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A SUMMER PROJECT REPORT ON Global scope and opportunities of solar energy
SUBMITTED TOWARDS PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF POST GRADUATE DIPLOMA IN BUSINESS MANAGEMENT
(APPROVED BY AICTE, GOVT. OF INDIA)
(Equivalent to MBA) ACADEMIC SESSION (2007-2009)
UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF INTERNAL SUPERVISOR:
Prof. TIMIRA SUKHLA
SHASHI KANT VASKAR (137)
EXTERNAL SUPERVISOR: Mr. Sanjay Dhar
INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES LAL QUAN, C-238, BULANDSHAHAR GHAZIABAD-201009
Global scope and opportunities of solar energy
TO WHOM IT MAY CONCERN
This is to certify that Mr. SHASHI KANT VASKAR student of Post Graduate Diploma in Business Management from Institute of Management Studies, Ghaziabad has completed His Summer training project titled´ GLOBAL SCOPE AND OPPORTUNITIES OF SOLAR ENERGY ³, under my guidance and supervision .I wishes him all the best in future endeavours.
Prof. Timira Sukhla
Global scope and opportunities of solar energy
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ³Hope and misery, toll and revelry, cheer and dejection««. Are all those going behind the success of this project?´ Any assignment puts to litmus test of an individual knowledge credibility or experience and thus sole efforts of an individual are not sufficient to accomplish the desire successful completion of a project involve interest and effort of many people and so this becomes obligatory on the part to record our thanks to those who helped us out in the successful completion of our project.
Life is a process of accumulating and discharging debts, not all of those can be measured. We can not hope to discharge them with simple words of thanks but we can certainly acknowledge them. At this level of understanding it is often difficult to comprehend and assimilate a wide spectrum of knowledge without proper guidance and advice. Hence, we would like to take this opportunity to express our Heartfelt Gratitude to Respected Prof. Timira Sukhla, PGDBM, IMS, Ghaziabad, for his round the clock Enthusiastic Support, Noble guidance and encouragement which made this project successful. We are extremely thankful to him for making this project watchful.
Global scope and opportunities of solar energy
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. Introduction 2. TATA Bp solar product line 3. Good response to solar energy promotion scheme 4. Solar Power Lightens Up with Thin-Film Technology 5. Solar-powered vision of the future 6. A Bright Future for Solar Energy 7. Why photovoltaic s?? 8. The Future of Solar Power Lies in the Northeast 9. Solar Powers Up, Sans Silicon 10. Bright Future for Solar Power Satellites 11. The Future of Solar-Powered Homes 12. How to brighten solar power's future 13. Reference
Global scope and opportunities of solar energy
India Energy Market The Indian renewable energy (RE) industry is diversified and offers strong business prospects to U.S. companies. The market in India for RE business is estimated at USD 500 million and is growing at an annual rate of 15 percent. The major areas of investment are: solar energy, wind energy, small hydro projects, waste-to-energy, biomass and alternative fuel. The new RE policy of the Government of India (GOI) aimed at generating 10,000 MW through renewable and a non-conventional source by 2012 is expected to further boost the growth rate of this sector. Key factors responsible for growth in this sector include:
Large demand-supply gap in electricity India is generously endowed with RE resources like solar, wind, bio-mass materials, urban and industrial wastes and small hydro resources
y y y y
Low gestation periods for setting up RE projects with quick return Conducive government policies The large number of financing options available for capital equipment Increasing awareness among industry that being environmentally responsible is economically sound.
The annual turnover of the RE industry in India is approximately USD 500 million. The investment in RE is estimated to be about USD 3 billion. Of the estimated potential of 100,000 MW from RE only about 3500 MW has been exploited to-date. The federal government has set a medium scale goal of electrification of 18,000 remote villages and meeting 10 percent of the country¶s power supply through RE by the year 2012. These targets are in addition to those fixed for other RE devices or programs including establishing 1 million biogas plants, 1 million SPV (Solar Photovoltaic) systems for lighting, 8,000 SPV pumps for irrigation, 10,000 SPV generators, stand-alone SPV power plants, solar water heating systems, solar air heating systems, solar cookers including large steam cooking systems, 360 energy demonstration parks and establishing more solar retail outlets and solar passive buildings, among other projects.
India has not been successful in keeping pace in this sector. Astro Power.S. SPV roof tiles. large capacity SPV modules. relief in customs duty. Sub-sectors that continue to show a high growth rate and are expected to drive the RE market are briefly discussed below: Solar Energy: The scope of generating power and thermal applications using solar energy is promising.S. is the pioneer in this sector. Although a few U. companies should consider if they are keen to enter the Indian market. a large portion of which is either wasted. despite a large demand supply gap with respect to energy requirements and ample renewable resource availability. charge controllers etc. Conservative estimates indicate that even with the present utilization pattern of these residues and by using only the surplus biomass materials.000 MW of distributed power could be generated.S. 6 . film solar cells. and third-party sale of power are being formulated to encourage the use of non-conventional energy sources and to offset the initial cost. have good market potential in India. Shell. NRG System. and government policies covering wheeling. Solar Wall. The U. 80 percent accelerated depreciation. Duke Solar and Sundanzer play a major role in the Indian market. biomass holds considerable promise as 540 million tons of crop and plantation residues are produced every year. buy-back. Processed raw material for solar cells. solar thermal water heating systems and solar power generation throughout the country. companies have market presence in India. banking.. industry experts feel that U. soft loans.S.S has played a minimum role in tapping opportunities in this sector. or used inefficiently. Alstom Power. Incentives include central financial assistance. solar cookers. inverters.Global scope and opportunities of solar energy The GOI is implementing various programs for utilizing solar energy such as solar PV (Photovoltaic) lighting and water pumping systems. Biomass Energy: In a country like India. excise duty and sales tax. Several U. about 17. estimated at about 150 million tons. There are projects for development that U. companies such as GE Power Systems. Only a fraction of the aggregate potential in renewable resources and in particularly solar energy is being used so far.
Global scope and opportunities of solar energy Hydro Projects: With numerous rivers and their tributaries in the country. The significant demand growth creates a tremendous manufacturing opportunity for the U. in most of the segments of this sector. Good potential exists for generating approx. In order to accelerate the development of small hydropower in the country. 2003.000 MW of power from urban and municipal wastes and approx.S. the GOI also provides concessions for existing hydro projects including financial support for renovation. 3. the small hydro sector presents an excellent energy opportunity with an estimated potential of 15. Energy from Wastes: The rising piles of garbage in urban areas caused by rapid urbanization and industrialization throughout India represent another source of non-conventional energy. About 10 percent of this has been exploited so far. fuel ethanol industry seeking to expand its investments internationally. no reliable statistics are available. and also further increase in the fuel ethanol component of the blend to 10% as of October 1. 15. 7 .6 billion liter demand for fuel ethanol in the entire country. Biofuels: The GOI recently mandated the blending of 5 percent fuel ethanol in 95 percent gasoline in 9 states and 4 union territories as of January 1.000 MW. This mandate has created an approx. 2003. Note: We are not providing a data table because. A substantial import of fuel ethanol will be necessary to supply the product required to meet the burgeoning demand created by the currently effective GOI mandate. modernization and capacity upgrading of aging small hydro power stations. 100 MW from industrial wastes in India.
200 and 300 LPD 8 .Global scope and opportunities of solar energy TATA BP SOLAR PRODUCT LINE DOMESTIC SOLAR WATER HEATING SYSTEMS MODEL: ZING y y y Puf .Insulated Tank New. innovative Tank shape Unique Tank & Collector support structure y Sacrificial Anode to prevent galvanic corrosion y Ultrasonic Welding of Collectors for Superior Conductivity y y y 3 Dimensional Polymer End Cap Unique ³Anti Condensation´ device Available in capacities of 100.
operate and maintain Works efficiently with hard water with hardness uo to 600 ppm.Global scope and opportunities of solar energy Domestic Solar Water Heating Systems Model: HOT MAX Features y High quality tubes made from borosilicate glass y y y y Withstands hail storms No clogging/choking Long lasting Inner coating of tubes consists of layers of copper. 9 . stainless steel and aluminium nitride y y Heats water to a very high temperature Makes hot water available even on partially cloudy days y High quality PUF insulation for maintaining high temperature of water inside the tank y End caps made from Uv resistant ABS plastic enhances aesthetics of product y Powder coated support structure fr long life y y y Compact and light weight water heater Easy to install.
omnidirectional light .anytime. battery.4 hrs operation/day 4 days autonomy Cost-effective Minimum maintenance 10 . anywhere y Charging via Solar Module or AC Mains using optional Solarmite Charger y 3 / 5 hours of continuousbright light on single charge for MK 3 model and 2 hours of light for MK 4 model Solar Home Lighting System Model: VENUS y Ready-to-use Kit containing solar module.Global scope and opportunities of solar energy Solar Lanterns Model: TATADEEP y y Ideal portable lighting system Bright. luminaires MCR charge controller and y y y y y Available in 2 models 3 .
minimum maintenance and completely serviceable y Over 2000 systems installed all over India Solar Industrial Water Heating Systems 11 Model: VAJRA .35.000 litres / day y y 3 Position Manual Tracking Easy to install. easy to use. regulator. high efficiency electronics and luminaires y Ready-to-use Kit : easy to install. (50 m) and deliver up to 1. battery.Global scope and opportunities of solar energy Solar Home Lighting Kits Model: JUGNU y Packaged 12 V systems containing module. negligible maintenance y Available in a wide range of MNES approved models Solar Power Packs Model: ECOGENIE Solar Water Pumping Systems y y y Surface and Submersible Types Up to 2HP rating pumps Can lift water from depths up to 166 ft.
which can meet part of the building¶s energy requirements y It is sturdy. It generates clean electricity. extruded sections with Stainless Steel Fasteners y HHC Systems also available on reques Building Integrated Photovoltaic¶s BIPV can replace conventional glazing on Atria. Awnings. Parapet BIPV adds tremendous aesthetic value. Pergola.Global scope and opportunities of solar energy y y y y y y VAJRA Industrial Water Heating Systems Available from 750 LPD to higher capacities Thermosyphon and Forced Circulation Systems Custom-made to suit specific applications Insulated Stainless Steel Tank Selectively coated. Copper-Copper Collectors with Ultrasonic Welded Fins for better heat transfer y Collectors aluminium have corrosion-resistant. Facade. Besides giving to a a very distinctive BIPV appearance building. leak-proof and all-weather 12 . Cladding y y Roof. Wall. Skylights. provides attractive combinations when used with conventional building material y BIPV is µsustainable¶ building material.
with the ability to withstand high wind. dusk-to-dawn operation Ready to install. negligible maintenance Solar Road Flasher y Ideal in Accident-prone Areas. hail. MV 8 y y y y y y PL 11 and SOX Lamps High efficiency PV batteries Galvanised steel pole Up to 4 days system autonomy Auto on / off. MV 6. dusk/dawn operation Rugged and all-weather-proof design Visibility greater than 500 m Designed in line with IS:7537 ± 1974 specifications 13 .Global scope and opportunities of solar energy proof. Ghat Sections. humidity and high ambient temperature Solar Street Lights Model: MARGADEEP y Four models : MV 3. MV 7. School & Hospital Areas. Construction Spots y y y y y 3 days system autonomy Auto on/off.
is extended through a consortium of banks. The rate is 2 per cent for individuals. offered under a solar energy promotion scheme. The soft loan for lighting systems is being extended to individuals. self-help groups and small business establishments. There are two separate schemes. 14 . The loan under the UNEP scheme is extended through Canara Bank and South Malabar Gramin Bank while the loans under the IRERDA scheme are supplied through seven banks. The loan. one supported by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the other by the Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency.Global scope and opportunities of solar energy Good response to solar energy promotion scheme KOCHI: A bank loan at two per cent interest may be the lowest ever offered by any financial institution in the history of modern banking. The loan will cover up to 85 per cent of the cost of the project.25.000. 3 per cent for institutions and 5 per cent for business establishments. subject to a maximum of Rs.
says G. according to Canara Bank officials. he says. Georgekutty Kurianapally.Global scope and opportunities of solar energy The scheme has elicited good response from customers. Based on the initial enquiries. The project was executed at a cost of Rs.Sivaramakrishnan.2-crore solar energy project was completed at the Vidhan Soudha annexe in Bangalore. Introduced a few weeks ago. pointing out that a Rs. Managing Director of Lifeway Solar. the marketing efforts are under way. Mr. The entrepreneur has already installed a solar power station at Nilackal telephone exchange. Solar power is the ideal solution to several problems arising out of power shortage. The IREDA scheme envisages provision of loans under `accelerated development and deployment of solar water heating systems in domestic. The station is designed to take care of the power needs up to a week so that power supply is not disrupted during the monsoon season. "Green energy will occupy centrestage in the near future 15 ." he says. which caters to Pampa.' The scheme is being implemented on a directive from the Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy Sources. the officials are hopeful of a surge in demand for the loan in the months to come. a solar power systems distributor. they are not receiving enough attention in Kerala. is also of the opinion that there is vast scope for tapping solar energy in Kerala.3. Sivaramakrishnan says though solar energy projects are more useful to the masses. proprietor of Konark Systems. a company developing solar energy equipments. industrial and commercial sectors. The solar `stand alone power pack' provides continuous power and there is no need to depend on the power grid. "We always lag behind. There have been many enquiries from customers for buying solar lighting and heating systems after the introduction of the scheme recently.5 lakhs and more such projects are being planned elsewhere.
received $3. Geodynamics received $5 million grant to help develop its geothermal electricity plant near Innamincka in the north of South Australia. another betting its future on geothermal energy.. Its site is near Millicent. Scope plans to open a 50-megawatt plant. Scope's geothermal technology will tap hot water heated deep in the earth and run it through a heat exchanger to generate electricity. Scope Energy. Two companies awarded grants under the Renewable Energy Development Initiative (REDI) have developed a no-emissions alternative for base-load generation.9 million grant to aid development. The AUD $23 million (approximately $17 million) spent by the Australian Federal Government under the first tranche of its $100 million (US $73m) pledge to aid the alternative energy sector has highlighted innovations by local companies to cure Australia's fossil fuel addiction. millions have been spent on alternative energy research grants in Australia. says the grant will help finance a drilling program of 500-metre deep holes to prove up its resource. according to Rod Myer writing for The Age of Australia. "We expect the cost to be very competitive with combined-cycle gas power plants. Mr Massey-Greene likens this process to a "fridge operating in reverse". meaning it is close to transmission lines and the population centres of Melbourne and Adelaide.5 kilometres. he believes. 16 . Roger Massey-Greene.Global scope and opportunities of solar energy Australia: Alternative Energy Grants Geothermal Plant From geothermal power to better batteries. Scope's wells will be as deep as 4. Its principal. but Mr Massey-Greene says he hopes to see this expand to 1000 MW in the longer term." Mr Massey-Greene said. Geodynamics' system will pump water through hot rocks and use the resulting steam to generate power. in the south-east of South Australia. Scope has a geographic advantage. The technology that Scope is planning has been in use at a plant in Italy that has operated for 101 years.
"But we have no fuel costs. of $290. Another REDI grant. because no one knows when the sun will shine or the wind will blow." Mr MasseyGreene said.000 Renewable Energy Development Initiative grant to further develop its new fluid expander that may enable solar energy to be harnessed for electricity. compared with about $750. Katrix projects that in the Californian market ² once government solar energy grants are factored in ² its system will return its cost to consumers in two to three years. has gone to V-Fuel. Efficient storage would enable technologies such as wind power and solar energy to get over a bugbear ² unpredictability. The expander is cheaper than a miniature turbine to build and has a number of advantages. including its ability to take gas or steam at 22 atmospheres (twenty two times atmospheric pressure) back to one atmosphere in one step. 17 . In New Zealand it provides 7 per cent of power needs and this could rise to as much as 15 per cent. Some in the market believe that Scope will float in the first half of 2006. Mr Demichelli.000. Katrix is developing units in which solar energy will heat refrigeration fluid that will run through an expander linked to a generator to produce power.000 for a combined-cycle gas plant. Founder Attilio Demichelli says the expander. and inventor Yannis Tropalis have invested over $3 million in the technology in three years. The funding will help develop a prototype of a battery that its promoters hope will be efficient enough to use to store power from renewable energy plants.Global scope and opportunities of solar energy Stage one of the plant is expected to cost $4 million per megawatt to construct. Geothermal plants run at an output of about 98 per cent of rated capacity. a private investor. which does the job of a turbine. which is developing a vanadium bromide redox battery. will allow solar thermal energy to be adapted for small-scale use far more cheaply than photovoltaic systems. Melbourne-based Katrix will use its $811. Mr Massey-Green believes geothermal power has a great future. compared with 15 years for photovoltaic systems.
However. Light and Heat: Light Control and Optimizing Energy in Offices and Other Buildings Daylight is solar energy. The technology aims to cut the cost of solar energy cells by reducing silicon usage by up to 90 per cent." The battery was 85 per cent efficient. Sliver cells are micromachined to less than 70 microns thick with solar cell efficiency running at over 19%. will cost $1 million.000 to fit a house with a one-kilowatt unit. which has raised only $400. 18 . he says. who is a principal of V-Fuel. and further funding is being sought from another federal grant scheme. The vanadium bromide process was developed at the University of NSW by Professor Maria Skyllas-Kazacos. Origin Energy also owns a 19% stake in Geodynamics and offers Green Earth electricity from 100% renewable sources to Australian electricity consumers.Sliver Cells are "long. That. Photovoltaic modules and solar collectors make the sun's energy usable. this payback time will be cut. This is a trivial statement but comes lightly to the background when speaking of solar energy use. he said. and "we are aiming at having a $200-per-kilowatt production cost". Origin Energy says it costs $11. according to Origin . but technologies that provide for optimal light efficiency in buildings and that make "living and working with the sun" enjoyable also use solar energy. "There is a lot of interest in Europe.Global scope and opportunities of solar energy V-Fuel principal Michael Kazacos says the grant is crucial to the company. quite flexible & perfectly bifacial" Origin Energy received a $5 million grant to aid development of its facilities for manufacturing solar energy cells using photovoltaic sliver technology. Sun. as energy prices rise and production costs fall. "We have had offers of collaboration from there. Silicon is the most expensive part of a solar energy cell. ultra thin." Mr Kazacos said. This would take 20 years or more to pay itself off. For more green energy in Australia see the government Green Power website. V-Fuel has developed a five-kilowatt battery but is aiming to produce a 50-kilowatt prototype.000 up to now.
Sun installation in the German Museum of Technology in Berlin.a fact that the president of EUROSOLAR. Herman Scheer.but also an intelligent solution for transporting light: Collector mirrors and reflectors project sunlight into a tunnel that one passes through when entering the exhibit hall.Low Costs for Lighting and Heat Many factors influence how well someone feels at work-therefore also influencing job performance output. High Work Place Quality . an office building in Weilheim/Teck and the German Museum of Technology in Berlin are examples of an energy concept in which sunlight and heat play central roles. Daylight technology (systems that control and transport sunlight) and the protection of exhibit pieces against radiation as well as favorable room climate are central for the museum building. For the Solar Center in Frankfurt/Oder. A fascinating play of light and shadow . Photo: BINE Information Service The Institute for Solar Technologies (Institut für Solartechnologien) in Frankfurt/Oder. and the most natural and glare-free light possible. And in fact it seems as though the concept of passive solar energy use or of a "passive building" veils everything that is done here: effective daylight use and control as well as energy optimizing are the characteristics of three buildings that we present in cooperation with the BINE Information Service (BINE Informationsdienst). good air quality. That spaces with cozy qualities and considerable energy conservation potential are also possible in buildings that aren't used for dwelling is shown by projects sponsored by the Federal Ministry for Economy and Technology (Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft und Technologie (BMWi)) for the research of "solar building".Global scope and opportunities of solar energy Measures taken to save electricity for lighting or conserving energy for heating are activities . does not tire of stressing. Among these are a comfortable temperature. an energy- 19 . Germany.
Photo: BINE Information Service Integrated in the balustrade area of the façade are thermal air collectors and a photovoltaic system. Afterwards the preheated outside air comes to a convection heater in the room.Global scope and opportunities of solar energy optimized building both was realized that offers: year-round comfortable work conditions and low energy demand. The modularly constructed façade system replaces the outside wall and at the same time guarantees the best possible supply of daylight and fresh air. this synergy façade combines the function of the building's walls with the tasks of household technology. air-conditioning and ventilating machine with a heat exchanger. In effect. The windows are equipped with outside blinds over which a rigid daylight control system is installedartificial light is only activated by a light detector when needed. another rise in temperature follows due to the heat energy absorbed from the used air. There. Behind that is a heating. In winter the incoming air is heated over the air collector and then led to the heat exchanger. Modular façade system on the south side of the Solar Center in Frankfurt/Oder. This pence of equipment is connected to the active flow of air via a connection canal between the window's two panes of glass (gap between the conventional pane and the heatinsulating pane). 20 .
Over the course of a year the photovoltaic system delivers the needed energy for the operation of the ventilation system. and the used air is then led outside through the space between the windowpanes. And those working in the rooms are content: The lighting conditions are experienced as pleasant and adequate. On very hot days cold water from an underground reservoir flows through the heaters. one square meter of office area costs less than 1. Its ecological design concept.Global scope and opportunities of solar energy This is then simultaneously supplied with fresh air and heated. the corresponding architecture and the economical aspects are convincing: Despite the difficult requirements for building ecology and the considerable energy conservation. 21 . $ 900) .no more than a conventionally constructed building. The collectors are turned off in the summer via a summer-winter circuit because the warm outside air comes in direct contact with the heat exchanger and there the cooler inside air can cool it. On sunny days the output from collectors and the heat gain for the room's heating system are both adequate. The concept fulfills the planners' expectations: The thermal heating and ventilation heating demands for the technology area are around 58 kilowatt hours per square meter and year and meet the requirements of the Energy Conservation Act (Energieeinsparverordnung (EnEV)). The energy demand for lighting and office technology was more than halved compared to a conventional building. and even during the summer rooms don't become overheated.000 ¼ (ca. Energy Efficiency without Extra Costs: Office Building as a Passive Building with Solar Heat and Solar Electricity The first passive office building in the German state of Baden-Wuerttemberg has been standing in Weilheim/Teck since the beginning of 2000. turning the heating system into a cooling system. Soil serves as the cold source.
the actual heating energy demand is even lower than the planned value.the job of distributing heat is taken over by the ventilation system. Used air is vented out from the common areas (conference rooms. Additionally. Warm Water and Electricity from the Sun In the entire building there are no heaters . stairways) of every floor. Office building "Lamparter" as seen from the west. A connected bivalent condensing boiler provides the remaining needed heat. led to a heat exchanger and finally vented outside. which is at just 7. Elements in place for lighting control minimized the need for artificial lighting. or the north or south side.Global scope and opportunities of solar energy The building uses the sun's energy both actively and passively. With the help of temperature gauges warm air can be separately led to the top floor. By avoiding transmission and ventilation heat losses the energy demand for heating was reduced to under 15 kilowatt hours per square meter and yearmaking a conventional heating system as unnecessary as active air conditioning. on cold days the outside air's temperature can be raised by an average of 4. 22 . Strict cost controls even made it possible to use funds from the budget to provide for solar heating and solar power systems.6 Kelvin by using an earth-to-air heat exchanger. ground soil heat exchangers and night ventilation. In this way about 85 % of its heat can be absorbed by incoming air. At 10.6 kWh/m .2 kWh/m per year. Photo: BINE Information Service Passive cooling during the summer is achieved by a variety of methods including shadow elements.
The estimated 6 to 7 megawatt hours (MWh) produced yearly correspond to 6. Outside the main heating period the water heating system runs for just one hour per day. By heating potable water. water heating can be up to 93 % covered by solar means.6 liters per person per day. Therefore it is accepted that the water temperature fluctuates.Global scope and opportunities of solar energy Passive office building "Lamparter": Energy supply system. 23 . a solar thermal system supports the gas heating system with 1.5 kWh/m per year.5 kWh/m of electricity based on the net heated floor area. Overall. solar energy provides 20.9 kWh/m of the needed primary energy with solar-produced electricity covering about half of the energy used for lighting and the ventilation system. and because the demand for this water is very low at just 2. Graphic: BINE Information Service Contributing to the electric current supply is a 67 square meter photovoltaic system that is mounted on the flat roof and pent roof of the building.
they were placed on the north side.Global scope and opportunities of solar energy Comparison of primary energy requirements for building technology in kilowatt-hours per square meter per year (kWh/m ). The additional accommodations open towards the south and are characterized by a transparent façade design. it was also possible to reach a low energy standard here.The German Museum of Technology in Berlin With a usable floor area of 20. 24 . which meanwhile the museum is presenting in multimedia to bring visitors closer to the rising energy-efficient technology. the expansion building of the German Museum of Technology is subdivided into departments for air and sea travel as well as accommodations for a library. In order to protect exhibit pieces from direct solar radiation. workshops. a lounge and catering areas. Graphic: BINE Information Service Controlling and Transporting Light .000 square meters. With an energy concept.
Environment and Solar Research Ltd. Sun-tracking Fresnel lenses collect daylight that is then led all the way to the foyer in the second 25 . Umwelt und Solarforschung GmbH (IBUS)) and the Fraunhofer Institute for Building Physics (Fraunhofer Institut für Bauphysik) in Stuttgart conducted the project's implementation over many years. Light and Shadow The overhead light layout and the implementation of the daylight systems were optimized in detailed studies under an artificial sky. On the east façade. it was effective to develop a daylight system that obtains the attractive city view. yet at the same time is able to fulfill its function of a visor against the sun and additionally has light-controlling qualities. Here the planners installed large lamellas at every story of the building. Expansion building of the German Museum of Technology in Berlin. Depending on the angle of the lamella the degree of daylight screening can be varied without reducing the illumination. (Berliner Institut für Bau. An inner transparent lamella wing was installed with an outer wing made of perforated metal.Global scope and opportunities of solar energy The Berlin Institute for Construction. Planners stabilized the inside humidity (important for a museum) through the use of hygroscopic materials (the expanded clay in walls and wood-block paving on floors attract and absorb moisture and therefore dry the air in the museum). for example. planners bring sunlight into the building. Using three systems. The floor areas of the museum that are further in and cannot be supplied with daylight by the facades led to the idea of installing a daylight transportation system along the paths that visitors take in the exhibit areas. right of the exhibit hall with a hanging C-47 "Skytrain" and sometimes affectionately referred to as the "Gooney Bird". Photo: BINE Information Service Despite demanding requirements it was still possible to get by without air-conditioning and the high energy needs associated with it.
Global scope and opportunities of solar energy floor via fluid light tubes. There. Right: Light tubes as a transportation system in further-in parts of the museum. 26 . Left: Light collectors (tracking Fresnel lenses). which one walks through when entering the exhibit area. This occurs with the use of a mirror system that is composed of a single-axis sun tracking collector mirror (heliostat) and a stationary reflector. four daylight tubes are supplied with sunlight by this transport system. Photos: BINE Information Service A so-called sun installation throws sunlight into a well.
The sun supplies only a tiny fraction . But its supporters believe a solar era may be dawning. 27 . boosted by western funding to combat oil 'addiction' and climate change. but affordability problems still dog hopes for the 1. Governments from Japan to Germany and the United States are helping the public wean themselves off fossil fuels.Global scope and opportunities of solar energy Left: Heliostat. Right: The systems fulfill the lighting needs of the further-in interior parts of the building.6 billion people worldwide without electricity. With this modifiable system the various lighting tasks in the exhibit area can be met. Photos: BINE Information Service A concave mirror (heliostat) with a surface area of about 14 square meters together with lighting reflectors supplies the interior of the museum with sunlight.of mankind's energy needs. Solar energy boom may help world's poor Global focus: The InterAcademy Council.less than one-tenth of 1 per cent . says efforts to curb climate change must target vast numbers of people who lack basic energy (File photo) (AFP: solar systems) A surge in investment in solar power is bringing down costs of the alternative energy source.
In the Indian state of Karnataka private firms." Worldwide about 1. Solar PV is still really expensive. can earn over 2. a Nobel laureate physicist. more expensive than kerosene. Low income Low incomes and low subsidies. The picture is very different for off-grid rural Indian communities which until now were dependent on kerosene. the InterAcademy Council. senior energy planner at the Denmarkbased Risoe National Laboratory. or paraffin." said Professor Steven Chu.. "Kerosene is quite heavily subsidised but has limited availability in some rural areas.6 billion people live without electricity and 2 to 3 billion use energy in a primitive way very damaging to health. says efforts to curb climate change must target vast numbers of people who lack basic energy.5 million people die annually from indoor pollution due to lighting and cooking. It's not at a scale that makes it viable. including giving discounts on power bills if solar is installed.double their electricity bill . "There are some solar PV programs that provide an extremely limited capital subsidy.and pay off all costs within 10 years and earn a pure profit for a further 10.130) a year from subsidies to install solar panels .Global scope and opportunities of solar energy An average German household. have over the last three to five years been pushing solar power for households in towns and cities. But there are few handouts in developing nations where it could be argued solar power is more relevant . lamps for lighting." said JP Painuly. backed by state government subsidies. "It's sad that 1. if any. which has helped solar PV (photovoltaic) sales. having no electricity access..000 euros ($A3. for example. 28 .in sunnier countries where many people have no electricity at all. can make clean energy a hard sell in developing countries. A scientific body which groups academies worldwide.
where 60 per cent of households lack electricity. Another is that SELCO's small profits are making it difficult for the company to compete with salaries offered by Bangalore's Internet industry and expand outside its core Karnataka state. Manufacturing boom SELCO cuts costs by making fluorescent light bulbs and designing solar panels itself. said Professor Chu. costs $250. mobile phones. Economic difficulties The Solar Electric Light Company (SELCO) has supplied solar powered electricity to 75. but the panels are still more expensive than the more heavily subsidised oil lamps. "Very inexpensive solar cells could be used by off-grid people to charge appliances that don't use a lot of power but make a world of difference.Global scope and opportunities of solar energy It is the health benefits that sell the more expensive panels together with the promise of a much brighter source of light than paraffin lamps so users can work and make money after dark. helping to pare the price of the alternative technology and simple. water purifiers and bright. Their standard solar panel. economy panels could soon be affordable even to the rural poor.a more basic and widely available technology which heats water but does not supply electricity." he said. efficient lamps called light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Rapidly developing countries like China are joining a silicon solar cell manufacturing boom.000 households over the past 12 years in India. or read and educate themselves or their children. One downside is that large parts of Karnataka get monsoon rains for about four months a year and people complain that solar systems are not effective in cloudy conditions. 29 . Many wealthier suburbs in Karnataka cities and towns have terraces of houses with solar water heaters . replacing three smoky paraffin lamps. unlike the solar PV panels. equal to at least 12 months' income for many rural households. listing items such as radios.
1 x 1020 joules). "The fundamental advantage of thin film comes in the form of the amount of material you need. reaching as high as $500 per kilogram (2.3 x 1020 joules²to provide all of humanity's energy needs for a year (4. non silicon-based solar panel.9 percent of the sunlight that hit it into electricity. chief technology officer of thin-film manufacturer Global Solar Energy in Tucson." says electrical engineer Jeff Britt. You can get by with one or two microns and still absorb 98 percent of the sunlight. such as silicon." (In other words. UK-based solar company G24 Innovations this month started production of a low-cost. "These are direct bandgap semiconductors.2 pounds) this year. Prices for high-grade silicon (that can generate electricity from sunlight) shot up in 2004 in response to growing demand. director of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. low-carbon light source for poor households in Africa. to harvest electricity from sunlight at a fraction of the cost. Thin-film solar cells may be the answer: One recently converted 19.Global scope and opportunities of solar energy The World Bank last month announced a private sector competition to devise the best-value. as a way to flag up what it estimates is a $17 billion African market in off-grid lighting. surpassing the amount converted into power by mass-produced traditional silicon photovoltaics and offering the potential to unleash this renewable energy source. which it says it will supply into the LED market in developing countries from next year. Enter thin-film solar cells²devices that use a fine layer of semiconducting material. Solar Power Lightens Up with Thin-Film Technology The sun blasts Earth with enough energy in one hour²4. copper indium gallium selenide or cadmium telluride.) 30 . according to physicist Steven Chu. it takes at least 100 times less thin-film material to absorb the same amount of sunlight as traditional silicon photovoltaic cells. The question is how to most effectively harness it. Ariz.
But there are other challenges." In other words. however. Department of Energy's (DoE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory have succeeded in producing CIGS cells that can convert nearly 20 percent of the sunlight that falls on them into electricity. "It's intended for largescale. the company opened a new factory in Tucson. headquartered in Osaka. which is in the process of opening its first CIGS solar cell factory. largely for communication and other small electronic devices powered by such cells. you're going to get about half" of the efficiency demonstrated in a lab under perfect conditions. A host of companies.S. military and outdoor enthusiasts with portable field chargers." says Paul Wormser. "We're focusing on low-cost terrestrial power generation. "By the time you go into production. The company has already supplied the U. "The first hurdle is cost. ground-based arrays. senior director of product development for the Solar Energy Solutions Group at electronics manufacturer Sharp Electronics. "Benchtop is a great thing to measure because it tells you about the potential of the technology.S.Global scope and opportunities of solar energy Global Solar uses a technology known as copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) to make its thin-film solar cells. where it plans to produce enough thin-film CIGS solar cells to generate 40 megawatts of electricity next year² enough to power roughly 15." Researchers at the U. But manufacturers note that mass production reduces their efficiency because chemical processes are not as easy to control on an industrial assembly line. 31 . Japan. it hopes to boost the juice to 100 megawatts by 2010 in response to what it predicts will be a growing market. CEO of HelioVolt in Austin. Tex." Britt says. In March. the types of solar farms previously dominated by traditional silicon photovoltaics now used to generate electricity from sunshine in states like Arizona and California. are using CIGS technology in an attempt to cut the cost of producing photovoltaic cells. including HelioVolt. Stanbery. about what people are actually making or can make. Global Solar is not alone. [which means the] lifetime of the device. It tells you nothing." says materials scientist B. Nanosolar and others. J..000 average American homes. "The second is efficiency [how much sunlight can be converted to power] and the third is the reliability.
even though they use a toxic heavy metal. It plans to increase its manufacturing capacity at its plant in Katsuragi. Tempe.±based First Solar." But Wormser says that thin-film cells have the potential to produce more power over time than the older technology. environmentally friendly life cycle.25 a pop (compared with at least double that per module for traditional photovoltaics). the old standbys. He denies speculation that thin-film solar cells will eventually kill the traditional crystalline silicon phtotvoltaics end of the business. "Rumors of crystalline's demise are highly exaggerated. sells its modules encased in glass for either large arrays or rooftops. Japan. because they resist the sun's heat better and produce more power when the temperature spikes. In addition to offering solar modules at $1." Wormser says. thin-film cells intended for large arrays use lower grade silicon (read: glass) to protect the delicate photovoltaic layers.000 megawatts by 2010 by building another factory in Sakai. cadmium telluride solar cells are currently the most ecofriendly devices.. Bruce Sohn. For example. not supplant. Ariz." In fact. primarily because they require the least energy²typically provided 32 . Even the wires can be reused. to produce enough cells to make 160 megawatts of electricity by October²and to bring its total annual output to enough cells to produce 1. Metals can be repurified and given back to us in the form of the cadmium telluride compound. however. "We see thin-film as highly complementary to crystalline and concentrators." Sohn says. Consequently. First Solar has also instituted a process for recycling them at the end of their active lives. Inc." says company president. noting that they are designed to supplement. "We really can recycle in excess of 90 percent of the weight of the product today in a perpetual. which employs cadmium telluride in its thin-film solar cells.Global scope and opportunities of solar energy Sharp pairs amorphous silicon (fine layers of randomly arranged silicon) with layers of crystalline silicon (whose atoms are in a more structured lattice) to make its thin-film cells. "Glass can be returned to the glass industry. Japan. "The elegance of the solar business is that you construct a product and it just sits there generating power for 20 to 25 years. Durability may be an issue.
" Global Solar's Britt says.Global scope and opportunities of solar energy by burning fossil fuels²to manufacture. Yet. cadmium telluride commands only about 30 percent of the thin-film market. "It's going to serve the purpose of keeping out the elements. "Combining this highest efficiency. director of the DoE's National Center for Photovoltaics in Golden. compared with amorphous silicon cells (such as those produced by Sharp and ECD Ovonics)." The thin-film solar cells can be used in more flexible applications. says Sharp's Wormser. but from the outside it looks like tinted glass. All of the thin-film technologies also offer the potential for ubiquity. N. It allows you to see out through the window.Y. which account for more than 60 percent. CIGS cells make up just about 1 percent of this market. But thin-film solar cells hold the promise of harnessing the sun's power in an efficient and sustainable way² and displacing the burning of fossilized sunlight for energy that is contributing climate change± causing carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. such as better batteries²would be necessary for those times when the sun is not shining. But CIGS has the most potential efficiency (converting as much as 25 percent of incoming sunlight to electricity) of any of the thin-film technologies as well as of traditional photovoltaic cells. That is. Colo. says environmental engineer Vasilis Fthenakis. Alternative forms of electricity generation²or some kind of efficient energy storage. Heliovolt's Stanberry says. such as so-called solar shingles. Würth Solar in Germany has mass-produced such cells that can convert as much as 13 percent of sunlight." 33 . This also eliminates the significant cost²typically at least doubling the price of a given module²of adding solar photovoltaic systems to already existing buildings. according to Lawrence Kazmerski. senior scientist at Brookhaven National Laboratory's National Photovoltaic Environment Research Center in Upton. and Columbia University. but it's also going to generate power for you.. "you have the opportunity with thin film to make what people refer to as a semitransparent photovoltaic module in place of a window on a building. according to DoE statistics. lowest cost and most reliable thin-film technology directly into building construction materials will be the beginning of a revolution in solar power. roofing materials that double as electricity generators.
renewable energy sources. A DOCTORAL STUDENT in Georgia Tech's School of Electrical and Computer Engineering (ECE). The 342-kilowatt photovoltaic system ² which converts sunlight into electricity ² serves as both a research model and a supplementary power source for the Aquatic Center." he quips. Spread over nearly three-quarters of an acre is what is believed to be the world's largest solar-powered energy system connected to a power grid and located on a single rooftop. Wind whips menacingly over the sides and a stunning view of the Atlanta skyline lies to the south. The best is yet to come. but I think we're on the road to that happening finally. It is also one of many projects conducted under the Georgia Institute of Technology's University Center of Excellence for Reseachers have reduced the time Photovoltaics Research and Education (UCEP).Global scope and opportunities of solar energy HelioVolt's Stanbery says. "I worried that I wouldn't live to see the day when solar became an economically substantive part of our energy mix. 34 . has just climbed nearly 150 feet of ladders to the barrel-vaulted roof of the Georgia Tech Aquatic Center. MIKE ROPP." A Bright Future for Solar Energy Georgia Tech is playing an important role in photovoltaics' status as a leading contender in the search for clean. flashing a ready grin photo by Stanley Leary and spreading his arms expansively. And what a laboratory it is. renewable energy sources for the future. "Welcome to my laboratory. which is required to produce solar cells designed to help make photovoltaics (PV) a leading contender without losing efficiency. in the search for clean.
Global scope and opportunities of solar energy Established in 1992 by the U. UCEP is one of only two national centers of excellence in PV research. PV power was 50 times as expensive as traditional energy sources. UCEP researchers have made major contributions to bringing down this cost by designing and testing new PV systems and developing cheaper. Department of Energy and supported by the DOE's Sandia National Laboratories. producing cheaper and more efficient solar cells." Although proponents of photovoltaics say it's an ideal technology to supplement or replace traditional energy sources. and training the next generation of PV scientists ² all with an eye toward giving the United States a competitive edge in photovoltaics. who directs UCEP and is a Regents' Professor and Georgia Power Distinguished Professor in ECE. Joseph R. modeling. testing and analysis of cells. There are very few places that have everything going on in one place. process development. also notes that Georgia Tech "has an unusually strong interdisciplinary emphasis and a commitment to sustainable development. "Large grid-connected PV systems on campus make us even more unusual.) Researchers are charged with advancing PV research. 35 . Romm. Ajeet Rohatgi. But 20 years ago. "I think the main reason the DOE decided to make us a university center of excellence was there was no other university at the time. "All of that adds up to the perfect setting for a center of excellence.S. more efficient solar cell technologies." he says." "There's also a good healthy emphasis on education. acting assistant secretary for the DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. PV power currently is less efficient (defined as the amount of energy a system produces divided by the energy that goes into it) and about four times more expensive. that could do research all the way from photovoltaic materials to materials characterization. fabrication." says Dr. other than the University of Delaware. (The second is at the University of Delaware." Dr.
photo by Stanley Leary it is a lasting legacy for the campus and should provide significant. and Richard Long. Georgia Power Company and the DOE. "The goal is to get a better understanding of how these systems their work ² and their our their performance. who coordinates research for Georgia Power. Built to host swimming and diving events for the 1996 Summer Olympic and Paralympic Games." During its first year. which will provide significant. long-term data on how to build and maintain large-scale PV structures. the system operated close to the efficiency level expected." explains Chuck Huling. who designed the $5. also an ECE professor. periodic shutdowns for experiments and higher. Funding came from Georgia Tech. Miroslav M. "The Olympics provided a wonderful opportunity to demonstrate this renewable technology to a local. (200-dpi JPEG version . although actual energy production was lower than predicted. project support manager in Georgia Tech's Office of Facilities. national and international audience.362k) reliability to capability predict performance." says Rohatgi.than-usual temperatures during some months. Reasons included unexpected down time. long-term data on how to build and maintain large-scale PV structures. the Georgia Tech Aquatic Center is a standout example.Global scope and opportunities of solar energy Olympic Legacy In the area of new PV systems.2 million system with Dr. 36 . which decreased the system's efficiency. and we wanted to help in the demonstration of that. modeling The Georgia Tech Aquatic Center's roof holds a 342-kilowatt photovoltaic (PV) system. "We realize that photovoltaics is a technically viable source for supplying future energy needs. Begovic.
S. natural gas and nuclear power. Coast Guard 37 . or solar power. from lighting and small appliances for a single home to water-pumping systems for farms or industrial activities for whole villages. When sunlight hits the cell.S. Several cells can be wired together and encased in clear glass or plastic to form a panel or module.Global scope and opportunities of solar energy Why photovoltaic s?? The bottom line for renewable energy is not that it's a matter of if. which flows through an external circuit and produces energy. Although PV power currently is less efficient and more expensive than conventional energy sources like coal. These can be connected into arrays ² to collect and produce more power ² then placed atop a building and either connected to an existing electrical system or linked to batteries. they note that two billion people in the world don't have access to electricity and that most conventional energy sources cause pollution. Solar power also is versatile enough to supply nearly any energy need. no emissions and sunlight as energy source. U. with no moving parts. When proponents of photovoltaics ² the direct conversion of sunlight into electricity ² argue their case.000 tons of carbon dioxide. Examples include calculators. photovoltage on an electric current is created. for example. renewable alternative. PV power operates on a simple principle: a cell is created from a semiconductor material like silicon. It's a matter of when. The process is silent and self-contained. DOE officials estimate that every gigawatt hour of PV-generated electricity prevents the emission of up to 1. deplete natural resources or contribute to global warming. Photovoltaics (PV). Compared to burning coal. including establishment of Georgia Tech's University Center of Excellence for Photovoltaics Research and Education (UCEP). offers a clean. Department of Energy is supporting extensive research in this area. oil. The U. its advantages already make it the preferred choice in many everyday applications.
assuming that the marketplace will pick them up. and that's what we're doing at the DOE. Massachusetts and New York. really. where energy costs are high and local governments often support solar power.'" he adds. fell sharply in the early 1980s and only began rebounding in the past decade. where electricity is very expensive. To help make photovoltaics more competitive. is not that it's a matter of 'if. "You cannot profit optimally if you focus on lab work." says Dr. then throw the results over the fence.Global scope and opportunities of solar energy navigational beacons. "We're at the point where we're ready to reap large returns on the investments that we've made over the years. which have large remote areas and much sunlight. Joseph R. Worldwide demand for solar power grew 290 percent from 1987 to 1995. and California and Arizona. highway emergency telephones. There needs to be a partnership with the private sector. traffic warning signs. 38 . which have large remote areas and much sunlight. where energy costs are high and local governments often support solar power. acting assistant secretary for the DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. Massachusetts and New York. high during the oil crisis of the 1970s. It's also economically competitive in some parts of the United States now ² including Hawaii. But for such advances to continue. Federal funding for renewable energy sources. from large-scale power plants to programs that encourage home owners to install rooftop PV systems. "It's a matter of when and who profits." It's also economically competitive in some parts of the United States now ² including Hawaii. where electricity is very expensive. satellites and remote cabins and farms. private industry and utility company partners have built or proposed dozens of projects. government. Romm. sustained commitment is needed. and California and Arizona. "The bottom line for renewable energy.
"While UCEP has long been in the forefront of research in developing world-record efficient hardware." From July 1996 to June 1997. really. the PV systems will help us in becoming an authority in design and help assess the cost/benefit of the yet-to-be-built systems of the future. converts the array's direct current (DC) power to utility-compatible alternating current (AC) power." Begovic says.3 megawatt hours of electricity. AC array at the entrance to the Callaway Student Athletic Complex. each with 72 multicrystalline silicon solar cells connected in series.'" he adds. 39 . It differs from the Aquatic Center system in that each module converts the solar-generated DC power to AC power itself. is not that it's a matter of 'if. "It's a matter of when and who profits. but in half the time ² 81/2 hours rather than 17.5 percent of the 409 megawatt hours predicted and enough energy for about 28 average Georgia homes. The rooftop system features a solar array made up of 2.5-kilowatt. New Processes and Materials But for photovoltaics to truly compete with conventional energy sources. and a data acquisition system stores performance and meteorological information every 10 minutes. the system produced 333. or inverter. which reduces costs and simplifies installation.Global scope and opportunities of solar energy "The bottom line for renewable energy. which is 81. which researchers recently used to fabricate for the first time a silicon solar cell with the same 19 percent efficiency rating as cells produced by conventional furnace processing. A power conditioning system. Researchers also built a 4.856 photovoltaic modules. production costs must be reduced. so Georgia Tech researchers are exploring several innovative techniques. One is rapid thermal processing (RTP).
Textured. The cells also must be cleaned between each step.minute rapid thermal oxidation (RTO) process. In-Situ Oxide AR-coated Solar Cell Process" or STAR. that will obviously reduce the use of chemicals. without sacrificing the cell performance. The cell is textured and has an antireflection (AR) coating. This step is the most time-consuming. and an oxide is grown on the front of the cell by a five. In this process. to save money and increase output. in addition to front and back in-situ oxide surface passivation. called passivation. and each step lasts one to three hours. and it will increase the production capacity and throughput. which produces less efficient cells. Industrial manufacturers often delete the oxidation process. "If we can make the solar cells very fast compared to what's being done out in industry today. The common techniques of evaporation and photolithography give good resolution and conductivity." Researchers also are experimenting with a technique they call "Simultaneously Diffused. Georgia Tech's RTO process offers a time-saving way to include this performance-enhancing step. it accounts for 80 percent of the production process. for example.Global scope and opportunities of solar energy Conventional solar cell production generally involves three trips into a high-temperature furnace. Once a solar cell is created. In 1996. in RTP fabrication. Georgia Tech researchers successfully integrated screen printing with RTP. but Rohatgi says many commercial manufacturers have switched to a quicker method called screen printing." Rohatgi explains. Since then.7 percent to 16. a single hightemperature furnace step can provide front and back surface diffusions simultaneously. "This should result in significant reduction in the cost of solar cell modules. to trap more light in the cell.3 percent and outlined modifications for future increases. slashing cell production time to 11/2 hours. they've raised cell efficiency from 14. metal contacts are added to extract the electrical power from the cell. With RTP fabrication. the front and back of the cell are formed simultaneously by a rapid thermal diffusion process that takes three minutes. 40 . gases and manpower.
Rohatgi says. They've published over 100 papers 41 . The other 20 percent are made from amorphous silicon and thin film materials like cadmium telluride. (200-dpi JPEG version . UCEP is having no trouble meeting that Research done at Georgia Tech could help mandate. while RTP currently isn't. we try to do applied research that can be easily transferred to industry. photo by Gary Meek "To make our processing more manufacturable.Global scope and opportunities of solar energy So far. Crystalline silicon is used in about 80 percent of the solar cell modules produced today. Rohatgi says STAR is compatible with highthroughput machinery commonly used by the solar industry today. "That is part of the mandate from the DOE. Another way to reduce the cost of photovoltaics is to make solar cells from less expensive materials. researchers have created cells with 20. including industry leaders like Solarex Corp.S.6 percent.283k) several others.. [but to] focus on research that can lead to commercially viable solar cells. Siemens Solar Industries and ASE America Inc. UCEP researchers are working with several promising silicon materials." So far. Researchers hold patents for seven lower the cost of producing photovoltaic production techniques and have applied for arrays." Rohatgi says. including float zone. cast multicrystalline. And although the STAR process is not as fast as RTP cell fabrication. Industry's Importance: Today and Tomorrow Rohatgi attributes part of UCEP's success to close working relationships with more than two dozen U.1 percent efficiency. Our job is not to just do blue-sky type research. solar manufacturers. and currently hold the record for high-efficiency multicrystalline silicon cells ² 18. EFG sheet and dendritic web silicon. Czchralski.
and the rest of the region. Las Vegas. it would probably come as a surprise to learn that some of the best potential customers for the solar power industry are homeowners and small businesses in the Northeast who will install small-scale systems on their property. Founder of the Topline Strategy Group Soon there will giant farms of photovoltaic panels baking in the sunlight of the southwest deserts. then transferring this know-how to industry. The Southwest does enjoy a tremendous sunlight advantage over the Northeast. Besides reducing solar costs and improving technologies. Rohatgi says future successes also will depend on transferring these new techniques from the laboratory to the production line." The Future of Solar Power Lies in the Northeast by Jonathan Klein. UCEP also includes an Educational Support Program (ESP) Laboratory. the advantage does not come close to compensating for the difference in electricity rates. the resulting energy powering Phoenix. making solar power less expensive in that region. where solar cells are fabricated and/or tested for other universities." Rohatgi says. "The next step would be to scale up some of the novel technologies we're developing to a larger scale ² making larger-area cells. 42 . When a panel generates more electricity. However. the cost of that electricity falls because the fixed price of the equipment is spread across more kilowatt-hours. and lab space in both ECE and the Microelectronics Research Center. "Only then will industry get excited about it and be able to use it. If this vision of the future of solar power in the United States sounds right to you.Global scope and opportunities of solar energy in peer-reviewed journals and both refereed and non-refereed conference proceedings.
worrying about stretching subsidies to fuel more demand is probably the last item on everyone's agenda.that is. California Solar Cost Data Shows Modest Economies of Scale This is not the case for photovoltaics. solar electricity equipment has very few economies of scale. This is because the basic unit of solar power is a single photovoltaic module. it is small solar installations in the Northeast that fit that bill. It will be another decade before it reaches the break even point -.Global scope and opportunities of solar energy Today.000 modules are no more efficient than 43 . even in the best case scenario. customers for whom the cost of solar electricity compares most favorably with the cost of conventional electricity. Big installations have only a small cost advantage over small ones In striking contrast to all other power generation technologies. hydroelectric dams. Until then. It is based upon the following three facts. Remarkably. However. the point where solar power becomes economical without subsidies. This counter-intuitive finding comes from two studies our company recently released on solar electricity: What the Solar Power Industry Can Learn from Google and Salesforce. which typically generates 180 to 230 watts of power and takes up approximately 13 to 15 square feet. solar thermal concentrators (with their acres of sun-tracking reflective troughs) and wind turbines (whose size dictate that they be situated in remote areas) are only practical for large commercial power generators to own and operate. nuclear reactors. This requires a focus on stretching subsidy dollars. Laying the groundwork now for fueling the next spurt of demand can mitigate or even eliminate any potential slowdown. Coal and gas-fired power plants. not large commercial installations in Arizona or Nevada. namely. Installations with 10. even hypergrowth industries go through periods of faster and slower growth. industry growth will largely be determined by how far available subsidies can be stretched in order to support the installation of the most equipment possible. solar power still requires substantial subsidies. which in turn means focusing on the customers who require the least amount of subsidies to make solar power a profitable investment.com and Massachusetts a Surprising Candidate for Solar Power Leadership. In a world where supply constraints are the industry's top problem.
Smaller businesses and homeowners are the ones that end up paying the most for their electricity. The small economies of scale that do exist are driven by transaction costs. which can provide ample low cost power. 44 . utilities pay power producers under $. On average.Global scope and opportunities of solar energy those with 10 modules. big customers enjoy only a very slight cost advantage over small ones when it comes to the cost of solar power equipment Small customers pay a lot more for electricity than big customers While it costs about the same for big and small customers to purchase solar power equipment.03 per kilowatt-hour. and large commercial customers are able to negotiate favorable rates. Major industrial customers typically locate their plants near hydroelectric dams. the same is not true when it comes to purchasing electricity. not the technology. Therefore.
these three factors mean that small customers in the Northeast. Solar Powers Up. smaller businesses and homeowners require far fewer subsidy dollars to make up the difference between the cost of conventional power and solar power. Prescriptions for the Industry Currently. subsidy programs in all of these states that are sufficient to support the development of a robust commercial industry (with the exception of California which already has such a program) and two. new technologies touted by solar energy startups sound very far out. offerings and channels designed to serve a large number of smaller accounts. Entrepreneurs promise that soon solar-energized "power plastic" will radically extend the battery life of laptops and cell phones. Taken together. And technologies to integrate solar 45 . along with those in California and Nevada. are those for whom solar power is the most economically viable and require the least subsidies. Sans Silicon In a world where sun-powered garden lights seem like a nifty idea. there are two missing factors for making this strategy practical. One. Ultra-cheap printed solar cells will enable construction of huge power-generating facilities at a fraction of today's costs. Our prescription: Make these two initiatives top priorities for the industry.Global scope and opportunities of solar energy Since their higher electric rates more than offset their slightly higher equipment costs.
Providing equivalent capacity using silicon technology. is fueling interest in alternative materials. but investors are paying heed. Roscheisen plans to warranty the cells for 25 years -. Miasolé.Global scope and opportunities of solar energy power-generation capability into building materials will herald a new era of energy-efficient construction. Nanosolar's CEO. Printed solar cells. solar startups have snapped up more than $100 million in venture capital to develop printable materials capable of converting sunlight into electrical power. production capability is ramping up quickly. The 46 . has developed a competing thin-film photovoltaic cell using a layer of photoactive material containing a compound called CIGS. founding director of the Renewable and Appropriate Energy Laboratory at the University of California at Berkeley. plan to finish building a factory next year to churn out thin-film solar cells using copper-based semiconductors instead of silicon. Soaring energy demand. California. Those are ambitious goals for a technology famous for powering pocket calculators. which today produce less than 1 percent of power consumed nationwide. as well as short supplies of polysilicon. who expects the company will be able to build a 400-megawatt plant for about $100 million. a key ingredient in most solar cells.similar to silicon solar products. Roscheisen estimated. energy demand.S. While industry experts don't expect manufacturing on a massive scale to be viable for years. "These technologies look incredibly more real than they did five years ago. California. When Nanosolar's products become commercially available. in neighboring Santa Clara. produced with conductive metals and organic polymers in place of silicon." said Dan Kammen. based in Palo Alto. would cost close to $1 billion. This year. startups plan to begin manufacturing printed solar products for use in power-generating facilities. Kammen predicts solar sources. Executives at Nanosolar. rooftop installations and portable gadgets." said Martin Roscheisen. "Silicon models are too expensive in the first place. could help. could eventually meet one-fifth of U. As early as next year.
He envisions large-scale deployment around 2012. he estimates. Konarka's specialized plastics typically last years. president of the Prometheus Institute for Sustainable Development in Cambridge. The company is marketing its technology for use in products with similar life spans. Today. While he's optimistic about the prospects. grid-connected. Still." said Daniel Patrick McGahn. they think of rooftop. Das expects manufacturers to resolve those concerns and produce viable printed photovoltaics in 2009 or 2010. They'll also have to prove supplies of core materials are adequate for mass production and demonstrate that their products don't degrade too quickly. Konarka's chief marketing officer. The key hurdle remaining is to make materials resilient enough to last for years. printed photovoltaics could soon be ready for commercial use. 47 . To compete against silicon solar manufacturers.. but that should drop to around 80 percent over the next few years. "It takes a lot longer and a lot more money to commercialize technology than people think . Unlike silicon-based solar cells used on rooftops today. a startup in Lowell. On the shorter end of the power-generation life cycle. Massachusetts. said Raghu Das. nearly 95 percent of solar cells use semiconductor-grade silicon." he said.. he's not convinced any technology is meeting all the criteria today. Konarka. Massachusetts.Global scope and opportunities of solar energy company plans to incorporate the technology into building materials and rooftop solar installations. While research into printed photovoltaic technologies dates back decades. We're trying to change that mindset. has agreements in place with manufacturers to produce a printed "power plastic" to supply solar energy for portable devices. but not decades. which is why crystalline silicon has been around for so long. "When people think of solar. progress on nonsilicon applications has accelerated in recent years due to the shortage of polysilicon. CEO of research firm IDTechEx. said Travis Bradford. Bradford says developers of new technologies will need to show that they can be cost-effective.
complexity. in the battle of energy market forces on Earth. the Department of Energy. NASA." Bright Future for Solar Power Satellites Two new studies looking at the feasibility of space-based solar power . it will be incredibly low-cost -.suggest the concept shouldn't be readily dismissed and could generate both Earth-bound and space-based benefits. says Das. International legal. Massachusetts. On earth it would be converted to electricity and fed into power grids to be tapped by terrestrial customers. everybody would be doing it. Health or environmental hazards from laser or microwave beams broadcast from space appear worrisome. The thought of beaming energy to Earth via satellite was first brought to light in the late 1960s by Peter Glaser." he said. and cost of an SSP undertaking are daunting challenges. political. "However. other government. Little in Cambridge. solar startups entice investors with visions of clean. it's still quite futuristic. from building materials to cell phones. 48 .orbiting satellites that would serve as high-tech space dams . industry and private groups have given the concept the once-over. the challenges of Space Solar Power (SSP) were reviewed numerous times. any SSP constellation may prove far too costly to be worth metering. if it was ready today. A swarm of unknowns and criticisms always fly in tight formation around the prospect of energy-beaming satellites actually having any economic benefit to Earth. These "powersats" would catch the flood of energy flowing from the Sun and then pump it to Earth via laser or microwave beam. "As plastics are used to make this and not silicon. a technologist at Arthur D. Additionally. low-cost.you could compare it to the cost of printing ink on paper. Into the 1970s and 1980s. While that vision may eventually prove realistic. Among them: The size.Global scope and opportunities of solar energy In the meantime. and social acceptability issues abound. energygenerating capability bundled into a range of products.
" The study urges a sharper look at perceived and/or actual environmental and health risks that SSP might involve. Their findings are in the NRC report: Laying the Foundation for Space Solar Power . military. task planning.An Assessment of NASA's Space Solar Power Investment Strategy. In general. Investment strategy For the last few years. For its part. NASA found that the march of technology and America's overall space prowess has re-energized the case for SSP. solar-cell laden panels. While not advocating or discouraging SSP. the space agency has scripted a research and technology. markets. interest in SSP has grown. SSP feasibility. NASA did point out. Richard Schwartz. and commercial applications. that launch cost to orbit remains far too high . NASA embarked on what's tagged as a Fresh Look study. the advisory team said "it recognizes that significant changes have occurred since 1979 that might make it worthwhile for the United States to invest in either SSP or its component technologies. however. dean of the Schools of Engineering at Purdue University in West Lafayette. specifically in Japan and Canada. technologies. as well as investment roadmap. y Robotics. not only at NASA. Congress and the White House Office of Management and Budget. and reasoning.Global scope and opportunities of solar energy In 1995. A special study group of the National Research Council (NRC) has taken a new look at NASA's current SSP efforts. has shown substantial improvements in manipulators.S. The NRC study group singled out several technological advances relevant to SSP: y Improvements have been seen in efficiency of solar cells and production of lightweight.but that this problem was being attacked. but also in the U. Indiana. costs. and international public attitudes were addressed. hand-eye coordination. machine vision systems. y Wireless power transmission tests on Earth is progressing. viewed as essential to SSP on-orbit assembly. and 49 . chaired the 9-person NRC panel. This SSP stepping stone approach would enhance other space.
both developments useful in building an SSP. the NRC panel members noted that for any SSP program to churn out commercially competitive terrestrial electric power." A top recommendation is that industry experts. Defense Department. The space agency's current work is directed at technical areas "that have important commercial. breakthrough technologies are required. Furthermore. and digital control systems are now state of the art . even if the ultimate goal of supplying competitive energy is not attained. the study group said. That being said.such as the Department of Energy.Global scope and opportunities of solar energy y Advanced composites are in wider use. The panel said that significant breakthroughs are required to achieve the final goal of SSP cranking out cost-competitive terrestrial power. civil. the experts added: "«the technology investments proposed will have many collateral benefits for nearer-term. the SSP reviewers call for ground demonstrations of point-to-point wireless power transmission. the NRC experts gave NASA's SSP approach a thumbs-up. academia. NASA should study the desirability of ground-to-space and space-to-space demonstrations." 50 . Energy as hope In summary. The ultimate success of the terrestrial power application of powering-beaming satellites critically depends on "dramatic reductions" in the cost of transportation from Earth to geosynchronous orbit. and military applications for the nation. along with NASA. the group reported.should be engaged in charting SSP activities. and the National Reconnaissance Organization -. and officials from other government agencies -. ISS test platform Overall. less-cost-sensitive space applications and for non-space use of technology advances. the International Space Station could act as a platform to test out SSP-related hardware. In this area.
Davis said that an exploratory research. I believe that what is most needed is hope. and is now an independent aerospace consultant." Davis told SPACE. Texas. or as some label it. he managed future programs for the NASA Johnson Space Center in Houston. In-orbit power plug Following on the heels of the NRC's new look at SSP is an assessment completed by Resources for the Future (RFF) a Washington-based group that studies energy and environmental policy. sees SSP as perhaps the right technology for today. a committee member on the NRC study. 51 ." Davis said. village "life support systems" can be established to provide potable water. Commercial telecommunications and remote sensing spacecraft. observatories. It would be accompanied by a major international aid effort using terrestrial photovoltaics. That study is titled: An Economic Assessment of Space Solar Power as a Source of Electricity for Space-Based Activities. Throughout the 1970s. and perhaps a few sewing machines. Power from space may be one of the best means for us to offer that hope. modern communications. he said. refrigeration. space platforms and the like. There is a potentially large market that might benefit from this pay for power approach. They observe that customers of a future SSP station could be many. lights. "These complementary steps may buy us the time we need to fulfill this new hope«for everyone. In areas where no power exists. development and demonstration program for power from space is needed. governmental research and defense satellites. "In looking at our current world situation. RFF's Molly Macauley and James Davis of The Aerospace Corporation authored the piece. as well as space travel and tourism industries could draw energy from such a station." The idea is to have a filler-up facility for electrically hungry satellites. space manufacturing facilities. a "solar array on steroids.com. information.Global scope and opportunities of solar energy Hubert Davis. It focuses on off-planet uses of an in-orbit "power plug".
Early on." Macauley told SPACE. "The ownership and financing of SSP may be handled as a commercial venture." Once an SSP is fully deployed. 52 . the private sector is likely to be a far more efficient operator of the power plug in space. the researchers said. Macauley and Davis note. "So SSP advocates need to 'look over their shoulders' to stay ahead of those innovations and to capitalize on those that are complementary with SSP. or whether or not there's need for a constellation of SSP satellites. That also means more science gear could be crammed onboard a satellite.com. Macauley said that in future years the space-based power market could be really big in dollar terms. On the other hand. flight testing the idea would help boost adoption of the in-space energy idea. an existing power system on a spacecraft. Whisking watts of power through space to run commercial geostationary satellites looks like a very lucrative and large market. Show me the energy Macauley and Davis surveyed satellite designers and operators. The researcher was also a member of the NRC study on SSP. while the willingness of potential customers to adopt a new power technology like SSP is promising. gleaning insight about the value of having an SSP "power depot" in space. can SSP designers create an SSP that's financially attractive? We also realize that other technological innovation in spacecraft power is proceeding apace with SSP. Less massive spacecraft would be cheaper to orbit. Still to be determined is where to place an SSP.Global scope and opportunities of solar energy Another attractiveness of a space-based power station is leaving heavy solar panels back on Earth. rather than a substitute for." Macauley said. they report." she said. supplying power from an SSP could gain greater acceptance as a supplement. "perhaps in partnership with government during initial operation but then becoming a commercial wholesale cooperative. "Given our estimate of the market." Macauley and Davis report. "Our study argues that we could do testing and demonstrations of in-space power sooner than for terrestrial power.
(You can see a lot of photos at www. reassembled. usually from donations and alumni.000 to defray the transportation costs. from their schools to the Mall in Washington. the strip between the Washington Monument and the Capitol. although that¶s a drop in the bucket compared to the total amount some of these teams spent on their homes: up to $1 million. D. The top 20 teams got a unique invitation: to transport the houses. The Energy Department gives each finalist team $100.) 53 .org. arrayed in a little solar village. mostly from the United States and Europe. fully operational and open to the public.. last month: 20 houses.Global scope and opportunities of solar energy The Future of Solar-Powered Homes It¶s a competition.C. This year. by truck or ship. The universities¶ engineering and architecture students begin working one or two years in advance to design a completely self-powered home.solardecathlon. piece by piece. It¶s produced by the Department of Energy as a showcase for the latest high-tech solar homes² designed and built by college students. now held every other year (this was the third Decathlon since 2002). there were 38 entries. There they were.
but in liquid form²that absorbs moisture. which grows four times as fast as hardwood. comfort zone. cook meals. Yet the teams have to live like normal Americans. Drier air inside means that you don¶t need to run the air conditioner as much. lighting. not counting porches. usually. Far from it. beams and plywood made of bamboo. Using only power from the sun. Most houses incorporated reclaimed and recycled materials. engineering. bookcase-sized. they have to keep the TV on six hours a day. energy balance (bonus points if you generate more power than you use). they have to prove that living on solar power does not involve sacrifice.´ ³ugly box´ or ³Spartan shack. communications. SubZero refrigerators. and gardens. and. but to pull humidity out of the air. Some of these houses had hot tubs. take four 15-minute hot showers a week. too. do two loads of laundry a week. the name Decathlon is a reference to the ten categories that these homes can rack up points in the contest: architecture. dictated a certain boxiness to some of the floor plans. wash dishes. In fact.´ These houses are completely ³off the grid´²they¶re not connected to the utility companies. outdoor hot showers. and ³getting around. that. In short. maintain 40 to 60 percent humidity. and recharge an electric two-seater car (that¶s the ³getting around´ part). on the outside. patios. flooring reclaimed from demolished buildings. indoor waterfall²not just to soothe the soul.Global scope and opportunities of solar energy The point of the event is to illustrate that ³solar´ no longer means ³hippy hangout.) There was nothing Spartan about these homes. We saw furniture made from compressed fly ash from coal-burning power plants. The University of Maryland team installed a wide. It was a desiccant solution²like the ³Do not eat´ packets that come in your electronics. and the necessity to get them to Washington on trucks. (Rules limit the house to 800 square feet. appliances.´ The homes are gorgeous on the inside. run the computer five hours a day. and so on. The saturated waterfall 54 . mood lighting and full-blown home-entertainment systems. hot water. keep the temperature between 70 and 78 degrees. market viability.
although individual states (notably California) have some promising solar incentives. There¶s only one solar-installation tax-incentive program²according to www. if you have solar panels. They cook your water as high as 220 degrees. Why? To absorb heat and liquefy during the day. On the weekends.org. From Germany. rather than pouring into the kitchen as it does when you open a traditional oven door. Richard King. not so much. It¶s brilliant. The rising heat stays in the oven. the power company must buy any excess electricity you generate. however²well. As a result. Maybe it¶s no surprise. By German law. the Decathlon director. 55 . and the cycle begins again. the University of Darmstadt¶s amazing house was a glass cube wrapped on all sides by what looked like beautiful wooden shutters. There¶s a gold rush for roof space. The sheetrock of this home¶s walls was infused with paraffin (candle wax). the re-concentrated solution is pumped back in to the waterfall. lowering like an elevator.000²and it expires at the end of next year. told me that utilities don¶t pay you for excess electricity. All of the houses used arrays of glass tubes. for hot water. maximum $2. and then release the heat and re-solidify at night. the United States has practically no national solar policy at all. You can have a $0 electric bill. In this country. the lines to get into this house were an hour long.Global scope and opportunities of solar energy flows out the bottom to an outdoor evaporator. families routinely pocket a handy $100 or $150 a month²from the local utility. and solar technology is a red-hot market. these were louvers covered with solar panels²computer-controlled to track the sun¶s arc. which ought to be hot enough for most people. Germany is really into solar power. but you can¶t make money. resembling black fluorescent lights. The Germans¶ house was filled with cool energy touches²like the oven whose floor descends from the bottom to present your food. But in fact.dsireusa. In fact. you can deduct up to 30 percent of the cost of solar panels.
that I encountered a certain amount of cynicism. about the Department of Energy¶s motives in mounting the Solar Decathlon. then. Arnold Schwarzenegger. inspiring.´ muttered one when the camera wasn¶t rolling. have been pushing legislation to promote solar development in California.) But you know what? It doesn¶t matter. The Solar Decathlon has grown up to become exactly what it¶s supposed to be: an amazing. head-turning show. Their measure (SB1) has the endorsement of Gov. Solar energy has the potential to help this state buffer the demand for new power plants that consume natural gas -. SB1 has been called the "million solar roofs" bill. Solar energy should be one of those elements. (³It¶s a PR stunt. It's time to connect the dots.and leave Californians vulnerable to the types of wild price fluctuations that sent public utilities into bankruptcy and forced Gov. One of the many lessons of the energy crisis was that California needed to develop a more diverse and reliable supply of electricity. the sun never stopped shining in California. Two state senators. 56 . where the public can see just how far solar has come.Global scope and opportunities of solar energy No wonder. I wish you could have seen it. who has been compiling a commendable record of leadership on environmental issues. as a confluence of political ineptitude and corporate greed led to rolling blackouts and breathtaking price spikes in electricity. Gray Davis to grope for desperate financing schemes just to keep the lights on. How to brighten solar power's future THROUGHOUT the energy crisis of 2000 and 2001. Republican John Campbell of Irvine and Democrat Kevin Murray of Los Angeles. even among some of the participants and staff. though the actual number of units that result would depend on how Californians respond to the measure's incentives.
the answer is no -. but its defeat led Murray to turn the mandate into an option in the latest version.Global scope and opportunities of solar energy "The energy crisis of a few years ago made it obvious and plain that we needed to gain control of our destiny." Murray said in a telephone interview last week.through 2016. Obviously. Japan offers a model of how government policies can nurture an economically vital and environmentally beneficial solar industry. for most homeowners. Also.now set to expire in December 2007 -. Cost of the solar units dropped steadily -. The cost of those subsidies would be covered by a fee on utility bills to be determined by the California Public Utilities Commission. The prospect of a new surcharge on utility bills has encountered resistance from The Utility Reform Network. The fee is expected to be in the range of 50 cents a month for most residential consumers. The Campbell-Murray bill would extend state solar rebates for homes and businesses -. Consumers are going to want to do the math: Does the $15. a consumer advocacy group. But it is important to note that ratepayers would be bearing the cost of any power plants that might have to be built if the solar option is not cultivated. which are expected to be fully phased out in the next year.000 investment of a solar panel generate a sufficient return in lower utility bills? Today. 57 . SB1 specifies that low-income customers would be exempt from the fee. the appeal of the solar option requires more than a tug at a homeowner's conscience to do his or her part to reduce global warming and reduce the state's dependence on fossil fuels.as did the need for government subsidies." One of the more innovative provisions of the bill would require developers of subdivisions of 50 or more homes to offer solar panels as an option. The island nation began its intensively subsidized solar effort in 1994 and within a decade it possessed nearly half of the world's photovoltaic capacity. "There's no trader that can game the system and drive up the price of the sun. A similar bill by Murray last year would have required a percentage of a development's homes to have solar panels.though state rebates and tax credits help narrow the gap.
allowing homeowners to sell back the excess to their utility company." California's residential development and energy-consumption patterns are ideally tailored to solar power. 58 . where some members have a disturbing tendency to "take a walk" on measures opposed by powerful interests. "What this will do is accelerate the process. Campbell and Murray have a similar vision for California. The sun can be part of the solution. utilities and manufacturers are objecting to the ratepayer surcharges. which seeks to lower the cost of the systems.or union scale -. the purpose of this bill is to reduce the cost of solar energy. many Japanese homes actually generate more electricity than they consume. both for its economy and its quality of life.Global scope and opportunities of solar energy Today. The biggest hurdle to passage of SB1 may be the effort by organized labor to include a provision that would require the payment of "prevailing wage" -. "I think it probably would happen on its own." Campbell said in a telephone interview last week. A prevailing-wage requirement would clearly be at odds with the spirit of SB1. The Assembly should send SB1 to the governor for his signature. but it faces a difficult course in the Assembly. Homebuilders are skeptical about the prospects for solar. Much of the state's growth is occurring in the inland areas. but it may take 10 years. The Campbell-Murray bill cleared the Senate on a bipartisan 30-5 vote. But as Campbell noted. The development of solar energy is important to this state's long-term interest.to installers of solar panels on all homes and businesses that receive state subsidies. Nothing is ever easy in the politics of Sacramento. where scorching summer days get the air conditioners blasting and put the greatest strain on the energy supply. labor unions want to be assured a piece of the action.
gov/kern/23.gov/kern/18.buyusa.ppt 59 .ppt 9. http://www.gov/kern/26.buyusa.ppt 3.buyusa. http://www. http://www. http://www. http://www. http://www.gov/kern/20.buyusa.gov/kern/19.ppt 4.Global scope and opportunities of solar energy Reference 1.buyusa.gov/kern/24.ppt 8.ppt 2.ppt 6.ppt 5.gov/kern/22.ppt 7.buyusa. http://www.gov/kern/28. http://www.buyusa.gov/kern/25. http://www.buyusa. http://www.buyusa.gov/kern/21.gov/kern/27.ppt 11. http://www.buyusa.buyusa.ppt 10.