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Data Number of

Parameter Conditions Click For The Test Template


Type Samples
Large Sample Size 1a. One Proportion Z-test
One Sample Small Sample Size 1b. One Prop. Binomial Test
Attribute
Proportion Two Samples 2. Two Proportion Z-test
Data
More Than 2
3. Multiple Proportions Chi Square Test
Samples
Variance
4. One Mean Z-test
Known
One Sample
Variance
5. One Mean t-test
Unknown
Variances
6. Two Means Z-test
Known
Assumed
Mean Two Samples 7. Pooled Variances t-test
Equal
Variances Assumed
8. Unequal Variances t-test
Unknown Unequal

Paired Data 9a. Paired Samples t-test


Variable
Data
9b. dbar and Sd

More Than 2
10a. F-test ANOVA Toolset
Samples

10b. ANOVA with Blocking

10c. Homogeneity of Variance

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One Sample 11. Chi Square Test
Variance
Two Samples 12. F-Ratio

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One Proportion Z-test
Instructions:
1) To obtain the critical values (cut-off values) for your test,
enter the desired significance level (alpha) in the gold cell where noted:
2) To obtain the test statistic, p-value, and confidence interval,
enter the requested information in the gold cells where noted:
3) Choose the output which corresponds to your alternative hypothesis.
The color of that cell will determine which p-value and confidence
interval you will use: 2-Sided Alternative (p ≠ p0):
Less-than Alternative (p < p0):
Greater-than Alternative (p > p0):

Normal Probability Calculator


for inference on one proportion; min{np0,n(1-p0)} ≥ 5

Enter significance level (a ): 0.01

Cut-off values for:


2-sided alternative: -2.5758 2.5758
Less than alternative: -2.3263
Greater than alternative: 2.3263

Test Statistic, p-value, and Confidence Interval Calculator

Enter sample number of events (D): 6


Enter sample size (n): 30 Click here to go to the Binomial Test bec
Enter standard or test value (p0): 0.2 min{np0,n(1-p0)} < 5 (6)

Sample proportion (p-hat): 0.2000

Test Statistic (Z0): 0.0000

P-value:
Two sided alternative: 1.0000
Less than alternative: 0.5000
Greater than alternative: 0.5000

Confidence Interval for p:


Two-sided confidence interval: 0.0119 0.3881
Upper confidence interval: 0.0000 0.3699
Lower confidence interval: 0.0301 1.0000

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One Proportion Binomial test Return To

Instructions: Curve
1) To obtain the critical values (cut-off values) for your test,
enter the desired significance level (alpha) in the gold cell where noted:
2) To obtain the test statistic, p-value, and confidence interval,
enter the requested information in the gold cells where noted:
3) Choose the output which corresponds to your alternative hypothesis.
The color of that cell will determine which p-value and confidence
interval you will use: 2-Sided Alternative (p ≠ p0):
Less-than Alternative (p < p0):
Greater-than Alternative (p > p0):

Binomial Probability Calculator


for inference on one proportion; min{np0,n(1-p0)} < 5

Enter desired significance level (a ): 0.01


Cut-off values for:
2-sided alternative: #VALUE! #VALUE!
Less than alternative: #VALUE!
Greater than alternative: #VALUE!
-4.0000 -2.0000
Note: A value of "#N/A" means that there is no value corresponding the desired
significance level in that tail of the Binomial distribution.
Return To

Enter sample number of events (D): 5


Enter sample size (n): 20 Click here to go to the Z-test because
Enter standard or test value (p0): 0.05 min{np0,n(1-p0)} >= 5 (1)

Sample proportion (p-hat): 0.2500

Test Statistic (D): 5.0000

P-value:
Two sided alternative: #VALUE!
Less than alternative: #VALUE!
Greater than alternative: #VALUE!

Confidence Interval for p:


Two-sided confidence interval: 0.0583 0.5598
Upper confidence interval: 0.0000 0.5321
Lower confidence interval: 0.0688 1.0000
Return To Map

Curve Legend
Normal Curve
2-sided alternative
Less than alternative
Greater than alternative
Test statistic

-4.0000 -2.0000 0.0000 2.0000 4.0000 6.0000

Return To Map

go to the Z-test because


p0)} >= 5 (1)
Two Proportion Z-Test
Instructions:
1) To obtain the critical values (cut-off values) for your test,
enter the desired significance level (a) in the gold cell where noted:
2) To obtain the test statistic, p-value, and confidence interval,
enter the requested information in the gold cells where noted:
3) Choose the output which corresponds to your alternative hypothesis.
The color of that cell will determine which p-value and confidence
interval you will use: 2-Sided Alternative (p ≠ p0):
Less-than Alternative (p < p0):
Greater-than Alternative (p > p0):

Normal Probability Calculator


(for inference on proportion)

Enter significance level (a ): 0.01

Cut-off values for:


2-sided alternative: -2.5758 2.5758
Less than alternative: -2.3263
Greater than alternative: 2.3263
-4.0000 -2.000

Test Statistic, p-value, and Confidence Interval Calculator

Enter first sample number of events (D1): 20


Enter first sample size (n1): 50
Enter second sample number of events (D2): 3
Enter second sample size (n2): 50

First sample proportion (p-hat1): 0.4000


Second sample proportion (p-hat2): 0.0600
General p-hat: 0.2300

Test Statistic (Z0): 4.0396

P-value:
Two sided alternative: 0.00005
Less than alternative: 0.99997
Greater than alternative: 0.00003

Confidence Interval for p1-p2:


Two-sided confidence interval: 0.1417 0.5383
Upper confidence interval: -1.0000 0.5191
Lower confidence interval: 0.1609 1.0000

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Multiple Proportions Chi-Square Test
Instructions:
1) Enter data in gold-highlighted cells (use at least 2 populations):
2) Interpret output from grey-highlighted cells:
3) The Marascuilo procedure will appear below to allow you to make all possible pairwise
comparisons among the proportions ONLY if the test is significant.
4) Do not unprotect this sheet as any changes will likely cause errors.
NOTE: A particular difference is statistically significant if it exceeds the critical value. In some cases, even though the overall null hypothesis of
equality is rejected, there may not be enough data to conclude any particular difference is significant

Factor = Location Characteristic defectives vs. non defectives

Desired significance level (α) = 0.10

Factor: OBSERVED EXPECTED


Location defectives non defectives defectives non defectives Total
1 7.00 93.00 8.25 91.75 100.00 Please enter at
2 6.00 94.00 8.25 91.75 100.00 least 2 populations
3 12.00 88.00 8.25 91.75 100.00
4 8.00 92.00 8.25 91.75 100.00

Total 33.00 367.00 33.00 367.00 400.00

Pooled proportion p = 0.08


Degrees of freedom = 3

Critical Chi-Square value = 6.2514


Chi-Square test statistic value = 2.7413
Chi-Square p-value = 0.4333 0

Pairwise Comparisons of all Population Proportions (Marascuillo procedure)

Number of pairwise comparisons = 6

Estimated Pair (i,j)


Location proportions i j |pi-pj| Critical value
1 0.07 #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
2 0.06 #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
3 0.12 #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
4 0.08 #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
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#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
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#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!

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#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
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#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!

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st Return To Map

cases, even though the overall null hypothesis of


nificant

least 2 populations

uillo procedure) Return To Map

Significant? Std Error δij = pi-pj dij = pi + pj - δij2 Chi square crit Lower Upper
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! 5.7311392819 #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! 5.7311392819 #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! 5.7311392819 #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! 5.7311392819 #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! 5.7311392819 #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! 5.7311392819 #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! 5.7311392819 #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! 5.7311392819 #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! 5.7311392819 #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! 5.7311392819 #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! 5.7311392819 #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! 5.7311392819 #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! 5.7311392819 #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! 5.7311392819 #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! 5.7311392819 #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! 5.7311392819 #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! 5.7311392819 #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! 5.7311392819 #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! 5.7311392819 #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! 5.7311392819 #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! 5.7311392819 #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! 5.7311392819 #VALUE! #VALUE!

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#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! 5.7311392819 #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! 5.7311392819 #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! 5.7311392819 #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! 5.7311392819 #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! 5.7311392819 #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! 5.7311392819 #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! 5.7311392819 #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! 5.7311392819 #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! 5.7311392819 #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! 5.7311392819 #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! 5.7311392819 #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! 5.7311392819 #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! 5.7311392819 #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! 5.7311392819 #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! 5.7311392819 #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! 5.7311392819 #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! 5.7311392819 #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! 5.7311392819 #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! 5.7311392819 #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! 5.7311392819 #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! 5.7311392819 #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! 5.7311392819 #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! 5.7311392819 #VALUE! #VALUE!

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One Mean Z-Test
Instructions:
1) To obtain the critical values (cut-off values) for your test,
enter the desired significance level (a) in the gold cell where noted:
2) To obtain the test statistic, p-value, and confidence interval,
enter the requested information in the gold cells where noted:
3) Choose the output which corresponds to your alternative hypothesis.
The color of that cell will determine which p-value and confidence
interval you will use: 2-Sided Alternative (p ≠ p0):
Less-than Alternative (p < p0):
Greater-than Alternative (p > p0):

Normal Probability Calculator


(for inference on mean, variance known)

Enter significance level (a ): 0.05

Cut-off values for:


2-sided alternative: -1.960 1.960
Less than alternative: -1.645
Greater than alternative: 1.645
-4.0000-3.0000-2.

Test Statistic, P-value, and Confidence Interval Calculator

Enter sample mean (y-bar): 14.7


Enter standard or test value (m 0): 15
Enter population standard deviation (σ): 0.8
Enter sample size (n): 25

Test Statistic (Z0): -1.8750

P-value:
Two sided alternative: 0.0608
Less than alternative: 0.0304
Greater than alternative: 0.9696

Confidence Interval for µ:


Two-sided confidence interval: 14.3864 15.0136
Upper confidence interval: -∞ 14.9632
Lower confidence interval: 14.4368 +∞

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One Mean t-Test
Instructions:
1) To obtain the critical values (cut-off values) for your test,
enter the desired significance level (a) in the gold cell where noted:
2) To obtain the test statistic, p-value, and confidence interval,
enter the requested information in the gold cells where noted:
3) Choose the output which corresponds to your alternative hypothesis.
The color of that cell will determine which p-value and confidence
interval you will use: 2-Sided Alternative (p ≠ p0):
Less-than Alternative (p < p0):
Greater-than Alternative (p > p0):

T Distribution Calculator
(for inference on mean, variance unknown)

Enter significance level (a ): 0.05


Enter sample size (n): 25

Cut-off values for:


2-sided alternative: -2.064 2.064
Less than alternative: -1.711
Greater than alternative: 1.711
-4.0000-3.0000-2

Test Statistic, p-value, and Confidence Interval Calculator

Enter sample mean (y-bar): 14.7


Enter standard or test value (m0): 15
Enter sample standard deviation (s): 0.8

Test Statistic: -1.8750

P-value:
Two sided alternative: 0.0730
Less than alternative: 0.0365
Greater than alternative: 0.9635

Confidence Interval for mean µ:


Two-sided confidence interval: 14.3698 15.0302
Upper confidence interval: -∞ 14.9737
Lower confidence interval: 14.4263 +∞

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Two Means Z-Test
Instructions:
1) To obtain the critical values (cut-off values) for your test,
enter the desired significance level (a) in the gold cell where noted:
2) To obtain the test statistic, p-value, and confidence interval,
enter the requested information in the gold cells where noted:
3) Choose the output which corresponds to your alternative hypothesis.
The color of that cell will determine which p-value and confidence
interval you will use: 2-Sided Alternative (p ≠ p0):
Less-than Alternative (p < p 0):
Greater-than Alternative (p > p 0):

Normal Probability Calculator


(for comparison of means, variances known)

Enter significance level (a ): 0.10

Cut-off values for:


2-sided alternative: -1.645 1.645
Less than alternative: -1.282
Greater than alternative: 1.282
-4.0000-3.0000-

Test Statistic, P-value, and Confidence Interval Calculator

Enter first sample mean (y-bar1): 2250


Enter second sample mean (y-bar2): 2475
Enter difference of interest (D0): 0
Enter population 1 standard deviation (s1): 500
Enter population 2 standard deviation (s2): 500
Enter sample size 1 (n1): 30
Enter sample size 2 (n2): 30

Test Statistic (Z0): -1.743

P-value:
Two sided alternative: 0.0814
Less than alternative: 0.0407
Greater than alternative: 0.9593

Confidence Interval for µ1-µ2 = Δ0:


Two-sided confidence interval: -437.3497 -12.6503
Upper confidence interval: -∞ -59.5524
Lower confidence interval: -390.4476 +∞

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This test is also called: Pooled Variances Test, Two Means t-Test (Equal Variances), Independent Samples t-test (Po

Pooled Variances t-Test


Instructions:
1) To obtain the critical values (cut-off values) for your test,
enter the desired significance level (a) in the gold cell where noted:
2) To obtain the test statistic, p-value, and confidence interval,
enter the requested information in the gold cells where noted:
3) Choose the output which corresponds to your alternative hypothesis.
The color of that cell will determine which p-value and confidence
interval you will use: 2-Sided Alternative (p ≠ p0):
Less-than Alternative (p < p0):
Greater-than Alternative (p > p0):

Pooled Variances t-Test Calculator


(for comparison of means, variances unknown but equal)

Enter significance level (a ): 0.01


Enter sample size 1 (n1): 10
Enter sample size 2 (n2): 10

Cut-off values for:


2-sided alternative: -2.8784 2.8784
Less than alternative: -2.5524
Greater than alternative: 2.5524
-4.0000 -2.00

Test Statistic, P-value, and Confidence Interval Calculator

Enter first sample mean (y-bar1): 31


Enter second sample mean (y-bar2): 22
Enter difference of interest (D 0): 0
Enter sample 1 standard deviation (S1): 5.1
Enter sample 2 standard deviation (S2): 3.3

Pooled estimate of standard deviation (S p): 4.2953


Test Statistic (t0): 4.6852

P-value:
Two sided alternative: 0.0002
Less than alternative: 0.9999
Greater than alternative: 0.0001

Confidence Interval for µ1-µ2 = Δ0:


Two-sided confidence interval: 3.4707 14.5293
Upper confidence interval: -∞ 13.9030
Lower confidence interval: 4.0970 +∞

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This test is also called: 2 Samples t-test, Unpooled Variances t-test, Two Means t-Test (Unequal Variances), Independe

Unequal Variances t-Test


Instructions:
1) To obtain the critical values (cut-off values) for your test,
enter the desired significance level (a) in the gold cell where noted:
2) To obtain the test statistic, p-value, and confidence interval,
enter the requested information in the gold cells where noted:
3) Choose the output which corresponds to your alternative hypothesis.
The color of that cell will determine which p-value and confidence
interval you will use: 2-Sided Alternative (p ≠ p0):
Less-than Alternative (p < p0):
Greater-than Alternative (p > p0):

Unequal Variances t-Test


(for comparison of means, variances unknown and unequal)

Enter significance level (a ): 0.05


Enter sample size 1 (n1): 30
Enter sample size 2 (n2): 30
Enter first sample mean (y-bar1): 16.733
Enter second sample mean (y-bar2): 18.7
Enter difference of interest (D 0): 0
Enter sample standard deviation (S1): 28.202
Enter sample standard deviation (S2): 20.424

Degrees of freedom: 52.00


Cut-off values for: -4.0000-3.0000-2.
2-sided alternative: -2.0066 2.0066
Less than alternative: -1.6747
Greater than alternative: 1.6747

Test Statistic (t0): -0.3094

P-value:
Two sided alternative: 0.7583
Less than alternative: 0.3791
Greater than alternative: 0.6209

Confidence Interval for µ1-µ2 = Δ0:


Two-sided confidence interval: -14.7240 10.7900
Upper confidence interval: -∞ 8.6797
Lower confidence interval: -12.6137 +∞

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This test is also called: One Mean t-Test (Paired Samples)

Paired Samples t-Test


Instructions:
1) To obtain the critical values (cut-off values) for your test,
enter the desired significance level (a) in the gold cell where noted:
2) To obtain the test statistic, p-value, and confidence interval,
enter the requested information in the gold cells where noted:
3) Choose the output which corresponds to your alternative hypothesis.
The color of that cell will determine which p-value and confidence
interval you will use: 2-Sided Alternative (p ≠ p0):
Less-than Alternative (p < p0):
Greater-than Alternative (p > p0):

Paired Samples t Test Calculator


(for comparison of means, paired or matched data)

Enter significance level (a ): 0.1


Enter sample size (# of matched pairs): 12

Cut-off values for:


2-sided alternative: -1.796 1.796
Less than alternative: -1.363
Greater than alternative: 1.363
-4.0000-3.0000-

Test Statistic, p-value, and Confidence Interval Calculator

Enter difference of interest (D 0): 0


Enter sample mean difference (dbar): -0.8333
Enter sample standard deviation (Sd): 1.5859

Test Statistic (t0): -1.8202

P-value:
Two sided alternative: 0.0960
Less than alternative: 0.0480
Greater than alternative: 0.9520

Confidence Interval for µd:


Two-sided confidence interval: -1.6555 -0.0111
Upper confidence interval: -∞ -0.2091
Lower confidence interval: -1.4575 +∞

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Statistics for the Paired t-Test
Instructions:
1) To obtain sample mean and standard deviation, enter the
requested information in the gold cells.
2) The output can then be used in the Paired t test calculator
for your hypothesis test.
3) Alternative Method: Use the STDEV worksheet function
to calculate the Standard Deviation. See Excel HELP for
guidance.

d-bar and Sd Calculator


Pair Before After d d^2
1 5 7 -2 4
2 9 7 2 4
3 7 6 1 1
4 8 9 -1 1
5 6 8 -2 4
6 8 9 -1 1
7 5 5 0 0
8 7 6 1 1
9 6 9 -3 9
10 4 7 -3 9
11 5 6 -1 1
12 7 8 -1 1
13

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This test is also called: Multiple Independent Samples ANOVA

ANOVA - Comparison of Multiple Treatments


Instructions:
1) Enter data in gold-highlighted cells:
2) Interpret output from grey-highlighted cells:
3) If the number of treatments or methods is different than number
shown, add a row in the middle of the array.
4) The 95% and 99% confidence interval graphs are provided on the right.
5) This procedure tests the null hypothesis H0 : µ1 = µ2 = ….. = µk (where k = number of groups)
against the alternative H1: At least one µi is different from the others.

Treatment Treatment Treatment Treatment Treatment Between Trtmnt Within Trtmnt


Observation A B C D E Variance variance
1 27.0 26.0 29.5
2 31.0 33.0 25.0
3 28.5 26.5 28.5
4 26.0 27.5 25.5
5 27.5 29.0 24.0
6 29.0 27.5 27.5
7 33.0 26.5 28.0
8 35.0 27.0 26.0
9 28.0 28.0 25.5
10 29.0 32.0 26.5
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
Mean (Y-bar) 29.4 28.3 26.6 1.9900
Variance (s2) 7.9 5.7 3.0 5.5148
Sample size per
Treatment (n) = 10
Number of
Treatments = 3
DFn = 2
DFd = 27

F-Ratio = 3.61
F p-value = 0.041

Significance level (α) = 0.05


Critical F-value = 3.354

Note: ANOVA assumes equal variances across treatments.


You can test this assumption using Worksheet 10c:
Homogeneity of Variance

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Note: If the confidence interval for any given pair of means contains zero, the pair of means are not significantly different.
If it does not contain zero, the pair of means are significantly different.

95% CI for Pairwise Differences of Treatment Means:


Treatment Pairs
(1,2) (1,3) (1,4) (1,5) (2,3) (2,4) (2,5) (3,4) (3,5)
Upper #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
Lower #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
Mean 1.1 2.8 1.7
Return To Map

95% Confidence Intervals of Pairwise Differences


8.0

6.0

4.0

2.0

You may need 0.0


to manually
resize the scale -2.0
to optimize
display (double- -4.0
click on scale).
-6.0

-8.0
(1,2) (1,3) (1,4) (1,5) (2,3) (2,4) (2,5) (3,4) (3,5) (4,5)
Treatment Pairs

99% CI for Pairwise Differences of Treatment Means:


Treatment Pairs
(1,2) (1,3) (1,4) (1,5) (2,3) (2,4) (2,5) (3,4) (3,5)
Upper #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
Lower #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
Mean 1.1 2.8 1.7

99% Confidence Intervals of Pairwise Differences


8.0

6.0

4.0

2.0

0.0

-2.0

-4.0

-6.0

-8.0
(1,2) (1,3) (1,4) (1,5) (2,3) (2,4) (2,5) (3,4) (3,5) (4,5)
Treatment Pairs

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not significantly different.

q(0.95,r,df)
(4,5) #VALUE!

i ni
1 10
2 10
3 10
4
5

q(0.99,r,df)
(4,5) #VALUE!

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This test is also called: Multiple Related Samples (Blocked) ANOVA

ANOVA (F-Test) With Blocking


Instructions:
1) Enter the treatment and blocking variable names in row 29
2) Enter data in gold-highlighted cells
3) If the levels of treatment or blocking variable is greater than the number
shown, add a row/column in the middle of the array. If adding
a row/column, copy formulas from adjoining row/column.
4) Interpret output from grey-highlighted cells:
5) The 95% and 99% confidence interval graphs after blocking are provided to the right.
6) This procedure tests the null hypothesis H0 : µ1 = µ2 = ….. = µk (where k = number of treatments)
against the alternative H1: At least one µi is different from the others.

Blocks Within Within


Treatments 1 2 3 4 Treatments Treatments Return To Map
Mean Variance
1 21.6 39.6 66.6 119.7 61.9 1828.103
2 30.0 64.8 72.3 135.9 75.8 1947.630
3 76.8 108.6 133.8 239.1 139.6 4946.243
4 45.6 90.0 98.7 163.5 99.5 2364.030
5 99.0 144.3 158.1 272.4 168.5 5439.750
Mean 54.6 89.5 105.9 186.1 109.0 3305.151
Difference From
Overall Mean -54.4 -19.6 -3.1 77.1
Variance Of
Means 1971.7

Treatment variable = Treatments Blocking variable = Blocks


Number of treatments = 5 Number of blocks (n)= 4

DFn = 4 Test Statistic (F0) = 2.386


DFd = 15
F p-value = 0.097
F Value @ 0.05 = 3.056
F Value @ 0.01 = 4.893

After Blocking
Blocks Within Within
Treatments 1 2 3 4 Treatments Treatments
Mean Variance
1 76.0 59.2 69.7 42.6 61.9 213.507
2 84.4 84.4 75.4 58.8 75.8 145.571
3 131.2 128.2 136.9 162.0 139.6 236.679
4 100.0 109.6 101.8 86.4 99.5 92.819
5 153.4 163.9 161.2 195.3 168.5 340.055
Mean 109.0 109.0 109.0 109.0 109.0 257.158
Difference From
Overall Mean 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Variance Of
Means 1971.7

DFn = 4 Test Statistic (F0) = 30.669


DFd = 12
F p-value = < 0.001
F Value @ 0.05 = 3.259
F Value @ 0.01 = 5.412

Note: ANOVA assumes equal variances across treatments.


You can test this assumption using Worksheet 10c:
Homogeneity of Variance
Note: If the confidence interval for any given pair of means contains zero, then the means
If it does not contain zero, the pair of means are significantly different.

95% CI for Pairwise Differences of Treatment Means:


Treatment Pairs
ed to the right. (1,2) (1,3) (1,4) (1,5) (2,3)
k = number of treatments) Upper -5.9 -69.7 -29.6 -98.6 -55.8
Lower -21.9 -85.7 -45.6 -114.6 -71.8
Mean -13.9 -77.7 -37.6 -106.6 -63.8

Return To Map
95% Confidence Intervals of Pairwise Differences

60.0
40.0
20.0
0.0
-20.0
-40.0
-60.0
-80.0
-100.0
Compare to F-Value for -120.0
selected confidence level.
-140.0
(1,2) (1,3) (1,4) (1,5) (2,3) (2,4) (2,5) (3,4) (3,5) (4,5)
Methods

99% CI for Pairwise Differences of Treatment Means:


Treatment Pairs
(1,2) (1,3) (1,4) (1,5) (2,3)
Upper #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
Lower #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
Mean -13.9 -77.7 -37.6 -106.6 -63.8

99% Confidence Intervals for Methods


Compare to F-Value for
60.0
selected confidence level.
40.0

20.0

0.0

-20.0

-40.0

-60.0

-80.0

-100.0

-120.0
(1,2) (1,3) (1,4) (1,5) (2,3) (2,4) (2,5) (3,4) (3,5) (4,5)
Methods
ns contains zero, then the means in the pair are not significantly different.
gnificantly different.

Treatment Pairs q(0.95,r,df)


(2,4) (2,5) (3,4) (3,5) (4,5) 1
-15.7 -84.7 48.1 -20.9 -61.0
-31.7 -100.7 32.1 -36.9 -77.0
-23.7 -92.7 40.1 -28.9 -69.0

ise Differences

(2,5) (3,4) (3,5) (4,5)

Treatment Pairs q(0.99,r,df)


(2,4) (2,5) (3,4) (3,5) (4,5) #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
-23.7 -92.7 40.1 -28.9 -69.0

r Methods

) (2,5) (3,4) (3,5) (4,5)


This test is also called: Multiple Variances Levene Modified Test

Levene's Modified Test for Homogeneity of Variances


Treatment Treatment Treatment
Observation A (Y1) B (Y2) C (Y3) |Y1-MED(Y1)| |Y2-MED(Y2)| |Y3-MED(Y3)|
1 27.0 26.0 29.5 1.8 1.5 3.3
2 31.0 33.0 25.0 2.3 5.5 1.3
3 28.5 26.5 28.5 0.3 1.0 2.3
4 26.0 27.5 25.5 2.8 0.0 0.8
5 27.5 29.0 24.0 1.3 1.5 2.3
6 29.0 27.5 27.5 0.3 0.0 1.3
7 33.0 26.5 28.0 4.3 1.0 1.8
8 35.0 27.0 26.0 6.3 0.5 0.3
9 28.0 28.0 25.5 0.8 0.5 0.8
10 29.0 32.0 26.5 0.3 4.5 0.3
11
12
13
14
15
Mean (Y-bar) 2.0 1.6 1.4
Variance (s2) 3.9 3.5 0.9

number of treatments = 3
number of observations/treatment = 10

alpha (α) = 0.05


F-Ratio = 0.33 compare to F critical value @ alpha = 3.35
p-value = 0.7193 compare to alpha
Between Mean Pooled
Variance Variance

0.09
2.80

Return To Map
This test is also called: One Variance Chi-Square Test

Chi-Square Test
Instructions:
1) To obtain the critical values (cut-off values) for your test,
enter the desired significance level (a) in the gold cell where noted:
2) To obtain the test statistic, p-value, and confidence interval,
enter the requested information in the gold cells where noted:
3) Choose the output which corresponds to your alternative hypothesis.
The color of that cell will determine which p-value and confidence
interval you will use: 2-Sided Alternative (p ≠ p0):
Less-than Alternative (p < p0):
Greater-than Alternative (p > p0):

Chi-Square Calculator
(for inference on variance)

Enter significance level (α): 0.05


Enter sample size (n): 25

Cut-off values for:


2-sided alternative: 12.4012 39.3641
Less than alternative: 13.8484
Greater than alternative: 36.4150
0.0000 10.0000

Test Statistic, p-value, and Confidence Interval Calculator

Enter sample variance (S2): 2.3


Enter standard or test value (s 0 2): 1.8

Test Statistic (Chi-square): 30.6667

P-value:
Two sided alternative: 0.3273
Less than alternative: 0.8364
Greater than alternative: 0.1636

Confidence Interval for σ2:


Two sided confidence interval: 1.4023 4.4512
Upper confidence interval: 0.0000 3.9860
Lower confidence interval: 1.5159 +∞

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This test is also called: Two Variances F-Test

F-Ratio Test
Instructions:
1) To obtain the critical values (cut-off values) for your test,
enter the desired significance level (a) in the gold cell where noted:
2) To obtain the test statistic, p-value, and confidence interval,
enter the requested information in the gold cells where noted:
3) Choose the output which corresponds to your alternative hypothesis.
The color of that cell will determine which p-value and confidence
interval you will use: 2-Sided Alternative (p ≠ p0):
Less-than Alternative (p < p0):
Greater-than Alternative (p > p0):

F-Ratio Calculator
(for comparison of variances from two Normal populations)

Enter significance level (a ): 0.01


Enter first sample size (n1): 50
Enter second sample size (n2): 50

Cut-off values for:


2-sided alternative: 0.4733 2.1130
Less than alternative: 0.5095
Greater than alternative: 1.9626
0.0000 5.0

Test Statistic, p-value, and Confidence Interval Calculator


Enter first sample variance (S21): 29
Enter second sample variance (S22): 22

Test Statistic (F0): 1.3182

P-value:
Two sided alternative: 0.3368
Less than alternative: 0.8316
Greater than alternative: 0.1684

Confidence Interval for σ21/σ22:


Two sided confidence interval: 0.6238 2.7854
Upper confidence interval: 0 2.5871
Lower confidence interval: 0.6717 ∞

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