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To determine the relationship between the head, flow rate, velocity, power and
efficiency of Francis Turbine.


At the end of the course , students should be able to apply the knowledge and skills
they have learned to :
a) Understand the basic operating system of the Francis Turbine.
b) Understand on the factors which influence the efficiency of Turbine.


Francis Turbine is the first hydraulic turbine with radial inflow. It was designed by
American scientist James Francis. Francis Turbine is a reaction turbine. Reaction Turbines
have some primary features which differentiate them from Impulse Turbines. The major part
of pressure drop occurs in the turbine itself, unlike the impulse turbine where complete
pressure drop takes place up to the entry point and the turbine passage is completely filled by
the water flow during the operation.

Francis Turbine design has a circular plate fixed to the rotating shaft perpendicular to
its surface and passing through its centre. This circular plate has curved channels on it; the
plate with channels is collectively called as runner. The runner is encircled by a ring of
stationary channels called as guide vanes. Guide vanes are housed in a spiral casing called as
volute. The exit of the Francis turbine is at the centre of the runner plate. There is a draft tube
attached to the central exit of the runner. The design parameters such as, radius of the runner,
curvature of channel, angle of vanes and the size of the turbine as whole depend on the
available head and type of application altogether.
Francis Turbines working are generally installed with their axis vertical. Water with
high head (pressure) enters the turbine through the spiral casing surrounding the guide vanes.
The water looses a part of its pressure in the volute (spiral casing) to maintain its speed. Then
water passes through guide vanes where it is directed to strike the blades on the runner at
optimum angles. As the water flows through the runner its pressure and angular momentum
reduces. This reduction imparts reaction on the runner and power is transferred to the turbine

Hydraulic power can be obtain at the turbine inlet (usually known in watt unit) and
can be calculated as, Phyd  H totQ , and Q as the volume discharge that can be read from the

measuring equipment (m3/s) and  is a water weight per unit of volume (9820 N / m3).

H tot is a total head (m) which can be calculated (using theorem Bernoulli method) in
a circuit section flow just before the turbine in a location of pressure head as a total of three
parameter, H tot  H man  H kin  H pres which is Hman is a the differences of pressure head

position which measured the pressure and the turbine shaft bar. As using the experimental
table, H man  0.20m (if the pressure decreasing at the turbine point out which cause by the
mixer which count as an available head, Hman can be calculated as the height differences
between the pressure gauging point position and the point of water level at the outflow of
reservoir) is a kinetic parameter which cause by water velocity, vm (in m / s), at the pressure
gauging location, where the pipe section is Sm (this value is not S and v value at the inlet
H kin  vm / 2 g , whereas g is the gravity constant (9.81m/s2) and vm=Q/Sm.

H pres  m /  is a resultant parameter from water pressure,  m (in unit N / m2) as measured

by pressure gauging.

In calculation table, the readable gauging value which has been read by four gauging,
all the readable value from the calculation can be added by the related values, vm, Hman, Hkin,
Hpres, Htot, Phyd, which has been described first. This following relationship, has been used to
calculated the value of mechanical power out, Pmec (usually in watt), Pmec  c  2n / 60 ,

whereas  , is the turbine angular velocity (in rad / s), n is a turbine average velocity obtain
by reader equipment (RPM) and c is a braking torque velocity at the turbine shaft as obtain by
 P 
reader equipment (Nm). Lastly, the turbine overall efficiency,    mec  is calculated as
 Phyd 
 
the ratio of power at outlet point compared to the generated power. Last table arrangement
for the experimental value and the calculation value (for each z ) can be explained in a
provided table.

1. Francis Turbine Equipment


1. Closed the delivery control shutter.

2. The distributor leverage are fixed at the chosen value (50% and 100%).
3. The delivery control shutter were opened until desired flow rate.
4. The reading of pressure ( m ), speed ( n ), flow rate ( Q ), and voltage (V) for
each distributor leverage value were recorded in Table 6.1.
5. Repeat 3 - 4 steps with different distributor leverage value.