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HMT

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PART – A

Heat transfer is energy transfer due to a temperature difference in a medium or between two or

more media.

Different types of heat transfer processes are called different modes of heat transfer

• Conduction heat transfer is due to a temperature gradient in a stationary medium or media

• Convection heat transfer occurs between a surface and a moving fluid at different temperatures

• Radiation heat transfer occurs due to emission of energy in the form of electromagnetic waves

by all bodies above absolute zero temperature

“The rate of flow of the heat through a simple homogeneous solid is directly proportional to the

area of the section at right angles to the direction of heat flow”.

Thermal conductivity is defined as the ability of a substance to conduct heat.

5. List down the three types of boundary condition.

Prescribed temperature

Prescribed heat flux

Convection boundary conditions

6. Write down the equation for conduction of heat through a hollow sphere.

Conduction heat transfer is energy transport due to molecular motion and interaction.

Conduction heat transfer through solids is due to molecular vibration. Fourier determined that

Q/A, the heat transfer per unit area (W/m2) is proportional to the temperature gradient dT/dx.

The constant of proportionality is called the material thermal conductivity “k”

Heat transfer by convection is given by Newton’s law of cooling

Q = hA (Ts - T∞)

Where

A – Area exposed to heat transfer in m2, h - heat transfer coefficient in W/m2K

Ts – Temperature of the surface in K, T∞ - Temperature of the fluid in K.

9. Write down the equation for heat transfer through a composite plane wall.

∆Toverall

Q=

R

Where, T = Ta– Tb

10. Define overall heat transfer co-efficient.

The overall heat transfer by combined modes is usually expressed in terms of an overall

conductance or overall heat transfer co-efficient ‘U’.

Heat transfer Q = UA ∆T.

12. What do you understand by critical radius of insulation and give its expression?

Addition of insulating material on a surface does not reduce the amount of heat transfer rate

always. In fact under certain circumstances it actually increases the heat loss up to certain

thickness of insulation. The radius of insulation for which the heat transfer is maximum, is called

critical radius of insulation, and the corresponding thickness is called critical thickness.

The purpose of insulation is to slow the rate of heat transfer. This is true in both hot and

cold climates.

In cold climates, it is intended to stop the flow of heat out of the building. In hot climates,

its purpose is to slow the movement of heat into the building.

Fortunately, insulation works in both directions.

14. Write down the three dimensional heat conduction equations in Cartesian co – ordinate

system.

15. Write down the three dimensional heat conduction equations in cylindrical co –

ordinate system.

1. Material structure.

2. Moisture content.

3. Density of material

4. Pressure and temperature.

which an object or material resists a heat flow (heat per time unit or thermal resistance).

Thermal resistance is the reciprocal of thermal conductance. In terms of insulation, the

thermal resistance is measured by the R- value.

Thermal resistance R has the units (m2K)/ W

Automotive engineering

Thermal management of electronic devices and systems

Climate control and Insulation

Material processing and power station engineering

19. Define heat flux.

The rate of heat transfer per unit area is called “Heat Flux”. The unit of heat flux is W/m2

q = Q/A

20. What is the effect of temperature on thermal conductivity of solids, liquids and gas?

The thermal conductivity of a substance is normally highest in the solid phase and lowest

in the gas phase.

Unlike gases, the thermal conductivities of most liquids decrease with increasing

temperature, with water being a notable exception.

PART – B

its physical properties. The heat transfer by conduction in solids can only take place when there

is a variation of temperature, in both space and time. Let us consider a small volume of a solid

element as shown in Fig. The dimensions are: ∆x, ∆y, ∆z along the X-, Y-, and Z- coordinates.

First we consider heat conduction the X-direction. Let T denote the temperature at the

point P (x, y, z) located at the geometric centre of the element. The temperature gradient at the

left hand face (x-~x12) and at the right hand face

(x + ∆x/2), using the Taylor's series, can be written as:

The net rate at which heat is conducted out of the element 10 X-direction assuming k as

constant and neglecting the higher order terms,

∂T ∂ 2 T ∆x ∂T ∂ 2 T ∆x ∂ 2T

we get − k∆y∆z + − + = − k ∆ y∆z ∆x 2

∂x ∂x 2 2 ∂x ∂x 2 2 ∂x

Similarly for Y- and Z-direction,

If there is heat generation within the element as Q, per unit volume and the internal

energy of the element changes with time, by making an energy balance, we write

the element from the element energy within with the element

(

or, Q& v ( ∆x∆y∆z ) + k ( ∆x∆y∆z ) ∂ 2 T / ∂x 2 + ∂ 2 T / ∂y 2 + ∂ 2 T / ∂z 2 ) = ρc ( ∆x∆y∆z ) ∂T / ∂t

ρc

Upon simplification, ∂ 2T / ∂x 2 + ∂ 2 T / ∂y 2 + ∂ 2 T / ∂z 2 + Q& v / k = ∂T / ∂t

k

or, ∇ 2 T + Q& v / k = 1/ α ( ∂T / ∂t )

of the material of which the solid is composed.

2. The wall of furnace is made up 250mm fire clay of thermal conductivity 1.05W/mK,

120mm thick of insulation brick of conductivity 0.15W/mK, and 200mm thick red brick

of conductivity 0.85W/mK. The inner and outer surface temperature of wall is 8500C

and 650C respectively. Calculate the temperatures at the contact surfaces.

Thickness of fire clay, L1=250mm = 0.25m Clay n brick brick

Thermal conductivity, k1 =1.05 W/mK T1 T2 T3 T4

Thickness of insulation brick, L2 = 120mm = 0.12m

Thermal conductivity, k2 = 0.15 W/mK K1 K2 K3

Thickness of red brick, L3 = 200mm = 0.2m L1 L2 L3

Thermal conductivity, k3 =0.85 W/mK

Inner Surface temperature, T1 = 850oC + 273 = 1123 K

Outer Surface temperature, TA= 65oC + 273 = 338 K

To Find:

T2 and T3

Solution:

Heat flow through composite slab is given by

HMT DB 43 & 44

Q=

[Heat transfer co-efficient ha and hb are not given. So, neglect that terms.]

= 616.46W/m2

W.K.T

Q= =

Q=

616.46 =

T2 = 976.22 K

Similarly

Q=

Q=

=616.46

T3 = 483.05 K

Result:

i. T2 = 976.2 K

ii. T3 = 483.05 K

3. A composite wall consists of 10 cm thick layer of building brick, k = 0.7 W/mK and 3 cm

thick plaster, k = 0.5 W/mK. An insulating material of k = 0.08 W/mK is to be added to

reduce the heat transfer through the wall by 40%. Find its thickness.

Given:

Thickness of brick, L1 = 10cm = 0.1m

Thermal conductivity of brick, K1 = 0.7W/mK

Thickness of plaster, L2 = 3 cm = 0.03 m

Thermal conductivity of plaster, K2 = 0.5 W/mK

Thermal conductivity of insulation, K3 = 0.08 W/mK

K1 K2

K1 K2 K3

L1 L2 L1 L2 L3

To find:

Thickness of insulation to reduce the heat loss through the wall by 40%(L3)

Solution:

Heat flow rate, Q=

R=

R=

Q=

Q=

∆T = 20.28K

Q=

Q=

60 =

L3 = 0.0108 m

Result:

5.A steel tube (k = 43.26 W/mK ) of 5.08 cm inner diameter and 7.62 cm outer

diameter is covered with 2.5 cm layer of insulation ( k= 0.208 W/mK ) the inside

surface of the tube receivers heat from a hot gas at the temperature of 316 °C with

heat transfer co-efficient of 28 W/ m2K . While the outer surface exposed to the

ambient air at 30 °C with heat transfer co-efficient of 17 W/ m2K. Calculate heat

loss for 3m length of the tube.

Given:

Insulation

nnnnnnn

Steel Tube k2 T

k1 2.5 cm

ha

Hot r

1

T

ha

r2

Ambient air

r3

Inner diameter of steel, d1 = 5.08 cm = 0.0508 m

Inner radius of steel r1 = 0.0254 m

Outer diameter of steel, d2 = 7.62 cm = 0.0762 m

Outer radius of steel r2 = 0.0381 m

Radius r3 = r2+thickness of insulation

Radius, r3 = 0.0381+0.025 m

r3 = 0.0631 m

Thermal conductivity of insulation, k2 = 0.208 W/mk,

Hot gas temperature, Ta = 316oC+273 = 589 K

Ambient air temperature, Tb = 30oC + 273 = 303 K

Heat transfer co-efficient at Inner side, ha = 28 W/m2k

Heat transfer co-efficient at Inner side, hb = 17 W/m2k

Length, L = 3 m.

To find:

i) Heat loss, Q

Solution:

Heat flow, Q =

Where,

∆T=Ta – Tb

R=

Q=

Q=

Q=

Q = 112.42 W

Result:

6. A hot steam pipe having an inside surface temperature of 250 °C has an inside diameter

of 80 mm and a wall thickness of 5.5mm. It is covered with a 90 mm layer of insulation

having thermal conductivity of 0.5 W/mK followed by a 40 mm layer of insulation having

thermal conductivity of 0.25 W/mK. The outside surface temperature of insulation is 20 °C.

Calculate heat loss per meter length. Assume thermal conductivity of the pipe as 47 W/mK.

Given:

Insulation

Insulation

5.5 mm k3

Pipe k2

90 mm k1

T T T

40 mm r1 T

r2

r4 r3

Inside temperature, T1 = 250oC + 273 = 523 K,

Inner diameter of steel, d1 = 80 cm = 0.080 m

Inner radius of steel r1 = 0.040 m

Wall thickness = 5.5 mm

Radius r2 = r1+thickness of wall

Radius, r2 = 0.040 + 5.5 * 10-3 m

r2 = 0.0455 m

Radius, r3 = 0.0455 + 90 * 10-3 m

r3 = 0.1355 m

Radius, r4 = 0.1355 + 40 * 10-3 m

r4 = 0.1755 m

Thermal conductivity of Insulation (I), K2 = 0.5 W/mK,

Thermal conductivity of Insulation (II), K3 = 0.25 W/mK,

Outside temperature, T4 = 20oC+273 = 293 K

To find:

i) Heat transfer per metre length.

Solution:

Q=

where,

∆T=Ta – Tb (or) T1 – T4

R=

Q=

Heat transfer coefficients ha and hb are not given, so neglect that terms.

Q=

Q=

Q /L = 448.8 W/m

Result:

7. A hollow sphere has inside surface temperature of 300°C and then outside surface

temperature of 30°C. If K=18W/mK. Calculate (i) heat lost by conduction for

inside diameter 5cm and outside diameter of 15cm. (ii) heat lost by conduction, if

equation for a plain wall area is equal to sphere area.

Given:

T1= 300oC+273 = 573 K

T2 = 30oC+273 = 303 K

K1 = 18 W/mK T2

d1 = 5 cm = 0.05 m r1

T1

r1 = 0.025 m

d2 = 15 cm = 0.15 m

r2 = 0.075 m

r2

To find:

(i) Heat lost, Q

(ii) Heat lost If the area is equal to the plain wall area) = Q1

Solution:

Heat flow, Q =

Where

∆T=Ta – Tb = T1 – T2

R=

Q=

Q=

Q=

Q = 2290.22 W

(ii) Heat lost (if the area is equal to the plain wall area) Q1

L = r2 - r1

L = 0.05 m

A= = =

We know that,

Q1 =

Q1 =

Q1 =

Q1 =

Q1 = 3817.03 W

Result:

(ii) Heat lost (If the area is equal to the plain wall area) Q1 = 3817.03 W.

8. A wire of 6mm diameter with 2mm thick insulation (K=0.11W/mK) if the convective

heat transfer co-efficient between the insulating surface and air is 25W/m²K, find the

critical thickness of insulation. And also find the percentage of change in heat transfer

rate if critical radius is used.

Given:

d1 = 6 mm Insulatio

r1 = 3 mm = 0.003 m

r2 = r1 + 2 = 3 + 2 = 5 mm = 0.005 m

K = 0.11 W/mK 2 mm r1 air

hb = 25 W /m2K hb

K

To find:

1. Critical thickness r2

2. % of change in heat transfer

Solution:

1. Critical radius, rc = K/h

rc = 0.11/25 = 4.4 x 10-3 m

rc = 4.4 x 10-3 m

Critical Thickness, tc = rc - r1

= 4.4 x 10-3 – 0.003

= 1.4 x 10-3 m

Q1 =

Heat flow through an insulated wire when critical radius I used is given by

Q2 =

= x 100

= 0.55%

Result:

9. A copper wire of 1 m long is used as a heating element in a 13 kW heater. The copper

surface temperature is 1300 °C, ambient air temperature is 22 °C, outside surface co –

efficient is 1.1 kW /m²K. Thermal conductivity and resistance of the copper are 15

W/mK and 0.21

Ω respectively. Calculate the following

2. Rate of current flow.

Given:

Length, L = 1 m

Heat transfer, Q = 13kW = 13 x 103 W

Surface temperature, Tw = 1300oC + 273 = 1573 K

Ambient Air Temperature, Ta = 22oC + 273 = 295 K

Outside surface Co-efficient,

Or

Heat transfer co-efficient, h = 1.1 kW/m2K

= 1.1 x 103 W/m2K

Thermal conductivity, K = 15 W/mK

Resistance, R = 0.21Ω

To find:

2) Rate of current flow, I

Solution:

Heat generated, ʠ = =

ʠ=

1573 = 295 + r x

1278 = =

r = 1.47 x 10-3 m

d = 2.94 x 10-3 m

We know that,

Q = I2R

13 x 103 = I2 x 0.21

I = 248 A

Result:

2. Current flow, I = 248 A.

10. A plane wall 10 cm thick generates heat at the rate of 4x104 W/m3 when an electric

current is passed through it. The convective heat transfer co –efficient between each face

of the wall and the ambient air is 50 W/m²K. Determine

ii. The maximum air temperature on the wall. Assume the ambient air temperature

to be 20 °C and the thermal conductivity of the wall material to be 15 W/mK.

Given:

Thickness, L = 10 cm = 0.10 m

Heat generation, ʠ = 4 x 104 W/m3

Conductive heat transfer co-efficient, h 50 W/m2K

Ambient air temperature, Tw = 20oC +273 = 293 K

Thermal conductivity, K = 15 W/mK.

To find:

1. Surface temperature

2. Maximum temperature in the wall.

Solution:

Surface temperature, Tw = Ta +

. = 293 +

Tw = 333 K

= 333 +

Tmax = 336.3 K

Result:

1. Surface temperature, Tw = 333 K

2. Maximum temperature in the wall, Tmax = 336.3 K

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