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# Exercise solutions (Optical Fiber Communications)

1. Suppose a laser diode radiates red light with wavelength of 650nm. What is the energy of a single
photon?
Solution
Ep = hf = hc/λ
= (6.6 × 10-34 × 3 × 108)/650 × 10-9 = 3.04 × 10-19 J

2. Assume you have a glass rod surrounded by air as shown. Find the critical incident angle.

## glass rod: n1=1.6

air: n2=1

Solution
From Snell’s law, n1 sinθ1 = n2 sinθ2
Since n1 = 1.6, n2 = 1.0, while θ2 = 90°, we have θ1c = arcsin (1/1.6) = 38.68°

3. What is the acceptance angle for the fiber when n1 = 1.48 and n2 = 1.46?
Solution
From Snell’s law, n0 sinθa = n1 sinθ2. For air, n0 = 1.0. The critical angle sinθc = n2/n1.
Since θ2 = 90° - θc, sinθc = cosθ2;
hence
cosθ2 = n2/n1. Thus sinθ2 = [1- (n2/n1)2]1/2
sinθa = n1 [1- (n2/n1)2]1/2 = 1.48 [1 – (1.46/1.48) 2]1/2 = 0.2425,
θa = 14.033°
The whole acceptance angle is; 2θa = 28.07°

4. For a specific fiber NA = 0.275 and n1 = 1.490. Find the critical propagation angle which equals 90º-θC.
Solution
n2 = [n12 - NA2]1/2 = [1.492 – 0.2752]1/2 = 1.4644,
θc = arcsin (n2 / n1) = arcsin (0.98282) = 79.4°
90º - θc = 10.6°

5. An optical fiber has losses of 0.6 dB/km at 1300 nm. If 100μW of power is injected into the fiber at the
transmitter, how much will the power be at a distance of 22 km down the fiber?
Solution
Input power
P 100 ×10−6
Pinput (dBm) = 10 log( in ) = 10 log( ) = 10 log(10−1 ) = −10dBm
1 mW 10−3
The output power is reduced by 0.6 ×22 = 13.2 dB
The power at 22 km, Pout (dBm) = Pin (dBm) – losses (dB) = -1 – 13.2 = -23.2 dBm
or 23.2

Pout = 10 10
= 4.78μW
6. The specifications of the components used in a 80-km fibre-optic transmission link are given as
follows: Transmitter: Emission wavelength = 1550 nm, Output power delivered to fibre = + 10 dBm ;
Receiver: Minimum power at 10 Gbps (BER = 10-9) = − 30 dBm ; Fiber: total length: 80 km, Attenuation
= 0.3 dB/km; Connector loss per km of fiber: 0.25 dB
Determine whether the system can successfully transmit a bit rate of 10 Gbps by performing power budget
calculations.
Solution

1
The input power to receiver is − 34 dBm (10 − 24 − 20 dB) which is less than the required power (− 30
dBm). Therefore, there is a shortfall in the power budget. The power budget requirements are not met,
therefore, this system is not viable unless some changes to loss or power are made.

Power (dBm)

Transmitter 10
Loss of fiber 0.3×80 = 24
Total connector loss (80 80×0.25 = 20
connectors)