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Bacteria Viruses Fungi Nematodes Protozoa
Bacillus thuringiensis isolates Bacillus sphaericus Paenibacillus popilliae Serratia entomophila
Bacillus thuringiensis isolates
kurstaki- against caterpillars tenebrionis- against scarab and chrysomelid larvae israelensis- against mosquito and blackfly larvae
Here we see a caterpillar killed by Bacillus thuringiensis (top),
compared to a healthy caterpillar (bottom).
P. rapae feeding and frass
and the genome.Bacillus thuringiensis cells contain a toxin crystal. a spore for passing unfavorable conditions. rapae feeding and frass . P.
Scarabeid larvae infected (on right) with Paenibacillus popilliae vs. the cause of milky spore disease in scarabs P. rapae feeding and frass . a normal grub (right).
such as species of Beauveria. Ashersonia Entomophthorales. Verticillium.Fungi Fungi Imperfecti. Hirsutella. Metarhizium. such as Entomophaga maimaiga .
In a petri dish with high relative humidity. fungi such a Beauveria bassiana are highly infective to many insects .
Mycelia extending from a thrips killed by Beauveria bassiana .
Spores of Beauveria bassiana are the applied stage .
Some Aschersonia fungi turn their whitefly hosts red .
Viruses Baculoviruses– are specialized viruses that only attack Arthropods No other insect virus group is manipulated for biological control .
allowing virus to drip from cadaver onto foliage .Gypsy moth virus is a typical baculovirus (NPV) Virus-killed caterpillars show typical head down position.
Virus bodies Codling moth virus is a granulosis type virus Here. we see a cell with viral bodies inside the nucleus .
Young codling moth larva killed by granulosis virus .
Protozoa Microsporidia– are are debilitating protozoa that attack many Arthropods Important contaminants in importation projects .
) spores in midgut of cabbage looper (Trichoplusia ni) .Microsporidia (Nosema sp.
Mermithidae and others) exist and are part of natural control Nematodes in two families– Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae– are massed reared as biopesticides ..Nematodes Many families of truly parasitic nematodes (e.g.
Infective juvenile nematode .
Japanese beetle larvae killed by heterorhabditid nematodes (note red color of cadaver) stylet .
cats pathogens employed have been viruses or internal metazoan parasites . mice.Viral pathogens of vertebrates few vertebrates have been targeted for classical biological control examples are rabbits.
to reduce cat density stylet . South Africa. Feline leukemia was released on Marian Island.Feral cats on uninhabited sea islands with seabird colonies are severe ecological pests.
Night hunting of feral cats on uninhabited sea islands complements use of pathogens .
In the 1990. another virus (calicivirus) was released to combat resistance.Myxomatosis virus was released in Australia and Europe in the 1950s for rabbit suppression. rabbit index .
Biology of Insect Pathogens Contact with new hosts Host penetration Reproduction in host Escape from old hosts Complex vs. simple life cycles .
Host Contact At the end of one generation. pathogen propagules will be released back into the environment The new pathogen generation begins when these propagules contact a new host .
Called horizontal transmission .gypsy moth larvae congregating under burlap spread virus from larva to larva.Host contact.
Horizontal transmission .
Japanese beetle larvae transmission Vertical killed by heterorhabditid nematodes (note red color of cadaver) stylet .
Musca domestica female on left is infected with nematode. note swollen abdomen (nematodes in ovaries). stylet Infected fly Normal fly Swollen abdomen . Fly on right is uninfected.
Effect of nematode (Paraiotonchium muscadomesticae) on ovaries of house flies Ovary of healthy fly Ovary of infected fly .
Nematodes (Paraiotonchium muscadomesticae) emerging from infected house fly ovary .
Host Pentration Once propagules have physically contacted the host. they must cross the integument and reach tissues subject to infection .
Mode of action of Bacillus thuringiensis .
Shape of Bt toxin protein .
Spores germinate and penetration hyphae push through cuticle spore Germination tube (= penetration hypha) .Fungi contact hosts when spores land on cuticle.
Penetration hyphae use enzymes to chemically digest cuticle and then hydrostatic pressure to break through Cuticle being broken Outside of insect inside Micrograph of cross section through integument of Diprion similis being infected by Entomopthora tenthredinidinis .
Oospores encyst on contact as first step in host penetration Encysted oospores-purple Coelomomyces dodgei in cuticle of mosquito larva (Anopheles quadrimaculatus) .
Germ tubes from oospore cysts penetrate host Host integument cyst Germ tube .
Nematodes penetrate host integument with a stylet stylet Encysted oospores-purple Coelomomyces dodgei in cuticle of mosquito larva (Anopheles quadrimaculatus) .
showing channel formed by nematode stylet Channel of stylet .Cross section of insect integument.
pathogens must reproduce to be successful Some pathogens kill hosts and then reproduce (nematodes) Others reproduce in living hosts (virus. fungi) .Reproduction in host After host penetration.
Virus reproduction requires living host cells. Channel of stylet Cross section of insect tissue showing baculovirus stained red and clearly localized inside cell nuclei . Baculoviruses reproduce in nuclei.
Symbiotic bacteria of stylet Channel .Steinernematid and heterorhabditid nematodes reproduce in dead host tissues. Symbiotic bacteria carried in gut of nematodes kill the host.
dispersal and persistence outside of the host are critical in pathogen success . most pathogens (except vertically transmitted species) must physically leave the host. disperse and find new hosts Mechanisms for exit. enter the environment.Exiting the host After reproducing.
Fungi exit hosts through hyphal growth and production of special spores that become airborne Hyphae growing out of cadaver Channel of stylet Conidospores on exit hyphae Outline of host cadaver .
Moldy appearance of dead caterpillar is caused by overgrowth of outside of body by exit hyphae. we see a spruce budworm larva killed by the fungus Zoopthora radicans . produced by the mycelium inside of the cadaver Channel of stylet Here.
Cross section of insect body wall. showing fungal hyphae growing through cuticle Mycelia inside insect Channel of stylet Hyphae crossing integument Outside insect Hyphae emerged through cuticle to air .
Here. exit hyphae combine to form larger structures.For some fungi. the “horns’ on this dead leafhopper Channel of stylet .
Halo is shaped by discharge radius of spore ejection.The role of the exit hyphae is to provide a means of ejecting spores (conidiospores) into the air. spore halo around a dead Plutella larva. Here. we see a Entomophthora sp. Channel of stylet .
Underwater zoospore discharge by water molds water Discharge tubes Channel of stylet cadaver Zoospore discharge tubes in fungus-killed mosquito larva .
Mermithid (Romanomermis culicivora) nematodes wiggle free of dying hosts and swim away Emerging mermithid worm .
Baculoviruses exit hosts when cadavers liquefy and drip virus onto foliage below Channel of stylet Douglas fir tussock moth larvae killed by NPV .
Steinernematid and heterorabditid nematodes swim away from decomposing host cadaver in soil water cadaver .
Before exiting the host cell baculoviruses must get “dressed” for the weather. Viruses get coated by protein and form occlusion bodies that provide uv protection Channel of stylet Douglas fir tussock moth larvae killed by NPV .
Reproduction may be based on simple or complex life cycles. . to complete its life cycle. This Coelomomycetes fungus requires Channel of stylet two hosts. a mosquito larva and a copepod.
The parasitic worm Romanomermis culivorax requires only one host. but also has free living stages Channel of stylet .
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