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1. Delineate Heat Transfer.

Heat transfer is energy transfer due to a temperature difference in a medium or between two or
more media.

2. List out various modes of heat transfer.

Different types of heat transfer processes are called different modes of heat transfer
• Conduction heat transfer is due to a temperature gradient in a stationary medium or media
• Convection heat transfer occurs between a surface and a moving fluid at different temperatures
• Radiation heat transfer occurs due to emission of energy in the form of electromagnetic waves
by all bodies above absolute zero temperature

3. State Fourier’s law of conduction

“The rate of flow of the heat through a simple homogeneous solid is directly proportional to the
area of the section at right angles to the direction of heat flow”.

4. Define Thermal conductivity.

Thermal conductivity is defined as the ability of a substance to conduct heat.
5. List down the three types of boundary condition.

 Prescribed temperature
 Prescribed heat flux
 Convection boundary conditions

6. Write down the equation for conduction of heat through a hollow sphere.

7. Discuss the mechanism of heat conduction in solids.

Conduction heat transfer is energy transport due to molecular motion and interaction.
Conduction heat transfer through solids is due to molecular vibration. Fourier determined that
Q/A, the heat transfer per unit area (W/m2) is proportional to the temperature gradient dT/dx.
The constant of proportionality is called the material thermal conductivity “k”

8. State Newton’s law of cooling of convection law.

Heat transfer by convection is given by Newton’s law of cooling
Q = hA (Ts - T∞)
A – Area exposed to heat transfer in m2, h - heat transfer coefficient in W/m2K
Ts – Temperature of the surface in K, T∞ - Temperature of the fluid in K.

9. Write down the equation for heat transfer through a composite plane wall.

Heat flow through composite wall is given by

Where, T = Ta– Tb
10. Define overall heat transfer co-efficient.
The overall heat transfer by combined modes is usually expressed in terms of an overall
conductance or overall heat transfer co-efficient ‘U’.
Heat transfer Q = UA ∆T.

11. Write the poisson’s equation for heat conduction.

12. What do you understand by critical radius of insulation and give its expression?
Addition of insulating material on a surface does not reduce the amount of heat transfer rate
always. In fact under certain circumstances it actually increases the heat loss up to certain
thickness of insulation. The radius of insulation for which the heat transfer is maximum, is called
critical radius of insulation, and the corresponding thickness is called critical thickness.

Critical radius = rc Critical thickness = rc – r1

13. What is the function of insulating materials?

 The purpose of insulation is to slow the rate of heat transfer. This is true in both hot and
cold climates.
 In cold climates, it is intended to stop the flow of heat out of the building. In hot climates,
its purpose is to slow the movement of heat into the building.
 Fortunately, insulation works in both directions.

14. Write down the three dimensional heat conduction equations in Cartesian co – ordinate
15. Write down the three dimensional heat conduction equations in cylindrical co –
ordinate system.

16. What are the factors affecting the thermal conductivity?

1. Material structure.
2. Moisture content.
3. Density of material
4. Pressure and temperature.

17. What is meant by thermal resistance?

 Thermal resistance is a heat property and a measurement of a temperature difference by

which an object or material resists a heat flow (heat per time unit or thermal resistance).
Thermal resistance is the reciprocal of thermal conductance. In terms of insulation, the
thermal resistance is measured by the R- value.
 Thermal resistance R has the units (m2K)/ W

18. Give some examples of heat transfer in engineering field.

 Automotive engineering
 Thermal management of electronic devices and systems
 Climate control and Insulation
 Material processing and power station engineering
19. Define heat flux.
The rate of heat transfer per unit area is called “Heat Flux”. The unit of heat flux is W/m2
q = Q/A
20. What is the effect of temperature on thermal conductivity of solids, liquids and gas?
 The thermal conductivity of a substance is normally highest in the solid phase and lowest
in the gas phase.
 Unlike gases, the thermal conductivities of most liquids decrease with increasing
temperature, with water being a notable exception.

1. Derive the general heat conduction equation in Cartesian co-ordinates.

Any physical phenomenon is generally accompanied by a change in space and time of

its physical properties. The heat transfer by conduction in solids can only take place when there
is a variation of temperature, in both space and time. Let us consider a small volume of a solid
element as shown in Fig. The dimensions are: ∆x, ∆y, ∆z along the X-, Y-, and Z- coordinates.

Fig: Elemental volume in Cartesian coordinates

First we consider heat conduction the X-direction. Let T denote the temperature at the
point P (x, y, z) located at the geometric centre of the element. The temperature gradient at the
left hand face (x-~x12) and at the right hand face
(x + ∆x/2), using the Taylor's series, can be written as:

∂T / ∂x |L = ∂T / ∂x − ∂ 2 T / ∂x 2 . ∆x / 2 + higher order terms.

∂T / ∂x |R = ∂T / ∂x + ∂ 2 T / ∂x 2 . ∆x / 2 + higher order terms.

The net rate at which heat is conducted out of the element 10 X-direction assuming k as
constant and neglecting the higher order terms,

 ∂T ∂ 2 T ∆x ∂T ∂ 2 T ∆x   ∂ 2T 
we get − k∆y∆z  + − +  = − k ∆ y∆z ∆x  2 
 ∂x ∂x 2 2 ∂x ∂x 2 2   ∂x 
Similarly for Y- and Z-direction,

We have − k∆x∆y∆z ∂ 2 T / ∆y 2 and −k∆x∆y∆z ∂ 2 T / ∆z 2 .

If there is heat generation within the element as Q, per unit volume and the internal
energy of the element changes with time, by making an energy balance, we write

Heat generated within + Heat conducted away = Rate of change of internal

the element from the element energy within with the element

or, Q& v ( ∆x∆y∆z ) + k ( ∆x∆y∆z ) ∂ 2 T / ∂x 2 + ∂ 2 T / ∂y 2 + ∂ 2 T / ∂z 2 ) = ρc ( ∆x∆y∆z ) ∂T / ∂t

Upon simplification, ∂ 2T / ∂x 2 + ∂ 2 T / ∂y 2 + ∂ 2 T / ∂z 2 + Q& v / k = ∂T / ∂t

or, ∇ 2 T + Q& v / k = 1/ α ( ∂T / ∂t )

where α = k / ρ . c , is called the thermal diffusivity and is seen to be a physical property

of the material of which the solid is composed.

2. The wall of furnace is made up 250mm fire clay of thermal conductivity 1.05W/mK,
120mm thick of insulation brick of conductivity 0.15W/mK, and 200mm thick red brick
of conductivity 0.85W/mK. The inner and outer surface temperature of wall is 8500C
and 650C respectively. Calculate the temperatures at the contact surfaces.

Given: Fire Insulatio Red

Thickness of fire clay, L1=250mm = 0.25m Clay n brick brick
Thermal conductivity, k1 =1.05 W/mK T1 T2 T3 T4
Thickness of insulation brick, L2 = 120mm = 0.12m
Thermal conductivity, k2 = 0.15 W/mK K1 K2 K3
Thickness of red brick, L3 = 200mm = 0.2m L1 L2 L3
Thermal conductivity, k3 =0.85 W/mK
Inner Surface temperature, T1 = 850oC + 273 = 1123 K
Outer Surface temperature, TA= 65oC + 273 = 338 K
To Find:
T2 and T3

Heat flow through composite slab is given by
HMT DB 43 & 44

[Heat transfer co-efficient ha and hb are not given. So, neglect that terms.]

= 616.46W/m2


Q= =


616.46 =

T2 = 976.22 K




T3 = 483.05 K

i. T2 = 976.2 K
ii. T3 = 483.05 K

3. A composite wall consists of 10 cm thick layer of building brick, k = 0.7 W/mK and 3 cm
thick plaster, k = 0.5 W/mK. An insulating material of k = 0.08 W/mK is to be added to
reduce the heat transfer through the wall by 40%. Find its thickness.

Thickness of brick, L1 = 10cm = 0.1m
Thermal conductivity of brick, K1 = 0.7W/mK
Thickness of plaster, L2 = 3 cm = 0.03 m
Thermal conductivity of plaster, K2 = 0.5 W/mK
Thermal conductivity of insulation, K3 = 0.08 W/mK

Brick Plaster Brick Plaster Insulation

K1 K2
K1 K2 K3
L1 L2 L1 L2 L3

To find:
Thickness of insulation to reduce the heat loss through the wall by 40%(L3)
Heat flow rate, Q=


The terms ha and hb are not given. So neglect that terms.


Considering two slabs, i.e neglect L3 terms


∆T = 20.28K

Heat loss is reduced by 40% due to insulation. So heat transfer is 60 W


60 =

L3 = 0.0108 m


Thickness of insulation, L3 = 0.0108 m

4. Derive the general heat conduction equation for a hollow cylinder.

5.A steel tube (k = 43.26 W/mK ) of 5.08 cm inner diameter and 7.62 cm outer
diameter is covered with 2.5 cm layer of insulation ( k= 0.208 W/mK ) the inside
surface of the tube receivers heat from a hot gas at the temperature of 316 °C with
heat transfer co-efficient of 28 W/ m2K . While the outer surface exposed to the
ambient air at 30 °C with heat transfer co-efficient of 17 W/ m2K. Calculate heat
loss for 3m length of the tube.


Steel Tube k2 T
k1 2.5 cm
Hot r

Ambient air

Steel tube thermal conductivity, K1=43.26 W/mk,

Inner diameter of steel, d1 = 5.08 cm = 0.0508 m
Inner radius of steel r1 = 0.0254 m
Outer diameter of steel, d2 = 7.62 cm = 0.0762 m
Outer radius of steel r2 = 0.0381 m
Radius r3 = r2+thickness of insulation
Radius, r3 = 0.0381+0.025 m
r3 = 0.0631 m
Thermal conductivity of insulation, k2 = 0.208 W/mk,
Hot gas temperature, Ta = 316oC+273 = 589 K
Ambient air temperature, Tb = 30oC + 273 = 303 K
Heat transfer co-efficient at Inner side, ha = 28 W/m2k
Heat transfer co-efficient at Inner side, hb = 17 W/m2k
Length, L = 3 m.

To find:
i) Heat loss, Q


Heat flow, Q =


∆T=Ta – Tb


The terms k3 and r4 are not given, so neglect that terms.



Q = 112.42 W


Heat loss, Q = 112.42 W.

6. A hot steam pipe having an inside surface temperature of 250 °C has an inside diameter
of 80 mm and a wall thickness of 5.5mm. It is covered with a 90 mm layer of insulation
having thermal conductivity of 0.5 W/mK followed by a 40 mm layer of insulation having
thermal conductivity of 0.25 W/mK. The outside surface temperature of insulation is 20 °C.
Calculate heat loss per meter length. Assume thermal conductivity of the pipe as 47 W/mK.

5.5 mm k3
Pipe k2
90 mm k1
40 mm r1 T


r4 r3
Inside temperature, T1 = 250oC + 273 = 523 K,
Inner diameter of steel, d1 = 80 cm = 0.080 m
Inner radius of steel r1 = 0.040 m
Wall thickness = 5.5 mm
Radius r2 = r1+thickness of wall
Radius, r2 = 0.040 + 5.5 * 10-3 m

r2 = 0.0455 m

Radius r3 = r2+thickness of Insulation (I)

Radius, r3 = 0.0455 + 90 * 10-3 m

r3 = 0.1355 m

Radius r4 = r3+thickness of Insulation (II)

Radius, r4 = 0.1355 + 40 * 10-3 m

r4 = 0.1755 m

Thermal conductivity of pipe, K1 = 47 W/mK,

Thermal conductivity of Insulation (I), K2 = 0.5 W/mK,
Thermal conductivity of Insulation (II), K3 = 0.25 W/mK,
Outside temperature, T4 = 20oC+273 = 293 K

To find:
i) Heat transfer per metre length.


Heat flow through compposie cylinder is given by

∆T=Ta – Tb (or) T1 – T4



Heat transfer coefficients ha and hb are not given, so neglect that terms.


Q /L = 448.8 W/m


Heat transfer, Q/L = 448.8 W/m.

7. A hollow sphere has inside surface temperature of 300°C and then outside surface
temperature of 30°C. If K=18W/mK. Calculate (i) heat lost by conduction for
inside diameter 5cm and outside diameter of 15cm. (ii) heat lost by conduction, if
equation for a plain wall area is equal to sphere area.

T1= 300oC+273 = 573 K
T2 = 30oC+273 = 303 K
K1 = 18 W/mK T2
d1 = 5 cm = 0.05 m r1
r1 = 0.025 m
d2 = 15 cm = 0.15 m
r2 = 0.075 m
To find:
(i) Heat lost, Q
(ii) Heat lost If the area is equal to the plain wall area) = Q1


(i) Heat lost (Q)

Heat flow, Q =

∆T=Ta – Tb = T1 – T2


[The terms ha and hb are not given, so neglect that terms]



Q = 2290.22 W

(ii) Heat lost (if the area is equal to the plain wall area) Q1
L = r2 - r1

= 0.075 – 0.025 = 0.05 m

L = 0.05 m

A= = =

We know that,

Q1 =

Q1 =

Q1 =

Q1 =
Q1 = 3817.03 W


(i) Heat lost, Q = 2290.22 W

(ii) Heat lost (If the area is equal to the plain wall area) Q1 = 3817.03 W.

8. A wire of 6mm diameter with 2mm thick insulation (K=0.11W/mK) if the convective
heat transfer co-efficient between the insulating surface and air is 25W/m²K, find the
critical thickness of insulation. And also find the percentage of change in heat transfer
rate if critical radius is used.

d1 = 6 mm Insulatio
r1 = 3 mm = 0.003 m
r2 = r1 + 2 = 3 + 2 = 5 mm = 0.005 m
K = 0.11 W/mK 2 mm r1 air
hb = 25 W /m2K hb
To find:
1. Critical thickness r2
2. % of change in heat transfer

1. Critical radius, rc = K/h
rc = 0.11/25 = 4.4 x 10-3 m

rc = 4.4 x 10-3 m

Critical Thickness, tc = rc - r1
= 4.4 x 10-3 – 0.003
= 1.4 x 10-3 m

Critical Thickness, tc = 1.4 x 10-3 m (or) 1.3 mm

2. Heat transfer through an insulated wire given by

Q1 =

Heat flow through an insulated wire when critical radius I used is given by

Q2 =

Percentage of increase in heat flow by using

Critical radius = x 100

= x 100

= 0.55%

1. Critical thickness, tc = 1.4 x 10-3 m

2. Percentage of increase in heat transfer by using critical radius = 0.55 %.

9. A copper wire of 1 m long is used as a heating element in a 13 kW heater. The copper
surface temperature is 1300 °C, ambient air temperature is 22 °C, outside surface co –
efficient is 1.1 kW /m²K. Thermal conductivity and resistance of the copper are 15
W/mK and 0.21
Ω respectively. Calculate the following

1. Diameter of copper wire

2. Rate of current flow.

Length, L = 1 m
Heat transfer, Q = 13kW = 13 x 103 W
Surface temperature, Tw = 1300oC + 273 = 1573 K
Ambient Air Temperature, Ta = 22oC + 273 = 295 K
Outside surface Co-efficient,
Heat transfer co-efficient, h = 1.1 kW/m2K
= 1.1 x 103 W/m2K
Thermal conductivity, K = 15 W/mK
Resistance, R = 0.21Ω

To find:

1) Diameter of copper wire, d

2) Rate of current flow, I

Heat generated, ʠ = =


Surface temperature, Tw = Ta + [from Eqn. N o. 1.65]

1573 = 295 + r x

1278 = =
r = 1.47 x 10-3 m
d = 2.94 x 10-3 m
We know that,
Q = I2R
13 x 103 = I2 x 0.21
I = 248 A

1. Diameter of copper wire, d = 2.4 x 10-3 m

2. Current flow, I = 248 A.

10. A plane wall 10 cm thick generates heat at the rate of 4x104 W/m3 when an electric
current is passed through it. The convective heat transfer co –efficient between each face
of the wall and the ambient air is 50 W/m²K. Determine

i. The surface temperature

ii. The maximum air temperature on the wall. Assume the ambient air temperature
to be 20 °C and the thermal conductivity of the wall material to be 15 W/mK.

Thickness, L = 10 cm = 0.10 m
Heat generation, ʠ = 4 x 104 W/m3
Conductive heat transfer co-efficient, h 50 W/m2K
Ambient air temperature, Tw = 20oC +273 = 293 K
Thermal conductivity, K = 15 W/mK.

To find:
1. Surface temperature
2. Maximum temperature in the wall.

Surface temperature, Tw = Ta +

. = 293 +
Tw = 333 K

Maximum temperature, Tmax = Tw +

= 333 +
Tmax = 336.3 K

1. Surface temperature, Tw = 333 K
2. Maximum temperature in the wall, Tmax = 336.3 K