of
FiYhion; and that thofe who, in the interval
of hP i)rdpeAij, &ere al-s ericouraging
him to grbt ii'ridertaki'ngs by encomiuins on
e s iutcifs, now re-
his genius and ~ ~ u r a n c of
ceived aiiy mention af his de'iigns with cold-
nkfs, thought that tHe iubjees on which he
pi.opdied rb write were very ditficult, and
were read'' to inform him, that the eveht .of
a poem dPzls nkcertain, that an author duglit
to emplby much time in the confideraiion of
&is plah, and not prefume to fit down to
write is confidence of a few curiory idea,
and a fuperficial knowledge; difficulties were
Y2 fiarted
fiarted on all iides, and he was no longet
qualified for anp performance but Tbc VoZun-
t , ~aui-eai.
~ . .

. I

Yet even this kind of contempt never. ded

~reITedhim; for he always prderved a Rcady
confidence in his own capacity, and.believed
bathing above his reach which he fhould at
any time earnefily endeavour to attain. He
' . forked fchemes of the &me kind with regard
to knokledge and to fortune,, and flattered
himfelf :with advances to be made . in. fcience,
as with riches, to be enjoyed in fome difiant
period of his life. For the acquifition of
knowledge -,he was indeed far better iudified
than for that of riches; for he was naturally
inquifitive and defirous of the convedation
of thofe ,horn whom any information was to
be obtained, but by no means iblicitous to
improve thoik opportunities that were fome-
times offered of raifing his fortune; and h e
was remarkably retentive of his ideas, which,
when once he was in poffefion of them,
rarely foribok him; a quality which could
never be communicated to his money,
While he was thus' wearing our his life in
expeltation that the Qeen would Bmi'time
recollea her promXe, he had r e c o d e to !he
yiual pr&.ice of writers, and pvblifhed pro?
pofals f& ,printing his works by i$E,ription,
. . he was encouraged by .the fuqcels; of

many ,who had not a.

. , a ., better
right to' the
- A . &

favour of the publick'; hut, whatever. wab the

rearon, he did not h d the world .equally

inclined to favour him; and he obferved

with hme difcontent, tkat, though. he o s r -
ed ,his .works at half a guinea, h6 was abie
to .proCure 'but a: fmall 'number .in - com-
parifon.:dth - thok :who iubkribed twice as
mucb'to Duck, . :. .: .- . . .

.. . , . - -
. .

Nor was it Githolit - indignation that he

f& his propbfals ncgkLted bj- ;h&' e e e. n ,.
who patroniied M;. Duck's with uncommon
ardour, and incited a competition.among thofe
who attended the court, who ihould moit
promote his inter&, and who- ihould firft
offer a fubfcription, This wasA=d i k n a i o n
to which Mr. Savage made no fcdple of af-
rerting that his birth, his misfortunes, and
his genius, gave him .a fakkr title, than
Y 3 could
could be. pleaded
.. . ... on
. by. hiG , , as

Savage's applications were however qot

tmivedally unfuccefsful ; for fome of the $0-
bifity. countenanced
.. his defign, encouraged
hispropofals, and fubfcribed kith g r % l i k
r&ty. H; related df the ~ u k of e Chindog
p~rticularly, that, upon
. . receiving . . iropo-
. . his
lids, he ient him ten p i n e &

But the money which his fubkriptioni af?

forded him was not lefs volatile than that
which .he .received from his mha icbapes ;
sehcaev~ra fubfctiption was. paid him, he '

went to a tavern ; 'and, as moniy io coll&ed

is neceffarily received in fmall fums, he
- .. . -' to fend
never -. his p o e q t+, the
P refs, but for many years qontinued & foljcir
ption, a i d iipandered whatever he ob$qed.

T h i s projeQ of printing his works was

frequently . rcvived;
. . . and, as . his pz~pbls. .-

grew obfolete, pew on& were 'pjqted -yitl)

frerher dates.,. ' To form f&erqe(? t b r.-.
. t b pub-
Jication wwone of his favourite arpufewats
. . was
,por . 6'e
. Cver
. mogeat
. eaie
. ..
&aq. - &hF% ,

. S A V A G E . 327
with any friend who. readily. fell-in with his
. I . he was a ~ u l t i n gthe print, forming

the advertifements, and regulating the dif-

pkrfion of hi's new &%on, which he really
intendxl fo& time . to
. , . publiih, A d w h i c h ,

3s long as experience had. fhewn him the

impofiibility of printing the volume together,
he atlaR determined to divide into weekly
or qonthly numbers, thqt the profits of
the might fupdy the expenccs of th!

Thus he fpent his time in mean expedi-

ents and tormenting fufpenfe, living for the
greatefi part in the fear of profecutions fiom
his creditors, and conf'equently ikulking i l
bbrcure parts of the jown, of which. he was 1 .

np ifranger
. . . to the remotefi corners. B U , ~
&herever he came, his 'addreis 'iecured him
friends, whom his neceGties foon alienated;
... .
fo t .h. . t he kad ,..
. a more numerous ac-
qu?i+nce than any man ever before at-
. , .... there being f i e l y any *erron
. . erni-

nent on any acFount to whom b . w a s not

. m or whofe +ara&er he was not in
@me degree able to de1ineit.e.
338, ' S A V A G E .
T o the acquifition of this extenfive acy
quaintance every circumfiance of his life con:
tributed. H e excelled in the arts of conver-
fation, and-therefore willingly praaifcd !hem :
H e had feldom any home, or even a-lodging
in' which he could be private i and therefore
was driven. into ,
public-houiks for the common
conveniences of life and i&orts of haturei
H e was always ready to . comply
. . with every
invitation, having 'no .employment to with- ,
hold him, and often no money to provide for
himfelf; and by dining with one companyz
6k never failed of obtaining an introdudon ,

' .

Thus difipated was hig life, and thus car
I fual his fubfifience; yet did not the diitratlion '
of hie.views hinder him frdm refleetion, nor
the unFertainty
. . of his condition deprefs his
gaiety. When he had wandered about with-
but any fortbnate adventure by which.h;'was
3ed into a tavern, he ibmetimes retired into
*he fields, and wis able to &mildyhis mind in
, fiudy, or Pmufe it with' pleaGng imaginations ;
and feldom appeared to be melancholy, but
when fome fudden misfortune 'had juit falleh
ppo? him and even, then in
1 .
a few moments
- he
, I
S A V A G E . ' 3ig
he would difentangl& himGlf from his per-
plexity, adopt the fubje& of converfition,
and apply his mind wholly to ;ehe objeag that
others prefefited to it.
> . . . . .. - ..
1 . , .
I .
. .

. .
This life, unhappy as it may be already
. . yet imbittered, in 1738, with
imagined, .was
new' calamities. $he death of the @em de-
prived him of all the profpeas of preferment
with which- he. fo long entertained his imagi-

nation ; and, as Sir Robert 'VValpole had be-

fore given him reafon to believe that he never
&tended the performance of his promife, he
:was now abandoned again to fortune.

H e was *however, at that time, fupported

bf a friend; and as it was not his cufiom to
'look dut for dinant calamities, or to feel any
other'pain than that which forced itfelf upon
his iknfes, he was not much afflieed at his
lots, and perhaps comforted himfelf that his
penGon would be now continued without the
annual tribute of a panegyric.

Another expeaation contributed likewife to

fupport :him: he had taken a reiolution to
gPrite a fecond tragedy upon the itory of Sir
33Q . .S . A V . A G E.

, l ' , . . Ovsbyyy,
Thorna, . a .. . in- which he prdemed a
fpw liws . . , of hi? f o y q p play, b q a.tot+
J .I, . . of tbe plan, added pew incidents,
and introduced new chwq&ters;.#I I '. .
$0' that it
was a new tragedy, not a revival of the
. ,. . .

. &+y pf bis friends
.. -ktameg him fq not
making cboic; of another fib&&; but, in
$&cation c$ hidelf, he pffiytcd, thin i t
W* not $7 to fin$ 9 better ; and that-he
... . it his intereR to ~illguiih
thayght the F-
of the firit tragedy, which he could
onli do by writing,one let6 defeai~eupqn the
fame fiory ; by which he fhould entirely de-
f e a ~the grtifice.of tbc bqoldel!~:?, who, after
ihs death of any author of reputatian, are
jijurais indu.firioas
,. to iwell.his 'korks, by upi-
jipg his wori pr~duaitiongwith his beb. I!

In the ellrecution. of tbk .fch.emc, ,hswever,

he prgceeded but Qowly, and .pp&ibly only
employed himfelf upori it when he could find
no other amufement ; but he pleafed himleelf
yirhxpuntjng the profits, and pqhqps ipagi-
. ged, that
' , the
. .theatriFal spputation which he

I abgut
. . ., tp acquire,
. - . . V O ~ Qbi equivalent to
. .
I all
S A V A G E . S . 33 7
all that he kd loR by the death- of his pa-

We diP not, ip co.nfic?e&e qf his ap~?cb:

ing riches, neglea the pr&ey2-@
cure the continuance of his penfion, though
fame of &S favourprs thou& . .., .. h@ , y l ~ b h

fix. a&ting
. . , w&te
, _ . . , . . to . . / on- $er .d$*
, , _ , i 04
her birthaay r+eq;t yea?, h e g a m a . prod of
~9 folidity of his juflgerpent, aqd the pswer d

d his gepiur -?$e Ii<cy. that:-tJ+e at:

elegy' had' been . . fo. long beaten, th+t ir'
impofible t6 travel in it without tregdiPd . . . - . i .q

the footfieps of thok who had gone before

hiv; q?d that the~eforp was + .. n
, .e p e O B ~.that
he might di@ingui&himiev from fpe. h&d pf.
~ncomio@s,to find ... . . f?.me
cut walk of fy-.
?era1 panegyric., .

9 4:-&h.
.. Gfficltll: taiS; he ~ ~ f 9 r m i~
Thig e
manner, that his poem may befjufily ranked
among the $eft pieces,. that . -the death of
. has produced. Ey transferring the
rnentioq of her d~?tht,o her b i ~ h ~ d q yh ,i has
formed 4 h3~p.ycorn&4ati.on of topics, pphich.
any other man would have thought ,it yery
. .
to come&. in one yi,ew, but svhich he

. .
33 S A V A G E.'
has united in fuch a manner, that the relation
between them appears natural ; and it may
be juitly faid, that what no other man would
have thought on, it now appears fcarcely
. . -
fiMe for any man to mifs.

The beauty of this peculiar combination of

images is fo mafierly, that it is fufficient to feet
this above ienfure ; and therefore it is
not nkefEary to-mention many other delicate
touches-which may be found in it, q d which
would defervedly be admired in any other

. .T o thefe proofs of his genius' may b e add-


ed, from the fame poem, an infiance of his,


p&dence, an excellerice for which he was not

fo often difiinguiihed; he does not forget to
remind the King, in the moit delicate and
artful manner, of continuing his penfion? . l

With regard to tee fuccefs of this addrefi;

he was for Come time in fufpence, but was in
no great degree iblicitous about it ; and con-
tinued his labour upon his new tragedy with
great tranquillity, till the friend who had for
a confiderable time fupported him, removing
S A V A G E . -333
his family to -another place, took occafion to
dilmifs him. It then became neceffary to en-
quire more diligently what was determined in .
his affair, having reafon to fufpee that no
great favour was intended him, becaufe he
had not received his .peniion at the ulual

It is faid, that he did' not take thofe me-.

ihods of retrieving his intereft, which were
inofi likely to fucceed; and fome of thole
who were employed in the Exchequer, cau-
tioned him againfi too much' violence in his
proceedings ; but Mr. Savage, who 'ieldom
regulated his condue by the adhce of others,
gave way to his pailion, and demanded of
Sir Robert Walpole, at his levee, the reafon
of the diftinQion that was made between him
and the other penfioners of the Qeen, with
a degree of roughnefs which perhaps deter-
mined him to withdraw what had been only

Whatever was the crime of which he was-

accufed or fufpetted, and whatever influence
- was employed againit .him, h e received i b o n
after an account that took from him all hopes
bk rkgiiniti~his petllion ; and he hxd now
&j d fubfiiteiice but froiii his play, ,

and he kne* nd way o'f living for the fir&

i+iifed to firiilh it.

So - were the misfort&ei of thb

man, deprived of an e h t e and title by a par-
ticular law, expoikd and abandoned by a mo-
ther, defrauded by B i'nolhii of i f ~ n e
khich his father had allotted him, he .kn.tered
the boild without a: friend ; arid though hii
abiktits forced themreIves into efikein and re-
puiztion, he ivO never abie to obtain iriy real
iidviiitate, and whatkvif prorpe&s aroh wiie
UWaj,s inteiceptkd a &he bigah to ipproiiih
them. The King'g intentions in his fivout
ivefe fruitrated ; his dedicition to the Price,
ivhofe geniroQP on iiiery bther bccafion aHj
&in&, procured him no rewaid ; Sir KO-
bert ~ V a ~ ~ owho
l e , valued himielf upon kiip-
ing his prcimife to others, b k x e it t b Kiii
without regret; and the bounty of thl: Qeeii
was, after her death, withdrawn from him,
and fiom him only.

Such Tipere his misfortunes, which ykit h6

bore, not only with decency, but with cheer:
fulnefs ;
S A v A Q' E-; 35.j
fulnkfs ; nor %as his gaiety cl6uded e4ih by
his lafi difappointiiientb, though he was. in
a f i o r t time reduced to the loweft degree df
diltrcfs, and often wanted both lodging and
food. . At this time, he gave ancithei iiit'<n,ce
d the inrurrbduhtable bbiiniiy i f his fjiPirii:
his clothes weEe worn out; and he receivkd
notice, that i t . i cdffee-hbuie f h e d6theE
and linen were left for him : the perfoh who
Cent t h e h did not, I believe, inform hrm i6
ivhdni h& was to be obliged, ihit he 'rniihf
fpare the perplexity of acknoiGlkdgihg t ~ i '
benefit; but thcugh the offer was fofar ge-
nerous, it .was 'made with iome neglea of
ceremonies, whiih Mr. Savage fo muck re-
rented, that he refurid the peient, and de-
clined to enter the bode till the clothes that
had been d6figned for him were taken away.

His difbefs was now -publickly .&own,

and his friends, thedore, thmght it p;'*&
to concert fame meafures for his relief; and
one of them wrote a letter to him, in which
h e expreffed his concern " for the 'mtferable
" withdrawing of his penfion; and gave
hin hopes, that in a fhoit time he fhdkld

Cr.3 himfzlf hpplied with a competence,

" without
.. s A v . A G E.
without a n y dependence on thofe littid
" creatures which we are pleafed to call thd
CC Great;"
The fcheme propofed for this happy a n d
independent fubfiltence, was, that he fhould
retire into Wales, and receive an allowance
of fifty pounds a year, to be raifed by a
fubfcription, on which he was to live pri-
katetdy i n a cheap place, without afpiring anf
more to amuence, or having any faith& care-
bf reputation.
This offer Mr. Savage gladly accepted;
though with intentions very different from
thofe of hls friends ; for they propofed that'
he ihould continue an exile from Ldndon for
ever, and fpend all the remaining part of his'
life at Swanfea; but he defigned only ta
take the opportunity, which their fcheme
offered'him, of retreatmg for a ihort tiine,
that he might prepare his play for the itage;
and his other works for the prefs, and then
to return to London to exhibit his tragedy9
and live upcm the profits of hi8 own labour.

With regard to his works, he propofed

very great improvements; which would have
2 required
S A V A G E , 337
~equiredmuch time, or great application 3 sand
when he had finiihed them, he deiigned to do
jufiice to his fubfcribers, by publiking them
according to his propofals.

As he atas ready to entertain himfelf with

future plgfures, he had planned out a fcheme
of life for the country, of which he had no
knowledge but from paRorals and fongs. He
imagined that he ihould be tranfported to
fcefies of flowery felicity,. like thofe which
one poet has refleQed to another; and had
projeQed a perpetual round of innocent pleaa
fures, of which he fufpeaed no interruptio~l
from,pride, or ignorance, or brutality

With thik expellations he was fo en*

chanted, that when he was once gently re-
proached by a friend for filbmitting to live
upon a fubfcription, and advifed rather by a
refolute exertion of his abilities to fupport .
himfelf, he could not bear to debar himfelf
fmm the happineib which was to be- found
in the calm of a cottage, or lofe the oppor-
tunity of liltening, without intermiflion, to' .
the' rnelddy of the nightingale, which he be*
lieved was to be heard & o n every bramble,
and which he did not fail to mention as a
VOL.111, Z ver p
33s S A V A G E .
very iniportant part of the' happinefs bf
country life.

While this fcheme.was ripenihg, his friends

diretted him to take a lodging' in the liberties
of the. Fleet, that he might be fecure from
his creditors, and lent him every Monday a
guinea, which he commonly fpent before the
next morning, and trufied, after his d u a l
manner, the remaining part of the week to
the bounty of fortune.

H e now began very ferrfibly to feel the

miferies of dependence. Thofe by whom he
was to be fupported, began to preicribe t o
him with an air of authority, which he knew
not how decently to refent, nor patiently t o
bear; and he foon diicovered, from the con-'
duQ of moft of his fuubfcribers, that he was
yet in .!he hands of " little creatures."

Of the infolence that he was obliged to

fuffer, he gave many inftances, of which
none appeared to raife his indignation to a
greater height, than, the methcd w4ich was
taken of furnihing h i m with 'clothes. In-'
fiead of conhlting him, a i d ' allowing him

ro fend a taylor his orders for what they,

s A v A ' G E. 339
thought proper to allow him, they propofed
to fend for a taylor to take his meaf~re,and
then to confult how they fhould equip him.

This treatknent was hbt very delicate, nor

was it fuch as Savage's humanity would have
fuggefied to him on a like occafion; but it
had fcarcely deferved mention, had it not,
bp affeaing him in an uncommon degree,
fhewn the peculiarity of his charaller. Upon
hearing the deiign that was formed, he came
t o the lodging of a friend with the moft vio-
lent agonies of rage; and, being aiked what
i t could be that gave him fuch difiurbance, he
replied with the utmofi vehemence of indig-
nation, '' That they had rent for a taylor to
medure him."

H o w the affair ended was never enquired,

fbr fear of renewing his uneafinefs. It is.
probable that, upon recolle&ion, he fubmitted
with a good grace to what he could not avoid,
and that he difcovered no refentment where
he had no power.
He was, however, hot humbled to itaplizt'
and univerfal compliance;. for when the gen-
. .
Z z tleman,
3 10 S A V A G.E.
tleman, who had firit informed him of the
defign to iuppbrt him by a lubfcription, at-
tempted to procure a reconciliation with t h e
Lord Tyrconnel,. he could by nd means be
prevailed upon to comply with the meafures
thct were propoied.

A letter was written far him* to Sir Wil-

liam Lemon, to prevail upon him to interpole
his good offices with Lord Tyrconnel, i n
which he folicited Sir William's aafiance,
" for a man who really needed it as much
as any man could well do;" and iuformed
him, that he was retiring " for ever to a
" place where be ihould no more trouble his

relations, friends, or enemies;" he confeff-

ed, that his paflion had betrayed him to fome
condua with regard to Lord Tyrconnel, for
which he could not bat heartily a& his par-
don; and as he imagined Lord Tyrconnel'a
pafion might be yet fa high, that he would
not receive a letter frcxm him," begged
that Sir. William would endeavour to fofteu
him; and expreifed his hopes that he would.
. comply wit? his reguefi, and that U fo h a l l .

. * B y Mr. Fapc. . +

., " a relrr-'
S A V A G E . 341
a relation would not harden his heart
" againit him."

That any man ihould prehme to dillate

a letter to him, was not very agreeable to
Mr. Savage; and therefore he was, before
he had opened it, not much inclined to ap-
prove it. But when he read it, 'he found it
contained fentiments entirely oppofite to his
ovtm, and, as he afferted, to the truth; and
therefore, infiead of copying it, wrote hfs
fiietld a letter full of marculine referltment
and warm expofiulations. H e very jufily
obferved, that the ityle was too fupplicatory,
and the-reprefentation too abje&€, and that he
ought at leaft to h.ave made him complain with
" the dignity of a gentleman in diitrefs."

H e declared that he would not write the

pa-agrayh in which he was to a& Lord Tyr-
connel's pardod; for, he defplfed his par-
" dun, and therefore could not heartily, and
" would not h~ocritically,a& it." H e re-
marked, that his friend made a very unrea-
ibnable difiinQibn bettveen himfelf and him p
for, fays he, when you mention men of'
high rank in your own charaaer," they are
" thofe little creatures whom we are pleafed

3 " m
342 S A V A G E ,
C' to call the greati" but when you addre6
them in mine," no iervility is i d c i e n t l p
humble. He then with great propriety ex-
plained the ill coifi~queqceswhich might be
expetted 'from h c h a letter, which his rela-
tions would print in their own defence, and
which: would for ever be produced as a full
anfwer to all that he ihiuld alledge againR
thern; for he always intended to publifh a
minute account of the treatment which he,
had received. It is to be remembered, to
the honour of the gentleman by w h ~ mthis
letter was drawn up, that he yielded to Mr.
Savage's reafons, and agreed
.. that it ought ta
be fuppreffed.

, After many alterations and delays,, a fib-

fcription was at length railed, which did nor
amount to fifty pounds a year, though twenty
were paid by one gentleman; fuch was the
generofity of mankind, that what had been
done by a player without folicitition, could
not now be effeQed by spplicatiori and in-
tereff; and Savage had a great number to
court and to obey for a penfion lefs than that
which Mrs. Oldfield paid him without .ex-
&ing any fervil,ities,
S A. V.-A . G E.
,- 343
Mr. Savage however was fatisfied,' and wil-
ling t o retire,:.and was convinced that the
allowance, though fcanty, would be more
than fufficient for him, being now determin- .
ed to commence a- rigid cecon~miit,and to
live according' to the exaeefi rules of fru-
gality; for no~hingwas in his opinion more
contemptible than a man, who, when he
knew .hP income, exceeded it; and yet he
confeffed, that~infiances o f , fuch folly were
too common, and lamented that ibme men
were not to be truited . with their own

- Full of thefe falutary reiblutions, he left

London iri July 1739, having taken leave
with gi-eat tesdernefs of his friends, and
parted from the author of this narrative with
tears in his eyes. H e was fbrnifhed with
fifteen guineas, and informed, that they would
be ilfficient, not only for the expence of his
journey, but for his fupport in Wales for
fome time; and that there remained but little
more of the firit colle~ion, H e promifed a
Aria adherence to his maxims of parcimony,
wd went away in the itage-coach; nor did
4 his
344 S A . V . A G.E,
his friends expea to hear fiom him, t i l l .b
informed them of his ~ i u a . at
1 Swanfea.

But when they leafi expeaed, -arrived a

letter dated the fourteenth day afier his de-
parture, in which he feqt them word, that he
was yet upon the road, and without qoney;
and that he therefore could not proceed with-
put a remittance. They then fent him the
money that -was in their hands, with which.
he was enabled to reach BriRol, from whence
he was to go to Swadep by vater.

At Brifiol he found an embargo laid upon

the hipping, fo thqt he could not immedi&ly
obtain a p&?@; and being thereferc obliged
to Ray t4e1-U iaine time, heq with his ufual
felicity, ingratiated hidelf W-itb m n y of
the principal inhabitants, was invited to totheir
houks, difiinguifhed at their pub& feaiti,
and treated with a regard that gratified
his vanity, wd t4~refareeAly ~ n g s e dhi$.

He began very early after: his retirement-

_ . . , af the. condug
to.. caqpIain . . . ..of his friends in
S A V A G E . 345
London, and irritated many of them fo
by his letters, that they withdrew,
however honourably, their contributions; and
it is believed, that little more was paid him
than the twenty pounds a year, which were
allowed him by the gentleman who propofed
the fubfcription. , ,

After fome flay at Briitol he retired to

Swanfea, the place origirially propcfed for
his refidence, where he lived abour a year,
very much diffatisfied with the diminution of
his falary; but contraeed, as in other places,
acquaintance with thofe who were moit dif-
tinguiihed in that country, among whom he
has celebrated Mr. Powet and Mrs. Jonea, by
fome verfes which he iderted in Tbe Geatlc--

Here he cornpleated his tragedy, of which

two B&S were wanting when he left London,-
and was defirous df coming to town to bring
it upon the itage. This defign was very
warmly oppofed, and he was advifed by his
&ief benefaaor to put it into the hands of
* Reprinted in the late $olk@on.
346 S A V A G E .
Mr. T h o d o n and Mr. M a e t , that it might
be fitted for the itage, and to allow his friends
to receive the profits, out of which an annual
penfioii fhould be paid him.

~ h propofal
& he rejeaed with thk utmoR
contempt. H e was by no means convinced
that the judgment of thofe, to whom he was
required to fubmit, was hperior t6 his oen.
He was now determined, a s he eeprehd it,
to be ~o longer kept in leading-itrings,"
and had no elevated .idea of " his bounty,
whq propofed to penfion him qut of the
profits. of his own labours,"

H e attempted in Wales io promore a fub-

kription for. liis wmh, and had once hopes
of fuccefs; but in a ihort. time'%terwards
formed a refolution of leaving that part of
the country, to which he thought it not
reaforiable to. be confined ,for the gratification
of thofe, who, having *ro&ifed him a liberal
income, had. no ibaner banifhed him to a
remote corner, than they reduced his allow-
ance to a falary fcarcely.. equal to the pecefi
fities of life.
. ,

. . His
S A V A G E . 847
I His refentment of this ,treatment, which,
in his own opinion at leait, he had not.d,e-
ferved, was fuch, that he broke off all .cor- . .

refpondence with mofi of..his .contributors,

and appeared to confider . .. -them , as. ieifefu-
. a

tors and oppreffors ; and .in .the. latter ;part

of his ,life declared, that their cosdu& .toward

him, fince his departure from . ond

, don, bad
Fc been perfidibufne~imp~ovingon perfidi-
oufiefs, asd inhumanity pn inhumanity.:'
, S
. .

It is not to be fuppofd, that the neceifitieg

gf Mr. Savage did not fometimes incite him
to fatirical exaggerations of - the behaviour of
thofe by wbom he thought himiklf reduced
to them., But it muR be. granted, that the
diminution of his allowance was a great
hardhip, and that thofe who withdrew their
ilbfcription from a man, who, upon the faith
of their promife, had gone into B kind of
baniihment, and abandoned all thore by whom
he had been before relieved in his diflreffes,
will find it no eafy tafk to vindicate their

. It may be alledged, and perhaps. juflly,


that he wqs petulant and .contemptuous, that^

348 S A ' V A G E.
he mare fiequentIy reproached his fubfcribers
for not giving him more, than thanked them
for what he received; but it is to be remem-
bered, that this condut?, and this is the worft
charge that can be drawn up againit him, did
the& no real injuiy; and that it therefore
oughi' rather ro have been pitied than refent-
ed; at lean, the refentment it might provoke
&ght to have been generous and manly;
epithets which his conduCt will hardly deferve
that itarves the man whom he has peduaded
to put himfelf into his power.

It might have been reaibnably demanded

by Savage, that they fhould, before they had
taken away what they promiled, have re-
placed him i n his former fiate, that they
mould hare taken no advantages fiorn the
iituation to which the appearance of their
kindnefs had reduced him, and that he fhould
have been recalled to London before he was
abandoned. He might jufily reprefent, that
he ought to have been confidered as a lion.
in the toils, and demand to be releafed before
the dogs ihould be,loofed upan him.
He endeavoured, indeed, to releafe him-
klf, and, with an intent to return to Lon-
S A V A G E , 349
don, went to Briitol, where a repetition of
the kindneis which he had formerly found
,invited him to Aay. H e was not only ca-
reffed and treated, but had a colle&ion made
for him of about thirty pounds, with which
it had been happy if he had
parted for London; but his negligence did
not iuffer him to confider, that iuch proofs
of kindnefs were not often to be expetled,
and that this ardour of benevolence was in a,
great degree the eKe& of novelty, and might,
probably, be evety day lefs; and therefore
he took no care to improve the happy time,
but was encauraged by one favour tq hope
for another, till at length generafity was ex-
haufied, and officioufnds wearied.

Another part of his miiconduQ was the

prattice of prolonging his vifits to unfedon-
able hours, and dilcconcerting all the families
into which he was admitted. This was an
error in a place of commerce which . all the
charms of his converfation could not com-
penfate; for what trader would purchde Cuch
airy htisfa&ion by the lofs of folid gain,.
wbich mu8 be the confequence of midnight
merriment, as thofe hours which were
. . gained
gained at night were generally lofl in the
morning ?

Thus Mr. Savage, af'ter the curiofity of the

inhabitants was gratified, found the 'number
of his friends daily decreafing, perhaps wrth-
out fiufpeQing for what reaibn their condua
was altered; for he itill continued to harafs,
with his n o h r n a l intrufions, thofe that yet
countenanced him, and admitted him to their

But .he did n6t .fpend all the time of his !

refidence at Brifiol in vifits or at taverns, for
he I'ometimes returned to his fludies, and b e 1 ,
gan feveral confiderable defigns. When he
felt an inclination to write, he always retired
fiom the knowledge o f his friends, and lay
hid in an.obfcure part of the I'uburbs,. till he
found himfelf again defirous of company, t o
which it is likely that intervals of abfence
made him more welcome. l

He was always full of his defign of return-

ing to London, to bring his tragedy upon the
Itage ; but, having negle&ed to &part with'
the money that was'raifed for him, he could
S A V A G E . 35 I
not aftetwards. procure a fum fufficient to de-
fray the expences of his journey; nor per-
haps would a frefh fupply have had any other
e&&, than, by putting immediate pleafures
in his power, to have driven the thoughts of
his journey out of his mind;

While he was thus fpending the day in

contriving a fcheme for the morrow, diitrefs
itole upon him by imperceptible degrees.
His condu&t had already wearied fome of
thofe who were at firfi enamoured of his con-
verfation ; but he might, perhaps, itill have
devolved' to others, whom he might have en-
tertained with equal fuccefs, had not the de-
cay of his clothes made it no longer confiitent:
with their vanity to admit him to their tables,.
or to affociate with him in public places. He
now began to find every man from home at
whofe houfe he called; and was therefore no
longer able, to procure the neceffaries of life,
but wandered about the town, flighted and
negleeed, in queQ of a dinner, which he did
not always obtain. ,

T6 complete his mifery, he was purlued by

the officers for fmall debts which he had con-
5 traced ;
352 S A V A G E f .
trkted ; and was therefore obliged to w i t h
draw from the fmall number of friends from
whom he had ftill reaibn to hope for favoursi
His cufiom was to lie in bed the greatefi part
of the day, and to go out in the dark with
the utmofi privacy, and after having paid his
vifit return again before morning to his lodg-
ing, which was in the garret of an ~bfcure

Being thus excluded on one hand, and

confined on the other, he fuffered the utmoft
extremities of poverty, an'd often fafied fa
long that he was feized with faintnefs, and
had lofi his appetite, not being able to bear
the fmell of meat, till the aaion .of his fie
. .
mach was refiored by a cordial.

h this difirefs, he received a remittance of

five pounds from London, with which he
provided hirnfelf a decent coat, and deter-
mined to go to London, but unhappily fpent
his money at a favourite tavern. Thus was
he again confined to Brifiol, where he was
every day hunted by bailiffs. In this exi-
gence he once more found a friend, who
meltwed him in his houfe, though at the
4 dual
S A V A G E . I 353
ufual inconveniences with which his com-
pany was attended ; for he could neither be
perfuaded to go tb bed in the nighr, nor ta
rife in the dal,

It is abfertiable; that in thcfe varioud f~enea

of mikry, he was always difengaged and
cheerful: he at fome times purfued his flu-
dies, and at others continued or enlarged his
epiitolay correfpondence; nor was he ever
fo far deje&ed as to eadeabour to procure a n
increafe of his allowance hy any other me&
thods than .acc~fatisnsand reproaches.

H e had now ho ioriger arip hopes bf af-

hfiance from his friends at B r i h l , w h o as
' merchantss and by coniequ%nce fufficiendy
. fiudioue of profit, cannot be fuppofed t o
have looked with nluch compaiiion upon neg-f
ligence and extravagance, or to think any
excel!enca equivalent ta a fault of fpch c o w
fequence as neg1eLt of economy, It is na;
tural to imagine, that many of thofe, who
would have r e l i e d his real wants, weri diC
eouraged f i + m the exertion of their benevcr
lence by obfervation of the ufe which was
made d their ~avours,and conviaion t h a t
VOL.111, Aa . relief
S A V A G E .
relief would only 'be- momentary, and t h a
the fame necefity would quickly return.
I ,

At lafi he quitted the houik of his friend,

and returned to his lodging at the inn, filI
intending to let out in a few days for Lon-

don; but on the 10th of January I 742-3,

having been at fupper with two of his friends,
he was at his return to his lodgings mefied
for a debt of about eight pounds, which h e
owed at a coffee-houfe, and-condudted to the
houfe of a fheriff's officer. The account
which he gives of this misfortune, in a letter
to one of the gentlemen with whom he had
fupped, is too rernar&tble to be omitted.

It was not a little unfortunate for me,

that I fpent yeiterday's evening with you ;
becaufe the hour hindered me fiom enter-
'' ing on my new lodging ; however, I have
fc now gof one but fuch an one, as I believe
nobody would chure.

" I was arrefied at the fuit of Mrs. Read,

Gc jufi as I was going up itairs to bed, at Mr.
BowyerXs; but taken in fo private a man-
" ner, that I believe nobody at the White
5 cc Lion
S A V A G E . 35.5
M Lion is apprifed of it. Though I let the .
officer$ know the fbength (or rather weak-
" nefs) of my pocket, yet they treated me
" with the utmofi civility ; and even when
" they conduaed me to confinement, it was
" in fuch a manner, that I verily believe I
" could have efcaped, which I would rather

" be ruined than have done, notwithilanding

" the whole amount of my finances was but

three pence halfpenny. _


'c In the firfi place I muit infiit, that you

will induitrioufly conceal this from Mrs.
6' S-S, becaufe I would not have her
" good-nature fuffer that pain, which, I
know, ihe would be apt to feel on this oc-
" cafioi

" Next, I conjure you, dear Sir, by all

<' the ties of friendihip, by no means to have

'' one uneafy thought on my account; but
to have the fame pleafantry of counte-
" nance, and unrumed ferenity of mind,

which (God be praiikd !) I have in this,

and have had in a much feverer &a-
" mitjr. Furthermore, I charge you, if .
'' you value my friendihip as tmly as I. do
Aa 2 y~urs,
S A V A G E .
U yours, not to, utter, or even harbour, the
'I' leait refentment againft Mrs. Read. I be-
" lieve ihe has ruined me, but I freely for-.
'' give her ; and (though I wilI never more
have any intimacy with her) I. would, at a
due difiance, rather do her an a& of good,
than ill will. Laffly (pardon the expref-
'C Gon), I abfolutely command you not t o
U offer me any pecuniarg afifiancc, nor to
CL attempt getting me any from any one of
'c your friends. At another time, or on
f' any other occahn, you may9 dear friend,
'' be well agured, 1 would rather write to
you in the fubrniifi* fiyle of a requeit,
than that of a peremptory command,
. . -
However, that my tmly valu'abk friend
may not think 1 am too proud to afk a fad
c vour, let me entreat you to Iet me have.
your boy to attend me for this day, not
only for the fake of .Caving me the expenw
of porters,. but for the delivery c& fome let-
" ters to, people whofe names I would no$
have. kxtown,,ta hangers,

T h e divil treatmm ]C e .&Wet

h ~ &US
fmm thofe whofe $oner I am, m a k me
JC ' " thankful
, '6 thankful to the Almighty, that, though he
C' has thmght fit to viGt me (on my birth*
C' night) with affliaion, yet (fuch is hi great
'S goodnets !) my a t l i ~ n is not without a19
'' leviating circumfiar~ces. I murmur not j
" but am all reiignation to the divine will.

" As to the world, I hope that11ihall be e n ~

F' dued by' Heaven with that' preknce of '

C'mind, that ferene dignity in misfbttiule,

. c h a r a h r of a true no..
" that c e d l i ~ t e sthe

" b l e m d ; a dignity far beyond that of co-

b' ronets ; a nobility arifing from- the juA

v principles of philofophy, refined ahd a d k
46 ed by thqfg of .chriiXanity,"e

He continued five days at the &er's, in

hopes that he ihould be able to procure bail,
and av&d the necefity of going to priion.
T h e itate irr which ha pared his tfme, and
the treatment which he received; are very
jnffly sxyreffed by him in a letter which he
.wrote to a friend : The whole day," fays
he, " has been employed in various peoples'
" filling my be& with their foofiih chimeri-
.cal fyfims, which has obliged me coolly
" (as far as nature will admit) to digelt, and

fi' accomm3date myklf to, every different

A a 3, S' perfon's
358 S A V A G E .
" perfion's way of thinking ; hurried f r o d
'' one wild fyfiem to another, till it lias quite
" made a chaos of my imagination, and no-

" thing done-promiufed-dXappointed---or-

4' dered to fend, every hour, from one part

6' of the town to the other."-

When his friends, who had hitherto ca-

r d e d and applauded, found that to give bad
and pay the debt was the hme, they all re-
fufed to preferve him from a priibn at the
expence of eight pounds ; and therefore, &er
having' been for fome *time at the officer's
houfe, " at an immenfe expence," as he ob-
ferves in his letter, he was at length removed
to Newgate,

This expence he was enabled to fipp01.t by

the generofity of Mr. Nafh at Bath, who,
upon receiving from him an account of his
condition, immediately fent him five guineas,
and prpnifed to promote his fubfcription
at Bath with all his intereik,
By his removal to Newgate, he obtained
. at leait a freedom from fuufpenfe, and refi
from - the difiurbing vicifitudes of hope and
difappointment ; he now found that his
S A V A G E .
friends were only companions, who were
willing to h a r e his gaiety, 'but not to partake
of his misfortunes ; and therefore hc no
l ~ n g e rexpetted any ailiflance from them.

It muit however be obferved of one gen-

' tleman, that he offered to releafe him by
paying the debt ; but that Mr. Savage would
not confeeat, I- fippofe becaufe he thought he
bad before been too'burthenibrne to him,

He was offered .by ibme of his friends,

-that a colleaion fhould be made for his en-
largement ; but he '' treated the prppofal,"
and declared, " he i o u l d again treat it, with
dicdain. As to writing any mendicant let;
'' ters, he .had too high a fpirit, and deter-
'' mined only to write to lome miniiters of
S' flate, to try to regain his peniion."

He continued to complain of thoik that

had lept him into the country, and objeaed
to them, that he had " lofi the profits of his
'' play, which had been finiihed three years; 99

and in another letter declares his refolution to

publifh a pamphlet, that the world might
knpw how " he had been ufed."

Aa4 This
This pamphlet was never written ; for ha
in a very fhort time recovered his ufual tran-
quillity, and chearfull~ applied himiklf to
more inoffenfive itudies. He indekd Readily
declared, that he was promikd a yearly al-
lowance of fifty pounds, and never received
half the rum; but he feemed to refign him-
felf to that as well as to other misfortunesl
and lore the remembrance of. it_ in. his
. , mule-
ments and ernployments;

The chearfulnefs with which he bore his

canfimement, appears Trom the following let*
ter, which he wrote, -januaty the 3oth, to
one of his friends in London ;

" I natp write to yod from my confine-

<' ment in- Newgate, where 1 have been ever
'' fince Monday laf? was fe'nnight, and
'' where I enjoy myfelf with much more
" tranquillity than I have known for upwards

" of a twelvemonth p& ; hiving a rgom

'' entirely to mylelf, and puduing the a&uie-
ment of my poeticat ffudes, uninterrupted,
and agreeable to my mind: I thank the
ti ~ l n r i f i t y , I am now AI c o ~ i e ~ ~
{elf; and, 'though my perfa h .in eonfme-
S A V A G E , 36s
fc ment, my mind can expatiate on ample
and ufeful fubjeQs with all the freedom
!' imaginable. I am now more convexdint
'6 with the Nine than ever ; and if, inffead
r' of a Newgate-bird, I may be allowed to he
a bird of the ~ i f e s ,I arure you, Sir, I
+! Gng yery freely in my cage 3 fometimes
fc indeed in the plaintive notes of the night-

!' ingale ; but, at others, in the chearfd

f' itrains of the lark."-

I n another letter he obferves, &at he

ranges from one fubjea to another, without
=onfi,ninghi&lf to any particular t a k ; and
that he was employed one week upon one
attempt, and the next upon another.

Surely the fortitude of this man dderves,

at leait, to be mentioned with applaufe; ancl,
whatever faults. may be imputed to him, the
virtue of fuffering well cannot be denied him.
T h e two powers'which, in the opinion of
EpiQetus, confiituted a G.fe man, are thofe
of bearing and forbearing, which cannot in-
deed be &rrned to have been equally poffeff-
ed bp Savage ; and indeed the want of one ob-
liged him very frequently to praCtife the other.
6 Hc
363 S - A V A G E,
He was treated by Mr. Dagg, the keeper
o l the prifon, with great humanity ; was I
fupported by him at his own table without I
1 any certainty of recompence ; had a room t o
himreif, to which be could at any time retire
from all difiurbance ; was allowed to fiand a t
the door of the pril'on, and fometimes taken
but into the fields ; fo that he fiffered fewer
bardfhfps in prifon than he had been accuf-
tomed to undergo- in the greatefi part of his

The keeper did not confine his benevolence

to a gentle execution of his office, but made
fome overtures to the creditor for his releafe,
though without effea ; and continued, du-
ring the whole time of his, impriforiment, to
treat him with the utmofi tenderneis
vility. . . . I

. Virtue is undoubtedly mofi laudable in that

itate which makes it mofi difficult ; and there-
fore the humanit: of a gaoler certainly de-
'ierves this public attefiation ; and the man,
whofe heart has not been hardened by fuch
an employment, may be juftly propofed as ;i
pattern of benevolence. If an infcription was
- '*
S A V A G E . 363
once engraved " to the honeit toll-gatherer,"
lefs honours ought not to be paid " to the
tender gaoler."

Mr. Savage very frequently received vifits,

an3 fometimes prefems, from his acquaint-
ances; but they did not amount to a fub-
fiitence, for the greater part of which he was
indebted to the generofity of this keeper; but
thefe favours, however they might endear to
him the particular peribns from whom he
received them, were very far from impreff-
i n g upon his mind any advantageous ideas of
the people 9f BriRol, and therefore he thought
he could not more properly employ himfelf in
prifon, than in writing a poem called '( Lon-
don and BriAol delineated."

When he had brought this poem to its

- prefent itate, which, wifhout coniidering the
c h a h , is not perfea, he wrote to London
an account of his defign, and informed his
fiiend, that he was determined to print it
with his name; but enjoined him not to
communicate his intention to his BriAol ac-
quaintance. The gentleman,' furprifed at his
~efolution,endeavoured to diffuade him from
. publifiing
364 S A V A G E .
publiihing it, at leait from prefixing his
name; and declared, that he could not re-
concile the injunaion of fecrefy with hh
refol~tionto own it at its firit appearance.
To this Mr. Savage returned an anfwer agree-
able & his qharaEter in the following terms.

'6 I received yours this morning; and not

cc without a little furprize at the contents.
sc T o anfwer a queition with a qudion, you
Sc -B& - the concerning Londoo and B r i m ,

Why will T add delineated? Why did Mr.

Woolailon add the Came word to his RE^
fc L I G I O N OF NATURE? I fuppofe that it
cc was his will and p l d u r e to add it in his
'C cafe; and i t is mine to do fo in my own?
You are pleafed to tell 'me, that you un-
deritand not why fecrefy is enjoined, and '
" yet I intend to fet my-name to it. My
" anfwer is-I have my private reaibns,
'' which I am not sbligsd to explain to any
" one. You doubt my friend Mr. S,-
'' would not approve of it-And what is it
F' to me whether he does or not? DO you
imagine that Mr. S- is to di&te to
me? If any man who calls h i d e l f my
t fiiend dhould aGme iq& air, I wouM
" fp'pura
8 A V - A G g . 365
"'fPurn at his friendfhip with contempt.
You fay, I Ceem to- think fo by not letting
him know it-And hppofe I do, what
" then ? Perhaps I can give reaf~ns for that
" difapprobation, very foreign from what
" you would imagine. You go on in faying,
Suppofe 1 fhould not put my name to it-
'' M y anfwer is, that I will not fuppofe any
fuch thing, being determined to the con-.
trary: neither, Sir, would I have you
fuppofe, that I applied to you for want of
" another prefs: nor would 1 have you ima-
gine, that I owe Mr. S- obligatione
" which I do not."

Such was his imprulerice, land f ~ c hhis o b

fiinate adherence to his own refolutions, how-
ever abfurd. A p r i b c r ! fupported by cha-
rity! and, whatever infults he might have
received during the latter part' of his Ray in
Briitol, once careffed, deemed, and prelentd
ed with a liberal colleliion, he cadd fmget
on a iudden hi danger and his obligations,
to gratify tbe petulance of his wit, or the
eagernch of ,his rehtmsnt, and publiib a
fatire, by which he might realonably exp+
&at he ihould alienate thsfe who then hp*
, ported him, and provoke thofe whom he could
neither refifi nor elcape.

This refolution, from the execution of

which it is probable that only his death
could have hindered him, is fufficient to
ihew, how much he diiiegarded all confi-
derations that oppofed his prefent pafions,
and how readily he hazarded all future ad-
vantages for any immediate gratifications.
Whatever was his predominant inclination,
neither hope nor fear hindered him from
with it; nor had oppofition any
other effea than to heighten his ardour, and
irritate his vehemence.

This performance was however laid aGde,

while he was employed in.foliciting afifiance
from feveral great perfons ; and one intermp-
tion fucceeding another, hindered him from
fupplying the chafm, and perhaps fiom re-
touching the other parts; which he can hardIy .
be imagined to have finifhed in his own
opinion; for it is very unequal, and Come of
the lines are rather inferted to rhyme to
others, than to fupport or improve the fenfe;
but the fi& and lafi parts are worked up
with great fpirit and elegance.
S A V A ' G E. 367
His time was fpent in the pyifon-for the
moit parr in fiudy, or in receiving vifits ; but
ibmetimes he defcended to lower amufements,
.and diverted himfelf in the kitchen with the
converfation of the criminals; .for it was not
pleafing to him to be 'much without com-
pany; and though he was very capable of a
I judicious choice, he was often contented

with the firit that offered: for this he was

fometimes reproved by his friends, who found
him iurrounded with felons; but the reproof
was on that, as on other occafions, thrown
away; he continue'd to gratify himfel-f, and
to fet very little value on the opinion of
. others.
, . . .

But here, as in every other fcene of' his

life, ' h e made ufe of fuch opportunities as --
occurred of benefiting thofe who were more
miferable than himiklf, and.was always ready
to perform any o$ye of humanity to-his fel-

H e had dow ceafed from correfponding

with any of his fubfcribers except one, who
yet continued to remit him the twenty pounds
a year which h e had promXed him, and by
whom it was expeaed that he would have!
been' in a very ihort time enlarged, becaufc
he had direQed the keeper to enquire after
the Aate of his debts.

However, hie took care to enfer his name

according to the forms of the court, that the
creditor might be obliged to make him fome
dlowahce, if he was continhed a priibner,
and when on that occafion he appeared in the
hall was treated with very unufuai d p e &

But the refentment of the city was after-

wards raifed by fome accounts that had been.
fpread of the latire, and he was informed
that fome of the merchants intended to pay
the allowance which the law required, and
a to detain him a prifoner at their own ex+
pence. This he treated as an empty me-
&ce; and perhaps might have haitcned the.
publication, only to fieas how much he was
fuperior to their infults, had not all h;s fchems
been fiddenly defiroyed.

When he had been fix months in prifon,

he received from one of his friends*, in
Mr. Pope,
whofe kindnefs he had the greatefi confidence,
, g ~ don ,yvho[e aaQjftnce he chiefly depended,
a letter, that contained a charge of very atro-
cious ingratitude, drawn up in luch terms as
- fudden refernwent . di&at,ed. Mr. Savagq re-
turned - a very E ~ p ~ & ~ ~ r o t ~ t fpfp this
i o nin-
nocence, but appeared mwh diC-
turbed at the acqdatioon. Some days after-
wards he a s s feized with-=pain in his back
and- fide, which, as .it. was not violent, was ,

pot fufpe&ed to be dangerous; but growing

.daily more langGd and dejeeed, on the 25th
6f ~ u l hey confined bimfelf to-his room, and
a fever feized his. fpirits. The fymptoms
grew every day more formidable, but his
condition did not en9ble him .to procure *any
ajT~itanc.e. The lafi t i p e that. the keeper iaw
him wis on ~ u l ytb &Pi when Savage, . - .
feeing him at his bed-fide, faid, with an un-
.-wmrnon- earnepnefs, " I .have lromething to
." iiy tb you, .Sir;" but, after a paufe, moved
.his hand- in a melancholy manner; and,

finding .himElf unable. to recollea what he

was going .to. communicate, hid, " 'Tis
i" gone!" The .keeper Eoon after left him;

.YOL.111. Bb 'and
: and .the next mornik he-died. -fie W& bu-
. :*sd: Jp the & m h - y a d of ;&. .. h e r ,
- expence of the keeper. . . , +;

Such were - the ' 1%~ aid death-'of Ricfmrd


-Savage, a man ~ququillpd&n@ihed%y MS

- virtues and vices; and .at once remarkable.fdr
*his.weaklieKes and abilities. . .. . , - -
. . . . . . -
. ...
. .
He was of imidal=fbtun'e, tgih dab&
;of body, a h g vifqe,'- coarie' '[dat'ipr'k~, >nd
mdancholy - ~ 8 ~ e t iX
t ; .a
~ and manly
. .inikii ; Wt
Ldepeitment, a f o h n. .dignity of' ,

'whioh, :upon a nearer-acquaiimnce, .foftened

'iitd * .Cngaging 'e;i~&d~ &' m&hed.
.. ;H&

.walk-dras flow, and'his doice k h u l o u s and

imour&l: He-waseafily,excited ,to frniles,
. .feldoml prbv~keati la4hter.
but :very:
. ...., . .
. # ,.. . . 2 , 8. .:

MS-nihh was in an' ~ A c ~ r d m o dkgkb

tl: pi;
-gorous- and a Q i m His judg&n&'~$bas~jiccu-
. .
l .. me-
rate, his .apprehenfibn quick, andL-Tris ,

'mory h . tinaciou$, thdt he waP1fi-ehumly

obfehed to know what he'had'leiimed ffom
;others, in a fhort time,. bGt& than'thofe-by
whom he was informed; and could frequent-
ly recollett incidents, with all their combi-
. - -
. i .. -nation
#A'V-A;a:E 37*
c ~ ; ~ f f a c i b , dfikh
. f& w&]d
fidde., &@ii€l& .
~trtTie;$&hE.tiadei! b~owfiich'
& wlf&
:& apirr&hr& jkp'*ae&
k2d &cdi& fell*, th$r

MS ~ & & # ~ r i * . n ~ ~ : d d & ~him;';
l e & he .was.
ir?ekt.;tb .2Tdfj?*bjt~;-$)id'xgardf&l of-the.
rdbfl! &iRi 6t?tA~rknte%!-H&ha& the:* of
iiEIarj'h@i~rbP.&s &W& ikMi'ongl ~ridr~&:
- w & i r $ ~ h ~ ~ d f t ~ - e v e ~ i ~ . i c e! n ~
- r . c.,
I -

,.>ix,':, -
8. - J :.b;,
; L*; :-:- ' - -
, . 'I.# g ,. . l
. .
y impuied'the ~~~~
~ o ' & { ~ - ' ~ ~isl iibt be
of his knowledge, compared with the.'-&al~
time which he fpent in vifible eildeavours to
mpuim-;h:r : ~ H ' kfnirigM, iir ? o u m - - ..p n m- r - -.-

f a t i m d ~ k hiamtReadb$rdt
~t~~ a t r e o n =?g
aHcw q p l y ;m; E ' kQuwg ad; Ia t p i a --W
ap~eake'.ofi~hytghdefs; ga&tyj :l& .go
i d e . i - t b ~ . w a,s;Aa.rteB,
.. rfio!,
h!improved. -;He h G - t$erefori made, .in,
q~fftx-hwfi:the1 as-in ot&er. :,
@u&F~j.gndit is .remarkabk.that-khq
... -.- .,.. . . &itT: ,- A.

of a man pfi l i t t-l.e..-.,

.._,-_,_ ~ k&+
, d u.c, ~ t i D344
reading bauq an ..-.air . . ]. _w, i n g . la,%ce)r tq,
. ._.;of L I

fdund in. . any.

. other pexf@r.masces, . . .bur
l . . I ,

. ., , . . often,
. . obtci.lres-
. ,a3 em,b'7$@e<

. -. -..--..

p . " (
' - .. . - - . . . - r l
I I '
: '?h'

B ~ Z His
His judgemefit.. w36 ~minendyexaQ both
' with regvd:to e t i n 8 4 and m men. n e
knowledge of life - was indeed his chief at-
tainment; and it i s % without fope fatic-
f a a o i , that 1 Can produce the fu@aQe of
Satrage in fqvour of h ~ m a nnatyre, of which
he never qppeared to entertain h c h o d i ~ u s
ideas as fome, who perhaps ha$ neither his
judgement nor experience, have publiihed,
either in oflentation of their fagacity, vindi-
cation of their crimes, or gratification
.( of t w r

His method of life particularly qualified him

fbr cunver~ation;of which he knew how to
praAife all the graces, He was never vehe-
ment or loud, b ~ at t once modeit and eafy,
open and refpe&thl; his language was viva-
cious and elegant, and equally happy upon
grave or humorous fubj&s.' Hc was generally I
cenhred for not knowing when' to retire; but
that was not the aefe@of his judgehent, but

of his forkne ; when h= left his company,

he was frequently i o @end the remaining
part of the night in the fireet, or at leaR
. .s abandoned to gloomy refleeions, which
it (l
S ' A V A G E. '373
i t is not mange that he delayed as long as he
could; and fometimis forgot that he gave
others pain to avoid it himfelf.

It cannot be faid, that he made nfe of his

abilities for the direaion of hie'own condua :
an irregular and dx~patedmanner of life had
made him the flave of' every pailion that
happcned 'to be excited by the prefence of .its
objea, and that flavery to his paifions reci- 1
procally produced a life irregular and diifi-

pated. - He was not mafter of his own mo-

tions, nor could promife any thing for the
next day.
. -
with regard to hi's ceconbmy, nothing ban
be added to the relation of his lifb. 'He-ap;.
pearkd to think hirnfelf bbm to L fupporteh
by:otheri, and difpenfed from
Q all neceility of
providhg for hidelfelf; he ~heiefbre nriver
profecuted any fcheme 'of advantage, nor

endeavoufed even to fe%e the profits which.

.his writing; kight have afforded him. His '

h;hpkwa$ in codequence of the dominion of.

'his pafions, uncertain and capricious; he was
.eafily engaged, add eafily difgufied; but he is
. ._ . .- - _ .
B b..3 accufed
. --
H e was compaifionate both by nature and
pr;'~iple, y + $ l w g p .ready t a. ge*q pfficcs L 0 ( 1 1

of humanity,;
. . .> but, wkI3,-,$e ' 8 $r'Qk$d
t C a Q P !

. . very fmall oflencep . v ~ ~ p .
{ylident tp
pov&e .dip), he $vou,Id . pr;fec~&
. l$ .. -.
revw . -.
with the u~pnoit(acrimony,~l
.. .. -. & 1 ~ ;, ,~. . ? 5hadn. .
fub&ded. ,, ' ..-.
: , - , !. - :. .. r ....
. L.l

. .-..- #
. ..--, . ... .
, . r
. m
. -->.d., .t

. .4&.-Gieqdlhip.gas therdojenf&1e vaiw

for {hp* ::be'~was;ziea1nusid,* fuFpw.G;
vindication of thole whom he . loved.,-,vtif
was always dangerous to truft him, becaufe
he confidered. hlpf$€,
.. +S ,dikharggd
.. . - by
. . he --A

:m: frQp,.+!;+S :gf MQJ~-!o

l gr*
- t;4e ;4 +&W begay . t b ~ l:fwetf
.l. . ~ h i h
h .the b?rp+ ,~f,.$q9#ide~cq, ,been :imj
<axiid . to ,hjxq. ~ h i ypii@iCi: : ;.~ I ; ~....
LR' ,
him an . unive*
.L._L .. . ,a&,~.Cabi(rn
- .g$,
, .- . .
p p i t . be .degizd that be h+,vg: ~ d #
;t:@ifet &imfi$f:fr~~ from the c qfj+p
) ,&!it
.*io,?. ;..for M;:q.swld ,no6 .'&+E p o n c d v e

-;hirnW:in -9.%tfs $ependsw,- W.q r i d ~

;bd!?g:-equ?ll~: m e 6 1 .TBii!J C :0#Y' R&
- .fmp,,and appe&ixg;i4,the form o f iniolence ,-
S A V.. A,- G'.E., 37.9.
. at *onetime, a n h f ;vanity at,another. Va-, '

nity, the moit innocent .Epecies of psi&, .was

mofi. fiequatly predominant :. He cdu1d:not'
eafily leave off, when' he had onk bkun to;
mention himfelf or his works; nor ever read
his verfes without fiealing his . . . fi.oa,lhe
. . ,eyks: .. .
page, $0 difcover, iq the faces of his aud&nc%
how they were afk&?d, with any, favouritq
pairage- . .. . ..
. . . .
' :: . ; * a . . . I

. A. kig&r name thaw ihat bf *.anity:oughg

to be given to the delicacy :with which he was

always careful to feparate his own merit from
every other man's, and to mjea that praife to
which he had qo claih. He did not ....:foWb.
in. . mentioning
. .. his performances,. t a mark
every linq that had been luggeied aq,akadiJ
ed.; add was fp accurate, as to relate
. . . that ha.
owed &ee, . words ixi The :the nd-:
vice of hia. friends.
. . . .
A .

His :p&v was qwfiioned, but opith,:litd.

tle - rgqfq ; his accounq, ..tbpugh wt.dpcjeed,-
alxays the lame, . were: generally confifient,.
when: he loved any map, be fuppreged a&
faults ; a ~ d when
, be Bad beeb offended; '

by him, conc;eded 311 bjs virtues:. blit his

. . Bb4 charaaers
charaaers were generally true, fo far as ha
proceeded ; though it canfiot be denied, thaa
his partiality might have fornaimes the &e&
of fallehood.

In c;ifes indiffetent, he was zealous for vir-

me, truth, and jnfiicr: he knew very well
the necefity of goodnefs to the prefkat and fa-
ture happincfs of mankind ; nor is thete per-
haps any writer, who has lefs endeavoured to
pleafe by flattering the appetites, -or pervert-
ing . thr: judgement.
L- .- . ...
. ,.

C A; ari amhor,. thefefore, and he now ceafes


to-infla e n rndnkied
~ in any other chara&er, !
iF one piecewhich he had fefolved to fuppreis !
b;eex6eptd,-he has very little to fear from'
the ftriaeit metal or 1-eligiotrs cenfure. Anb
though he rnaymt be altogether fecure again*
the objeaions of the critic, it mufi howevef
be acknowledged, that his works are the pro-
mlt50ns of' a: genhs truly po&ical ; 'and, I
what many wri~er6who have beea more la-L I

vifhly applauded camot .boaik, that they have:
original air, which has no ref&rnblanceof
Ay foregoing writer ; that the verfification
and f e n t h e a s have- a cafi peculiar to.-rhe&
i --.\ .
{elves, .
klves, which no man can imitate with'fdc~
sefs, becaufe what was nature in Savage,.
would in another be affeaation. It mufi be'
confeffed, that his defcriptions are firiking,
his images animated, his fietions juffly ima-
gined, . arid hls allegories artfufly purfued ;
that his diQion is elevated, though ibmetimes
forced, and his numbers Sonorous and majbf-
tic, though frequently fluggifh and encum-
bered. Of his fiyle, the general fault'i* harf?w
nefs, and its general excellence is dignity; of
his lentiments, xhe prevailing beauty is iubli-
mity, and uniformity the prevailhg defea '
, .
For h$ life, & for his writings, none, who
candidly confider his fortune, will think &i
apoiogy either neceffary or difficult. If he
was not always fufficiently inftI%€ted in 'his
iubjeb, his. knowledge was at lea^ greatei
than could. have been attained by others in
the fame itate. If his works were fometimk
unfiniihed, accuracy cannot reafonably be ex-
a&id from a-man op$reffeed with want, whicli
he has no of ieHiving but by's fpeedy
publication. c The infdence afid refentment of
which he i s accufed were. not eafily to' be'
avoided by
. .. a great mind, irritated by -perpe-
,.,.-. a . tual
tua b$xdlhips,- an4 conItraine+ hbutly to re-
turn the fpurns of contempt, and ~ p e f tbe
i&lwce of prorperity; and vanity may furely
in him, to who# life afi
readily be. pardo~ed.
'- faded no other e&fms than barren praifes,
of deferving them,
and thl: confcio~fn~C_s

. T h ~ f earc no groper ja&gsc of his caidu&,

mho hqve numbered away.,theu time on the
down af d u e n c e ; .nor vriill . any-'wXe man
preiitrrig to fay, '.',Had I been in Savage's
'' condition, I &odd have lived or' written
bettet than 'Savage.":

. . ...

This relatiob will not*be whollp:without.its

if th&, who ladguiih under.any part of
hie cufferingi,
. .. hall be .&nabledio.foztif!y heir.
pieme,. by r e f l c a i , ~that t h e y .feel qx-11.~
thofe qf%Qioqs from, which the. . . abilities
. of
Savage did not exemit.him ;. ,or . th&,-.... who,
i n . confidence of luperior capacities
. . . or attain-
mknys, difi;egard,the common maxims of Weife,
ha14 be. rerni&edi that .nothiag ..will i w l y
the want of *tud&ee ; and thL- .
,.- negligence
and i,rregularity, ,19ngcontinued, mill . rn+q
kqoyledledge ufeld,. . ? i ~ridicul&s,,

F<n(emp&le. A. .. . . .
. .. ' S “ SWIFT<
W I F T .
Account of Dr. Swift has been already
with great diligence and acute-
nefs, by Dr. Hawkefworth, according. to a
fcheme which I laid before him in the inti-
macy of our friendfhig. I cannot therefore
be expeaed to fay much of a life, concerning
which I ha4 long iince communicated, my
fhoughts to a man capable of dignifying his
parratibn with ib much elegance of language
. . fentiqent,
and force of r

J 0 A T-HA N SW I F T was, according

to an account faid . written by hiifglf,
.... to be

the ion of Jonathan Swift, a? +ttorne+, and

was born at Dublin on St. Andrew's day,
3 667 : according to his own report, as deli-
~ q e dby Pope to Spence, he was born at
Leicefler, the fon of a clergyman, who was
miniiter of a parifh in Herefordfhire*. Du-
ring kis-ii& the -*--8f--kis birtk W* u n d e ~
termined. We was contented to be called a n
Irifhman by the Irifh ; but would occafionally
call Gmfelf~+n E n g w m a n . ... he quefiion
may3 without 'much rCgret, be eft in the ob-
fcurity in which he delighted to involve it.
. . , his
Whatever was his. ,birth, education-
. .... , was

kin;. H e was lent it' tKe: Age; of 6%i6 the

.' : kilken;lji'and in his 'fift$Lf&year
a)4'.i;..;ii a.adi;ie;lvfritb' df
.. , . . . _ _ . .. r
8 .
' (

- A -

. . ...- ,
. , . . ' . ... ) , '

. . .-. . .
In, his academical Audies Fie %is:'eTt'liiir3nd
hlligk hipi,y;-- 'If 4h~fi':df."
l appoint
'&ev' reader's ei$$?i%tidn;.that, .&'hen at the
t;me, fie- .&i:JLdLtke.. B;Ygildr&p of
Arts, he was found 67 the' dirihi&i-$t&
confpicuoufly deficient for regular admiifion,
hd ob;t~'ma&his' d'egr& ,at Edt by&&&$- 1
-7.'; !h't&m ded:in \hat uniiififf to &no# ~
hatt oc f merit: . . . ,
. a . ,

.: . J
2 .:;l. .. : ;. ,
. .. -
- . ->
: L . ,
t .
, ;','; .*.
T Spence's Anefdatn, ,vol. U R. 273..
S' W '.I F T. .7383
of'ihis &&hie it niay be ~iClf.f+$ofea
.that he was much afharned, and h& h$ its
propei &eQ in reformation. He re:
'iolved :from that time to Rudy eight houis
a-day, inid cbndnued his induRry fof fiveil
y e w , wirh what. improvement is f d c i e n t l y
known. This part OF - his 'fiery well 'deferveb
to be remembered ; it may afford ufeful-ad-
monition. and, powerful encouiagkiint to
many men, whofe abilities have beeh mad=
for a time .ufelefs by their pafions plea-
rures, and who, having 2oR one p&:df lifk
i n idlenefs, are tempted -to throw seat
remainder in defpair. .

. .

In this ;ourre of daily yplication he eontif

nued three years longer at Dublin ;' and i;
this time, if the obiervation and rnernoii'if
an old companion may be truited, he .. - drew
the firit &etch of his lole',bfa l&; , . .- -
* . .
- .
. ..
.- . .- -.4

When he was about b h e - a n d k e n t y

( r 688), being by the death of Godwin Swift
his umk, who had-fqpo&d: hi&,- l;! -with-
w t fuubfifience, he went to c&fult his moth&, *

1 who then lived at' ~ e i & R k , 'aboi~tt h e f u m i i

cmrk 6f his l i e , and by hei dirci?ion-folk?-
384 S W I F T .
ed the advice and patronage of S i Wilfiam
Temple, who had married -one of Mrs.
Swift's relations, and whofe father Sir John I
Temple, Mailer of the Rolls in Ireland, had
lived in great familiarity of friendfhip with
Godwin Swift, by whom Jonathan had. been
to that time maintained.

Temple received with fufficient kindneis

the nephew of his father's friend, with whom
h e was, when they converfed toggthq, fo
p u c h pleafed, that he detained him two years
in his houfe. Here he became known to
King William, who fometimes vifited Tem-
ple when he was difablbled by the gout, and,
being attended by Swift in the garden, ihew-
ed him how to cut abaragus in the Dutcb

King William's notions were all military ;

and he expreffed his kinanefi to S u i f t b y of-
fering to.make him a captain of horfe.

When Temple removed to Moor-park, he

took Swift with him; and when he was con-
f i l e d by the Earl of Portland about the ex-
pedieqce of complying with a bill then d p
4 pending
ptniding for making ,parliaments triennial,
againit which King.William was fiongly prea
judiced, after having in vain tried to h e w
the Earl that the propofal involved nothing
dcingerous to royal power, he fent Swift for
the fame purpofe to the King. SW*, who
probahly was proud of his employment, and
went with all the confidence of a young man,
#bad his arguments, and his art of difplay-
ing them, made totally ineffeEtua1 by the pre-
determination of the King ; and ufed to meii-
tion this difappointment as his firit antidote .'
againit vanity,
: Before h i left Ireland he.contra+d a dz-
order, as he thought, by eating too inuch
fruit. The original of dii'eafey is commonly
. obfcure. AlmoR every boy eats as much
fruit as he can get, without any great'incon-
venience. . The difeafe of Swift was giddinefs
with deafnefs, which attacked him from time to
rime, begm very early, purfued him through
life, and at laR fent him to the grave, deprid
ved of.'reaion.

: Being much opprered at Moor-park by

this grievous malady, he was adviikd to try
. Vor.. 111. C c his
his native air, and went ro Ireland ; h;
finding no benefit, returned Sir W1Viam+
at whofe houk he c m t i n k d his W s , and
is known to bare read, among other books,
C'riatr and henairs. H e thqk exexile
of great mc&y, and d e d to rua half a
m i k up and down a bill m r y two hoks.
. .

I t i s eafy to imagine that thr mode in ~ & c h

his firit degree was conferred left him 'no
&reat fondncls for the Univeriity of Dublin,
arid therefore he reiblved .to became a. M*
of Arts at Oxford. In the tefiimon3al which
he produced, the words of difgrace were.
omitted, and he id& h i s hdafier's dcpjxe
(July g, 1$4) with fuch reception and-=-
a r d as gdly contented him. '

While .he'.Ii'ved*with. Tempk,- he uEed

pay his lnother at LeiceRer an yearly &lit.,
He traselled on foot, urilds forne violme d
ikath,er drdvk him into a wagprq- at
Gg?it he would go to a penny I.odging,.where
he purchafed clean. fheets for f i ~ p e n c e .'This
pra&ice- Lord Orrery imputes to his innate love'
of groffnefs and vulgaiii : iome may S i b e
. .
$11 its varieties; and bthers, perhaps with
equal probability, to a - paffton which reerns
to have been deep fixed. in his heart, the love

of a fhilling. ., .

In time he began t o t&nk that his attend-'

ance at hloor-park diferved Come other re-
cornpence than the pleafure, however min-
gled with improvement, of Temple's conver-
fation; and grew ib impatient, that (1694)-
he went away in dii'c~ntent.
. .

. Temple, covfcious of having given rcafan

for complaint, is faid to have a a d e him De-
puty Mafier ~f the Rolls in Ireland ; which,
according .to his .kinfman9s account, was an
office which, he knew h i p not able to dii-
charge. , S&@ therefore reblved to enter
into the Churah, in which he had at fire no
higher hopes than of the chaplainihip to the
Fa&ory at ~ i i b o n but being recommended
to Lord caPel, he obtained the prebend of
IkTiJrooit in Connor, of about a hundred pounds
a pm. - .. . '
, .
1'But the infirmities of Temple made a com-
panion like Swift.@.neceiTary, that he invit-
.. - Cc2 ed
388 S-. W l F T.
ed him back, with a promife to procure him.
EngIiih preferment, in exchange for the pre-
bend which he defued him to refign. With
this requefi SW* quickly complied, having.;
perhaps equally repented their feparation, and
they lived .on together with mutual fatisfac-
tion; and, in the four years that f l e d be-
tween his return and Temple's death, it is
probable that he wrote the Tale of a Tub and
the Battle of tbe Books.
Swift began early to think, .or to hope,
that he was a poet, and wrote Pindarick Odes
to Temple, to the King, and to the Athe-
nian Society, a knot of obfcurc men, who
publifhed a periodical pamphlet of anfwers to
queitions, lent, or fuppofed to be fent, by
Letters. I have been told that Dryden, hav-
ing peruied thefe veriks, faid, " Coufin Swift,
" you will never be a poet;" and that this
denunciation was the motive of swift's per-
petual malevolence to Dryden.

I11 I Ggg Temple died, and lefi . a legacy

with his manufcripts to Swift, for whom he
had obtained, from King William, a promife
of the firit prebend that ihould be ?scant at
WeAininiter or Canterburp
That this promife might not be forgotten,
Swift dedicated to. the King the pofihumous
works with which he was intrufied, but ~ e i -
ther the dedication, xaor tendernefs for the
man whom he once had ti-eated with confi-
dence and fondnefs, revived in King William
the remembrance of his prornife. Swifi
awhile attended the Court; but fbon found
hi foGdtations h6pelefs.

H e was then invited by the Earl of Berka

ley to accompany him into Ireland, as his
private fecretary; but after having done the
bufinellb till their arrival at Dublin, he then
found that one Bl/6 had perhaded the Earl
that a clergyman was not a proper fecretary,
and had obtained the office for hidelf. In
a man like Swift, fuch circumvention and int
confiancy mufi have excited violent i n d i ~
nation. ..

But he had yet moro to fuffer. Lord Berkley

had the diipofal of the deanery of Derry, and
Swift expeaed to obtain it; but by the fecreta-
ry's influence, fuppofed to have been fecured by
a bribe, it was beitowed on fomebody elfe; and
.Swift was diiiniffed with the livings of Laracop
Cf.3 and
390 S W I F T ,
and Ratbbeggin in the diocefe of Meath?
which together did not equal half the value
of the deanery.

At Laracor he increafed the parochial duty

by reading prayers on Wednefdays and Fri-
days, and performed all the ofhces of his
profefion with great decency and e i e n e f s ,

Soon after his fettlement at Laracor, he;

invited to Ireland the unfortunate Stella, a
young woman whofe name was Johnfon, the
daughter of the Reward of Sir William Tem-
ple, who, in confideration of her father's
virtues, left her a thoufand pounds. With
her came Mrs. Dingley, whofe whole fortune
mas twenty-feven pounds a year for her lie.
-With thefe Ladies he paired his hours of re-
lasatioa, and to them he opened his boibm;
but they never rliided in the fame houCe, nor
did he fee either without a witnefs. They
lived at the Paribnage, when Swift was
away; and when he returned, removed to a
.lodging, or to the houfe of a neighbouring
S W I F T . 39'
- Swifi was not one of thoik minds which
amaze the world with early pregnancy: his
firit work, except his few poetical Effays,
was the DzJttntions in Atben$ and Rome, pub-
lifhed (I 70 I) in his thirty-fourth year. Aftq
its appearance, paying a vXit to hrne biihop,. .
he heard mention made of the new pamphlet
that Burnet had written, replete with political
knowledge. When hp feemed to doubt Bur-
net's right to the'work, h: was told . . by the
Biihop, that he was a young man; and, itill
periifting to doubt, that he was 0 very poJtive,
young man.
Three years afterward (1704) was publifhl:
ed The Tak fb a Tub: of this book charity
may be perriaded t o think that it might be
written by a man of a peculiar charaCter,
without ill intention, but it is certainly 0s
'dangerous example. That Swift was its au-
thor, though it be univerially believed, was.
. never owned by himfelf, nor very well pro-

yed by any evidence; but no other claimant

can be produced,, and he did not deny it
when Archbiihop Shaspe and the Duchefs of
Somerfet, by hewing it to the Qeen, de-
barred him from
. . a biihoprick.

c c $ When
392 S W I F T .
When this wild'work firit raifed the attcn-
tion of the publick, Sacheverell, meeting

Smalridge, tried to flatter him, by feeming

to think him the author; but Smalridge an-
fwered with indignation, " Not all *thatyou
f c and I have in the world, nor all that ever
we hall have, fhould hire: me to write the
f a Tub."
f b Tale o

The digreaorls relating to W n t t ~ nand

Bentley muft be confefled to difcover want of
' knowledge, ,or want of integrity; he did
not underfiand the two controverftes, or he
willingly miireprefented them. But Wit can'
itand its ground againit Truth only a little
while. The honours due to learrling have
been jufily diitibuted by the decifion of
pofterit y,

7be Battle 6f tbe &oks is fo like the Com-

but de.s Livrrr, which thk iaqe quefiion con-
' cerning the Ancients and Moderns had pro-
duced in France, that the improbability af
fuch a coincidence of thoughts without com-
plunication is not, in my opinion, balanced
by the anonymolls protellation prefixed, is
which all knowledge of the French book i s
peremptorily difow~ed,
S W I F T . 393
For fome time after Swift was probably
employed in iblitary fiudy, gaining the quali-
fications requiiite for-future. eminence. How
~ f t e nhe vifited England, and with what dili-
gence he attended his pariihes, I know not.
It was not till about four years afterwards
that he became a profeffed author, and then
one year (1708)produced 5%- Sentimntr of
4 Cburcb-of-England Man; the ridicule of
Aitrology, under the name of Bickegaf,
the Argument igainJf abozfl~ing Cbrgianity;
and the defence of the Sacramental r e p . ,

The Sentirnent~ o f n Church-of-England

Man is written with great coolneb, mode-
ration, eafe, and perfpicuity. The A&-
ment againJf nbolging Cbrgianity is a very
happy and judicious irony. One paffage in
it dererves to be ieleaed:

'cIf Chrifiianity were once aboliihed, how
could the free-thinkers, the firong reafon-
ers, and the men of profound learning, be
'L able to find another fubje& fo calculated,
in all points, whereon to difplay their abi-
'L lities? What wonderhi produQions of wit
. .. . be deprived of from thofe, whofie
" ihdqld me
. .
'' genius,
* &is, by continual praeice, hath beeq
wholly t u n e d . upon raillery and inreaiveg
Cc againfi religion, and would therefore never:
be able to ihine, or diitinguifh thedehes,
upon any other iubjett? We Bre daily
'L complaining of the great decline of wit,
anlcilg us, and would tike away the great-
cc eit, perhaps the only, topick w e:have M,
* v h o would ever have fufp&ed Afgill for
a wit, or Toland for a phibfopber,' if the
4' .ineshquff ibfe flock of Chriitianity had not
been at hand to provide them with mate-
cc rials ? What other lubjdl, through all art
sc or nature, could have produced Tindal for
U a pofound author, or furnifhed him yith

'' readers? It is the wife choice of the h b ~

je&,that alone adorns and difiinguiihe! the
-" wxitcr.. For had an hundred fuch pens as
thefe been employed & the fide of reli-
gion, they would have immediately funk
" into filence and oblivion."

The reafonablenefi of a TeJZis not hard to

'be proved; but perhaps i t mufi he allowed
that the proper tefi has not been chofen.

','The attention paid. to the papers publiihed

h d e k the name of Bickc$az, induced Steele,
2 when
S W I F..
prhen he projeQed the Totlea; to affume an
appellation which had already gained poEef- . ,

fion of the reader's'notice.

1 . . .. .
I n the year following he wrote a PrqeA
f o r the Advancement of Religion, addreffd to
Lady Berkley ; by whofe kindnefs it is not.
unlikely that he was advanced to his hene-
fim. To this projea, which is formed with
great purity af intention, and dilplayed with
fpritelinefs and elegance, it can only be
objeaed, that, like many projeas, it is, if
pot generally impratticable, yet evidently
hopelefs, as it fuppafes more zeal, concord,
and perfeverance, than a view of mankind
gives reaibn for expe&ing.

H e wrote Iikewife this year a Vindication of

BickerJzaf; and an explanation of an Aacienf
Prophecy, which, though not completed in

all its parts, cannot be read' without amaze-


Smn after began the bury and important

part of Swift's life. He was employed ( I 7 I o)
by the Primate of lreland to iolicit the @een
for a remifion of the Firit Fruits and Twen-
tieth parts to the Irifi Clergy. With this
- purpofe
396 S W ' I F T.
purpde he had recourfe to Mr. .Harley, to
whom he was mentioned as a man negleQed
and opprered by the l& m i d b y , . becauie
he had refufed to cwperate with ibme of
their fchemes. What he had refufed, has
never been told; what he had hffered was,
I fup~ofe,the exclufion fiom a biihoprick by
the remonitrances of Sharpe, whom h e de-
kribes as tbt barmIt$ tool o f 0 t h balc, and
whom he reprefents as afterwards fuing for

Harley's defigns and fituation were fuch as

made him glad of an auxiliary fo well qudi-
fied for his fervice; he therefore foon admit-
ted him t o familiarity, whether ever to con-
fidence fome have made a doubt; but it
would have been difficult to excite his zeal
without perfuading him that he was trufied,
and not very eafy to delpde him by falfe per.

H e was certainly admitted to thofe meet-

ings in which the firit hints and original plan
of atlion are fuppofkd to have been formed;
and was one of the fixteen Miniftero, or
agents of the MiniRry, w h e m e t weekly at
6 each
S W I FT: 393
eich other's houies, and were united by the
name of Brother.

Being not immediately confidered as an

obdurate Tbry, he converfed indif~rirninatel~
with all the wits, and was yet the friend of
SteeIe; who, in the 'Tatkr, which began in
1710,confeIfee the advantages of his con-
verfation, and mentions Comething contriht-
ed by him to hi8 paper. But he was now
immerging into political controverfy ; for
the fame year produced the Examiner, of
which' Swift wrote thirty-three papers. In
argument he may be allowed to have the ad-
vantage; for where a wide ij.fiem of con-
du&t, and the whole of a publick charaaer,
is laid open to enquiry, the acwkr having
the choice of faas, muit be very.unfkilfu1 if
he doe& not prevail; but with regard to wit,
I am afraid none of SwifYs papers will be
found equal to thole by- which Addiron op
pofed him. l

.. . .

Early in: the next :year he pubiiihed a Pro-

t0J.l for. c ~ r d n g i,~ o , w i n g , aJertain*
ing #be ElzgZfi Tongue, in a: Letter to the
Earl of Oxford ; wriken without much
1 know-
knowledge of the general nature of lingudge,
and without any accurate enquiry into the
hiftory of other tongues. The certainty and
Oabiliry-which, contrary-to aU -experience,-he
thinks attainable,. h e .propd'es to fecure bp.
W u t i n g an academy ; 4he decree29 c# which.
e y e v . man would .&ve beee will$& . a d .
mzop v u l d have . proud

and which, being renewed by.fucwi$w:~ k -

tions, ,xyouh$ in a @art time h g v ~:diEaed
. .idelf.
from . .. .- .

He wrote the ra.rr\e.$&af a Acttci to ?be Ocj

iokr Club, a number.-of Tory-Gentlemeri: ,

knt .from the cbunt?y'-'tb Parliament, wha

fhrmed ihmfdtes a-club, ta'thk-number'
- of about a hundred,. and metro aniniate the
l raife the ~xpe&ationsof e& &her:
~ e a end
T h e y :thou*, wih g h t ri~o?,, cat- tbd
l~irhfiersweri lofing opportunitiis; that fufi
firiient kk-was not made of the general aidour
of the nation ; they called loudly- for more
changes, and monger efforts ; and demanded
the puniih3slerit of par% -andtheilifmiflbn'of
the 'r$t, df .~~IQP they coafihed as
publick r d b a s . , , . .. .
. . . . -
i h e i r eagetnefs was hot gratifidc! b y h e
Qeen, or by Harley. The @een was
bably flow becaufe fie was afraid, and Har-
ley. was daw. baauie he was.-do&&3 . ,. -he

was to17 by d e i e ~ t or , wnv&

~ fqr
ence ; and, .. he had poxve; in his hands, ,
had no iutled ptxppie Gr 'which b e &b,&i
ernploy it ; farced to gatay t& a ' c e r a i n -d.e?
i - ' * -

gree the Tories whofupported him, but un-

willing. to make his. ceconcilegnent .to .the
Whigs utterly defperate, :he eorrefgonded'
.. .

once wit! the iwo -expeCtanis of - the Crowp,

n d kept, as has be& d e r o o 4 . the fGcef.$&
undetermined. ~ o t ' k n o w i h gGhat to dp, he
did nothing ; and with the fate of a .d9.iblG+

dealer, a1 laYt,lie lofi his power, but kept.>ir ,


Swifi Zeemrs to have concurired in opini&

with the OEXokr CZub; b.u!t it WM not in &
' gpwm to quicken .the ~m&;Cs Q£ Har.+Y
firham he fti,mulsted as mnch as b e h*
W& link e f f i . Be h o w s s~ot W&+
$het $toW,. -is in no h A e to mwe. . Harkr,
xvho wtu g&qs not quick b.g'aatawe, be~a*
yet ,more flow by irrefilatim ; a d was cam
rent to hear that dilatorineh lamented as rasr
400 . l S W I F T .
turd, which he applauded in himiklf as pw
' kick. ..

' Without the T d e s , hmevm, nothing done and as they were not td be

gratified, they muit be appeded; and rhe

conduCt of the Miniiter, if it could not be
vindicated, was to be plaufibly excukd

Swift now attained the zetlith o f his poli-

tical importance : he publiihed ( I 712) the
Condu8 of the AZli'es, ten days before the Par-
liament aiIkmbIed. The purpofe wai to pei;.
Cuade the nation to a peace, ind never' Iiad
'my writer more luccefs. The people, who
had been amded with bonfires dad tr'iumphal
procefiions, and looked with idolatry on the
General and his friends, who, as they thought,'
had made England the arbitrefs of nations,
were confounded between fhame and rage;
when they found that mints bad been exbauj-
cd, and million^' d@roycd, to fecure the Dutch
ar aggrandize tde emperor, without any ad.
vantage to ourfelvee; that we had been bri-
bing our neighbouis,to fight their own quar-
rel ; and that amongft.our enemies we might
number our allies. -
S W I F T .
That is now no longer doubted, of which
the nation was then firft informed, that the
war was unneceffarily protraQed to fill the
pockets, of Marlborough ; and that it would
have been continued without end, if he
could have continued his annual plunder.
But Swift, I fuppofe, did not yet know what
be has fince written, that a commifion was
drawn which would have appointed him Ge-
neral for life, had it not become ineffeltual by
the refolution of Lord Cowper, who rcfufed
the feal.

Whatever i.s received, fay the fchools, is re-

ceived in proportion t o tbc rec@ient. The power
of a political treatife depends much upon the
difpofition of the people ;. the nation was
then combufiible, and fpark fet it on fire.
It is boaited, that between November and Jad
nuary eleven thouf~ndwere fold ; a great
number at that time, when we were not yet
a nation of readers. T o its propagation cer-
tainly no agency of power or iduence was
wanting. It furnifhed argume'nts for conver-
fation, i'peeches for debate, and materials for
parliamentary reiblutions.
VOL. 111. Dd Yet,
402 S W I F T .
Yet, furely, whoever iurveys this wonder-
tvo~king pamphlet with cool perural, - will
confer6 that its d c a c y \ hpplied by the
pafions of its readers ; that it operates by the 1
mere -weight of fa&, with very little afiit-
ance from the hand that produced them.
. .
This year (1712) he publiihed his Rejec-
tions on tbe Bmrier fierzty, which carries on
the d e G p of his Col~dzz8of the AIZicr, and
hews how. little regard in that negotiation
had been h e w n to the intereg of England,
and how much of the conquered country had
been' demanded by the Dutch.

This was followed bp Retnrarks on the Bi-

$ 0 ~O J Sarwlr; btroduklion to bir third Volvne
of the Hior- of the Reformation ;a pamphlet
which Burnet p~btifhedas an alarm, to warn
the nation of the approach of Popery. Swifk,
who feems to. have difliked the Bihop with
h e t h i n g m r e than political averfion, treats
him Eke one whom he is glad of an oppostu-
nity to dnfiult.

Swift, being now the declared fkvourite

an&-fupgo{ed confidant of the Tory Minifrry,
S v l P-4: 403
was treated by a11 that depended on the Cburt
with the refpeQ which dependents know how
to pay. H e ibon began to feel part of the
mifery of greatnefs; he that could gay he
knew him, confidered himfelf as having for.;
tune in his power. Coxpmifiions, folicita?
tions, remonitrancee, crowded about h i ~ qj ,
he was expe&ed to do every man's bufinefs,
to procure employment for one, and to retain
it for another. In afifiing thofe, who ad-
tiregeed him, he repreiknts hirnielf as fuffi-
ciently diligent; and defires ta have others
believe, what he probably believed himfelf;
that by his interpofition many Whigs of. me-
rit, and among them Addifon and Congreve,
were continued in their places. &t every
man of known influence ha$ Eo many peti-
tions which he cannot grant, that he muit:
neceffarily offend more than he gfatifics, as
the preference given to one affords all the r&
a reaibn for complaint. Wbzn I give away p
place, faid Lewis XIV. I m a k an bundred
driontetzted, and we ungratfil.
. :

Much has been faid of the equality and

independence which he prefetved in his,eon- .,
vcrfation with the Minifiers, of tbe:franknefs
D d 2 of
404 S W I F T .
of his remonhnces, and the familiarity of
his friendkip. In accounts of this kind a
few fingle incidents are fat againfi the general
tenour of behaviour, No man, however,
tan pay a more f e ~ i l etribute to the Great,
than by fuffering his liberty in their prefence
tci aggiandize him in his own efleem. Bed
tween different ranks of the community there
is necendrily fome diitance : he who is called
by his fuperior to pafs the interval, may very
properly accept t h t invitation ; but petulance?
and obtruiion are rarely produced by magna-
nimity ; nor have ofien any nobIer caufe than
the' pride of importance, and the maIice of
inferiority. He who knows himfelf neceffary
map {et, while that necefity lafio, a high va;
lue upoh himfelf; as, in a lower condition,
s fervant eminently ikilful may be faucy ;
but he- is fidtxcy onIy becauik he is fervile.
Swif? appears to have preferved the kindneG
Sf thofe that wanted him no longer ; and
therefore it muit be allowed, that the childiffl
freedom, to which he feems enough inclined,
was overpowered by' his better qualities.
His difintereflednefs has been likewife men-
tioned ; a itrain of Ilei-oifm, which w o ~ ~ i d
. - have
have been' in his condition romantick' and fu-
perfl uous. EccleGafiical benefices, when they
become vacant, mufi be given away ; and
the friends of Power may, if there be no in-
,herent difqualifieatjon, reaibnably expeQ
them. Swift accepted ( I 7 I 3) the deanery d
St. Patrick, the befi prefkrment that his
friends could yenture to give hiq. That
Miniitry was in a great degree fupported by
the Clergy, who were not yet reconciled to
the author of the Tale of a Tub, and would
not without much difcontent and indignation
have borne to fee h i v ipftalled in an Engliih
. . ..

He rehfed, indeed, fifiy pounds from

Lord Oxford ; but he accepted afterwards a
draught ~ f a: thoufand upon the Ex~hequer,
prhiqh was intercepted by the Qugen's death,
Bnd which he refigned, as Je , , birnf~lf,
i ..
. . with many a groan.

Ig the vir\R of his power and his politicks,

he kept a journal of his vifits, his walks, his
interviews with Miriiiterh and quarrels with
llis fervant, and tranfnlitred it to Mrs. Johq-
foq and Mrs.. . ~ i n g l e ~to, whom he knew

~ d j " " that

406 S' W I F ' T.
tbat whatever befel 3im was interetling,
and .to whom no accounte could be to6
minute. Whether there diurnal trifles
were properly eyPofed to eyes which had
berer) qceived any plea6ure from the
prefence of the Dean, may be reafonably
doubted : they have, however, ibme odd at-
traeion ; the reader, finding fiequent men-
tion of names which he has been ufed to
confider as important, goes on in h ~ p eof in-
faination ; and, as there is nothing to fatigue
attention, 'if he is diiappointed be can hardly
.complain, It is eafy to perceive, froq
every page, that though ambition preffed
Swift into a life of bufile, the wiih pas always
returning for a- life of ede.

H e went to take poffeflion of his deanev,

as foon as he had obtained it; but he was
.not fuffered to itay in Ireland more than a
fortnight before he was recalled to England,
that he might reconcile Lord Oxford and
Lord Bolingbroke, who began to look on
one another with malevolence, which every
day increafed, and which Bolingbroke appear-
ed tb retain in his laft years,

a . ,
Swift contrived an interview, from whiclj
they both departed dikontented: he procured
a fmnd, which only convinced him that the
feud was irreconcilable; he , t d d them his
opinion, that all was I o k This denunciatian
was contradiaed by Oxford, but Wingbroke
whifpered that he was right.

Before this violent diffenfion had ihattered

the Miniitry, Swift had publiihed, in the be-
ginning of the year (i7rq), T h e publick S ' i -
rit of the Fbig~,in anfwer to T d e C~$J, a
pamphlet for which Steele was expelled from
the ~ o u i kof Commons. Swift was now fo
far alienated from Steele as to think him no
longer entitled to decency, a d therefore treats
him ibmetimes with contempt, and fometimes
with abhorrence,

I n this pamphlet the Scotch were mentioned

in terms fo provoking to that irritable nation,
that, refolving not to be ofinded with i?~$u-
nity, the Scotch Lords ill a body delnanded
an audience of the @een, and iblicited re-
paration. A proclamation was ifTued, in
which three hundred pounds was dfired for
difcovery of the author. From this fiorm
Dd4 he
408 S W I F T .
h e was, as he relates, Jecured b j a-/eight;
of what kind, or by whofe prudence, is not
known; and fuch was the increafe of his re-
putation, that the Scottifh Nation afllicdagaitr
&at be would bc their friend.

H e was become fo formidable to the Whigs,

that his familiarity with the Minifiers was
clamoured at in Parliament, particularly by
two men, afterwards of great note, Agczbie
and Wa4elk.

But, by the difunisn of his great friends,

his importance and his deiigns were now at
an end; and feeing his Cervices at lafi ufelefs,
he retired about June ( I 7 14) into Berkihire,
where, in the houfe of a friend, he wrote
what was then fuppreffed, but has fince ap-
~ e a r e dunder the title of Frte Thorgbt.~
on tbe
p g e n t State of @in.

While he was waiting in this retirement

for events which time or chance might bring
to pafs, the death of the Queen broke down
at once the whole fyjritern of Tory Politicks ;
and nothing remained but to withdraw from
the implacability of triumphant Whiggifml
and fhelter himfelf in unenvied obfcurity.

The accounts of his reception in Ireland,

given by Lord Orrery and Dr. Delany, are
ib different, that the credit of the writers,
both undoubtedly veracious, cannot be iaved
but by fuppofing, what I think is true, that
they fpeak of different times. When Delany
fays that he was received with kindnefs and
refpe&, he nleans for the firit fortnight,
when he came to take legal poffefion; and
when Lord Orrery tells that he was pelted
by the populace, he is to be underftood of
the time when, after the e e e n ' s death, he
became a fettled reiident.

The Archbiihop of Dublin gave hiin az

firit fome difiurbance in the exercife of his
jurifdioion ; but it was ibon difcovered, that
between prudence and integrity he was fel-
dom in the wrong; and that, when he was
right, his fpirit did not .eafily yield to op-

Having fo lately quitted the tuinults of a

party and the intrigues of a court, they itill
410 S W I F T .
kept his thoughts in agitation, a; the fea
fluauaies a while when the itorm has ceafd.
He therefore filled his hours with fome hi[-
torical attempts, relating to the Cbange of tbe
Mingers and tbe ConduEt of tbe Miagry.
H e likewife is faid to have written a Hgory
of tbe Foar ZaJ Years of Anne, which
he began in her lifetime, and afterwards la-
' boured with great attention, but never pub-
liihed. It was after his death in the hands
of.Lord Orrery and Dr. King. A book
under that title was yubliihed, with Swifi's
name, by Dr. Lucas; of which I can only
fay, that it feemed by no means to corre-
fpond with the notions that I had formed of
it, from a converhtion which I once heard
between the Earl of Orrery and old Mr.

Swift now, much againit his will, com-

menced Iriihman for life, and was to con-
trive how he might be befi accommodated
in a country where he coniidered himfelf as

in a h t e of exile. Lt feems that his firit re-
courfe was to piety. The thoughts of death
rufhed upon him, at this time, with fuch in-
. importunity, that they took poffeffion
.. , .

of his mind when he firfi waked for man7
years together.

H e opened. his houfe by a publick table

two days a week, and found his entertain-
ments gradually frequentid by more and more
.?ifitants of learning among the men, arid of
elegance among the wcrnen. Mrs. Johnfon
.had left the country, and lived in lodgings
not far from the deanery. On his publick
days fie regulated the table, but always ap-
peared at it as a mere guefi, like other

- On other days he often dined, at a itated

price, with Mr. Worral, a clergyman of
his cathedral, whofe houfe was recommended
by the peculiar neatnefs and pleafantry of his
vife. To this frugal mode of, he
was firfi difpofed by care to pay fome debts
which he had contraaed, and he continued
it for' the pleafure of accumulating money.
His avarice, however, was not fuffered to
abfiruCt the claims of his dignity; he was
ferved in plate, and ufed to fay that he'was
fhe pooreft gentleman in Ireland that eat up-
41P S W I F T ,
pn plate, and the richefi that lived withaw. 3

How be fpent the reit of his time, and

how he employed his hours of fiudy, hab;
been enquired with hopel$'s quriofity. For
who can give an account of anotlpefs ftu.
dies? Swift was n b likely tq admit any to
his privacies, or to impart a pli~uteaccoyqt
of his bufinefs or his leifie,

Soon after ( I 7 I 6), in his forty-ninth yea$

he was privately married to Mrs. Johnfon
by Dr. Afhe, Biihop of Clogher, as Dr.
m $ d e n told me, .
. in the garden. The mar-
riage made no change in their mode of l i f ~ ; 1

they lived in diffknt houfes, as before; nor

did ihe ever lodge in, the deanery but what
~wif;ws4 fGzed with a fit of giddinefs. . U It
" w o ~ l dbe difficult," Gys Lord Orrery, " to
" prove that they were ever afterwgrd+ togi..
" ther without a third pedon." / . 1
The Dean of St. Patrickk lived in a p&
vate manner, known and regarded o d y by
his friends, till, about the year I 720, he, by
a pam-
a pamphlet, recommended to the Iriih the ufe,
and confequently the improvement, of their
manufahre. For a man to ufe the produc-
tions of his own labour is furely a natural
right, and to like beit what he makes himCeIf
is a fiatutal pafion. But to excite this par-
fion, and enforce this right, appeared Eo cri-
niinal to thofe who had an interefi in the
Engliih trade, that the printer was imprifon-
ed ; and, as Hawkefworth juftly obferves,
the attention of the publick being by this out-
rageous refentment turned upon the propofal,
the author was by confequence made popular.

' I n 1723 died Mrs. Van Homrigh, a wo-

man made unhappy by het admiration of wit,
and ignominioufly difiihguiihed by the name
of VaneJa, whofe condua has been already
{ufficiently difcuffed, and' whofe hiRory is
too well known to be nimutely repeated.
She was a young womar6 fond of literature,
whom Decanrrr the Dean, called Cadcnur by
tranfpofition of the letters, took pleafure in
direeing 'and infiruaing; till, from being
proud of his praife, ihe grew fond of his
perlbn. Swift was then about forty-feven,
at an age when vanity is flrongly excited by
8 the
the amarms attention of a youngs woman,
If it be faid that Swift ihould have checked 1
p&on which he never meant to gratifp, re-
courfe mu8 be had to that extenuation which
he fo much defpiied, me11,are but rnea :per-
h o w e w he did not at fidk know his
own. mind, and, as he reprefents himfeu; ,
was undetermined. For his.admifion of h a
coudhip, and his indulgence of her hopes
after his marriage to Stella, no other honcA
plea can be found, than that he delayed a diE
agreeable difcovery fiom time to time, dread4
ing the immediate b u d s of dare&, and
watching for a favourable moment. She
thought herfelf neglded, , and died of di+
pointment ; having ordered by her will the
poem to be p u b l i e d , in which Cadenu.c had I

proclaimed her excellence, and confeffed his

love. The effea of the publication is thus
related by Delany.

" I have good realon to believe, that they
both were greatly ihocked and rtikired
(though it may be diffaently) upon thif l
" occafion. The Dean made a tour to the
, ~ o b t hof Ireland, for about two months, l
at this time, to diiftpate his thoughts, and
" give
S . W I F-T. 415
give place to obloquy. And Stella retired
(upon the earneft invitation of the owner)
to the houfe of ,a cheerful, geeemus, good-
natured, friend of the Dean's, whom fie
fL alib much loved and honoured. There my
irlformer often iaw her ; and, I have rea-
km to believe, ufed his utmofi endeavours
to relieve, fupport, .and amufe her, in this
fad fituation.

- "Qne little incident he told me of, on.

U that occafion, I think I hall never forget,
'C As her. friend was . an Mpitable, apes

U hearted man, well-beIaved, and largely

U acquainted, it happened one day that fome
gentlemen dsopt in .to ,dinner, who were
itrangers to Srella'a fituation ; and as the
" poem .of ofdenur and Ya~eJa was then the

general topic of converfation, one of them

hid, ' Surely that Van&a muft be a n e w ,
" traordinary woman, that could infpire the

&' Dean to write fo finely upon her.' Mrs.

'' Johnfon hiled, and anfwered, " that ihe
. thought
. tllat point not quite fo clear ; for
it Gas well known the Dean could write
finely upon a broomfiick."

416 S W I F T .
T h e great acquifition of efieern and influ-
ence was made by the Drapier'i Lerter~in
1724. One Wood of Wolverhampton in
Sraffordfhire, a man enterprifing and rapa-
cious, had, as is faid, by a prefent to the Du-
cher's of Munfler, obtained a patent empow-
ering him to coin one hundred and eighty
thoufand ponrrds of half-pence and farthings
for the kingdom of Ireland, in which there
was a very inconvenient and embarrafing
fcarcity of copper coin ; fo that it was poifi-
ble to run in debt upon the credit of a piece
of money. The cook or keeper of an ale-
houfe could not refufe to fupply a man that
bad fiher in his hand, and the buy& would
not leave his money without change.

T h e projet3 was therefore plaufible. The

fcar'city, which was already great, Wood took
care to make greater, by agents who gathered
up the -old half-pence ; .and was about to turn
his brafi into gold, by pouring the treafures
of his new mint upon Ireland, when Swifl,
finding that the metal was debafed to an enor-
mous degree, wrote Letters, under the name of
M. B. Drapier, to fhew the folly of receiving,
and the mifchief that mufi enfue, by giving-
gdd 'and Glveer for coin worth not a
third part of its nominal value.

The nation was alarmed ; the new coin

%as univerfally refufed : but the governors of
Ireland cofifidered refifiance to the King's pa-
tent as highly criminal ; and one Whitihed,
then Chief Jufiice, who had tried the printer
bf the former pamphlet, and fent out the
Jury nine times, till by clamour and menaces
they were frighted into a fpecial verdie, now
prefented the Drafier, but could not prevail
on the Grand Jury to find the bill.

Lord Carteret and the Privy Council pub-

liihed a proclamation, offering three hundred
pounds for dikovcring the author of the Fourth
Letter. Swift had concealed himfelf from his
printers, and trufied only his butler, who tran-
i'cribed the paper. The man, immediately after
the appearahce of the proclamatiofi, firolled
fiom the houfe, and fiaid out all night, and
part of the next day. There was reafon enough
to feat that he had betrayed his mafier for the
reward; but he came home, and the Dean h
ordered him to put off his livery, and lea=
the houfe; " for," fays he, " I know that my
VOL.111. Ee life
S W I F T .
l 418
'' life is in your power, and I will not bear',
out of fear, either your infolence or negli-
gence." The man excufed his fault with
great fubmiffmn, and begged that he might
be confined in the houfe while it was in his
power to endanger his mafier ; but the Dean
refolut;ly turned him -out, wit6out taking
farther notice of him, till the term of in-
formation had expired, and then received
him again. Soon afterwards he ordered him
and the refi of the f'ervants into his prefence,
without telling his intentions, and bade them
take notice that their fellow-fewant was no
longer Robert the butler ; but that his inte-
grity had made him Mr. Blakeney, verger of
St. Patrick's; an officer whofe income was be- I
tween thirty and forty pounds a year, but he
ftill continued for fome years to ferve his old l
mafter as his butler.

, .
Swift was known from this time by the a p
pellation of The.Dean. H e was honoured
by the populace, as the champion, patron,
;nd inflruQor of Ireland; and gained fuch.
power as, confidered both in its extent and
duration, fcarcely any man has ever enjoy-
ed without greater wealth or higher ftation.
. He
S W I F T . 419
H e was from this important year the oracle
bf the traders, and the idol of the rabble, and
by confequence was feared and courted by all
to whom the kindnefs of the traders or the
populace was neceffaiy. The Drupier was a
iign ; the Drapier was a ' health ; and which
way foever the eye or the ear was turned,
fome tokens were found of the nation's gra-
titude to the Drapier.

The benefit tvas indeed great; he had re-

fcued Ireland from a very opprefiive and pre-
datory invaGon; and the popularity which he
had gained he was di!igent to keep, by ap-
pearing forward and zealous on every osca-
Gon where the publick intereft was luppofed
to be involved. . Not did he much lcruple to
boait his influence ; for when, upon ibme at-
tempts to regulate the coin, Archbiihop Boul-
ter, then one of the Juitices, accufed him of
e x a e r a t i n g the people, 'he exculpated hirn-
felf by faying, '' If I had lifted up my finger,
they would have torn you to pieces."

But the pleafire of popularity was {oon

interrupted by domefiic miferqr;.. Mrs. John-.
ibn, whofe converfation was to him the great
Ee 2 fof~ene;
420 S W I F T .
ioftener of the ills of life, began in the year
of the Drapier's triumph to decline ; and two
years afterwards was 6 waited with fick-
nefi, that her recovery was confidered as

Swift was then in England, and had been

invited by Lord Bolingbroke to pafs the win-.
ter with him in France ; but this call of cala-
mity haitened him to Ireland, ,where perhaps
his prerence contributed to reitore her to im-
perfett and tottering health.

He was now fo much at eaie, that (1727)

he returned to England ; where he colleQed
three volumes of Mifcellanies in conjunQion
with Pope, who prefixed a querulous .and
apologetical Preface.

This important year fent likewife into the

world Gulliveis Travels, a produQion ib new
and itrange, that it filled the reader with a
mingled emotion of merriment and amaze-
ment. It was received with fuch avidity,
that the price of the firit edition was raXed
before the fecond k h l d be made ; it was read
by the high and the low,; the learned and illi-
S W I F T . 42r
terate. Criticifin was for a while lofi in
wonder ; no ruIes of judgement were applied
to a book written in open defiance of truth
and regularity. But when diftinaions came
to be made, the part which gave leafi plea-
fure was that which defcribes the FZying $'and,
and that which gave mofi difgufi mufi be the
hiftory of the Houybnhnms,

While Swift was enjoylng the reputation

of his new work, the news of the king's death
arrived ; and he kiffed the hands of the new
King and Qeen three days after their ac-

By the Qeen, when ihe was Princefs, he

had been treated with forne difiinaion, and
was well received bp her in her exaltation j
but whether ihe gave hopes which f i e never
took care to fatisfy, or he formed expeaa-
tions which ihe never meant to raife, the
eveqt was, that he always afterwards thought
on her with malevolence, and particularly
charged her with breaking her promife of
forne medals which f i e engaged to fend him.

Ee 3 I know
az2 S W I F T .
I know not whether ihe had not, in her
turn, ibme reaibn for complaint. A Letter
, was fent her, not fo much entreating as re-
quiring her patronage of Mrs. Barber, an in-
genious Iriihwoman, who was then begging
fubfcriptions for her Poems. T o this Letter
was rubfcribed the name of Swift,and it ias
all the appearances of his diaion and ienti-
ments ; but it was not written in his hand,
and had ibme little improprieties. When he
was charged with this Letter, he laid hold of
the inaccuracies, and urged the improbability
of the accufation ; but never denied' it : he
ihuffles between cowardice and veracity, and
talks big when he fays nothing.

H e feemed defirous enough af recornmen:

cing courtier, and endeavoured to gain the
kindnefs of Mrs. Howard, remembering
what Mrs. Mafham had performed in' former
times ; but his flatteries were, like thofe of
the other wits, unfuccefsful ; the Lady either
wanted power, or had no ambition of poetical

H e was feized not long afterwards by a fit

of giddineis, and again heard. of. the Gcknefs 1
,: .
and danger of Mrs. Johnfon. H e then left
the houfe of Pope, as it feemu, with very
little ceremony, finding that two Jck fiend^
cannot live togtiber ; and did not wri'te to him
till he found himfelf at Cheiter.

H e returned to a home of forrow: poor

Stella was finking into the grave, and, after
a languiihing delay of about two months,
' died in her forty-fourth year, on January 28,
1728. H o w much he wilhed her life, his
papers tell us ; nor can it be doubted that he
dreaded the death of her whom he loved moit,
aggravated by the confcioufnet that himfelf
had hafiened if.

. Beauty and the power of pleafing, the

greateit external advantages that woman can
defire or poKefs, were fatal to the unfortu-
nate Stella, The man whom fie had the
misfortune to love was, as Delany obferves,
fond of fingularity, and defirous to make a
mode of happinek for himfelf, out of the ge-
neral courfe of things and order of Providence.
Frsm the time of her arrival in Ireland he
feems refolved to keep her iq his power, and
therefore hihdered a march fufficiently advan-
Ee 4 ~aeeous~
tageous, hy accumulating unreafonable de- ,
mands, and prclcribing conditions that could
not be performed. While ihe was at her
own difpo,fal he did not confider his poffefion
as fecure ; refentment, ambition, or caprice,
might feparate them ; he was therefore re-
folved to make agirraace double Sure, and to
appropriate her by a private marriage, t a
which he had annexed the expeeation of al[
the pleafures of perfea friendihip, without
the uneafinefs of conjugal refiraint. But with
this itate poor Stella was not fatisfied ;'ihe
never was treated as a wife, and to the world
fie had the appearance of a ~giitrefs. She
lived fullenly on, in hope that in time he
. would own and receive her; but the time
did not come till the change of his manners
and depravation of his mind made her tell
him, when he offered to acknowledge her,
that it was too late. She then gave up herfelf
to iorrowful refentment, and died by the ty-
ranny of him, by whom fie was in the high-
eft degree loved and.honoured,

What were her claims to this excentrick

tendernefs*by which the laws of Nature were
- violated to retain her, curiofify will eequire ;
b but

S W I F T . 425
but how ihall it be gratified? Swift was a
lover ; his tefiimony may be fufppeLted. De-
lany and the Irifh faw with Swift's eyes, and
therefore add little confirmation. That ihe
was virtuous, beautiful, and elegant, in a
very high degree, fuch admiration fiom iirch
a lover makes it very probable ; but ihe
had not much literature, foi- f i e could not
fpell her own language; and of her wit, ib
loudly vaunted, the fmart fayings which
Swift has colletied afford na +lendid fpe-.

The reader of Swift's Letter to a Lady on

her Marriage, may be allowed to doubt whe-
ther his opinion of female excellence ought
implicitly to be admitted ; for if his general
thoughts on women were luch as he exhibits,
a very little fenk in a Lady would enrapture,
and a very little virtue would afionifh him.
Stella's fupremacy, therefore, was perhaps
only locd ; ihe was great, becaufe her affo-
ciates were little.

In ibme Remarks lately publiihed on the

Life of Swift, this marriage is mentioned as
f?bulous, or doubtful ; but, alas ! poor Stella,
426 S W I F T .
as Dr. Madden told me, related her melan-
cErQlyfiory to Dr. Sheridan, when he attend-
ed her as a clergyman to prepare her for
death ; and Delany tells it not with doubt,
but only with regret. Swift~nevermentioned
her without a figh.

T h e r& of his life was {pent in Ireland,

in a country to which not even power almofi
aefpotick, nor flattery glmofi idolatrous,
could reconcile him, He fometimes wiihed
to vifit England, but always found ibme rea-
f ~ 1 1of delay. F e tells Pope, in the decline
of life, that he hopes once more to fee him ;
but fi not, fays he, we a@ part, as all bumatr
beings have parted?

. After the death of Stella, his benevolence

was contraCted, and his feverity exafperated ;
he drove his acquaintance from his table, and
wondered why he was dei'erted, But he '

continued his attention to the publick, and

wrote from time to time fuch direeions,
admonitions, or cenfures, as the various
exigency of affairs, in- his opinion, made
proper; 'and nothing fell from his pen iq
In a fh8rt poem on the Preibyterians,
y h o m he always regarded with detefiation,
he bellowed one itriaure upon Bettefworth,
8 lawyer eminent for his iniblence to the
jergy, which, from very confiderable repu-
tation, brought him into immediate and uni-
uedal contempt. Bettefworth, enraged at
his difgrace and lofs, went to Swift, and de-
manded whether he d a s the author of that
poem. " Mr. Bettefworth," anfwered he,
5' I was in my youth acquainted. with great
rc lawyers, who, knowing my difpofition to
'' fatire, adviied me, that, if any fcoundrel
'' or blockhead whom I had lampooned,
!'' ihould aik, Are you the author of this japer,
I fhould tell him that I was not the author;
!g and therefore I tell you, Mr. Bettefworth,

fb that I am not the author of thefe lines."

Bettefworth was ib little Ltisfied with this

account, that he publickly profeffed his reib-
lution of a violent and corporal revenge; but
the inhabitants of St. Patrick's difiriQ em-
bodied themfelves in the Dean's defence; and
Betteiworth declared in Parliament, that Swift .
had deprived him of twelve hundred pounds
a, year.
428 S W I F T .
Swift was popular a while By another
mode of beneficence. He fet afide ibme
hundreds to be lent in {mall fums to the
poor, from five fhillings, I think, to five
pounds. H e took no intereit, and only re-
quired that, at repayment, a iinall fee fhould
be given to the accomptant; but he required
that the day of promifed payment fhould be ex-
allly kept. A fevere and punCtilious temper
is ill qualified for tranfaaions with the poor;
the day was often broken, and the loan was
not repaid. This might have been eaiily
forefeen; hut for this Swift had made no pro-
vifion of patience or pity. H e ordered his
debtors to be fued. A fevere creditor has no
popular charaaer; what then was likely te
be faid of him who employs the catchpoll
under the appearance of charity2 The cla-
mour againit h i ~ nwas loud, and the refent-
ment of the populace outrageous; he was
therefore forced to drop his fcheme, and own
she folly of expelling p~n&ualityfrom the

His afperity continually inefeafing, con-

demned him to folitude; and his refentment
of folitude iharpened his afperity. H e was
S W I F T . 429
not, however, totally deferted : fome lneh of
Aearning, and fome women of elegance, oftell
vifited him; and he wrote from time to time
either. verfe or profe; of his verfes he wil-
lingly gave copies, and is hppofed to have
felt no dii-content when he faw them printed,
His favourite maxim was vive la bagatelle;
he thought trifles a neceffary part of life, and
perhaps found them neceffary to himfelf. It
feems irnpoGble' to him to be idle, and his
diforders made it difficult or dangerous to be
iong ferioufly fiudious, or laborioufly dili-
gent. The love o f eaik is always gaining
upon age, and he had one temptation to
petty amuiements to himfelf; what-
ever he did, he was lure to hear applauded;
and fuch was his predominance over all that
approached, that all their applaufes were pro-
bably fincere. H e that is much flattered, .
ibon learns to flatter himklf: we are com-
monly taught our duty by fcar or fhame, and
how can they a& upon the man who hears
hothing but his own praifes?

As his years increafed, his fits of giddinefs

and deafnefs grew more frequent, and his
5 deafnefs
S W I F T .
deafnd made converfation difficult; they
grew likewife more fevere, till in 1736, as
he was writing a poem called The ;bcgiofi
Club, he was feized with a fit fo painful, and
Ib long continued, that he never after thought
it proper to attempt any work of thought or

He was always careful of his money, and

was therefore no liberal entertainer; but was
lefs frugal of his wine than of his meat.
, When his friends of either fex came to him,
in expeeation of a dinner, his cufiom was
to give every one a ihilling, that they might
pleafe themfelves 'with their provifion. At
lafi his avarice grew too powerful for his
kindnefs; he would refufe a botlle of wine,
and in Ireland nd man vifits whkre he cannot

Having thus excluded converfation, and

defifted from fiudy, he had neither bufinefs
nor amufement; for having, by ibme ridi-
culous reiblution or mad vow, determined
never to -wear fpeaacles, he could make little
ufe of books in his later years: his ideas,
S W I F T . 431
therefore, being neither renovated by diG
courfe ,nor increafed by reading, wore gra-
dually away, and left his mind vacant tothe
vexations of the hour, till at lafi his anger
was,heightened into madnefs. .

He however permitted one book to' be

publiihed, which had been the pro,duaion of
former years ; Polite Convefation, which ap-
peared in I 73 8. The DireRionr for S e r v w
was printed foon after his death. Theik two
performances h e w a mind inceirantly atten-
tive, and, when it was not employed u , p n
great things, bufy with minute occurrences.
It is apparent that he mufi have had the
habit of noting whatever he obferved; for
fuch a number - of particulars could never
have been affembled by the power of re-

H e grew more violent; and his mental

pomnr decli~edtill (1741) it was Cound ne-
ceffary that legal guardians hould be ap-
pointed of his perfon and fortune. He now
loit diitintlian. His madnefs was compound-

ed of rage and fatuity. The lait fice that

2 he
he knew was that of Mrs. Whiteway, afid
her he ceafed to know in a little time. His
meat was brought him cut into mouthfuls;
but he would never touch it while the ferd -
vant itaid, and at lait, after it had itood pera
haps an hour, would eat it walking; for he
continued his old habit, and was on his feet
ten hours a-day.

Next year (1 742) he had an inflafnniatioa

in his left eye, which fwelled it to the fize of an
egg, with boils in other parts; he was kept
long waking with the pain, arid was not
eafily reitrained by five attendants from tearing
out his eye.

The tumouf at lafi fubfided; and a fiott

interval of reafoon enfuing, in which he khed
his phyfician and his family, gave hopes of
his recovery; but in a few days he funk into
lethargick Rupidity, motionlefs, heedlefs, and
fpeechlefs. But it is faid, that, after a year
of total filence, when his houfekeeper, on
the 30th of November, told him that the
ufual bonfires and illuminations were pred
paring to celebrate his birth-day, he an-.
b " 433
fwered, L? ir uZZ folly; t b g bad bettef let it

It is remembered that he afterwards fpoke

how a n d then; or gave fome intimation of
a meaning; but at lait funk into perfeR
filence, which continued till about the end of
Oaober I 744, when, in his feventy-eighth
peari he expired without a h g g l e .

W H F,N Swift is confidered as an author;

it is juft ro efiimate his powers by their effe&s.
Tn the reign of @een Anne he turned the
ftream of popularity againit the Whigs, and
muit be confeffed to have dieatecl for a time
the political opinions af the Engliih nation.
In the fucceeding reign he delivered rel land
fro~.rlblunder and oppre%on; and ihewed
that wit, confederated with truth, had fuch
force as authority was unable to reiifi. He
faid truly of himfelf, that Ireland c d a ~bi.r
debtor' It was f;om the time when he firit
began to patronize the Irifh, that they may
date their riches and profperitg. He taught
VOL.111. Ff them
them firR to know their own irrtexefi,, theif
weight, and their kength, and gave &ern
fpirit to affert that equality with their fellow&
Eubjetko .to which they have ever fince been
making vigorous advances, and to claim thoii,
rights which they have ,at lafi eitabliihed.
Nor can they be charged with ingratitude to
their ,benefa&or; for. they reverenced him as
a guardiaq and obeyed him as a dietator,

In his work$ ke has g ~ v very

a different
fpecimens both of fentiment and expreEon.
His Talc of a lub has little refemblance to
his other pieces. It exhibite a vehemence
and rapidity ef mind, a copiodneii of ima-
ges, and vivacity of diaion, hcb a8 h e af-
terwards never p&ffed, or never merteda
It is of a mode ib d i f t i d arrd peculiar, that
it mufi be confidered by HeRi what is true
of that, is not true of any thing elfe which he
has written.

In his other works is found an equable te..

nour of eafy language, which rather trickles
than flows. His defight was in fmpticity.
That he has in his work no metaphor, as
has ,
s w i ~ . 433
has been faid, is not true; but his few rneta-
phors fkem to be received rather by necefit~
. .
than choice. H e itudied purity; and though
perhaps id1 his RriQ~resAre not ebao, yet
i t is not often that iblecifms can be found;.
and whoever depends on his authority may
generally conclude himfelf fafe. His fenten-
res are never roo much dilated or contraaed;
arrd it will aot be eafy to find any embarrag-
ment in the complication of his claules, any
inconfequence in his corineCtions, or abrupt-
n d s in his tranfitions.

His Ityle was well fuited to his thoughts,

which are never fubtilifed by nice diipuifi-
tions, decorated by fparkling conceits, ele-
bated by ambitious fedtences, or variegated
hy far-fought learning. H e pays no court
to the pailionsf he excites neither ii.xprife
nor admirationJ he always underfiands him-
klf, and his reader always underitands him :
the perufer of Swifi wants little previous
knowledge; it will be fufficient that he is
acquainted with common words and common
things; he is neither required to mount ele-
vations, nor to explore profundities ; his par-
Ffz iage
fage is always on a level,. along folid groan4
without afperities, without obitmaion..

This eafy and: Me. COrlVeya~xeof meaning

it was Swifr's deGre to att'ain, and. f& having
attaihed he certainly dderves praife, though
perhaps not the highefi praife. For purpores
merely didaaick, when ibmething is to be
told that was not known befcre,. ir is in the
high& degree. pmper, but againit: that in-
attention by which knowd truths are ihffered'
to lie negleaed, it makes no provifion;. it in-
.firu&s, but does not perfuade,

By his political education he *as affociateff

with the Whigs; but he deferted them when
they deferted their principles, yet without
running into the contrary extreme; he con-
tinued throughout his life to retain the difpo-
fition which he aiiigns to the Cburcb-of-Eng-
lnlzd Man, of thinking commonly with the
Whigs of the State, an6 with the. Tories of
the Church.

He was a churchman- rationalTy zcsl,:xs; 1

he defired the profperity and ma!:;;al:-;cz - 1

7..., - v
.- ;.r
S W I F T . 437
honour of the Clergy; of the Diffenters he
did not wiih to infringe the toleration, but
&e oppoCed their encroachments.

Of his duty as Dean he was very obfer-

want. H e ,managed the revenues of his
church with eia& economy; and it is faid
by Delany, that more money was, under
his direaion, laid out in repa'irs than had
ever been in the fame ltinie fince its firit
eyepion, Of his choir he was eminently
careful; and, *hough he neither loved nor
a~nderitood mufick, took care that all the

fingers were well qualified, admitting none

. L the tefimony of fkilful judges.

i n his church he refiored the praaice of

weekly communion, and difiributed the fa-
cramental elements in. the mofi iblernn and
devout manner with . , his own hand. He
came to church every morning, preached
commonly in his turn, and attended the
evening anthem, that it might not be ~egli.
gently performed.

H e read the f m k c rqther with. a J'rung

jiervous v o i q tban in a graceful nnnner; his
Ff3 voice
438 S W I F T ,
voice wa.r @rp and bigb-toned,, ratber tbaa
He entered upon the clerical itate with hope
to excel in preaching; but complGned, that,
from the time of his political controverlie~~
h c o d nnly p m c b paq5bZet~. This cenfure
of himfelf, if judgement be made from thofa
fermons which have been publi@ed, was un-.
reafonably fevere,

The fufpicions of his irreligion proceeded

in a great meafure from his dread of hypocri-
fy ; infiead of wihing to Bem better, he de-
lighted in feeming worfe than be was. Hc
. went in London to early prayers, lefi he
fhould be feen at church; he read prayers
to his fervants every morning with fuch d'ex-
I terous fecrecy, that Dr. Delany was fur months
i n his bufe. befor'e he h e w it, He was not
only careful to hide the good which he did,
but willingly incurred the fufpicion of evil
which he did not. H e forgot what himfelP
had &rmirly afferted, that hypoairy is lefss
mifchievous than open impiety. Dr. Delany,
with all his zeal for his honour, has juitly
condernqed this part of his charaaer.
S W I F T ; 439.
' The pcrfon of Swift had not many recomc

mendations. He had a kind of muddy com-

plexion, which, though he wafhed himfeelf
with oriental fcrupuloiity, did not look clear.
He had a countenance four and feverc, which
he feldom hftened by any appearance of
gaiety. H e itubbornly refitled any tendency
to laughter,

T o his domeflicks he was naturally rough;

and a man of a rigorous temper, with that
vigilance ef minute attention which his works
difcover, muA have been a mafier that few
could bear. That he was difpofed to do his.
fervants good, on important occafions, is no
- great mitigation ; henefaaion can be but rare,
and tyrannick peevifhnefs is perpetual. H e
did not fpare the fervants of others. Once,
when he dined alone with the Earl of
Orrery, he kid, of one that waited in the
room, That man das, Jince evcJat to the table,
. committed jftcen f a h . What the faults
were, Lord Orrery, from whom I heard the
fiory, had not been attentive enough to dif-
cover. My nqmber may perhaps nQt be
440 S W I F T .
I n his economy he praQiikd a peculiar and
offenfive parcimony, without difguife or apo-
logy. The praaice of faving being once ne-
cefiry, became habitual, and grew firit ridi-
culous, and at laft detefiable. But his ava-
rice, though it might exclude pledure, was
never fuffered to encroach upon his virtue,
He was frugal by inclination, but li&ral by
principle ; and if the purpole to which he
defiinqd his little accumulations be-remember-
cd, with his difiribution of oCca&onalcharity?
it wili perhaps appear that he only liked one
mode of expence better than another, and
faved only that he might have fornething tq
give. H e did not grow rich by idjuring lils
fucceirors, but left both Laracor and the
Deanery more valuable than he found them.
W i t h a11 this talk of his covetoufnefs and
generofity, it ihould be remembered that he,
was never rich. The revenue of his Dean-
ery was nct much more than feven hundred
q year.

His beneficence was not graced with ten- l

dernefs or civility ; he relieved without pity,
and afiited without kindneii;, fo that zhofc 1
who were fed by him cou!d hzrdly love him.
S W I F T . 4-41
H e made a rule to himfelf to give but one
piece at a time, and therefore always.fiored
. ,
his pocket with coins
. . of different value.

Whatever he did, he ikemed willing to da ,

3n a manner peculiar to him{elf, without f&

ficiently confidering that fingularity, as it im-
plies a contempt of the general praaice, is a
kind of defiance which juitly provokes the
hofiility of ridicule ; he therefore who indul-
ges peculiar habits js yorik than others, if
be not better,

Of his humour, a it07told by Pape maF '

afford a fpecimen.

t Dr. Swift has an odd, blunt way, that

Cf is mifiaken, by &angers, for ill-nature.
66 -'T~s f~ odd, that there's no defcribing it

( 5 bgt by faas. 1'11 tell you one that firft

'5 comes into my head. One evening, Gay
'f and I wept to fee him: yau know how in- ,
'f timately we were all acquainted. O n our
tc coming in, ' Heyday, gentlemen (fays the
f! Doeor), what's the meaning of this vifit?
, Q

" How
4-43 S W I F T ,
HOW came you to leave all the great Lords,
that you are fo fond d,to come hither ta
fee a poor Dean ?'--Becaufe; we would ra-
6' ther lee you than any of them.--' Ay, any
'6 one that did not know fo W-ell as I do,
CC might believe you, But iince you are
come, I muit get fome f p p e r for you, ?
fuppofe.' No, DoQor, we have fupped
already-' Supped already ? that's impoi-
tc fible! why, 'tis not eight o'clock yet.?
That's very itrange: but, if you had not
itpprd, I mufi have got Comething for-
" you.--let me fee, what ihould I have
" had? A couple of lobfiers; ay, that would

have dune very well ; two ihillings-tarts,

a fhilling: but you will drink a glafs of-
" wine with me, though you fupped fo much
before your ufuuaI time only to fpapare my
" pocket ?'--No, we had rather talk with 704
" than drink with you.--' But if you had
" Cvpped with me, as in all reafon you ought

6c to have done, you muA then have drunk

'' with me.-A battle of wine, two fhillings

" --two and two i s four, and one is five:
" jufi two-and-fix-pence a-piece. There,
4' Pope, there's.half a crown for you, and
5' there's another for you, Sir; for I won't
4' five
fb 'five any tlling by you, I am determined.'--
rL This was all bid and done with his ufud
6' ferioufn-qE6 on Euch occaGons ; and, in fpite
of every thing we could fay to the con-
" trary, he aagally obliged us to take the
Cc money."

In the intercourfe of familiar life, he in-

dulged his difpofition to petulance and fir-
cafm, and thought himfelf injured if the
licentioufnefc of his raillery, the freedom of
his cenfures, or the petulance of his frolicks,
was relented or reprered. H e predominated
over his companions with very high afcend-
ency, and probably would bear none over
whom he could not predominate. T o give
him advice was, in the fiyle of his friend De-
lany, to venture to fja.4 t o bim. This cuf-
tomary fuperiority ibon grew too delicate for
truth ; and Swift, with all his penetration,
allowed b i f e l f to be delighted with low

On ad common occafions, he habitually

affeas a ityle of arrogance, and diQates raw
ther than .perfuades. This authoritative and
pagiit~riallanguage be expeQed to be re-
.. . as his peculiar q o d e of jocularity ; but
he apparently flattered his own arrogance by
an affumed predomination, in which he was ,

ironical only to the refentful, and tq the fub-.

ptifive i d d e n t l y ferious.

w e told Aories with great felicity, and d e ~

lighted in doing what he knew hinlfeU to do
well. H e was therefore captivated by the
refpeLtful iilence of a fleady lifiener, and to14
the fame tales too often. .

H e did not, however, claim the right of

talking alone ; for it was his rule, when he
had fpoken a minute, to give room by a
paufe for any other fppeaker. Of time, on all
occafions, he was an exaQ computer, and
knew the minutes required to every commor)

I t may be juRly fuppofed that there was iq

his converfation, what appears CO frequently
in his Letters, an affeoation of familiarity
with the Great, an ambitiqn of momentary
equality fought and enjoyed by the negleo of
thofe ceremonies which cufiom has efiabliihed
ps the barriers between one order of fociety
, .

7 and
and another. This traafgrefion of regularity
was by himfelf and his admirers termed great-
nefs of ibul. But a great mind dif'dains ta
hold any thing by courtefy, and therefore
never ufurps what a lawful claimant may take
away. H e that encroaches on another's dig-
nity, puts himfelf in his power ; he is either
repelled with helplefs indignity, or endured
by clemency and condeicenfion.

Of Swift's general habits of thinking if his,

Letters can be fuppofed to afford,any evi-
dence, he was not a man to be either loved
or envied. He feems to have waited life in
difcontent, by the rage of negleaed pride,
and the languifhment of unfatisfied deiire;
H e is querulous and fafiidious, arrogant and
malignant ; he farcely fpeaks of hirnfelf b t
with indignant llamen:at?ons, or of others but
with infblent fuperiority when he is gay, and
with angry contempt when he is gloomy.
From the Letters that pafs between him and
Pope it might be ixiferred that they, with
Arbuthnot and Gay, had engroffed at1 the
pnderfianding and virtue of mankind, that
their merits filled the world ; or that there
was no hope of more. They Ihew the age
involved in darknefs, and ihade f i e dtturS
with fuuIIen emulation.

When the Qeen's death drove him intd :

Ireland, hk might be a l l o ~ e dto regret f d r d
time the interception of his views, the ex-
tinLtion of his hopes, and his' ejedibn from
gay fceties, important employment, and
fplendid friendihips ; but when titne had en-
abled reafon to prevail over vexation, the
complaints, which at firft were natural, bei
came ridicrilous becaufe they were ufelefss;
But querubufnefs was now grown habitual+
and he cried cut when he probably had ceaikd l

to feel. His reiterated *ailings perfuaded

&lingbroke that h e waci really willing to quit
his deanery far an Englifh pariih ;. and h i
lingbroke procured an exchange, which wzi
rejeaed, and Swift Rill retained the 'pleafurl
of complaining.
T h e peatea difficulty that occurs, in ana-
lyfing his charaaer, is'to difcover by what
depravity of intellea he took delight in reA
trolving ideas, from which alrnoit every other
mind ihrinka with difgufi. he ideas df
pleafure, even when criminal, Inay iblicit
the Zmagination ; but what has difeafe, de-.
forrnity, and filth, upon which the thoughts
can be allured to dwell 7 Delany is willing
to think that Swift's mind was not much
tainted with this grofs corruption before his
long vifit to Pope. He does not confider
how he degrades his hero, by making him at
fifty-nine the pupil of turpitude, arid liable
to the malignant influence of an afcendant
mind. But the truth i6, that Gulliver had
delcribed his Yaboo~before the vifit, and he
that had formed thofe images had nothing
filthy to learn,

I have here given the charaller of Swift as

he exhibits himfelf to my perception ; bur
how let another be heatd, who knew him
better ; Dr. Delany, after long acquaint-
tince, defcribes him to Lord Orrery in thefi

- My Lord, wheri you cohfider SW&'$

" iingular, peculiar, and mofr variegated
m vein of wit, always rightly intended (al*
though not alwafs To rightly direaed),
delighthl in many iniknces, and falutary,
even where it is mofi offenfive ; when you .
4 .
S " confider
confider his ftria truth, his fortitude in re2
GRing opprefion and arbitrary power ; hi9
fidelity in friendfhip, his fincere love and
zeal for religion, his uprightnefs in making
right relolutions, and his Aeadinefs in ad-
hering to them ; his care of his church, its
choir, its economy, and its income ; his
'c attention to all thoik that preached in his

cathedral, in order to their amendment in

'c pronunciation and fiyle ; as alfo his re-
markable attention to the interefi of his
fucceffors, preferably to his own prefent
'' emoluments ; invincible patriotifm, even
to a country which he did not love ; his
very various, well-deviled, well-judged,
6' and extenfive charities, throughout, his
life, and his whole fortune (to fay nothing
of his wife's) conveyed to the lame chr3.1~
ian purpor~sat his death ; charities fiom-
which ,he could enjoy no honour, a d v a ~
" tage or LtisfaCion of any kind in this
'c world. When you confider his ironical
and humorous, as well as his rcrious fchemes,
. for the promotion of true religion and vir-
t u e ; his &ccefs in foliciting for the F i b
Fruits and Twentieths, to the unfpeakabla
benefit of the eftabliihed Church of Ireland.;
. ." d
and. his Sklicity (to .rate. it no higher) in
'' giving occafion to the building of fifty new
" churches in London.

Cc All this confidered, the charaller of his

" l i e will appear like that .of his writings ;
" they will both bear to be re-confidered and
" re-examined with the utmofi attention,
" and always difcover new beauties and es-
cellencies upon every esaminrttion.
They will bear to be- confidered as the
'' fun, in which the brightnefs will hide the
blemiihes ; and whenever petulant igno-
rance, pride, malice, malignity, or envy,
'' interpofes to cloud or fully his fame, I will
take upon me to pronounce that the eclipfe
will not lafi long.

To conclude-no
' man ever deferved
" better of any country than Swift did of
*'his. A P;eady, yerfevering, inflexible
'L friend ; a yife, a watchful, and a faithful

" counfellor, under many fevere trials and

" bitter perfecutions, to the manifefi hazard

" 'both of his'liberty and fortune.
- VOL.III. G g " He
He lived a bleffing, he died a beneflae
tor, and his name will ever live an honow
to Ireland."

I N the Poetical Works of Dr. S w E there

is not much upon wh'ich the critick can exer-
cife his powers. Thep are ofien humorous,
almoit always light, and have the qualitiea
which recommend fuch compofitions, ealinefs
and gaiety. They are, for the moff part,
%hat their author intended. The di&iion is
correlt, the numbers are fmooth, and the
rhymes exaa. There feldom occurs a hard&
laboured expreGon, or a redundant epithet-,
all his veri'es exemplify his own definition of
a good ftyle, they conGfi of proper word in
proper places.

To divide this Colleaion into cIaffes, and

fhew how ibme pieces are grofs, and ibme
are trifling, would be .to tell the reader what
*heknows already, and to find faults of which
S \v I F r. 45 1

the author could net be ignorant, who cer-

tainly wrote often not to his judgement, but
his humour. l

It was faid, in a Preface to one of the Iriih
editions, that Swift had never been known to 1
take a Gngle thought from any writer, an-
cient or modern, This is not literally true ; l

but perhaps no writer can eafily be found that l
has borrowed fo little,' or that in all his ex- !
cellencies and all his d e f e b has ib well I,

maintained his claim to be confidered as ~


B R O O M E .
, W I L L I A M B R O - O M E was bornin
chefhire,' as is faid, of very mean
'&,rents, Of the place o! his . birth, or the
:firit part .of his life, I have not been able to
. . .
gain any intellrgence, H? ;was educated upon
-the foundation -at Eton, and was captain of
b e fihool' p yhole year, without any va-
cancy, by which he might, have obiained a
icholarfiip at king's College. Being by this

delay, fuch as is faid to have happened yerg

rqrely; fuperannuated, he was ient to St.
College by the cmthbutions of his
friends, where he 'obtained a f i a l l exbii
' ,


At his College he lived for iome time iri

\he {+me chamber with the \yell-known Ford,
Gg 4 1).
456 B R O O M E .
by whom I have formerly heard him defcrib-
ed as a contraaed fcholar and a mere verfi-
fyer, unacquainted with life, and unfkilful in
convedation. His addittion to metre was
then fuch, that his companions familiarly
called him Poet. When he had opportu-
nities of mingling with mankind, he cleared
hidelf, as Ford likewife owned, from great
part of his fcholaitick ruR.

H e appeared early in the world as a tranf-

lator of the 1Ziad.r into profe, in conjunQion
with Ozell and Oldifworth. How their feve-
ral parts were diitributed is not known. l
This is the tranflation of which Ozell boaited
as fuperior, in Toland's opinion, to that of l1

Pope: it has long Gnce vaniihed, and is now

in no danger from the criticks.

H e was introduced to Mr. Pope, who l

was then vifiting Sir John Cotton at Ma-
dingley near Cambridge, and gained fo much
of his efieem that he was employed, I be-
lieve, to make extraas from Euitathius for
the notes to the tranflation of the Iliad; and
in the volumes of poetry publiihed by Lintot, I
B R 0 0 M.E. 457
commonly called Pope's MgeZZanies, many of
his early pieces were inlerted.

Pope and Broome were to be yet more

clofely conneaed. When the fuccds of the
Iliad gave encouragement to a veriion of the
Oajfey, Pope, weary of the toil, called Fen-
ton and Broome to his aiflitance; and, taking
only half the work upon himfelf, divided the
other half between his partners, giving four
books to Fenton, and eight to Broome. Fen-
ton's books I have enumerated in his Life;
to the lot of Broome fell the fecond, Gxth,
eighth, eleventh, twelfth, Gxteenth, eighteenth,
and twenty-third, together with the burthen
of writing all the notes,

As this tranflation is a very important

event in poetical hiftory, the reader has a
right to know upon what grounds I efiabliih
my narration, That the vedion was not
wholly Pope's, was always known: he had
mentioned the afifiance of two fiiends in
his propofals,
- -
and at the end of the'work
fome account is given by Broome of their
different parts, which however mentions only
five books as - written by the coadjutors; the .

fourth and twentieth by Fenton; the iixth,
the eleventh, and the eighteenth by himklf;
though Pope, in an advertifement prefixed
afterwards to a new volume of his vorks,
claimed only twelve. A natural curiofity
after the real condua of ld great an under-
taking, incite4 me once to enquire of Dr,
Warburton, who told me, in his warm lan-
guage, that he thought the relation given in
the note. p. h; but that he was not able to
afceqain the ieyeral ihares. The intelligence
which Dr. Warburton could not afford me,
I abtained from Mr. Langton,. to whom Mr*

kpencd had imparted it.

. . , .. .
T h e priqe at which Pope purchdd th%
a%Rance was three hundred pounds paid tq
Fenton, and. five .hundred to Brome,. with
as many copies as be wanted for his friends,
which amounted to one hundred more. ?'h;
payment made to Fenton I know but by
~ . by.
hearfay; Brc~ome's is very d i f i i n ~ t 1told
pope, in the notes to t h e Dunciad.

k is evident, that, according to Pope's
own eltimate, Broome was unkindiy treated,
If four books could merit three hundred
7 pounds,
B R O O M E . 459
+rids, eight and all the notes, equivalent at
leait -to four, had certainly s right to more
than fix.

Broome probably confidered hirnielf as

injured, and there was for ibme time more
than eoldhefs between him and his employer,
He always fpoke' of Pope as too much a
lover of money, and Pope purfued him with
avowed hoitility; for he not only named him
difrefpe€lfully in the Dmcind, but quoted
him more than once in the bathor, as a pro-
ficient in the Rrt of Sinking; and in his
enumeration 'of the different kinds of poets
&fiingui&ed for the profound, he reckons
Broome among t h e Parrots who +eat am-.
tber'~words in fuch a boar) odd tone ar makes
fbPrajem d h ~ i rv*. I have been told tbar
they were afterwards reconciled; but 1 am
afraid their peace was without frienclfl~ip.

He afierwards publified a Mifcellany of

Poems, which is inferted, with corre~ions,
in th: late compilation.

I-Ie never rofe to very high dignity in the

churctl. He was fome time rec'tor of Stur-
iton in Suffolk, where he married a wealthy
widow ; and afterwards, when the King vi-
fited Cambridge (1728), became Doeor of
Laws. H e was (1733) prefented by the
Crown to the reaory of Pulbam in Norfolk,
which he held with Oaklv Magna in Su~blR,
given him by the Lord Cornwallis, to whom
he wqs chaplain, and who added the vicarage
of ,Eye in Sz@oZk ; he the9 refigned Pylbam,
qnd retained the other two,

. Towards the clofe of his life be grew again

poetical, and amufed himfelf with tranflating
Odes of Anacreon, which he publifhed in the
GentZeman'~ Magazine, under. the name of

H e died at Bath, November I 6, I 745, and

was buried in the Abbey Church. -

Of Broome, though it cannot be faid that he

was a great poet, it would be unjufi to deny
that he was an excellent verGfyer ;his lines are
iinooth and fonorous, and his diaion is feleQ:
and elegant. His rhymes are fometimes un-
fuitable; in his Mela~zcholphe makes brcatb
B R 0 0 M.E. 461
rhyme to d i d in one place, and to eartb in
another. Thofe faults occur but feldom ; and
he had fuch power of words and numbers as
fitted him for tranflation; but, in his origi-
nal works, recolleQion feems to have been
his bufinefs more than invention. His imi-
tations are ib apparent, that it is.part of his
reader's employment to recall the verfes of
ibme former poet. Sometimes be copies the
moit popular writers, for he feems fcarcely
to endeavour at concealment; and fometirnes
he picks up fragments in obfcure corners.
His lines to Fenton,
Serene, the fiing of pain thy thoughts beguile,
And make affliaions objeas of a fmile ;

brought to my mind fome lines on the death

of @een Mary, written by Barnes, of whom
I fhould not have expeaed to find an imi-
tator ;
But thou, 0 Muie, whore iweet nepenthcan
Can charm tht pangs of death with deathlrii
iong ;
Canit /tinging plagues with eafy tboclgbrr beguile,
Mukc pains and torrures o&&?J of ajnile.
TO cietea his imitations were 'tzdious and
ufelefs. What he takes he Eeldom makes
' wode; and he cannot be jultly thought a
mean man whom Pope chofe for an .agociate,
and who& co-operation was confidered by
Pope's enemies as' fo important, that he: was
attacked by Henley .with this ludicrous dil-

Pope came off clean with Homer j but &hey

Broome went before, and kindly fwept the way,