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Low voltage High-voltage zone Building and services

High-voltage Pressure relief


switchgear
Cable racks
Cable racks
Door earthing
Lift guide
Base frame rail

Low-voltage Generator busbar Metal structure Metal structure


switchgear
Pothead
Floor reinforcement Floor reinforcement

Cable racks Heating pipes


Insulating section
Transformer room Gas supply
EBC
EBC
LV switchgear Communications Water supply
centre HV motor

if necessary:
Equipotential bonding conductor (EBC)
waste pipe (metal)
Foundation earth
AC installation/
System earth System earth ventilation
Isolating link Floor reinforcement
Grading ring
Antenna mount around the building

Lightning protection system


Fig. 5-8
211

Earthing system with equipotential bonding between HV/LV indoor switchgear and building/building services

5
382 HANDBOOK OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

a) Switchboards and motor control centres

It is the normal practice to provide a copper busbar at the base of the switchboard or motor
control centre for earthing all the high power circuits, e.g. cable armouring, motor earthing cables,
and low power circuits that are not sensitive to noise pick-up. This busbar is insulated from
the frame, and at one or both ends there is an isolating link with bolts that bonds the busbar
to the steel frame. The steel frame is bonded to the local earthing system, e.g. steel decking in
a marine installation, earthing conductor or rod in a land-based installation. The isolating link
can be opened for checking the earth-loop impedance or for making measurements of the noise
voltages. It is often the practice to install one or two external earthing busbars in the locality
of the switchgear. For example in a switchroom a busbar would be located near to each of the
two opposite walls, and in reasonable proximity to the switchgear. Equipment such as switchgear,
neutral earthing resistors, transformers, have their internal earth busbars or star points connected
by single cables of large cross-sectional area to the external earthing busbars described above.
These external earthing busbars are often mounted on insulators or bushings and fitted with bolted
isolating links that are again used for testing purposes.

A typical offshore platform will have several modules or large equipment rooms and so
all the external earthing busbars will be interconnected by single-core insulated cables of large
cross-sectional area. The interconnections are preferably made in the form of a ring circuit so that
continuity is highly assured. A similar ring circuit approach can be used for land-based plants
where the items of equipment are located near to each other, otherwise a radial interconnection
system or one with local grids and rods would be more economical.

b) Earthing within cubicles and panels

Instrumentation cubicles, SCADA cubicles, control panels, computer equipment and the like
require to be earthed in a particular manner so as to avoid or minimise the pick up of noise.
Some of the internal circuits may be very sensitive to noise pick-up from earth sources, e.g. input
amplifiers, signal conditioning units. These circuits may have their own special noise elimination
devices, as described in References 20 and 22, but it is better to assume that they have not for the
purposes of designing a good earthing system in the first place. It is common practice therefore
to provide two separate internal earthing busbars, one for general earthing and the other for the
special circuits. These will be isolated and insulated from each other.

The general earthing busbar would be used for earthing the framework, chassis metalwork
and cable armouring. The special earthing busbar, often called the ‘clean earth’ busbar, would be
used for signal core screens, earth reference points of input circuits, and earth reference points
of output circuits. Both the ‘general’ and the ‘clean’ earthing busbars would be mounted near
the cable gland plate on insulated bushes. The level of insulation need not be high because in
practical testing the potential to earth with the links removed would only be a few volts. (It is more
governed by the expected level of cleanliness in the area at ground level, which may contaminate
the bushings and cause a leakage current to pass and upset the measurements taken.) If the plant
is not prone to earth pick-up noise then the general busbar could be bonded to the same local
earthing boss as the main frame or cubicle. However, where earth pick-up is a problem then the
clean earth busbar would be interconnected by a large section cable to the copper ring system.
The general and clean busbars serve as ‘single-point’ earths, thereby eliminating pick up between
distributed earthing points due to conducted noise.
TO TRANSIT BLOCK OR HEC'S EARTHING TERMiNAl
I SUBSTATION/SERVICE CUTOUT
MIN.150 mm 2 YELLOW/GREEN
PVC SHEATHED COPPER
TAPE / l-CORE PVC
SHEATHED COPPER

RUBBER
GROMMET
1-14
-l 100

A'
l
MIN 25
j
30:::::i 20 i-F-- 150
I
100

MIN. 6mm THICK YELLOW/GREEN


PVC SHEATHED COPPER LINK
250
1
INSULATED ENCLOSURE COMPLETE WITH SCREW RXED COVER AND A BILINGUAL LABEL :
r :jf1!!.1!i'm1lm'fflru~:i'i]~U:kU~_:jfI!!._ _M -lIJo/lM J
~soloting Link for Bonding Conductor Between HEC Earth System and Building Main Earth System - DO NOT REMOVE'

~
BOLT
T
/ r-SPRING WASHER
r-
::::'l" PLAIN WASHER
:, ' ~ PVC SHEATHED COPPER LINK
100 • 150mm2 PVC SHEATHED COPPER TAPEI
~ COPPER CABLE TERMINATED WITH CAffi.E LUG

1 "'''--PLAIN WASHER
I "--INSULATOR

Sectional Elevation A-A'


NOTES:
1. All dimensions are in mm.
2. Where the supply is token direct~ from Company's transformer(s) within the premises
in which the installation is situated. The position of the disconnection link should be
installed near the main earth terminal.
3. Where the supply is taken from the Company's service cutout having exposed
conductive ports, the position of the disconnection link should be installed near the
bonding terminal provided by the Company.

Drg. No. GCS/6/09


RECOMMENDED INSTALLATION DETAIL FOR THE DISCONNECTION LINK
WITH INSULATED ENCLOSURE FOR BONDING CONDUCTOR BETWEEN
HEC EARTH SYSTEM AND CUSTOMER'S MAIN EARTH SYSTEM
6.29
Protection of electric motors 12/309

also provide a three-phase simultaneous make and break


I of contacts through their ‘no volt’ coil. Figures 12.46
I and 12.47 illustrate typical power and control circuit
I diagrams, respectively, for a 6.6 kV vacuum contactor-
I operated motor starter.

I HT isolators
I Motor control
-Bus bars I centre The isolator should be a load-break and fault-make type
/ of switching device. Normally, it is provided with an
I /’ integral grounding switch, such that in the isolated position
1’ it will automatically short-circuit and ground all the three-
phases of the outgoing links. This is a basic safety
requirement for a gang-operated isolator, mounted on
outdoor poles and operated manually from the ground
Contactor by a disconnecting lever. For an indoor switchgear,
Overcurrent
relay

Cable

Isolator \

Motor P.B.
Note
1. Switch-fuse unit or a circuit breaker.
2. Isolator near the motor is also recommended, when the motor
is away or not visible from the switching station (it is a safety -G
requirement)
3. A stay put type stop push button may also be mounted near
the motor for maintenance safety

Figure 12.43(a) Power line diagram of an MCC

Isolating Pre trip alarm


link
Stalling
alarm/trip

II -
Shortina
links
Remote thermal

1-1 7 ) 16111181191

- Alarm Trip Control supply


isolating contact contact contact
link

Figure 12.44 A simple power circuit diagram for a breaker-


Figure 12.43(b) MCC for single line diagram of Figure 12.43(a) operated HT motor starter