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APPLICATION MANUAL Genesis™ NP and NPX Series
Publication No: US-NP-AM-002 • June 2006
and Shelf Life Self-Discharge Shelf Life Recharging Batteries in Storage 9 Impedance Temperature Characteristics 9-10 10-13 Charging Constant Current Charging Two Step Constant Voltage Charging Charging Voltage Initial Charge Current Limit Top Charging Temperature Compensation Charging Efficiency Solar Powered Charging Service Life Cyclic Service Life Float Service Life 13 Tips & Precautions Glossary Limited Warranty 14 14-15 16 2 www. High energy density.enersys. excellent performance in either float or cyclic applications and long service life combine to make the Genesis NP Series the most reliable and versatile maintenance free rechargeable sealed lead acid batteries available. General Specifications NP Series Terminal Configurations Battery Capacity Selection Charts Discharge Discharge Characteristics Over-Discharge (Deep Discharge) Storage. Self-Discharge. leak proof construction.Genesis NP & NPX Series Application Manual Table of contents TM Introduction Technical Features Applications Battery Construction 2 3 4 4 5 6 7 7-9 Today’s Genesis™ NP Series is the culmination of more than ten decades of battery manufacturing experience.com Publication No: US-NP-AM-002 • June 2006 .
enersys. Hence. even after repeated over discharges. glass fiber material which in conjunction with plates. totally absorb and contain the electrolyte.Shelf Life Operating Temperature Deep Discharge Recovery www. There is no need to check specific gravity of the electrolyte or add water to Genesis NP batteries during float service life. designed to operate between 2 and 5 psi and automatically reseal. Genesis NP batteries recover their capacities even after repeated deep discharges. More than 1000 discharge/recharge cycles can be realized from Genesis NP batteries.TM Technical Features Construction Benefit The construction and sealing techniques of the Genesis NP battery guarantee leakproof operation in any position with no adverse effect to capacity or service life. In fact. dependent on the average depth of discharge. there is never an excessive accumulation of gas within the battery. Genesis NP batteries incorporate a built-in design that controls gas generation and induces recombination of more than 99% of gases generated during float usage. Gas Generation Maintenance Free Operation Low Pressure Valve Regulated System Heavy Duty Grids Cyclic Service Life Float Service Life Self Discharge . The self discharge rate of the Genesis NP series at room temperature is approximately 3% of rated capacity per month. Electrolyte Suspension System All Genesis NP batteries utilize an electrolyte suspension system consisting of a high porosity. Genesis NP Batteries may be operated over a broad range of ambient temperatures. Genesis NP Series batteries have an expected life span of 3 to 5 years in float service applications.com Publication No: US-NP-AM-002 • June 2006 3 . Heavy duty lead calcium tin alloy grids provide an extra margin of performance and service life in either float or cyclic applications. there is no provision for this type of maintenance. All Genesis NP batteries are equipped with safety release valves. No silica gels or any other contaminants are used.
Applications A partial list of common applications include: Float Sevice Burglar and Fire Alarm Office Machines Cash Registers Solar Power Devices Telecommunications Uninterrupted Power Supply (UPS) Equipment Emergency Lighting Computers Cyclic Service Audio and Video Equipment Portable Lights Electric Wheelchairs Test Equipment Geophysical Equipment Float/Cyclic Service Medical Equipment Communications Cellular Telephones Genesis NP Battery Construction Terminal Sealant Relief Valve Lid Negative Plate Electrolyte Retentive Separator Positive Plate Container 4 www.com Publication No: US-NP-AM-002 • June 2006 .enersys.
10 50.8-6 NP3-6 NP4-6 NP4.40 30.0 197.0 Overall Height Incl.90 30.80 24. Flame Retardant Case and Cover (Oxygen index: 30) ** FR: UL94-V2.92 4.33 1.) 88.76 2.0 65.0 4.21 1.40 (lbs.0 65.80 20.0 3.0 56.57 0.2-12 FR Type* NPH2-12FR NPH3.10 1 1 4 2 2 2 2 2 A/D D A/D E J K J K Terminals (in.13 6.61 6.54 5.30 46.0 175.0 151.64 19.0 155. Terminals mm.28 Width mm 51.87 0.94 7.30 9.5 34.79 0.09 2 3 Terminals A A (in.0† 229.57 6.80 41.82 5.92 6.94 5.) 1.0 98.0 47.45 Weight Layout kgs.03 16.0 151.68 134.95 3.97 1.95 3.50 (lbs.0 67.2-6 NP2.90 13.0 98.65 10.3 65.65 4.0 250.76 5.0 67.64 1.81 6.15 105.0 97.0 2. (in.0 Overall Height Incl.0 105.54 7.01 2.0 181.0 12.0 7.0 104.5-6 NP5-6 NP7-6 NP8.0 240.37 1.8 1.80 18.67 6.24 DATASAFE NPX SERIES Type NPX-50 NPX-25 NPX-35 NPX-80 FR Type* NPX-50FR NPX-25FR NPX-35FR NPX-80FR NPX-100B NPX-100R NPX-150B NPX-150R 12 Volts 6 W/Cell to 1.5 5.2 173.2 175.0 181. (in.70 91.5 97.0 4.50 2.) 4.0 23.53 4.0 3.2 2.) 97.0 2.34 1.0 281.0 166.) 97.0 91.07 2. MH16464 † Height is to top cover.66 6.69 10.28 5.80 74.11 2.87 1.94 7.89 0.49 9.0 33.4 4.84 6.70 2.52 4.0 182.64 2.0 197.0 104. 0.99 6.0 134.0 106.0 70.41 4.0 197.34 2.6-12FR NP2.0 8.0 33.86 5.0 12.Ah) 1.50 FOOTNOTES: * FR: UL94-VO.52 Weight Layout kgs.61 2.76 2.0 64.6 2.) 68.05 2.80 13.0 150.0 90.0 107.0 151.8-12FR** NP2.2 Length mm.0 151.4-12FR NP4-12FR NP5-12FR NP7-12FR NP12-12FR NP18-12BFR NP24-12FR NP33-12FR NP38-12B NP38-12R NP55-12FR NP65-12FR NP75-12FR NP90-12FR NP100-12FR NP120-12FR NP150-12FR NP200-12FR 12 6 Volts Nominal Capacity (20 hr rate .15 4.0 38.0 17. (in.12 8.64 4.30 0.General Specifications NP Series GENESIS NPH SERIES Type NPH2-12 NPH3.00 2.0 67.74 4.52 2.28 2.47 Width mm 25.15† 9.78 11.76 7.) 2.0 170.2 2.89 8.99 4.) 54.5 106.0 169. Terminals mm.30 15.16 1.0 175.10 34.3 2. (in.84 6.0 165.0 34.89 6.13 2.0 165.43 1.02 3.0 70.54 3.4-12 NP4-12 NP5-12 NP7-12 NP12-12 NP18-12B NP24-12 NP33-12 NP55-12 NP65-12 NP75-12 NP90-12 NP100-12 NP120-12 NP150-12 NP200-12 FR Type* NP1.0 175. (in.54 6.82 13.0 5.0 132.09 11.5 54.0 207.82 67.28 3.0 70.59 0.20 8.0 Length mm.56 0.15† 9.4 350.15 3.0 48.60 9.9 3.0 90.85 8.0 520.98 3.24 14.5 90.50 6.85 1.0 3.56 2.0 70.2 24.0 76.0 64.00 2.8-12 NP1.15† 6.8-6FR NP5-6FR NP7-6FR NP10-6FR NP12-6FR NP0.41 4.0 61.5 2.24 65.21 3.5 107.0 47.0 97.0 175.70 67.0 70.85 3.5 167.75 2.66 6. 0.0 5.13 6.05 24.6 165.50 5.41 6.9 38.20 54.0 97.2-12 NP2-12 NP2-12-C NP2.0 207.65 0. (in.86 2.09 4.54 1.0† 234.9 407.6 304.69 7.17 163.23 9.54 5.92 6.0 77.30 1.5 67.17 8.0 90.74 7.1 166.40 2.20 5.2-6FR NP2.0 125.0 169.17 3.35 1.0 139.0 125.0 2.) 151.12 1.0 3.com Publication No: US-NP-AM-002 • June 2006 5 .5-6 NP10-6 NP12-6 NP0.41 6.0 76.84 4.90 1.17 3.enersys.0 166.01 5.95 5.97 13.0 96.2-12FR 12 Volts Nominal Capacity (10 hr rate .0 61.50 6.89 6.76 2.0 2.) 0.0 165.91 7.56 2.0 20.0 132.92 2.0 166.Ah) 2.5 241.84 4. including terminal is dependent on terminal configuration.0 97.5 118.65 3.54 6.0 4.97 2.00 6.17 7.9-12 NP3-12 NP3.97 0.70 22.0 106.93 1.25 1.3 2.94 1.02 19.57 4.0 64.0 134.64 5.0 7.86 13.0 25.0 34.89 6.78 3.70 0.0 56.84 1.85 1.0 3.9-12FR NP3-12FR NP3.02 20.0 97.98 2.52 4.22 6. 2.85 0.0 151.0 330.0 150.) 1. Overall height.30 2.76 Width mm 50.5 101.40 41.8 3. www.74 9.50 15.35 0.48 6.64 GENESIS NP SERIES Type NP1.33 2.73 0.0 0.84 3.89 5.47 0.0† 174.0 50. Flame Retardant Case and Cover (Oxygen index: 30) Recognized by UL File No.84 3.0 50.) 0.89 6.50 29.0 178.3-12FR NP2.0 175.98 1.00 (lbs.11† 6.20 1.0 260.54 7.0 Overall Height Incl.0 5.67 End Voltage (15 Min Rate) 50W/Cell 23W/Cell 35W/Cell 80W/Cell 95W/Cell 95W/Cell 150W/Cell 150W/Cell Length mm.5 10.0 207.2 125.21 4.00 2.85 1.05 103.98 1.3 197.0 64.0 151.0 32.50 20.65 3.30 1.0 70.95 3.5 89.42 2.0 483.89 Weight Layout kgs.0 134.17 4.6 120.60 2.2 168.10 1 5 1 5 5 5 1 9 1 1 7 3 8 6 1 3 1 1 3 1 1 4 4 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 3 Terminals A A/D A A A A A/D A A/D A/D I/L A B TU A A A/D A/D A/D A/D A/D A/D D E C M J K M G M G M G G G (in.5 167.46 64.0 195.76 2.77 1.00 30.0 200.56 3.80 34.00 2.20 5.0 47.07 0.2† 175.0 132. Terminals mm.66 1.
295 Tyco. etc. Top charge: Product in storage (ambient temperature 25°C/77°F) requires a top charge every six months. Discharge • Stop operation when voltage has reached the minimum permissible voltage.83 0.860 Terminal height above cover 0. • DO NOT expose to open flame. • Avoid setting batteries in environments which can cause direct contact to gasoline.25–2. Storage • Always store battery in a fully charged condition.1 0.enersys.1 36.50 0. synthetic resins.com Publication No: US-NP-AM-002 • June 2006 . 0.20 0. 6 www.13 0. initial charging current should be set at less than 0.08 in. Others • Avoid terminal short circuit.90 1.12 0. oil.0. Store batteries in a dry and cool location.3 21.3 21.8 38. paint thinner. apply a recovery • top-charge every 6 months. • Do not operate at 6CA or more current continuously.83 1. (.30VPC).Range Summary • LAYOUT 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 • TERMINAL Faston tab : 187 A 0.50 VPC. • Avoid installing battery near heated units such as a transformer.1CA for 15 to 20 hours.8 0.8 28.40 volts per cell.275 volts per cell (or 2. Recharge immediately. • House the battery in the lowest section of the equipment enclosure or rack to prevent unnecessary battery temperature rise.530 M Note: Dimensions are in inches (mm) + + Tolerances are .1 22.1 22.04 in. Temperature • Keep within ambient temperatures of –150C to +500C for both charging and discharging.430 Terminal Type B NB MJ AP MG U NP33-12 mm ins 5. organic solvents. • If battery is to be stored for a long period.1 26. Incorporating battery into equipment • Encase battery in a well ventilated compartment.83 1.25CA.43 0.06 0. (-1mm) + and + 0. 1-480318-0 L U Positive Terminal MG Positive Automotive Type AP Positive NB Terminal MJ Terminal U Negative Terminal MG Negative Automotive Type AP Negative B Terminal Charging • Standby use: Apply constant voltage charging at 2.4 22.9 21. • Initial charging current should be set at less than 0.40-2.90 NP55/75/100-12 mm ins 3. • Cyclic use: Apply constant voltage charging at 2.90 1. Apply constant voltage at 2.2mm) for height dimensions.
enersys. Tables 1 and 2 show how the rated nominal capacity decreases when the discharge load is higher than the 20 hour rate. & 17 before making your final decision. To determine the capacity of the battery.Battery Capacity Selection Figures 1 and 2 may be used to determine battery size (expressed in Ampere Hours of capacity).2-12 DISCHARGE TIME ➞➞ 60 40 NPH2-12 20 MINUTES ➞ 2 ➞ Figure 3. It is recommended you refer to Figures 3. These batteries are designed for Uninterruptable Power Supply (UPS) applications where high rate discharge performance (under 30 minutes) is typical. for a specific application. 20-Hour Rate Capacity Selection Chart NPH Series Characteristics Curves AT 25ºC (77ºF) ➞ HOURS 10 8 6 4 3 NPH3. The point where the current and time lines intersect is the minimum capacity battery needed for the application. 2. The discharge rates depicted in Table 2. To determine the battery kilowatt rating required for a UPS system. Capacity Selection Chart Genesis NPH Series Figure 4. The industry standard for designating the nominal capacity of a sealed lead acid battery involves a discharge test for a given number of hours to a final pre-set end voltage. 13.5 reference watts per cell of the DataSafe NPX series of batteries. refer to the following formula: KVA rating of UPS x Power Factor (Pf) ÷ inverter efficiency = Total Battery Kilowatts (KWB).com Publication No: US-NP-AM-002 • June 2006 7 . The average current value multiplied by the hours of discharge time determines the capacity rating of that particular battery. Since manufacturers vary in their rating standards. 2. & 3 illustrate the typical discharge characteristics of Genesis NP and Genesis NPH batteries at an ambient temperature of 25˚C (77˚F). The symbol “C” expresses the nominal capacity of the Genesis NP battery. measured at a 20 hour discharge rate and the Genesis NPH at a 10 hour discharge rate. Discharge ■ Discharge Characteristics The curves shown in Figures 1. AT 25ºC (77ºF) MINUTES HOURS DISCHARGE CURRENT Figure 1. Discharge Characteristic Curves: Genesis NP Batteries 10 6 3 ➞ 100 200 300 400 600 800 1000 2 3 4 6 8 10 20 ➞ mA ➞➞ DISCHARGE CURRENT A ➞ Figure 2. establish the discharge current for the length of discharge time required. Please refer to General Specifications to determine the nominal capacity rating of the specific model. Discharge Characteristic Curves: Genesis NPH Batteries www. it is always a good practice to question the rating standard. & 4 and the discharge rates shown in Tables 1. These tables should be consulted when selecting a battery for a high discharge application. 3.
2C 0.8 39.04 1.70 V/C 3 Hr.0 130.32 14.8 3.20 26.2 35.30 0.0 2.4 3.3 3.72 2.9 2.6 3.01C 0.4C 0.0 4.0 10.60CA to 1.0 195.2 2.6 1.7 4.2 1.00 4.0 60.6 3.4 7.40 0.0 2.2 2.12 0.60 2.3 11.80 0.25 0.04 A 0.0 26.0 2.15 0.40 1.40 3.8C 1C 2C 3C 2.40 2.0 24.12 0.60 Table 2.10 0. Discharge Current at Stipulated Discharge Rates (NPH) 10 Hr.40 15.0 22.0 8 0.7 2.0 14.00 2.80 0.0 65.20 7.30 3.0 12.0 30.0 0.3 50.0 8.3 6.0 38.0 4.4 4.Table 1.00 1.08 A 0.23 0.0 38.0 17.0 5.00 4.3 55.2 2.2 6.4 48.64 0.2 0.0 51.92 1.4 2.2 13.6 1.20 10.00 0.0 8.00 0.0 2. 0.72 1.17CA to 1. Capacity Discharge Current 0.3 3.20 1.67 V/C 1 Hr.1 32.00 6.25CA to 1.5 20.24 0.0 4.48 0.0 114.com Publication No: US-NP-AM-002 • June 2006 .2 6.6 A 2.60 0.2 24.4 15.75 V/C 5 Hr.8 A 1.0 5.0 29.28 1.74 Ah 1.0 2.40 15.90 9.6C 0.5 0.0 2.20 0.00 7.0 38.0 30.9 7.80 4.80 6.92 1.48 A 0.6 5. 0.25 0.44 4.00 Discharge Current 0.56 1.093CA to 1.1C 0.5 10.2 24. 0.1 0.8 9.50 2.90 1.6C 1C 2C 3C 0.80 1.50 0.68 Ah 1.8 2.05C 0.8 Ah 1.2 2.5 9.62 Ah 0.6 3.60 10.8 2.40 2.8 A 1. 0.6 3.32 0.0 7.0 26.3 2.0 4.60 6.2 10.75 V/C 10 Hr.0 10.6 6.0 7.46 0.52 0.0 20.0 5.60 0.0 26.2 24.20 0.0 1.0 38.40 0.20 0.0 Table 2.13 0.2 14.0 6.40 0.54 2.0 12.1 1.6 3.40 6.06 0.0 0.4 22.3 14.0 17.80 5.0 36.0 4.1 3.80 6.3 2.50 0.30 1.67 End Voltage 5 MIN 10 MIN 15 MIN 20 MIN NPX-25 NPX-50 NPX-35 NPX-80 NPX-100 NPX-150 47 94 66 155 185 285 31 60 45 104 125 200 23 50 35 80 95 150 18 38 29 65 75 120 Table 3.9 1.6 6.0 65.4 1.0 17.05CA to 1.2 0.16 A 0.00 2.20 1.00 1.0 12.0 12.80 39.7 9.0 65.3 2.0 12.32 A 0.20 4.00 2.00 4.6 72.0 17. Discharge Current at Stipulated Discharge Rates 20 Hr.0 2.0 10.38 1.0 10.4C 0.20 1.2 16.0 2.3 24.60 22.88 9.60 3. Capacity 0.46 0.0 76. Capacity 20 Hr.60 13.2 24.35 0.40 3.4 4. Discharge Capacity at Various Discharge Rates Discharge Capacity 20 Hr.2 2.2C 0.2 2.8 5.0 65. 0.2 18.0 7.4 A 3.3 2.6 22.20 6.0 7.23 0.0 52.20 1.0 10.0 5.0 78.6 20.0 1.20 1.0 34.0 7.enersys.0 4.0 21.5 NPX Watts Per Cell to 1.90 3.26 0.38 1.86 1.80 2.7 1.55 V/C 0.8 Ah 1.0 www.50 0.0 26.48 Ah 0.70 1.
have been designed to withstand such occasional over discharge. consult with an EnerSys Application Engineer. Genesis NP batteries can recover their full capacity under normal charging conditions. a few days. the battery may not accept a charge. to optimize performance and service life. periodically. Impedance Storage. However. State of Charge When considering discharge currents exceeding 3C. Figure 7 shows the internal resistance of an Genesis NP battery measured through a 1. Open Circuit Voltage vs.30 Figure 6. Shelf Life at Various Temperatures Temperature 00C ( 320F) to 200C ( 680F) 210C ( 700F) to 300C ( 860F) 310C ( 880F) to 400C (1040F) 410C (1060F) to 500C (1220F) Shelf Life 12 months 9 months 5 months 2.50 1. It is generally recognized that all lead calcium alloy grid batteries are subject to over-discharge damage.70 1.75 1. INTERNAL RESISTANCE (mΩ) 200C (%) REMAINING CAPACITY TERMINAL VOLTAGE (V) BATTERY: NP7-12 AMBIENT TEMPERATURE: 250C (770F) MEASURED WITH 1000Hz AC BRIDGE STORAGE TIME (MONTHS) Figure 5. Final discharge voltage is as shown in Table 4. Self Discharge Characteristics ■ Shelf Life In general. the storage time must be determined according to the new ambient temperature. if a lead acid battery were discharged to zero and left in either open or closed circuit for a long period of time.. The more advanced the sulfation. Final Discharge Voltage Discharge Current 0. at various discharge rates. when lead acid batteries of any type are stored in a discharged condition for extended periods of time. Genesis NP Series batteries however. or cut-off voltage. This phenomenon is referred to as “sulfation”. even when they have been subjected to extreme over discharge.26C or current close to it 0. commonly referred to as a “refresh charge”. will have no adverse effect on storage time or service life. it is ecommended that Genesis NP batteries which are to be stored for extended periods of time be given a supplementary charge.000 Hz AC bridge. ie. lead acid batteries are damaged in terms of capacity and service life if discharged below the recommended cut-off voltages.67 1.■ Over-Discharge (Deep Discharge) The dotted line in Figures 3 & 4 indicates the lowest recommended voltage under load.60 1. Self-Discharge and Shelf Life The internal resistance (impedance) of a battery is lowest when the battery is in a fully charged state. The self-discharge rate will vary with storage temperature and the remaining capacity.1 7C or current close to it 0.5 months Table 4. In general. While it is not recommended. or Intermittent discharge 0. Since the lead sulfate acts as an insulator. Table 5 below shows the normal storage time or shelf life at various ambient temperatures.enersys. “Brief storage”. ■ Recharging Stored Batteries In general. Table 5.6C or current close to it From 0. Internal Resistance of NP Battery www. at temperatures higher than the ranges recommended. severe sulfation and shorting would occur. ■ Self-Discharge The self-discharge rate of Genesis NP batteries is approximately 3% per month when the storage temperature is maintained at 200C (680F). the DISCHARGE TIME (HOURS) Figure 7. The internal resistance increases gradually during discharge. it has a direct detrimental effect on charge acceptance. For example. lead sulfate is formed on the negative plates of the batteries.com Publication No: US-NP-AM-002 • June 2006 9 . thus raising the internal resistance abnormally high. lower the charge acceptance.6C to 3C Current in excess of 3C Final Discharge (V/Cell) 1. Please refer to the recommendations listed under REFRESH CHARGING. In such an extreme case.1 C or below. if such use continues for more than one month.
as the charge continues.acid batteries. Caution should be exercised when charging by constantcurrent. At lower temperatures.3 volts per cell from the recovery level of 2.■ Temperature characteristics At higher temperatures. The switch to constant voltage trickle charging occurs after the battery has recovered approximately 80% of the rated capacity over a given period of time. Charging Characteristics of a Two Step Constant-Voltage Charger Charging Proper charging is one of the most important factors to consider when using maintenance free sealed lead-acid batteries. During the constant current charging stage (A-B) the charging current which has decreased to point B is sensed. In the initial charging stage.6A (0.2V EVERY 100 HOURS n=2 Figure 9.enersys. This charging method is one of the most efficient. and/or as an equalizing charge to correct variances in capacity between batteries in a group. The two charging methods are: The characteristics shown in Figure 10 are those of a constant voltage. Battery performance and service life will be directly effected by the efficiency of the charger selected. The charging voltage rises.5A to 10. severe overcharge may occur. The recharge time is minimized during the initial charging stage while the battery is protected from overcharge by the system switching over to float charge at the switching point B. Temperature Effects in Relation to Battery Capacity Figure 10. the battery is charged by constant current.com Publication No: US-NP-AM-002 • June 2006 . Overcharge Characteristics of NP7-12 Under Continuous Overcharge 10 www. constant current charger. ■ Two Step Constant Voltage Charging Two step constant voltage charging is the recommended method for charging a sealed lead-acid battery in a short period of time. If the charge is continued at the same rate for an extended period of time after the battery has reached a fully charged state. and the charging voltage is switched to the float level of 2. resulting in damage to the battery. the electrical capacity that can be taken out of a battery increases.45 volts per cell. ■ Constant Current Charging ■ Two Step Constant-Voltage Charging ■ Constant-Current Charging This charging method is not often utilized for sealed lead. the electrical capacity that can be taken out of a battery decreases.45 volts per cell. Figure 9 shows the characteristics of an Genesis NP battery under continuous overcharge conditions. OVERCHARGING CURRENT:0.thereafter. Figure 10 illustrates the characteristics of a two step constant voltage charger. until it reaches 2. but is an effective method for charging a multiple number of batteries at one time.1CA) AMBIENT TEMPERATURE: 25ºC (77ºF) CAPACITY TEST: 1. and maintaining the battery in a fully charged standby or float condition. at which point the charging mode automatically changes to constant voltage charging. Figure 8. Figure 8 shows the temperature effects in relation to battery capacity.
. Constant-Voltage Charge Characteristics with no Current Limit www. . or other damage resulting from mishandling. When designing a charger.25CA.30V/C TEMPERATURE: 25ºC (77ºF) Figure 11. Charging voltage should be regulated in relation to the ambient temperature. it is recommended that the charging current be normally limited to 0.. Generally. to assure optimum service life. i.com Publication No: US-NP-AM-002 • June 2006 11 . and decreases as the charging progresses. the charging voltage should be higher. or 15 to 20 hours at constant voltage of 2.40 volts per cell.1CA. Similarly. capacity (measured in amperehours) attainable over time will vary in direct relation to the ambient temperature. However. The capacity in a given period of time will be larger at higher temperatures.40 volts per cell at 25˚C (77˚F) with a maximum current of 0. .45 volts per cell and a maximum current of 0.40 to 2. Genesis NP batteries are designed so that even if the charging current is higher than the recommended limit. . a large amount of current will flow during the initial stage of charging.08 volts per cell on open circuit. Therefore. consideration should be given to the fact that if the charging method used is constant voltage in which the charger employs current sensing for either state of charge indication or for reducing voltage (a two step charger).e. When charging at 2. . To recover deeply discharged batteries. Genesis NP batteries must not be allowed to self-discharge to less than 2. 2. High charging current can cause abnormal internal heating which may damage the battery. electrochemical activity in a battery increases. CHARGE VOLTAGE: 2. during the initial stage of charging an over-discharged battery the charger may give a false “full charge” indication.30 volts per cell For cyclic use . they will not accept more than 2CA. refresh charging is recommended within the following parameters: Battery Age Refresh Charging Recommendations Within 6 months after manufacture 4 to 6 hours at constant current of 0. and the charging current will be reduced to a relatively small value in a very brief period of time. . ■ Initial Charge Current Limit A discharged battery will accept a high charging current at the initial stage of charging. or 20 to 24 hours at constant voltage of 2. and smaller at lower temperatures. or may initiate charge at a float voltage. no current limit is required. . . electrochemical activity decreases. . In view of the above.50 volts per cell In a constant voltage charging system.002CA. it is recommended that a “refresh charging” be applied to any battery which has been stored for a long period of time. For specific recommendations. the charging voltage should be lower. in standby use. Therefore. Figure 12 shows the relationship between temperatures and charging voltages in both cyclic and standby applications. as temperature rises. ■ Temperature Compensation As temperature rises. use of a temperature compensated charger is recommended. with no current limit. charging current at the final stage of charging will drop to as little as 0. The standard center point for temperature compensation is 250C (770F). . Therefore. charge them for 24 hours using a constant voltage charger set at 2. Similarly. .25 to 2. Figure 11 shows current acceptance in Genesis NP batteries charged at constant voltage.enersys. the following voltages are used at 25˚C (77˚F). When the temperature is higher. Within 12 months after manufacture 8 to 10 hours at constant current of 0. . in standby use.1CA. .30 volts per cell. . For standby (float) use . . it is recommended that a current limiting function be provided in the charger in order to prevent charger failure due to overheating of the transformer.25C.■ Charging Voltage The charging voltage should be regulated according to the type of service in which the battery will be used. Excepting conditions in which storage temperature have been abnormally high.15C. prior to putting the battery into service. short circuiting or reversing polarity. 2. and increased as temperature falls to avoid undercharge. .40 volts per cell. . please refer to the section on Temperature Compensation. ■ Refresh Charging Since any battery loses capacity through self-discharge. as temperature falls. In general. When the temperature is lower. The recommended compensation factor for Genesis NP batteries is -3mV/0C/Cell (stand by) and -4mV/0C/Cell (cyclic use). . A 16-hour recovery charge is possible by setting the charge voltage at 2. conversely. charging voltage should be reduced to prevent overcharge.
Since solar cells have inherent constant voltage characteristics. appropriate regulated charging circuitry between the solar panels and the battery is recommended. but it is desirable to set the voltage at the value shown in Figure 12 which corresponds most closely to the average ambient temperature of the battery during service. it is not necessary to provide the charger with a temperature compensation function. In designing a solar system. consideration should be given to isolating the battery and temperature sensor from other heat generating components of a system. the capacity should be determined based upon maximum load conditions for the maximum period of time the system may be expected to be without adequate solar input. USE STAN D. a system may have to operate for 10 to 20 days with little or no power available for charging. Under these circumstances. weather conditions may be such that solar energy is limited.enersys. temperature. Naturally. in cases where the output of the solar array exceeds the capacity of the battery. Charging Efficiency vs. When designing a charger equipped with temperature compensation. when selecting the correct battery for a solar application. Charging Efficiency ■ Solar Powered Chargers A battery is an indispensable component of any solar powered system designed for demand-energy use. the maximum output of the solar array should be dedicated to charging the battery with no loadsharing or intervening control devices of any kind. Genesis NP batteries can be charged directly from the solar array using a simple diode regulated circuit as shown in Figure15. Therefore. In many instances the battery capacity will be 10 to 50 times greater than the maximum output of the solar panels. State of Charge 12 www.CY CLE The charging efficiency varies depending upon the state of charge of the battery. Figure 14. It is interesting to note that the charging efficiency of Genesis NP sealed lead-acid batteries is superior to that of other batteries at relatively low charge rates. In extreme cases. or virtually unavailable for long periods of time. Genesis NP batteries exhibit very high charging efficiency. in addition to normal periods of darkness. Therefore.B Y USE Figure 12. the temperature sensor must sense only the temperature of the battery. and weather conditions are such that the potential for overcharging the battery exists. Figure 13 illustrates the concept of the state of charge and charging efficiency. ■ Charging Efficiency The charging efficiency (η) of a battery is expressed by the following formula: η= AH Discharged After Charged AH Delivered To The Battery During Charge Figure 13. Relationship Between Charging Voltage and Temperature In actual use in indoor applications (50C to 400C or 410F to 1040F). As shown in Figure 14. and charging rate.com Publication No: US-NP-AM-002 • June 2006 . consideration should be given to the fact that. even when charged at low charging rates.
through the gradual and very slow corrosion of the electrodes. and return to the water content of the electrolyte. In relation to a specified discharge rate. the gases generated inside and Genesis NP battery are continually recombined. a great deal of consideration must be given to environmental conditions. depth of discharge. When designing a solar system for this class of application. discharge rate. heat resistive material is recommended.D. Actually. Cyclic Service Life in Relation to Depth of Discharge Genesis NP Series The relationship between the number of cycles which can be www. 1.25 to 2.17C AMP. Figure 15.enersys.V. at the specified discharge rate over the specified time. and the manner in which the battery is recharged. (F. TESTING CONDITIONS: DISCHARGE CURRENT: 0. Float Service Life Expected Service Life of Genesis NP Batteries ■ Cyclic Service Life There are a number of factors that will effect the length of cyclic service of a battery. In normal float service. the depth of discharge will be shallower and cyclic service life will be longer.O.30 volts per cell in an ambient temperature of approximately 250C (770F). consultation with the solar panel manufacturer and battery manufacturer is recommended.O.In general. DEPTH OF DISCHARGE. It should be noted that the corrosive process will be accelerated by high ambient operating temperatures and/or high charging voltage. electrical capacity is not lost due to “drying up” of the electrolyte. The most significant are ambient operating temperature. if the application requires a longer cyclic life than is obtainable by selecting the battery capacity according common practice. based upon a normal service condition in which float charge voltage is maintained between 2. Under those conditions. Block Diagram of a Solar System Remote site.25 and 2. when designing a solar system. insulating the enclosure and/or treating the surface of the enclosure with a highly reflective.30 volts per cell. Therefore. AMBIENT TEMPERATURE.30V/CELL AMBIENT TEMPERATURE: 20ºC TO 22ºC (68ºF TO 72ºF) Figure 17. always consider the following: LENGTH OF SERVICE LIFE WILL BE DIRECTLY EFFECTED BY THE NUMBER OF DISCHARGE CYCLES. where charging voltage is maintained 2. For example. the battery will eventually lose capacity and come to the end of service life. Figure 16 illustrates the effects of depth of discharge on cyclic life.expected. enclosures which may be used to house batteries and other equipment may be subject to extremely high internal temperatures when exposed to direct sunlight. Generally speaking. the most important factor is depth of discharge.7V/CELL) CHARGING CURRENT: 0. Thus. TESTING CONDITIONS: FLOATING VOLTAGE: 2.25 to 2. Figure 17 shows the float service life characteristics of Genesis NP batteries when discharged once every three (3) months to 100% depth of discharge.D. 30% DEPTH OF DISCHARGE 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 NUMBER OF CYCLES (CYCLES) Figure 16. CHARGING VOLUME: 125% OF DISCHARGED CAPACITY AMBIENT TEMPERATURE: 20°C TO 25°C (68°F TO 77°F) PERCENTAGE OF CAPACITY AVAILABLE (AH%) 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 200 100% D. When designing a float service system. ■ Float Service Life Genesis NP batteries are designed to operate in standby (float) service for approximately 5 years. select a battery with larger capacity. and the depth of discharge is readily apparent.com Publication No: US-NP-AM-002 • June 2006 13 . 50% D.09C AMP. AND CHARGING VOLTAGE. or other outdoor applications for solar systems is commonplace.
Battery life is dependent on its operating conditions. short circuits and a potential for a smoke and/or fire incident may occur. the battery must be securely fastened with shock absorbing materials. Avoid installation and/or operation in close proximity to heat sources of any kind. A test method in which the battery is briefly discharged at a constant current while the voltage is measured. the C-rate of a battery measured in amperes. The capacity from the battery based on its state of charge. Should this occur. The minimum unit of which a storage battery is composed. 7. series connected together. a range of 5°C to 35°C is recommended). Batteries may generate ignitable gases which must not be contained. Do not clean the battery with oils. using a maximum 100 watt soldering iron. 9. or if any leakage of the electrolyte is observed. Note: The nominal voltage of a single lead acid cell is 2. 1. Please refer to the life curves published in this Applications Manual. 11. Mixing batteries of different capacities. rate of discharge. 8. 1C = 6 amps. 10. Note: If a battery with any irregular appearance as stated above is used continuously. Ex: 6 Ah rating. Recommended for sealed lead acid batteries. If installed in a heavy vibration or shock application. Use water only. For maximum life expectancy. If. If soldering is unavoidable. Heat kills batteries.0 volts. 12.S.05C = 300 milliamps. immediately replace the battery. Because of this. A single cell is some times referred to as a battery. 6. in direct relation to a battery's ampere hour rating. The average temperature seen by the battery. thinners or similar substances. Provide free air space between batteries when more than two are grouped together. it must be accomplished within 3 seconds. Avoid installing the battery in an atmosphere where organic solvents or adhesives may be present. 3C = 18 Amps. The electrolyte contains sulfuric acid which can cause serious damage to eyes and skin.M. A current rate expressed in amperes or milliamperes. Observe the external appearance of the battery. 0. 13. Do not crush. batteries should not be installed near spark producing equipment. leak age of electrolyte. C Ampere.com Publication No: US-NP-AM-002 • June 2006 . the inter-connecting cables must be of equal length and resistance to insure equalization of the load. 2. EnerSys recommends that within five years of use.1C (10% of battery's rating). flush profusely with water and seek medical attention. deformation or other damage is found on the battery case or cover. Two or more cells. These curves represent typical results under optimum operating conditions. (Also called constant potential charge). ventilation must be provided. Soldering to the battery terminals is NOT recommended. CA Capacity Fade Cell Closed Circuit Voltage Test Closed Voltage Test 14 www. a decrease in capacity. especially when series and parallel connecting groups of batteries. ripple current should be regulated to no more than 0. Loss of capacity due to inadequate recharging. Their performance and service life can be greatly maximized by observing the following guidelines. Glossary of Terms Active Material Ambient Temperature Ambient Capacity Battery C-Rate The active electro-chemical materials used in the manufacture of positive and negative electrodes. cracks.2" to 0. To obtain optimum battery performance for standby service. manufacture is not recommended. 5. Please consult with an application engineer if it is unavoidably necessary. Always wear insulated gloves when handling batteries.enersys. Actual life will vary greatly due to variability of these conditions. If the battery is to be installed in an air or water tight container.4" (5mm to 10mm). The recommended distance is 0. A method of charging batteries by applying a fixed voltage and allowing the current to vary. and ambient temperature. When batteries are connected together in a series-parallel arrangement.Tips and Precautions Genesis NP Series batteries are truly efficient maintenance free electro-chemical systems and are designed to provide years of trouble free service. incinerate or dismantle the battery. The case and cover of the battery is ABS plastic resin which may suffer damage from these chemicals. and ideal service life will be realized when the battery is operated in an ambient temperature of 20°C (for cyclic service applications. at any time. While the operating temperature range is -15°C to 50°C. 4. the NP batteries be replaced. the R. age and/or 3.
A cell which can be discharged only once. Example: Manganese zinc and alkaline. Lead acid batteries use a sulfuric acid solution. the greater this ability. nominal voltage is 2 volts per cell. A sensing device used to terminate a charge or discharge when the battery reaches a predetermined voltage level. the greater the charge current capability. The nominal value of rated voltage. Connection of a group of batteries by inter-connecting all terminals of the same polarity.com Publication No: US-NP-AM-002 • June 2006 15 . a constant current for a designated number of hours to a specified depth of discharge at room temperature. The resistive value of the battery to an AC current.enersys. A battery which can be charged and discharged repeatedly. The materials which separate the electrodes. nominal capacity is usually measured at the 20 hour rate. The safety device built into the cell to allow the release of excess gases and prevent case rupture. Normally in multiples of C (Ampere-hour rating of the cell or battery). Conducts ions in the cell. A sensing device designed to end discharge at a predetermined voltage level. Commonly. thereby increasing the capacity of the battery group. In a sealed lead acid battery. without supplementary charging. (Note: Differing brands and/or capacities should not be connected together). expressed in ohms. Expected life of a battery expressed in the number of total cycles or years of standby service to a designated remaining percentage of original capacity.Glossary of Terms (Continued) Cutoff Voltage Cycle Discharge Rate End-of-Charge Voltage Electrolyte Energy Density Gas Absorption The final voltage of a cell or battery at the end of charge or discharge. they are usually constructed of micro-porous glass fiber and additionally serve to retain the electrolyte. The capacity of the cell expressed in ampere hours. thereby increasing the voltage of the battery group. A single charge and discharge of a cell or battery. A very rapid discharge of the battery. Normally measured at 1 khz at full charge. Example: Lead acid and nickel cadmium batteries. High-Rate Discharge Internal Impedance Low Voltage Cutoff Nominal Capacity Nominal Voltage Open Circuit Voltage Overcharge Parallel Connection The continuous charging of a cell after it achieves 100% of capacity. Battery life is reduced by prolonged over charging. Primary Cell Rated Capacity Resealable Safety Vent Secondary Battery Self Discharge Separator Series Connection Service Life Shelf Life Standby Service Trickle Charge Voltage Cutoff www. In lead acid batteries. while the charger is still attached. Continuous charging by means of a small current designed to compensate for self discharge in an unloaded battery. The loss of capacity of a battery while in stored or unused condition without external drain. Ratio of cell or battery energy to unit weight (pound or kilogram) or unit volume (cubic inch or cubic meter) The ability of the negative plate to absorb oxygen gas generated within the battery. (Note: The same rule applies as with parallel connections). Connection of a group of batteries by interconnecting all terminals of the opposite polarity. The voltage reached by the cell of battery at the end-of-charge. Current taken from a cell or battery and expressed as a fraction of C (Ampere-hour rating of the cell or battery). A general term for an application in which the battery is maintained in a fully charged condition by trickle or float charging and always ready for use. In sealed lead acid batteries. The nominal value of rated capacity. The measured voltage of the cell or battery without a load attached. The maximum period of time a battery can be stored under specific conditions.
“IEEE Recommended Practice for Maintenance.Limited Warranty: General Product Limited Warranty EnerSys Delaware Inc. as defined by this warranty. Initial capacity shall be a minimum of 90 percent of the rated string capacity upon shipment per IEEE-1188. the properly installed battery and/or string fails to meet the published performance ratings* per EnerSys’ latest published catalog data at the time of shipment. Box 14145 Reading. NON-SPILLABLE EnerSys P. Genesis® NP-GEL and DataSafe™ NPX batteries against defective materials and workmanship for a period of one (1) full year from the date the battery was manufactured. However. * Published performance ratings. Belgium Tel:+32 (0)2 247 94 47 EnerSys Asia Guangdong. PA 19612-4145 USA Tel:+1-610-208-1991 +1-800-538-3627 EnerSys EMEA Brussels. travel expenses of EnerSys representatives(s). OR B. then contact your nearest EnerSys sales representative to request instructions. When ordering new batteries. If on initial “Acceptance Test”.S. Publication No: US-NP-AM-001 • June 2006 • Subject to revisions without prior notice. Testing. 1188. If initial physical inspection identifies flaws in material or workmanship that would impair life of the battery. as defined by EnerSys’ electrical and physical specification as published at the time of shipment and these flaws are not due to transportation damage or installation abuse.A. the defective battery(s) will be repaired or replaced at the option of EnerSys without charge to the purchaser (user) for replacement materials. China Tel:+86 755 2689 3639 Represented by: www. and recycling to any one of our company affiliated smelters. transportation. or b) to wait until an EnerSys representative arrives at the site to inspect the equipment. You will be instructed either a) to return the equipment to an EnerSys factory or service center location. All rights reserved. for examination. as defined in IEEE Std. In the event of either A or B above. Trademarks and logos are the property of EnerSys and its affiliates unless otherwise noted. © 2006 EnerSys. FOB Destination-Freight Prepaid.enersys. and Replacement of Valve Regulated Lead Acid (VRLA) Batteries for Stationary Applications”. costs of replacement installation including but not limited to equipment.O. also remember the need to properly dispose (recycle) your old lead-acid batteries. Call 1-800-972-7372 for more information. and costs of material transportation expenses shall be borne by the purchaser (user). E. EnerSys’ nationwide service organization can arrange pickup. (“EnerSys”) warrants Genesis® NP.com Printed in U. or product performance.E. Most federal and state regulations require lead-acid batteries be recycled.& O. . If EnerSys determines the battery is physically or electrically unsound due to defective materials or workmanship on the part of EnerSys. A.
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