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RAM

a type of volatile data storage that holds software programs and data during processing
Read-only memory
a type of nonvolatile, permanent storage that consists of instructions (BIOS) burned onto
chips by the manufacturer; basic input/output system
input device
any device used to input data and commands into the computer, i.e. keyboard, mouse,
scanner, microphone
output device
any device that accepts processed data (information) from the computer and presents the
results to the user, i.e. monitor, printer, speakers, plotter
printer
an output device that prints the results of data processing, i.e. line, inkjet, laser
projector
an output device that projects images from the computer onto a wall or viewing screen
CPU
a silicon chip (microprocessor) located on the motherboard that executes instructions to
process data into information; the brain of the computer; also known as the processor;
abbreviation for central processing unit
maintenance
the act of keeping computer equipment in good working condition by making repairs,
correcting problems, etc.
upgrading
the process of adding new features and fixing problems, such as bugs and compatibility with
new hardware, operating systems, or other types of software
operating system
system software that controls the execution of computer programs and allows hardware and
other software to communicate with each other
application software
programs that perform specific user tasks such as word processing, database management, or
accounting
worksheets
the name given to an Excel spreadsheet, divided into rows and columns, meant to work with
numbers
sorting
arranging data in a specified order, either ascending or descending order
formulas
equations used to calculate values in a spreadsheet cell that begins with an equal (=) sign
functions
pre-written formulas that include the function name and function arguments separated by
commas or semicolons enclosed in parentheses.
speaker notes
annotations (comments) added to a slide or group of slides that are used as references during
a presenation by the presenter and do not appear in the presentation itself
graphics
drawings, pictures, or other illustrations inserted in a document, spreadsheet, or presentation
to explain data or enhance the appearance of text on a page
virus
programming code that has been written, usually by a hacker, to cause corruption of data on a
computer; often attached to an executable file that spreads from one file to another once the
program is executed
adware
any software program that automatically plays, displays, or downloads advertisements to a
computer in a manner that is unexpected and unwanted by the computer user
spyware
a type of malware program that locates and saves data from users without them knowing
about it
web conferencing software
software used to attend online meetings and share desktop presentations
administrative rights
permission allowed by a computer user to perform system modifications, such as installing or
deleting software or changing network settings
files
collections of stored electronic data such as word processing documents, spreadsheets,
presentations, and databases
folders
data storage containers used to organize files on a designated storage device into manageable
groups
file properties
details that an operating system, such as Windows or Mac OS, stores about a file, such as the
author, creation date and time, and modification date and time
icons
graphic images or symbols that represent applications, files, disk drives, documents,
embedded objects, or linked objects in an operating system
shortcuts
keystrokes that enact the same commands available in the menus of a program, usually
involving 2 or 3 keys depressed simultaneously; i.e. CTRL + S
file corruption
the process of files getting damaged as a result of power failure, turning off the computer
without properly shutting it down, a virus, resource conflicts, outdated drivers, bad sectors or
lost clusters on the hard drive, or bad software installation
menu bar
a horizontal strip that contains lists of available options for a certain program; in Windows,
generally residing at the top of each open window; on a Macintosh, always fixed on the top of
the screen
scroll bar
a tool in a GUI at the right side or bottom of the screen allowing up and down or left and
right movement in a document or a worksheet
magnification
a tool that allows an increase in the apparent size of an object
help
a built-in system within software with components designed to train users and troubleshoot
problems; F1 in Windows
undo
a command that allows users to cancel the last command or action; CTRL + Z in Windows
redo
a command that allows users to repeat the last command or action that was undone; CTRL +
Y or F3 in Windows
repeat
a command that allows users to repeat the last command or action that was undone; CTRL +
Y or F4 in Windows
print preview
a feature used to display a document, spreadsheet, or presentation as it will appear when
printed
ruler
a feature that displays the location of margins, indents, columns, and tab stops for the selected
paragraph(s)
tabs
a feature used to set positions for aligning and organizing text into groups on a page; default
setting is half an inch (0.5")
line spacing
the amount of space between lines of text in a document
non-printing characters
a character that displays on the screen, but does not print, indicating where the Enter key, the
Spacebar, and the Tab key were pressed; also called formatting marks
bulleted list
a type of unordered list that presents information in no particular order using graphical
markers to identify each item
numbered list
a type of ordered list that presents information in a specific order using a numerical identifier
for each item indicating each item's priority in the list
multi-level list
a type of list with two or more levels of bulleted or numbered items, also referred to as an
outline numbered list
symbols
a word, place, character, or object that represents something else beyond its literal meaning
special characters
the non-alphanumeric symbols on a keyboard, such as $, @, and /, but also includes hidden
characters used in software for special functions, such as a non-breaking space
header
content in the top margin area of a page in a document, spreadsheet, or slide, that typically
contain elements such as the title, page number, or name of the author
footer
content in the bottom margin area of a page in a document, spreadsheet, or slide, that
typically contain elements such as the page number and date
styles
a gallery of predefined formatting combinations, such as fonts, colors, and paragraph
formatting, that can be applied to elements on a document, spreadsheet, or slide
columns
vertical areas in a worksheet identified by letters at the top of the worksheet window
rows
horizontal areas in a worksheet identified by numbers on the left side of the worksheet
window
cells
the intersection of rows and columns in a worksheet identified by the column letters and row
numbers of the worksheet window
tables
a presentation structure that displays sets of facts or figures in columns and rows
document protection
a set of tools which allows a user to secure a document from alteration by other users by
setting permissions, passwords, and other security features
number formats
descriptions of how the data in a cell is displayed, such as the number of decimal places,
monetary identifiers, or percentages
borders
a feature that places a line around the edge(s) of text, a page, a cell, or a table
shading
a feature that applies colors or patterns to a paragraph(s), page, text box, a cell, or a table
alignment
how the edges of a line, paragraph, object, or table are positioned horizontally and vertically
between the margins, on a page, in a cell, or on a slide
filter
a feature that allows the user to display only the data that meets specific criteria identified
absolute cell address
a cell reference that will not change when the formula is copied to a new cell, assigned by
dollar signs before the column and row identifiers; example: $A$1
relative cell address
a cell reference used in a formula that always refers to the cell in the same relative position to
the cell containing the formula, no matter where the formula is copied into worksheet
SUM
a built-in spreadsheet function that adds a range of values; also known as AutoSum
MIN
a built-in spreadsheet function that finds the minimum (smallest) value in a range of cells
MAX
a built-in spreadsheet function that finds the maximum (largest) value in a range of cells
Average
a built-in spreadsheet function that calculates the average of a range of values
AutoSum
a built-in spreadsheet function that adds a range of values; also known as SUM
slide layout
pre-designed structures in presentation software of arrangement of placeholders on the slide
transitions
animation-like effects in an electronic presentation that is activated when moving from one
slide to the next
animations
dynamic movements of objects (text, images, etc.) in an electronic presentation
networks
groups of interconnected computers and networks designed to share resources
client
a piece of computer hardware or software that accesses a service made available by a server
server
a computer that manages access to a centralized resource or service in a network
LAN
a computer network that connects computers in a limited geographical area such as a home, a
school, or a building
WAN
a computer network that connects computers covering a broad geographic area such as a
college campus with multiple buildings, across a city, from one city to another, and from one
country to another
high speed
the rate at which data is transmitted across a medium, up to 1 Megabit/second
broadband
a high-capacity transmission technique that enables a large number of messages to be
communicated simultaneously
wireless
a form of computer networking or other communication that uses radio signals and
microwaves to transmit data
wifi
a communication medium that allows computers, smartphones, or other devices to connect to
the Internet or communicate with one another wirelessly within a particular area; wireless
fidelity
attachments
a file or folder that is sent with an electronic communication, such as an email
spam
irrelevant or inappropriatae unwanted messages sent on the Internet to a large number of
recipients
embedding
the process of integrating one type of item into another so it becomes an integral part of that
object, such as inserting a video in an electronic presentation
URL
uniform resource locator; a specific character string that constitutes a reference to an Internet
resource, such as http://business.hhs.canyonsdistrict.org; also known as a web address
netiquette
the acceptable way of communicating on the Internet appropriately
Internet
a global computer network that uses TCP/IP network protocols to facilitate data transmission
and exchange of information; the physical components that connect computers globally
World Wide Web
an Internet information system that allows access to electronic documents by hypertext links
HTML
hypertext markup language; a standardized system for marking up text files with tags that
achieve font, color, graphic, and hyperlink effects on World Wide Web pages
domain
a unique string of characters that identifies a specific resource on the Internet
home page
the first web page of a website that serves as an introduction to a website
wiki
a website that allows collaborative editing of its content and structure by its users
bookmarks
the process of recording the web address (URL) of a website, file, or other Internet resource
that enables quick access in future
blogs
a personal website or web page on which individual opinions or activities are posted on a
regular basis; an electronic journal
podcasts
a digital multimedia file available on the Internet to be downloaded
advanced search tools
features of a search site that allow specific aspects of data other than just keywords in order
to locate relevant online resources, including type of file, dates, etc.
copyright
the exclusive legal right assigned to the originator or creator of intellectural property to print,
publish, perform, film, or record and to authorize others to do the same
trademark
a symbol, word, or words legally registered or established by use as representing a company
or product
plagiarism
the practice of taking someone else's work or ideas and passing them off as one's own