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Qus:1 Differentiate between TCP and UDP

Differentiate between TCP and UDP:

TCP (Transmission Control Protocol):

The TCP corresponds to the transport layer of OSI reference model, The TCP is known as a
connection-oriented protocol, which means that connection is established and maintained until such
time as the message or messages to be exchanged by the application programs at each end have
been exchanged. TCP makes sure data gets to the destination without errors. It is also responsible for
disassembling and assembling

Qus: 2 describe the features of XML. What are the important rules to keep in mind about the XML

The features of XML:

XML is popular for many features and few of them are listed here:
1. Easy Data Exchange: In XML, data and mark-up are stored as text that we can configure. If we
like, we can use XML editors to create
Qus: 3. List and explain the Components of XML processor.

Components of XML processor:

a) Parser:

Every XML processor has a parser. An XML parser converts an XML document into an XML DOM
object - which can then be manipulated with a JavaScript. The parser's job is to translate XML mark-
up and data into a stream of bite-sized nuggets, called tokens, to be used for processing. A token
may be an element start tag, a string of character content

Qus:4. Describe the procedure of fetching data from XML to HTML. Give an example.


Procedure of fetching data from XML to HTML:

The process of fetching data from an XML files to be filled in an HTML table, using DSO (Data Source
Object) and JavaScript. DSO is an object that operates like a database on the client side. It will accept
information that is organized in a certain way and

Qus:5. Describe five different categories of PHP Operators.


Categories of PHP Operators:

In all programming languages, operators are used to manipulate or perform operations on variables
and values. There are many operators used in PHP, so we have separated them into the following
categories to make it easier to learn them all.

 Assignment Operators
 Arithmetic Operators
 Comparison

Qus:6. Describe about ASP.


The page on the server called by the JavaScript is an ASP file called AJAX server page. The server file
could easily be rewritten in PHP, or some other server languages. Look at the example in PHP. The
source code in "getcustomer.asp"
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Spring 2018 ASSIGNMENT




Qus:1 What do you mean by product life cycle? Explain the seven stages of product life cycle

Product life cycle:
A series of steps is required to manufacture a product..The product developed should satisfy the
customer. The series of steps involved in developing the product is called the product life cycle.

The stages of product life cycle:
The seven stages in a product life cycle are:

Qus: 2 List any ten major principles of agile software.

Principles of agile software:

The major principles of agile software are:

 Satisfying

Qus: 3. List the four developer practices of XP. Explain briefly about Adopt test-driven

Developer practices of XP:
XP values and the significance of time and resource for an XP practitioner. As a development model,
the XP empowers the developers and stakeholders, associated with the project, to successfully carry
out the project and develop efficient software.

Qus:4. Briefly explain about tracker and coach in XP.


Tracker and coach in XP:


A tracker is a person who keeps track of the schedule. A tracker can be a manager or a trusted
developer. XP keeps track of certain metrics that include team velocity. This is the ratio of ideal time
estimated for accomplishing a task to the actual time spent implementing them. The tracker also
includes other data

Qus:5. Explain XP prerequisites.


XP prerequisites:

The following are the prerequisites for adopting XP:
 Team agreement
 A collocated team
 On-site customers
 The right team size
 Use all XP practices

 Team agreement: The team’s agreement to use XP is as important as management support. If
team members do not want to use XP, it’s not likely to work. XP assumes that each team
member’s willingness to adopt it. It is not a good practice to force the process on somebody who
is resisting it.

Qus:6. List and explain any five basic principles of DSDM


Principles of DSDM:

DSDM consists of nine basic principles. These principles form the cornerstones of development using
DSDM and direct how development progresses. Ignoring any one of them will break with the
frameworks philosophy and
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Q1. Describe wireless communication. Explain its advantages.


Wireless communication is among technology’s biggest contributions to mankind. Wireless
communication involves the transmission of information over a distance without help of wires,
cables or any other forms of electrical conductors. The transmitted distance can be anywhere
between a few meters (for example, a

2 Describe any five GSM PLMN basic services.

Answer: 5 GSM PLMN basic services
Dual-Tone multifrequency (DTMF): The automatic answering machines used in wireless telephone
network needs a controlling mechanism. For this purpose the GSM PLMN uses a tone signalling

Q3. Differentiate BSC and MSC protocols. 10

Ans: BSC protocols: Once the information is communicated from the BTS to the BSC, the Abis
interface is used to

an be routed to the user by the location information contained in the user’s HLR.

Q4. What is CDMA? Explain the history of CDMA. 4+6 = 10

Ans: CDMA : we will be introduced to the concept of CDMA, its channel concept and its operation.
Code Division Multiple Access technology emerged as an alternative to the GSM cellular architecture.
Frequency reuse is an
Q5. Explain the following: a) A5 algorithm for encryption b) A8 algorithm for key generation 10

Ans: A5 Algorithm – An A5 encryption algorithm scrambles the user's voice and data traffic between
the handset and the base station to provide privacy. An A5 algorithm is implemented in both the
handset and the base station subsystem (BSS). This algorithm is used to encipher and decipher the
data that is being transmitted on the Um interface. The Kc (ciphering key) and the
plaintext data are inputted into the A5 algorithm and

Q6. List and explain the different path loss models. 10

Ans: Path Loss Models: Path loss models describe the signal attenuation between a transmit and a
receive antenna as a function of the propagation distance and other parameters. Some models
include many details of the topography profile to estimate the signal reduction, whereas others just
consider carrier frequency and distance. Path loss is the reduction in power density of an
electromagnetic wave as it propagates through space. It is a major component in the analysis and
design of the link budget of a

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MCA5042 - Cryptography and Network Security

1 a) List and explain the objectives of computer security.
b) What is the difference between passive and active security threats?

Answer: a) Objectives of Computer Security
The first objective of security is confidentiality: keeping information away from people who should
not have it. Accomplishing this objective requires that we know what data we are protecting and
who should have access to it. It requires that we provide protection mechanisms for the data while it

2 a) What is avalanche effect?
b) Explain data encryption standard (DES).
Answer: a) In cryptography, the avalanche effect is the desirable property of cryptographic
algorithms, typically block ciphers and cryptographic hash functions wherein if when an input is
changed slightly (for example, flipping a single bit) the output changes significantly (e.g., half the
output bits flip). In the case of high-quality block ciphers, such a small change in either the key or the
plaintext should cause

3 Explain the evaluation criteria for Advanced Encryption Standard (AES).

Answer: The AES is likely to be the commercial-grade symmetric algorithm of choice for years, if not
decades. In January 1997, NIST called for cryptographers to develop a new encryption system. As
with the call

4 a) What is key distribution?
b) Explain symmetric key distribution using symmetric encryption.

Answer: a) In symmetric key cryptography, both parties must possess a secret key which they must
exchange prior to using any encryption. Distribution of secret keys has been problematic until
recently, because it

5 a) Describe the four types of protocol of SSL.
b) What is Transport Layer Security (TLS)? Explain.

Answer: a) The SSL defines four protocols in two layers. They are:
Change CipherSpec Protocol
The change CipherSpec protocol is responsible for sending change CipherSpec messages. At any time,
the client can request to change current cryptographic parameters such as the handshake key

6 a) Discuss intrusion detection.
b) What do you mean by malicious software? Explain in detail.

Answer: a) Intrusion detection:
Closely related to audit reduction is the ability to detect security lapses, ideally while they occur. As
we have seen in the State Department example, there may well be too much information in the audit
log for a human to analyze, but

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