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ANSI/IEEE Std 539-1979

L STANDARD (Includes supplement


ANSI/IEEE Std 539A-1981)

IEEE Standard Definitions of


Terms Relating to Overhead-Power-Line
Corona and Radio Noise

lEEE Published by T h e Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc 345 East 4 7 t h Street, N e w Y o r k , NY 10017, USA

DecembQr 1 8 , 1 9 7 9 SH06882
ANWIEEE Std 539A-1984
(Supplement to ANSI/IEEE Std 539-1979)

In Section 2.6.2 replace the NOTE to read as


follows:
NOTE: The frequency bands may differ from country
to country. Present United States bands are 26.965
MHz - 27.405 MHz, 49.82 MHz - 49.90 MHz, 72 MHz
- 76 MHz, and 462.550 MHz - 467.425 MHz.

In Section 3.3.3 replace the NOTE to read as


follows:
NOTE: According to ANSI C63.2-1980, American Na-
tional Standard Specifications for Electromagnetic
Noise and Field Strength Instrumentation, 1 0 kHz t o
1 GHz, the quasi-peak detector has charging/discharg-
ing time constant of 45/500 ms, 1/160 ms, and
1/550 ms for the frequency ranges of 0.010 MHz -
0.15 MHz, 0.15 MHz - 30 MHz, and 30 MHz -
1000 MHz respectively. For corona noise and the fre-
quency range of 0.15 MHz - 30 MHz, meters which
were built according t o ANSI C63.2-1963, Specifica-
tions for Radio Noise and Field Strength Meters,
0.015 MHz - 30 MHz, will give radio noise levels ap-
proximately 2 dB higher than meters built according
to ANSI C63.2-1980.

Approved December 17, 1981, by the IEEE Standards Board

Approved December 15, 1981, by the American National Standards Institute

0Copyright 1984 by

The Institute of Electrical and Electronics, Inc


345 East 47th Street, New York, NY 10017, USA

N o part of this publication may be reproduced in any fornr,


in an electronic retrieval system or otherwise.
July 6 , 1984 without the prior written permission of the publisher. SH0953 0
AN SI/IEEE
Std 539-1979
(Includes supplement
ANSI/IEEE Std 539A-1981)

A n American National Standard

IEEE Standard Definitions of


Terms Relating to Overhead-Power-Line
Corona and Radio Noise

Sponsor
Transmission and Distribution Committee of the
IEEE Power Engineering Society

Approved June 2,1977


Approved December 1 7 , 1981
IEEE Standards Board

Approved December 15,1981


American National Standards Institute

@Copyright 1979 by

The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc


345 East 47th Street, New York, NY 10017
N o part of this publication may be reproduced in any form,
in an electronic retrieval s y s t e m or otherwise,
without the prior written permission o f the publisher.
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Second Printing
Includes supplement, ANSI/IEEE Std 5398-1981.
The supplement is identified by a bar line in the right-hand margins.
Foreword

(This Foreword is not a part of IEEE Std 539-1979, IEEE Standard Definitions of Terms Relating to Overhead-
Power-Line Corona and Radio Noise.)

The purpose of this standard is to provide uniformity in the terms used in the field of corona and
radio noise. Its scope is to define the most widely used terms specific to or associated with overhead-
power-line corona and radio noise.
Development of this standard was accomplished by the Radio Noise and Corona Subcommittee
under the sponsorship of the Transmission and Distribution Committee of the Power Engineering
Society. The original work was carried out between 1963 and 1969 by members of the subcom-
mittee and expert advisors from industry and the universities. It was spearheaded by Frank
Warburton. The document was updated by a task force of the subcommittee in 1976. The members
of the task force were:

R. M. Morris, Chairman
W. Janischewskyj A. R. Morse
P. S. Maruvada N. G. Trinh

The Radio Noise and Corona Subcommittee had the following membership as of July 30, 1976:

N. Kolcio, Chairman P. D. Tuttle, Secretary

L. C. Aicher P. S. Maruvada
R. J. Bacha M. R. Moreau
R. E. Carberry R. M. Morris
F. M. Carr E. Nasser
V. L. Chartier K. E. Ottosen
M. G. Comber W. E. Pakala
L. B. Craine D. E. Perry
F. M. Dietrich M. D. Perkins
H. I. Dobson T. A. Pinkham
G. R. Elder J. Reichman
C. H. Gary W. R. Schlinger
N. A. Hoglund S. A. Sebo
W. Janischewskyj M. Sforzini
T. W. Liao N. G. Trinh
C. B. Lindh F. W. Warburton
J. S. T. Looms P. Wong

When the IEEE Standards Board approved this standard on June 2, 1977, it had the following
membership :

William R. Kruesi, Chairman Irvin N. Howell, Jr, Chairman


Ivan G . Easton, Secretary
William E. Andrus R. 0. Duncan Donald T. Michael
Jean Jacques Archambault Charles W. Flint Voss A. Moore
Mark Barber Jay Forster William S. Morgan
Edward J. Cohen Ralph I. Hauser William J. Neiswender
Warren H. Cook Joseph L. Koepfinger Ralph M. Showers
Louis Costrell Irving Kolodny Robert A. Soderman
R. L. Curtis Benjamin J. Leon Leonard W. Thomas, Sr
David B. Dobson Thomas J. Martin B. W. Whittington
Contents
SECTION PAGE

1. Ionization Processes and Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5


1.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.2 Ionization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.3 Corona . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.4 Voltage Gradient . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.5 Corona-Inception Gradient . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1.6 Corona-Extinction Gradient . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1.7 Surface State Coefficient ( m ) .......................................... 6
1.8 CoronaPulse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1.9 CoronaModes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1.10 Spark . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2. Communications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2.2 Signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2.3 Carrier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2.4 Modulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2.5 Intermediate Frequency (IF) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2.6 Frequency Band . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
3. Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3.2 Antenna . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3.3 Detector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3.4 Bandwidth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3.5 Noise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3.6 Interference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3.7 Radio Influence Voltage (RIV) ........................................ 10
3.8 Radio Noise Field Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3.9 Signal-to-Noise Ratio (General) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
4. Propagation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
4.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
4.2 Wave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
4.3 Propagation Constant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
4.4 Characteristic Impedance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
4.5 PropagationMode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
4.6 Lateral Profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
4.7 Longitudinal Profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
4.8 Longitudinal Attenuation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
TABLES
Table1 CoronaModes .................................................... 7
A n American National Standard

IEEE Standard Definitions of


Terms Relating to Overhead-Power-Line
Corona and Radio Noise

1. Ionization Processes and Parameters change of the voltage at the point specified. It
is obtained as a vector field by applying the
operator v to the scalar voltage function U.
Thus if U = f (x, y, z ) ,
1.1 General. The following definitions describe
the significant phenomena of ionization as they
relate t o the breakdown of air in the neighbor-
hood of overhead power lines and ancillary
equipment because of existing voltage gradients. NOTES:
1.2 ionization. The process or the result of (1) Voltage gradient is synonymous with potential
gradient and is often referred to simply as “gradi-
any process by which a neutral atom or molecule ent’ or “field strength.”
acquires either a positive or a negative charge. (2) For alternating voltage, the voltage gradient is
expressed as the peak value divided by the square
1.3 corona. A luminous discharge due to root of two. For sinusoidal voltages, this is the rms
ionization of the air surrounding an electrode value.
caused by a voltage gradient exceeding a certain 1.4.1 maximum single-conductor (or sub-
critical value. conductor) gradient. The maximum value
NOTE: For the purpose of this standard, electrodes attained by the gradient E(8) as 0 varies over
may be line conductors, hardware, accessories, or the range 0 to 2n, where E(8) is the gradient
insulators. on the surface of the power-line conductor
1.3.1 corona, overhead power lines. Corona (or subconductor) expressed as a function of
occurring at the surfaces of electrodes during angular position 8. Unless otherwise stated,
the positive or negative polarity of the power- the gradient is a nominal gradient (see 1.4.7).
line voltage. 1.4.2 minimum single-conductor (or sub-
NOTES: conductor) gradient. The minimum value
(1) Surface irregularities such as stranding, nicks, attained by the gradient E(8) as given in 1.4.1
scratches, and semiconducting or insulating protru- as 8 varies over the range 0 t o 2n.
sions are usual corona sites. 1.4.3 average single-conductor ( o r sub-
( 2 ) Dry or wet airborne particles in proximity of
electrodes may cause corona discharges. conductor) gradient. The value Eav obtained
(3) Weather has a pronounced influence on the oc- from

/””
currence and characteristics of overhead -power-
line corona.
1.3.2 continuous corona. Corona discharge -
Eav - E(O)d(O)
27r
that is either steady or recurring at regular 0
intervals (approximately every cycle of an Approximately the average conductor gradient
applied alternating voltage or at least several is given by
times per minute for an applied direct voltage).
1.4 voltage gradient. A vector E equal t o and E, =---
9
in the direction of the maximum space rate of 27reor

5
IEEE
Std 539-1979 IEEE STANDARD DEFINITIONS OF TERMS RELATING TO

where 1.7 surface state coefficient ( m ) . A coefficient


( 0 < rn < 1) by which the nominal corona
4 total charge on conductor per unit
= inception gradient must be multiplied t o obtain
length the actual corona-inception gradient on over-
eo = permittivity of free space head-power lines.
r = radius of conductor
NOTE: Examples of conditions which affect the surface
state are given in 1.3.1.
NOTE: For practical cases the average conductor
gradient is approximately equal to the arithmetic 1.8 corona pulse. A voltage or current pulse
mean of the maximum and minimum conductor which occurs at some designated location in a
gradients.
circuit as a result of a corona discharge.
I

1.4.4 average bundle gradient. For a bundle


1.9 corona modes. Two principal modes can
of two or more subconductors, the arithmetic
be distinguished, namely, glow and streamer.
mean of the average gradients of the individual
Their characteristics and occurrence depend on
subconductors.
the polarity of the electrode, the basic ioniza-
1.4.5 average maximum bundle gradient. For
tion characteristics of the ambient air, and the
a bundle of two or more subconductors, the
intensity as well as the distribution of the
arithmetic mean of the maximum gradients of
electric field. Thus, the geometry of the
the individual subconductors.
electrodes, the ambient weather conditions,
For example, for a threeconductor bundle
and the magnitude as well as the polarity of
with individual maximum subconductor
the applied voltage are the main factors deter-
gradients of 16.5, 16.9, and 17.0 kV/cm, the
mining corona modes. Corona modes that are
average maximum bundle gradient would be
possible during alternating half-cycles of the
alternating-current wave are essentially simi-
('/3) (16.5 + 16.9 + 17.0) = 16.8 kV/cm. lar t o those of corresponding direct-current
corona modes when effects of space charges
left behind from each preceding half-cycle are
1.4.6 maximum bundle gradient. For a bun- taken into account. Corona modes listed
dle of two or more subconductors, the highest according t o polarity and voltage level and
value among the maximum gradients of the defined in the order of increasing voltage
individual subconductors. applied to the electrode are given in Table 1.
For example, for a three-conductor bundle 1.9.1 glow corona. Glow corona is a stable,
with individual maximum subconductor gradi- essentially steady discharge of constant lumi-
ents of 16.5, 16.9, and 17.0 kV/cm, the maxi- nosity occurring at either positive or negative
mum bundle gradient would be 17.0 kV/cm. electrodes.
1.4.7 nominal conductor gradient. The gra- 1.9.1.1 burst corona Burst corona may be
dient determined for a smooth cylindrical con- considered as the initial stage of positive glow. It
ductor whose diameter is equal t o the outside occurs at a positive electrode with field strengths
diameter of the actual (stranded) conductor. at or slightly above the corona-inception gra-
dient. Burst corona appears as a bluish film of
1.5 corona-inception gradient. The gradient on velvet-like glow adhering closely to the electrode
that part of an electrode surface at which con-
surface. The current pulses of burst corona are
tinuous corona (see 1.3.2) first occurs as the of low amplitude and may last for periods of
applied voltage is gradually increased. milliseconds. (See note with definition 1.9.2.1).
1.5.1 corona-inception voltage. The voltage 1.9.1.2 positiveglow. Positive glow appears
applied to the electrode t o produce the corona-
at field strengths above those required for burst
inception gradient.
corona (1.9.1.1)and onset streamers (1.9.2.1).
1.6 corona-extinction gradient. The gradient Positive glow is a bright blue discharge appear-
on that part of an electrode surface at which ing as a luminous sheet adhering closely and
continuous corona last persists as the applied uniformly t o the electrode. The corona current
voltage is gradually decreased. of positive glow is essentially pulseless.
1.6.1 corona-extinction voltage. The voltage 1.9.1.3 negative glow. Negative glow oc-
applied t o the electrode t o produce the corona- curs at field strengths above those required for
extinction gradient. Trichel streamers (1.9.2.2). Negative glow is

6
IEEE
OVERHEAD-POWER-LINE CORONA AND RADIO NOISE Std 539-1979

Table 1
Corona Modes

Positive (Anode) Corona Negative (Cathode) Corona


Mode Characteristic Mode Characteristic

Burst corona. Moderate amplitude, Trichel streamer Small amplitude,


onset streamer“) moderate repetition (Pulse) high repetition
rate rate
Glow(’) Essentially pulseless G I O ~ ( ~ ) Essentially pulseless
Pre-breakdown High amplitude, low Pre-breakdown Moderate amplitude,
streamer repetition rate streamer(4) moderate repetition
rate

NOTES:
(1) With alternating voltage, positive onset streamers may be suppressed by space charge created during the nega-
t ive half -cycles.
(2) With alternating voltage, when onset streamers are suppressed, the positive glow will be the first corona mode
as the applied voltage is raised.
(3) With alternating voltage, negative glow may be difficult t o observe because of the predominance of Trichel
streamers.
( 4 ) With alternating voltage, breakdown usually occurs during the positive half-cycle before the development of
any negative pre-breakdown streamers.

confined to a small portion of the electrode amplitude, short duration (in the range of a
and appears as a small stationary luminous hundred nanoseconds), and high repetition rate
bluish fan. The corona current of negative glow (in the range of tens of kilohertz or more).
is essentially pulseless. 1.9.2.3 positive pre-breakdown streamers.
1.9.2 streamer. A repetitive corona discharge Streamers occurring at field strengths above
characterized by luminous filaments extending those required for onset streamers and positive
into the low electric field intensity region near glow. The discharge appears as a light blue
either a positive or a negative electrode, but filament with branching extending far into
not completely bridging the gap. the gap. The associated current pulses have
high magnitude, short duration (in the range
1.9.2.1 positive onset streamers. Streamers
of hundreds of nanoseconds), and low repeti-
occurring at field strengths at and slightly above
tion rate (in the range of a few kilohertz).
the corona-inception gradient. These appear as
bright blue “brushes” increasing in length t o NOTE: When appearing in multiple, these streamers are
several inches as the gradient is increased. The usually referred to as a p l u m e . When the plume occurs
associated current pulses are of appreciable between an electrode and an airborne particle (snow,
magnitude, short duration (in the range of rain, aerosols, etc) coming into near proximity or
impacting on the electrode, it is referred t o as an
hundreds of nanoseconds), and low repetition impingement plume. When the plume occurs due to the
rate (less than 1kHz). disintegration of water drops resting on the electrode
surface, it is referred to as a spray plume.
NOTE: Occurrence of burst corona and positive onset
streamers requires the same range of field strength. 1.9.2.4 negative pre-breakdown streamers.
Streamers occurring at field strengths close to
1.9.2.2 trichel streamers. Streamers occur- breakdown. The discharge appears as a bright
ring at a negative electrode with field strengths filament with very iittle branching and extends
at and above the corona-inception gradient. A far into the gap. The associated current pulse
Trichel streamer appears as a small constantly has high magnitude, long duration, and low
moving purple fan. The current pulse is of small repetition rate.

7
IEEE
Std 539-1979 IEEE STANDARD DEFINITIONS OF TERMS RELATING TO

1.10 spark. A sudden and irreversible transi- NOTE: Combinations of phase and frequency modula-
tion from a stable corona discharge to a stable tion are commonly referred t o as frequency modula-
tion.
arc discharge. It is a luminous electrical dis-
charge of short duration between two 2.5 intermediate frequency (IF). The fre-
electrodes in an insulating medium. It is gen-
quency resulting from a frequency conversion
erally brighter and carries more current than
before demodulation.
corona, and its color is mainly determined by
the type of insulating medium. It generates 2.6 frequency band. A continuous range of
radio noise of wider frequency spectrum (ex- frequencies extending between two limiting
tending into hundreds of megahertz) and wider frequencies.
magnitude range than corona. A spark is not
NOTE: A band of frequencies is also called a channel.
classified as corona.
1.10.1 microspark. A spark' breakdown oc- 2.6.1 amateur band. Any one of several
cumng in the miniature air gap formed by two frequency groups assigned for the transmission
conducting or insulating surfaces. (This is some- of signals by amateur radio operators.
times called a gap discharge.) 2.6.2 citizens bands (personal radio services
bands). Frequency bands allocated for short-
distance personal or business radio communica-
tion, radio signaling, and control of remote
2. Communications devices by radio.

I
NOTE : The frequency bands may differ from country
2.1 General. Radio noise caused by power-line to country. Present United States bands are 26.965
MHz - 27.405 MHz, 49.82 MHz - 49.90 MHz, 7 2 MHz
corona and similar phenomena may affect - 76 MHz, and 462.550 MHz - 467.425 MHz.
reception in radio communication bands. In
this connection, some of the more relevant 2.6.3 AM radio broadcast band. A band of
radio communication terms are given herein. frequencies assigned for amplitude-modulated
2.2 signal. The intelligence, message, or effect transmission of communication intended to
t o be conveyed over a communication system. entertain or enlighten the general public.

2.3 camer. A wave having at least one char- NOTE: In the United States and Canada the frequency
acteristic that may be varied from a known band is 535 t o 1605 kHz. This is also one of the Inter-
national Telecommunications Union (ITU) frequency
reference value by modulation. allocations, on a world-wide basis, for broadcasting.
NOTE: Examples of carriers are a sine wave and a
recurring series o f pulses. 2.6.4 FM radio broadcast band. A band of
frequencies assigned for frequency-modulated
2.4 modulation. The process by which some transmission of communication intended to
characteristic of a carrier is varied in accordance entertain or enlighten the general public.
with a modulating wave.
2.4.1 amplitude modulation (AM). Modula- NOTE: In the United States and Canada the fre-
tion in which the amplitude of a carrier is caused quency range is between 88 and 108 MHz.
to depart from its reference value by an amount
proportional t o the instantaneous value of the 2.6.5 TV broadcast band. Any one of the
modulating wave. frequency bands assigned for the transmission
2.4.2 phase modulation (PM). Angle modula- of audio and video signals for television recep-
tion in which the angle of a carrier is caused to tion by the general public.
depart from its reference value by an amount
proportional t o the instantaneous value of the NOTE: In the United States and Canada the fre-
quency ranges are 54 t o 7 2 MHz, 76 to 88 MHz, 174
modulating wave. to 216 MHz, and 400 to 890 MHz.
2.4.3 frequency modulation (FM). Angle
modulation in which the instantaneous fre- 2.6.6 power-line carrier. The use of radio
quency of a sine-wave carrier is caused to de- frequency energy, generally below 600 kHz,
part from the carrier frequency by an amount to transmit information over transmission lines
proportional to the instantaneous value of the whose primary purpose is the transmission of
modulating wave. power.

8
IEEE
OVERHEAD-POWER-LINE CORONA AND RADIO NOISE Std 539-1979

3. Measurements the function of detector (extraction of signal


or noise from a modulated input) and weighting
3.1 General. Terms relating t o the characteris- (extraction of a particular characteristic of the
tics of radio noise and the equipment used in signal or noise.)
the measurement of radio noise are defined in 3.3.1 average detector. A detector, the out-
this section. put voltage of which approximates the average
3.2 antenna. A means for radiating or receiv- value of the envelope of an applied signal or
ing radio waves. noise.
3.2.1 vertical antenna (rod antenna) NOTES:
3.2.1.1 shunt-fed vertical antenna. A verti- (1) This detector function is often identified on radio
cal antenna connected t o ground at the base noise meters as field intensity (FI). (Field intensity
and excited (or connected to a receiver) at a is depreciated ;field strength should be used.)
(2) Field intensity (FI) (field strength) setting on some
point suitably positioned above the grounding radio noise meters produces on the meter scale the
point. average value of the logarithmic detector.
3.2.1.2 series-fed vertical antenna. A verti-
3.3.2 peak detector. A detector, the output
cal antenna insulated from ground and energized
voltage of which approximates the true peak
(or connected t o a receiver) at the antenna
value of an applied signal or noise.
base.
3.3.3 quasi-peak detector. A detector having
NOTES : specified electrical time constants which, when
(1) A rod antenna measures the electric field com- regularly repeated pulses of constant amplitude
ponent of the electromagnetic wave. are applied t o it, delivers an output voltage that
( 2 ) A rod antenna is omnidirectional.
(3) The connection of a rod antenna t o a receiver is a fraction of the peak value of the pulses,
may be via a coupler t o which the rod is per- the fraction increasing toward unity as the
manently attached. pulse repetition rate is increased.
3.2.2 loop antenna. An antenna consisting
of one or more turns of conductor. If the
NOTE: According to ANSI C63.2-1980, American Na-
circulatory current is essentially uniform, the tional Standard Specifications for Electromagnetic
antenna will have a radiation pattern approxi- Noise and Field Strength Instrumentation, 10 kHz t o
mating that of an elementary magnetic dipole. 1 GHz, the quasi-peak detector has chargingidischarg-
ing time constant of 45/500 ms, 11160 ms, and
1/550 ms for the frequency ranges of 0.010 MHz -
NOTE: The loop antenna measures the magnetic field 0.15 MHz, 0.15 MHz - 30 MHz, and 30 MHz -
component of the electromagnetic wave. 1000 MHz respectively. For corona noise and the fre-
quency range of 0.15 MHz - 30 MHz, meters which
3.2.3 dipole antenna. Any one of a class of were built according t o ANSI C63.2-1963, Specifica-
tions for Radio Noise and Field Strength Meters,
antennas having a radiation pattern approxi- 0.015 MHz - 30 MHz, will give radio noise levels ap-
mating that of an elementary electric dipole. proximately 2 dB higher than meters built according
t o ANSI C63.2-1980.
NOTE: Common usage considers the dipole antenna
t o be a metal radiating or receiving structure which
supports a line-current distribution similar t o that of
a thin straight wire, a half wavelength long, so that 3.3.4 root-mean-squaredetector. A detector,
the current has a node a t each end of the antenna. the output voltage of which approximates the
3.2.4 biconical antenna. An antenna con- root-mean-square value of an applied signal or
sisting of two conical conductors having a noise.
common axis and vertex and excited or con- 3.4 bandwidth. The range of frequencies with-
nected to the receiver at the vertex. When the in which performance, with respect to some
vertex angle of one of the cones is 180 degrees, characteristic, falls within specific limits.
the antenna is called a discone. 3.4.1 impulse bandwidth. The peak value of
3.2.5 log-periodic antenna. Any one of a the response envelope divided by the frequency
class of antennas having a structural geometry spectrum amplitude of an applied impulse.
such that its electrical characteristics repeat 3.4.2 random noise bandwidth. The width
periodically as the logarithm of frequency. in hertz of a rectangle having the same area and
3.3 detector. For purposes of this standard a maximum amplitude as the square of the ampli-
detector is defined as a device which combines fier frequency response to a sinusoidal input.

9
IEEE
Std 539-1979 IEEE STANDARD DEFINITIONS OF TERMS RELATING TO

3.5 noise. An undesired disturbance within frequency voltage appearing on conductors of


the useful frequency band. electrical equipment or circuits, as measured
3.5.1 radio noise. Any unwanted distur- using a radio noise meter as a two-terminalvolt-
bance within the radio frequency band, such as meter in accordance with specified methods
undesired electric waves in any transmission (generally termed conducted measurements) in
channel or device. (See IEEE Std 430-1972, NEMA 107-1964 (R1971, R1976), Methods of
Procedures for Measurement of Radio Noise Measurement of Radio Influence Voltage (RIV)
from Overhead Power Lines.) of High Voltage Apparatus.
3.5.2 background noise. The total system
3.8 radio noise field strength. A measure of
noise independent of the presence or absence
the field strength at a point (as a radio receiv-
of radio noise from the power line.
ing station) of electromagnetic waves of an
NOTE: Background noise is not to be included as part interfering character.
of the radio noise measured from the power line. (See
IEEE Std 430-1972.) NOTES:
(1) In practice the quantity measured is not the field
3.5.3 random noise (fluctuation noise). Noise strength of the interfering waves but some quantity
that comprises transient disturbances occurring that is proportional to, or bears a known relation
at random. to, the field strength.
( 2 ) It is commonly measured in average microvolts,
NOTE: The part of the noise that is unpredictable quasi-peak microvolts, peak microvolts, or peak
except in a statistical sense. The term ismost frequently microvolts in a u n i t bandwidth per meter, according
applied to the limiting case where the number of to which detector function of a radio noise meter
transient disturbances per unit time is large, so that the is used.
spectral characteristics are the same as those of thermal
noise. Thermal noise and shot noise are special cases 3.9 signal-to-noise ratio (general). The ratio of
of random noise. the value of the signal to that of the noise.
3.5.4 impulse noise. Noise characterized by NOTES :
transient disturbances separated in time by This ratio is usually in terms of peak values in the
quiescent intervals. case of impulse noise and in terms of the root-
mean-square values in the case of random noise.
NOTES: Where there is possibility of ambiguity, suitable
definitions of the signal and noise should be
(1) The frequency spectrum of these disturbances associated with the term; as, for example, peak
must be substantially uniform over the useful signal t o peak noise ratio, root-mean-square signal
passband of the transmission system. to root-mean-square noise ratio; peak-to-peak sig-
(2) The same source may produce impulse noise in nal to peak-to-peak noise ratio, etc. In measure-
one system and random noise in a different ments of transmission-line noise the ratio of average
system. station signal level to quasi-peak line-noise level is
generally used.
3.5.5 white noise. Noise, either random or This ratio often may be expressed in decibels
impulsive type, that has a flat frequency spec- This ratio may be a function of the bandwidth
trum at the frequency range of interest. of the transmission or measuring system.

3.6 interference. Impairment t o a useful signal


produced by natural or man-made sources.
NOTE : Distortions caused by reflections, shielding, 4. Propagation
or extraneous power in a signal’s frequency range are
all examples of interference.
4.1 General. The important parameters relating
3.6.1 radio interference. Impairment of the to the propagation of radio noise and the in-
reception of a wanted radio signal caused by an duced electric field effects near power lines are
unwanted radio signal or a radio disturbance. defined in this section.
3.6.2 television interference. A radio inter-
ference occurring in the frequency range of 4.2 wave. A disturbance propagated in a
television signals. medium or through space.
3.6.3 conducted interference. Interference NOTES:
resulting from conducted radio noise or un- (1) Any physical quantity which has the same relation-
wanted signals entering a transducer (receiver) ship to some independent variable (usually time)
by direct coupling . that a propagated disturbance has, a t a particular
instant, with respect to space, may be called a
3.7 radio influence voltage (RIV). The radio wave.

10
IEEE
OVERHEAD-POWER-LINE CORONA AND RADIO NOISE Std 539-1979

( 2 ) “Disturbance” in this definition is used as a generic power-line conductors. Modal waves form a
term indicating not only mechanical displacement
but also voltage, current, electric field strength, complete set of noninteracting components
temperature, etc. into which the propagated wave may be
separated.
4.2.1 reflected wave. When a wave in one
medium is incident upon a discontinuity or a NOTE: For a three-phase horizontal single-circuit
different medium, the reflected wave is the transmission line with one conductor per phase and
without ground wires the following modes are defined:
wave component that results in the first
M o d e I - The transmission path is between the cen-
medium in addition to the incident wave. ter phase and the outside phases. It has lowest attenua-
4.2.2 standing wave. A wave in which, for tion and lowest surge impedance.
any component of the field, the ratio of its Mode 2 - The transmission path is between outside
phases. It has intermediate attenuation and intermedi-
instantaneous value at one point to that at ate surge impedance.
any other point does not vary with time. Mode 3 - The transmission path is along all three
phases and returning through ground. It has highest
NOTE: Commonly it is a periodic wave in which the attenuation and highest surge impedance.
amplitude of the displacement in the medium is a
periodic function of the distance in the direction of 4.6 lateral profile. The radio noise field
any line of propagation of the wave. strength at ground level plotted as a function
4.2.3 standing wave ratio. The ratio of the of the horizontal distance from and at a right
amplitude of a standing wave at an antinode to angle to the line conductors. (See IEEE Std
the amplitude a t a node. 430-1972.)
4.3 propagation constant. The propagation 4.7 longitudinal profile. The radio noise field
constant of a traveling plane wave at a given strength at ground level measured at constant
frequency is the complex quantity whose real lateral distance from the power line and plotted
part is the attenuation constant in nepers per as a function of distance along the line.
unit length and whose imaginary part is the 4.8 longitudinal attenuation. The decrease in
phase constant in radians per unit length, radio noise field strength caused by the propa-
4.4 characteristic impedance. The ratio of the gation of radio frequency energy along an
complex voltage of a propagation mode (see overhead power line and through the earth.
4.5) t o the complex current of the same
NOTES :
propagation mode in the same transverse plane
with the sign so chosen that the real part is In North American practice units are decibels per
mile.
positive. For multiconductor systems, such as normally
found in electric power systems, it is convenient
NOTE: The characteristic impedance of a line with t o describe wave propagation as made up of a set
losses neglected is known as the surge impedance. of noninteracting modes, each with its own attenua-
tion constant.
4.5 propagation mode. A concept for treating In the context of this standard, the radio frequency
radio noise propagation along a set of overhead- energy is the result of corona.

11