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Yung Kong Metal Works Co Bhd (10181-U)

Yung Kong Metal Works Co Bhd (YKMW) has been in the steel wire production business since
1970. It started as a small factory along Abell Road, Kuching, Sarawak. Today, as one of the
leading steel fabric manufacturers with its production plants located in Pending Industrial Estate,
the company is equipped with electronically controlled welding machines with distinctive welding
features.

The company received its ISO 9002: 1994 award certification in 1999. Further improvements in
its management system, it was awarded the ISO 9001: 2000 Certification by Lloyd’s Registration
Quality Assurance of the United Kingdom (LRQA), in 2001. The company was further certified
by SIRIM on the ISO 9001: 2008 in 2015. It has also been recognized by Malaysia certification
body, SIRIM for its fabric products and steel wire certified to MS 145: 20011 in 2005 and MS 145:
2006 in 2009.

1
License Number: PY007001. Refer to Table 1.1 for title of this standard.

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YMC Mesh Sdn Bhd (428424-P) FOREWORD

YMC Mesh Sdn Bhd is one of the subsidiaries of YKMW Group since 2008. It is mainly promoting
FOREWORD
YMC2 welded wire fabric for custom-made (engineering) sizes. It also provides engineering
It is a great honour to write this Message for the YMC Manual which
drawing and technical presentation as a value-added service to customers.
provides all the information of YMC products including material
specifications, design and detailing requirements, and tables to
help design engineers to convert steel bars reinforcements to steel
mesh reinforcements for reinforced concrete structures.

Yung Kong Metal Works Co Bhd is founded by my late father,


Dr John Hii Yii Ngiik, in 1970. His vision of manufacturing for
construction industry has been driven by the development of the
State of Sarawak. Since then, it has grown into one of the leading steel fabric manufacturers in
the State, achieving ISO award since 1999.

Reinforced concrete is one of the most versatile composite construction materials used in the
world. With the help of the steel reinforcements, the reinforced concrete can achieve the strength
required for the structures and the adaptability of various shapes and sizes of the structures.

Steel mesh not only reduces the time taken for the laborious task of laying the required steel
reinforcement for reinforced concrete structures, it also reduces mistakes made by workers at
sites and improves workmanship dramatically.

YMC welded wire fabric is prefabricated by advanced electronically controlled welding machines
in factory with strict quality control. This combination ensures the highest standard and quality of
YMC arriving on sites ready for installation. YMC is certified by SIRIM since 2005.

Disclaimer
It is desired to make clear that whilst YMC Mesh Sdn Bhd does the best to ensure that any advice, recommendation Dr Anna Hii
or information it may give is accurate, no liability or responsibility of any kind (including liability for negligence) is ac-
cepted by the company, its servants or agents in this respect. BSc(1st Class) in Civil Engineering
PhD in Civil Engineering
PGCE in Education
2
YMC is the brand of steel fabric which is certified to MS 145: 2006 by SIRIM.

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PREFACE CONTENTS
PREFACE CONTENTS
YMC welded wire fabric (YMC) is fabricated from a series of high-strength cold reduced mild steel FOREWORD
wires arranged at right angles to each other and electrically resistance welded at all intersections
in square or rectangular grids. The electronically controlled welding process employs the fusion PREFACE
of pressure, which combines the intersecting wires into a homogenous section without losing
the strength or area. CHAPTER 1 : SPECIFICATION AND MATERIAL PROPERTIES ........................... 1
1.1 Specification .................................................................................................... 1
The welded intersections of YMC provide basic anchorage and further higher level of bonding 1.2 Mechanical Properties ..................................................................................... 1
is obtained by the positive rib profile on the wire. This will control and limit any development of 1.3 Strength of Weld .............................................................................................. 2
crack line due to its close and consistent spacing of smaller wires. 1.4 Tolerance on Mass, Dimensions and Pitch ...................................................... 2
1.4.1 Mass ................................................................................................ 2
The fabrication process is well controlled to achieve consistency and accuracy in wire spacing. 1.4.2 Dimensions ...................................................................................... 2
Laboratory test is conducted regularly to ensure good quality products and strict adherence to 1.4.3 Pitch ................................................................................................. 2
the Malaysian Standard. 1.4.4 Cross-sectional Dimensions ............................................................ 2
1.5 Ribbed Fabric ................................................................................................... 3
YMC helps to save time in sorting, cutting, spacing and tying of steel bars and 5 % of wastage 1.6 Rust ................................................................................................................. 3
in the usage of conventional steel bars. It can easily bent into required form and maintain its
shape throughout. It can be pre-stored at our factory before supplying to the site where it can be CHAPTER 2 : FABRIC ............................................................................................. 4
hoisted onto the formwork for laying. It is especially convenient for sites with space constraint. 2.1 Preferred Wire Sizes ........................................................................................ 4
2.2 Standard Fabric ............................................................................................... 4
This manual provides YMC product information, material specification, design and detailing 2.2.1 Fabric Reference ............................................................................. 4
requirements, and various tables and design aids for design engineers and those involved in the 2.2.2 Preferred Dimensions ...................................................................... 4
construction of reinforced concrete structures. 2.3 Cut-to-size Fabric ............................................................................................ 5
2.3.1 Advantages ...................................................................................... 5
2.3.2 Elements .......................................................................................... 7
2.3.3 Applications ..................................................................................... 8

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1. Specification and Material Properties

1.1 Specification
CHAPTER 3 : BUILDING CODE REQUIREMENTS ................................................ 10 The Standard and Industrial Research Institute of Malaysia (SIRIM) publishes specifications for
3.1 Bend ................................................................................................................. 10 steel wire and welded steel fabric.
3.2 Anchorage ........................................................................................................ 10
3.3 Laps ................................................................................................................. 11 The appropriate Malaysian and also British Standards are given in following Table 1.1.
3.3.1 Tension Laps ................................................................................... 11
Table 1.1: Industrial standards
3.3.2 Compression Laps ........................................................................... 11
3.4 Anchorage of Fabric Used As Links ................................................................. 12 Standard Title
3.5 Spacing of Reinforcement ................................................................................ 12
MS 144: 2006 Cold Reduced Mild Steel Wire for The Reinforcement of Concrete –
3.6 Minimum Reinforcement in Slabs .................................................................... 12 BS 4482: 1998 Specification (Third Revision)
3.7 Deflection ......................................................................................................... 13
MS 145: 2006 Welded Steel Fabric for The Reinforcement of Concrete – Specification
BS 4483: 1998 (Third Revision)
CHAPTER 4 : DESIGN ............................................................................................. 14
4.1 Substitution of Steel Reinforcement ................................................................ 14
4.1.1 Conversion Formula ........................................................................ 14 1.2 Mechanical Properties
4.2 Design .............................................................................................................. 16 MS 144: 2006 and MS 145: 2006 state the minimum requirements for mechanical properties of
4.2.1 One-way Spanning Solid Slab ......................................................... 16 welded fabric as described in Table 1.2.
4.2.2 Two-way Spanning Solid Slab ......................................................... 19
Table 1.2: Minimum requirements for tensile properties of test pieces
4.2.3 Flat Slab .......................................................................................... 22
4.2.4 Pad Footing ..................................................................................... 24 Grade Min. Characteristic Strength Min. Tensile Strength Min. Elongation3
(N/mm2) (N/mm2) (%)
CHAPTER 5 : NON-SUSPENDED SLABS AND PAVEMENTS ON THE GROUND 27
485 485 5104 12
5.1 Crack Control ................................................................................................... 27
500 500 5254 10

REFERENCE ............................................................................................................. 29 YMC is certified to MS 145: 2006 with grade 500.


ANNEX ...................................................................................................................... 30
PROJECT IN PROGRESS ........................................................................................ 48
PROJECT REFERENCE ........................................................................................... 51
NEW RESIDENTIAL .................................................................................................. 59
3
Gauge length = 5.65√So. So denotes original cross-sectional area of the test piece.
4
And at least 5% greater than yield strength for d > 5 mm or 3% greater than yield strength for d < 5 mm recorded in
tensile test.

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1.3 Strength of Weld 1.5 Ribbed Fabric
MS 145: 2006 states that for ribbed wires, where the wire sizes are in the range of 5 mm to 13 Rib is the protrusion on the outside of the wire produced through cold rolled process. It benefits
mm and the wire size differential does not exceed 3 mm, the minimum average shear value in in enhancing the bond and anchorage characteristics of the wire, better consistent properties
N shall not less than 0.3 of characteristic strength multiplied by the area of the larger diameter and ductility. It also helps to minimize the crack width in concrete elements as the force is well
wire in mm .
2
distributed through bond effect of ribbed wire as compared to plain wire.

Figure 1.1: Ribbed wire of YMC fabric. Number after YMC indicates the size of wire in
1.4 Tolerance on Mass, Dimensions and Pitch mm.

MS 145: 2006 requires that:

1.4.1 Mass
The tolerance on the specified mass of the fabric per square meter shall be ± 6 %.

1.4.2 Dimensions
The tolerance on the specified linear dimensions of the main wires and the cross wires
in the sheet or roll shall be ± 25 mm or ± 0.5 %, whichever is greater.
1.6 Rust

1.4.3 Pitch MS 145: 2006, Clause 8.5 Quality, states:


The deviation on the pitch of adjacent wires shall not exceed 15 mm, or ± 7.5 % of the
nominal pitch, whichever is greater. Rusts, seams surface irregularities, shall not be the cause for rejection, provided the mass,
dimensions, cross-sectional area and the mechanical properties of a hand wire brushed test
1.4.4 Cross-sectional Dimensions specimen are not less than the requirements of this standard.
The tolerance on the cross-sectional dimension shall be ± 3 %.
Therefore, any surface rust which remains on the fabric is not harmful but in fact will increase
the bond and anchorage properties of fabric. Loose rust can be easily removed during handling
and shaking of fabric.

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2. Fabric

2.1 Preferred Wire Sizes Table 2.3: YMC Standard Fabric


The preferred millimeter nominal sizes of wire are 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10. Ribbed wires complying Fabric Nominal Wire Size Nominal Pitch Steel Area
with MS 144: 2006 are used to produce YMC steel fabric. Reference (mm) (mm) (mm2/m) Mass
(kg/m2)
Main Cross Main Cross Main Cross
2.2 Standard Fabric
Square Fabric
Standard fabric refers to the fabric with standard dimensions which have been widely used
throughout the construction industry. A6 6 6 200 200 142 142 2.22
A7 7 7 200 200 193 193 3.02
2.2.1 Fabric Reference A8 8 8 200 200 252 252 3.95
The preferred fabrics of YMC are shown in Table 2.1. A9 9 9 200 200 318 318 4.99
A10 10 10 200 200 393 393 6.16
Table 2.1: Preferred fabrics of YMC
Rectangular Fabric
Type Fabric Reference Pitch (mm) B6 6 7 100 200 283 193 3.73

A Square fabric 200 × 200 B7 7 7 100 200 385 193 4.53


B8 8 8 100 200 503 252 5.93
B Rectangular fabric 100 main wire spacing
B9 9 8 100 200 636 252 6.97
200 cross wire spacing
B10 10 8 100 200 785 252 8.14
D Small square fabric 100 x 100
Small Square Fabric

Refer to Table 2.3 in the next page for more details. D8 8 8 100 100 503 503 7.90
D9 9 9 100 100 636 636 9.98
2.2.2 Preferred Dimension D10 10 10 100 100 785 785 12.32
The preferred dimensions of fabrics of YMC are shown in Table 2.2.

Table 2.2: Preferred dimensions of fabrics of YMC


2.3 Cut-to-size Fabric
Cut-to-size fabric refers to the fabrics which are different in dimensions according to the
No. Width (m) Length (mm) designed structures. However, it complies with MS 145: 2006 in the aspects of size, pitch,
cross-sectional area and mass. YMC Mesh Sdn Bhd provides the service of engineering
1 2.0 4.8
drawing to meet the requirements in design.

2.3.1 Advantages
Cut-to-size fabric is time and cost effective due to the following reasons:
1. It offers great steel savings by reducing the wastage to the minimum level.
2. Curtailment of reinforcement can be readily manufactured in factory (Figure 2.1).
3. Placing is much faster and easier with informative labeling system and tag.

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Figure 2.1: Example of curtailment of cut-to-size fabric Figure 2.2: Rules for curtailment of reinforcement of beam and slab

0.33L 0.33L

0.15L 0.15L 0.15L


or ø 45 or ø 45

0.4AS1 0.4AS1 0.4AS1

0.1L AS1 0.2L

Specified length of
overhangs L

The reinforcement designed to resist the maximum bending moment in a member can often be
reduced over the regions where the moments are smaller. This is achieved by curtailing some 2.3.2 Elements
of the bars at appropriate points. The rules governing curtailment of bars are stated in Clause Elements of cut-to-size fabric are described in Table 2.4, available for both square and
3.12.9 (Page 111) of MS 11955. rectangular fabrics.

The general rule is that in a flexural member every bar should extend beyond the point at which Table 2.4: Elements of YMC cut-to-size fabric
it is no longer required for a distance at least equal to the greater of
Element Description
• the effective depth of the member, or
• 12 times the bar size. Main wire Diameter from 6 to 10 mm

Cross wire Diameter from 6 to 10 mm


However, the Standard also gives simplified rules for curtailment of reinforcement for beams
and slabs in Clause 3.12.10.2 and Clause 3.12.10.3 (Page 112). Fabric length Up to 6.0 m

Fabric width Up to 3 m (Type A)


The length and bending of overhangs can be specified in detail in order to meet the engineers’
Up to 2.7 m (Type B and D)
requirements.
Overhang length From 75 mm to 2.0 m

5
MS 1195: Part 1: 1991, Code of Practice for Structural Use of Concrete. Part 1: Design and Construction

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2.3.3 Application Figure 2.5: Typical L-Bend mesh
Cut-to-size fabric could be used with considerable steel savings in:
Width varies
1. Reinforcement concrete U-drain and L-drain

2. Top steel over drop panel in flat slab


Slab cover refers to engineer’s requirement
3. Shear wall fabric

4. Raft foundation
L-BendMesh U-Bend
5. Top and bottom fabric in slab Mesh

6. Etc. Depth
varies

Figure 2.3: Typical U-Bend mesh


Additional tie bars for hunching to
engineer’s requirement

U-Bend Mesh

Figure 2.4: Top mesh over support beam

Bent to engineer’s
0.33L 0.33L requirements

Specified length to
meet engineer’s
requirement

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3. Building Code Requirements

In Relation to Welded Steel Fabric


MS 1195: Part 1: 1991

PROVISION MS 1195 PROVISION MS 1195


Clauses Clauses

3.1 Bend 3.12.8.22 3.3 Laps


End anchorages in the form of hooks and bends should only (Page 110) 3.3.1 Tension Laps 3.12.8.13
be used to meet specific design requirements and should The length should be at least equal to the design tension Table 3.27
comply with BS 44666. anchorage length necessary to develop the required stress in (Page 107)
the reinforcement.
Figure 3.1: Typical bends
Main Wire 3.3.2 Compression Laps 3.12.8.15
The length should be at least 25 % greater than the Table 3.27
compression anchorage length necessary to develop the (Page 108)

Cross Wire
required stress in the reinforcement.

Radius of Bending
In the detailing of steel fabric, two cross welds are provided to
transfer the stresses.

In sidelaps of one-way slabs, half yield strength laps with


overlap of only one cross weld are acceptable. This is
commonly used in top (negative) reinforcement.
Single Bend Double Bend

Full yield strength lap should always be provided when lap


3.2 Anchorage 3.12.8 length is not specified.
At both sides of any cross-section the force in each bar Table 3.27
should be developed by an appropriate embedment length (Page 104) Figure 3.2: Type of laps.
or other end anchorage. Provided this is done, local bond
stress may be ignored. Table 3.27 (MS 1195) in Page 105
shows the values for anchorage lengths as multiples of bar
size. Generally, two welds are sufficient for welded fabric.

Full yeild strength lap Half yield strength lap

6
B5 4466: 1989: Specification for Scheduling, Dimensioning, Bending & Cutting of Steel Reinforcement for Concrete

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PROVISION MS 1195 PROVISION MS 1195
Clauses Clauses

3.4 Anchorage of Fabric Used As Links 3.12.8.7 3.7 Deflection


A link may be considered to be fully anchored when it (Page 107) Deflections may be calculated and then compared with the 3.4.6
has within the length of the anchorage either two welded serviceability requirements given in Section Three of Part Table 3.10
transverse wires or a single welded wire of a size not less 2 of Malaysian Standard by the ratio of the effective span / Table 3.11
L Table 3.12
than 1.4 times the size of the wire being anchored. effective depth ( d ratio) by deemed-to-satisfy provision.
(Page 47)
Table 3.10 (MS 1195) gives the basic effective span / effective
depth ratio and where appropriate the value should be
modified by using values from Table 3.11 and Table 3.12 (both
MS 1195).
3.5 Spacing of Reinforcement 3.12.11.1
The horizontal distance between bars should not be less (Page 112) Generally, the higher the stress in the steel, the higher the
than hagg + 5 mm, where hagg is the maximum size of the deflection. Compared to usage of high yield bars, f y = 460 N
coarse aggregate. When the bar size exceeds hagg + 5 mm, _ _
mm 2, steel fabric (because of f y = 485 N mm 2) gives higher
a spacing less than the bar size or equivalent bar size should deflection, in the region of 2.5 % to 5 % higher.
be avoided.

For maximum spacing requirements in slabs, the clear 3.12.11.2


distance between bars should not exceed the lesser of 3d or (Page 115)
750 mm.

3.6 Minimum Reinforcement in Slabs 3.12.11.5


Enough reinforcement should be provided to control, within Table 3.27
reason, cracks however caused. The minimum quantities (Page 102)
recommended are specified in Table 3.27 (MS 1195).
(a) For f y = 250, 0.24 % of gross concrete area
(b) For f y = 460 or higher, 0.13 % of gross concrete area

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4. Design

4.1 Substitution of Steel Reinforcement Table 4.1 and Table 4.2 show the conversions of common bar diameter and spacing for easy
YMC Fabric could substitute conventional steel bars in structural concrete members due to reference purpose. Suitable fabric reference could be selected from fabric table based on
the structural analysis and design is in accordance with standard code of practice such as MS converted equivalent steel area.
1195. However, the main differences are:
_
Table 4.1: Equivalent steel area for High Yield Bars (f y = 460 N mm 2)
_ _
(a) the steel yield stress f y for steel fabric is 500 N mm 2 as compared to 250 mm 2 for mild
_ Spacing
steel bars and 460 mm 2 for high yield bars, Bar Size
100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 300

(b) serviceability limit state because of higher yield stress used in fabric design. Y10 Bar 785 628 524 449 393 349 314 286 262
Fabric 722 577 482 413 361 321 288 263 241

4.1.1 Conversion Formula Bar 1131 905 754 646 565 503 452 411 377
Y12
To find equivalent fabric area, the general conversion formula is defined below. Fabric 1040 832 693 594 519 462 415 378 346

f y,bar Y16 Bar 2011 1608 1340 1149 1005 894 804 731 670
A fabric = A s,req X Fabric 1850 1479 1232 1057 924 822 739 672 616
f y,fabric Bar 3142 2513 2094 1795 1571 1396 1257 1142 1047
Y20
Fabric 2890 2311 1926 1651 1445 1284 1156 1050 963
A s,req area of steel bar required in design (mm2/m)
f y,bar yield strength of steel bar in design Remark: Cross-sectional area in mm2/m width. Figure shown in BOLD are equivalent area in

_ _
(i.e. 250 N mm 2 for mild steel bar, 460 N mm 2 for high yield bar) YMC fabric.
f y,fabric yield strength of fabric
(in the case of YMC, 500 N mm 2)
_
Example 4.1

Main Distribution

460
f
High yield bar ( y = 460 N mm 2),
_
A fabric = A s,req X Reinforcement bar specified Y12-250 Y10-300
500

= 0.92 A s,req Area of steel (mm2) 452 262


Equivalent area in fabric (Table 4.2) 415 241

Select YB8 (Table 2.3) 503 252

The designer could specify YMC YB8 selected from Table 2.3. Alternatively, conversion formula
could be used.

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4.2 Design Example 4.2: Design calculation of One-way slab for steel reinforcement MS 145:2006
File Name : YMC Mesh Sdn Bhd
4.2.1 One-way Spanning Solid Slab Project :
Structure :
The Clause 3.5.2.4 (Page 52) of MS 1195 states that where the spans of the slab are Section :
approximately equal and the conditions of Clause 3.5.2.3 (Page 51) from the same Slab No. 1
Standard are met, the moments and shears in continuous one-way spanning slabs may Grid Line Panel 1 Panel 2
Steel, fy (N mm-2) 500
be calculated using the coefficients given in Table 3.13 (MS 1195). Concrete (N mm-2) 25
Thickness, H (mm) 125
Cover - Bottom 25
The curtailment of reinforcement designed in accordance with Table 3.13 (MS 1195) - Top 25
may be carried out in accordance with the provisions of Clause 3.12.10 (Page 112) of Length, Ly (m) 6.5
With, Lx (m) 3
the mentioned Standard.
Basic Span/Eff. D Ratio 26 Continuous
Loading
Finishes (kN m-2) 0.3
The design of one-way spanning slab by using coefficients in Table 3.13 (MS 1195) is
Partition (kN m-2) 0.3
illustrated in Example 4.2. Imposed Load, IL (kN m-2) 3
Dead Load, DL (kN m-2) 3.6
n = 1.4DL + 1.6IL 9.84
Ly/Lx 1 Way 2.05
EFF. Depth, D - Bottom 96.5
- Top 89.5
YMC Fabric Provided Dia.(mm) Spacing Dia.(mm) Spacing
Bottom Main X-axis 7 200
Cross Y-axis 7 200
Top Main X-axis 7 100
Cross Y-axis 7 200
Select Type of Panel 4 2 short edges dis

B.M. Coeff/B.Moment Coeff kNm Coeff kNm


M = Coeff x wL x 2 +Mx 0.086 7.62
+My 0.034 3.01
-Mx 0.086 7.62
-My 0 0
Area of Steel (mm2) Reqd Provd Reqd Provd
Min Ast, 0.13%BH 162.5
La = 5 + (0.25 - K/9)^(1/2) = < 0.95 0.95 0.96
Ast = B.M/(0.87 x 500 x La x D) + Ax 191.98 192 OK
+ Ay 75,51 192 OK
- Ax 205.92 385 OK
- Ay 0 192 OK
K = M/BD2Fcu 0.0331
Check Deflection (MS1195 Table 3.13) OK
Service Stress (N mm-2) 310.32
M/BD2 0.82
Mod. Factor = OR < 2 1.36 1.36
Allowable span, m (> Lx) 3.41
Notes:
YMC fabric with
• Top Mesh: main wire@100mm spacing c/c and O 7 mm; cross wire@200mm spacing c/c and O 7mm.
• Bottom Mesh: main wire and cross wire @ 200 mm spacing c/c and O 7 mm.

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Figure 4.1: One-way slab 4.2.2 Two-way Spanning Solid Slab

YMC Mesh Sdn. Bhd. has adopted the design method of two-way spanning slab from
MS 1195, Clause 3.5.3 (Page 52). The bending moments and shear force coefficients
are given in Table 3.14 and Table 3.15 of the Standard respectively.

The reinforcement is to be detailed in accordance with the simplified rules for curtailment
of bars in slabs given in Clause 3.12.10.3 (Page 112) of the Standard.

The design of two-way spanning slab by using coefficients in Table 3.14 and Table 3.15
(MS 1195) is illustrated in Example 4.3.
Slab Cover 25mm

0.33L
0.33L

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Example 4.3: Design calculation of Two-way slab for steel reinforcement MS 145: 2006 Figure 4.2: Two-way slab
File Name : YMC Mesh Sdn Bhd
Project :
Structure :
Section :
Slab No. 1 2
Grid Line Panel 1 Panel 2
Steel, fy (N mm-2) 500
Concrete (N mm-2) 25
Thickness, H (mm) 125
Cover - Bottom 25
- Top 25

0.33L
Length, Ly (m) 5
With, Lx (m) 4
Basic Span/Eff. D Ratio 26 Continuous
Loading
Finishes (kN m-2) 0.3
Partition (kN m-2) 0.3
Imposed Load, IL (kN m-2) 3

0.33L
Slab Cover 25mm
Dead Load, DL (kN m-2) 3.6
n = 1.4DL + 1.6IL 9.84
Ly/Lx 2 Way 1.25
EFF. Depth, D - Bottom 95.5
- Top 86.5
YMC Fabric Provided Dia.(mm) Spacing Dia.(mm) Spacing
Bottom Main X-axis 9 200
Cross Y-axis 9 200
Top Main X-axis 9 200
Cross Y-axis 9 200
Select Type of Panel 4 2 short edges dis

B.M. Coeff/B.Moment Coeff kNm Coeff kNm


M = Coeff x wL x 2 +Mx 0.051 8.03

0.33L
+My 0.034 5.35
-Mx 0.069 10.86
-My 0.045 7.08
Area of Steel (mm2) Reqd Provd Reqd Provd
Min Ast, 0.13%BH 162.5
La = 5 + (0.25 - K/9)^(1/2) = < 0.95 0.95 0.96
Ast = B.M/(0.87 x 500 x La x D) + Ax 203.46 318 OK

0.33L
+ Ay 135.64 318 OK
- Ax 303.90 318 OK
- Ay 198.20 318 OK
K = M/BD2Fcu 0.0352
Check Deflection (MS1195 Table 3.13) OK
Service Stress (N mm-2) 199.98
M/BD2 0.88
Mod. Factor = OR < 2 1.85 1.85
Allowable span, m (> Lx) 4.59
Notes:
YMC fabric with
• Main wire @ 200 mm spacing c/c and O 9 mm,
• Cross wire @ 200 mm spacing c/c and O 9 mm.

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4.2.3 Flat Slab Figure 4.3: Flat slab
Flat slab is a slab with or without drops and supported, generally without beams, by
columns with or without columns heads. It may be solid or may have recesses formed
on the soffit so that the soffit comprises a series of ribs in two directions (waffle) or
coffered slab.7

The design of flat slab is covered in Clause 3.7 (Page 64) of MS 1195. The slab
reinforcement is designed to resist moment derived from Table 3.12 and Table 3.17
of the mentioned Standard. Reinforcement can be detailed in accordance with the
simplified rules given in Clause 3.12.10.3 (Page 112) and Figure 3.25 (Page 114) of the
mentioned Standard. The design of internal panel by using simplified method as stated
in Clause 3.7.2.7 (Page 67) of MS 1195 is illustrated in Figure 4.3.

Figure 3.12: Division of panels in flat slabs (MS 1195: Part 1: 1991, Page 69)

7
MS 1195: Part 1: 1995, Clause 1.2.2.1, Page 12.

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4.2.4 Pad Footing Figure 4.4: Axially loaded pad footing
The design of pad footings is covered in MS 1195, Clause 3.11.3 (Page 97). The size of
a foundation bearing directly on the ground depends on the safe bearing pressure of the
soil, which is taken to mean the bearing pressure that can be imposed without causing
excessive settlement. In general, site load tests and laboratory tests on soil samples
should be carried out to determine soil properties for foundation design.

The design loading to be considered when calculating the base areas should be those
apply to the serviceability limit state whereas in the design to determine the structural
strength of the bases, that is the thickness of the bases and the areas of reinforcement,
should be based on the loading and the resultant ground pressures corresponding to the
ultimate limit state. Assumptions to be used in the design of pad footings are set out in
Clause 3.11.2 (Page 97) of the mentioned Standard.

The design of axially loaded base is illustrated in Figure 4.4.

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5. Non-suspended Slabs And Pavements On The Ground
Figure 4.5: Load bearing wall (Shear wall)

YMC Fabric is ideal for use as reinforcement in concrete slabs on the ground. Factors to be considered
are
(a) Load size and frequency
(b) Soil type under the slabs
(c) Presence of ground water
(d) Provision for drainage of surface water

Table 5.1: YMC Fabric in typical slabs on the ground

Slab Thickness Location and


Application Soil
(mm) YMC Fabric

Domestic: Dry and stable 100 Top YMC YA6


Cars and foot traffic Needs compaction of base 110 Top YMC YA7
Light industrial and commercial; Dry and stable 125 Top YMC YA7
Small trucks Needs compaction of base 150 Top YMC YA8
Dry and stable 150 Top YMC YA9
Ware house and pavement for
trucks Needs compaction of base 200 Top YMC YA7
Top YMC YA7

5.1 Crack Control



YMC fabric will control the spacing and size of cracks in the concrete that results from initial
shrinkage, temperature changes and minor soil movement. The anchorage provided at each
welded joint is able to keep any concrete cracks small and closely spaced.

At joints in the slabs dowel bars should be placed in the centre of the slab so that the two
adjacent slabs do not move vertically out of position. A typical dowel arrangement for slabs up
to 125 mm in thickness would be 13 mm diameter dowel bars with length 600 mm spaced at
YMC Showing Fabric Reinforcement
250 mm centre. For slabs 150 mm to 200 mm in thickness, 13 mm diameter dowel bars with
Reference Slab Ref. Length (m) Width (m) Bending Quantity
length 800 mm spaced at 200 mm centre could be used.
YMC YB7 K14 3.35 2.30
YMC YB7 K15 2.70 2.30
YMC YA9 K16 3.35 2.35
YMC YA9 K17 1.20 6.10

- 26 - - 27 -
REFERENCE
REFERENCE
Figure 5.1: Typical dowel bar arrangement
MS 145: 2006, Welded Steel Fabric for The Reinforcement of Concrete – Specification (Third
YMC Fabric 30 mm
Dowel bar in centre
of slab
from top of slab Revision)

MS 144: 2006, Cold Reduced Mild Steel Wire for The Reinforcement of Concrete – Specification
(Third Revision)

MS 1195: Part 1: 1991, Code of Practice for Structural Use of Concrete: Part 1: Design and
Grease or wrap one end of
Dowel bar Construction

MS 146: 2000, Specification for Hot Rolled Steel Bars for The Reinforcement of Concrete
(Second Revision)

- 28 - - 29 -
ANNEX
ANNEX Annex 2: Fabric notation (MS 145: 2006, Page 13)

Annex 1: Flow Chart of YMC Cut-to-size Mesh Procedure

Appointed by Client / Contractor


to propose the use of YMC Cut-to-size Mesh design.

Client / Contractor provides drawings.

Propose and submit the drawing / conversion / endorsement of YMC Cut-to-size Mesh
to Consultant Engineer for approval.

Discussion of technical and design concept for the confirmation from Consultant.
Require for re-submitting after amendment (if any).

Confirmed order by Client / Contractor.

Site supervisor will control and lay the YMC Cut-to-size Mesh accordingly based
on the drawing provided.
Site services will be provided such as site monitoring of YMC Cut-to-size Mesh laying,
support of technical, and photo taking for project reference.

Key:
L Length of the main wires (which are not necessarily the longer wires) in the sheet
W Length of the cross wires
O1 and O2 Overhangs of the main wires
O3 and O4 Side overhangs of the cross wires
Pm Pitch of the main wires
Pc Pitch of the cross wires

- 30 - - 31 -
Annex 3: Related drawings from MS 1195: Part 1: 1991 Figure 3.7: Definition of panels and bays (Page 51)

Figure 3.25: Simplified detailing rules for slabs (Page 114)

Annex 4: Steel Bar / Wire Cross-sectional Area

Dia. Wire Area Cross-sectional Area (mm2/m) at Spacing (mm)


(mm) (mm2) 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 300

25 490.0 6546 4909 3928 3273 2805 2455 2182 1964 1785 1636

20 314.2 4189 3142 2514 2095 1795 1571 1396 1257 1143 1047

16 201.1 2681 2011 1609 1341 1149 1005 894 804 731 670

13 132.7 1770 1327 1062 885 759 664 590 531 483 442

12 113.1 1508 1131 905 754 646 566 503 452 411 377

11 95.0 1267 950 760 634 543 475 422 380 346 317

10 78.6 1047 786 628 524 449 393 349 314 286 262

9 63.6 848 636 509 424 364 318 283 255 231 212

8 50.3 670 503 402 335 287 252 223 201 183 168

7 38.5 513 385 308 257 220 193 171 154 140 128

6 28.3 377 283 226 189 162 142 126 113 103 94

5 19.6 262 196 157 131 112 98 87 79 71 65

4 12.6 168 126 101 84 72 63 56 50 46 42

- 32 - - 33 -
Annex 5: Related tables from MS 1195: Part 1: 1991 Annex 5: Related tables from MS 1195: Part 1: 1991

Table 3.15: Bending moment coefficients for rectangular panels supported on four sides Table 3.16: Shear force coefficients for uniformly loaded rectangular panels supported


with provision for torsion at corners (Page 56) on four sides with provision for torsion at corners (Page 60)
Short span coefficients, β sx Long span β vx for values of ly / lx
Type of coefficients, Type of panel β vy
panel and Values of ly / lx β xy, for all and location 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.75 2
moments values of
considered 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.75 2 Four edges continuous
ly / lx Continuous edge 0.33 0.36 0.39 0.41 0.43 0.45 0.48 0.50 0.33
Interior panels
Negative moment at One short edge
continuous edge 0.031 0.037 0.042 0.046 0.050 0.053 0.059 0.063 0.032 discontinuous
Positive moment at Continuous edge 0.36 0.39 0.42 0.44 0.45 0.47 0.50 0.52 0.36
mid-span 0.024 0.028 0.032 0.035 0.037 0.040 0.044 0.048 0.024 Discontinuous edge - - - - - - - - 0.24
One short edge One long edge
discontinuous discontinuous
Negative moment at Continuous edge 0.36 0.40 0.44 0.47 0.49 0.51 0.55 0.59 0.36
continuous edge 0.039 0.044 0.048 0.052 0.055 0.058 0.063 0.067 0.037 Discontinuous edge 0.24 0.27 0.29 0.31 0.32 0.34 0.36 0.38 -
Positive moment at
mid-span 0.029 0.033 0.036 0.039 0.041 0.043 0.047 0.050 0.028 Two adjacent edges
discontinuous
One long edge Continuous edge 0.40 0.44 0.47 0.50 0.52 0.54 0.57 0.60 0.40
discontinuous Discontinuous edge 0.26 0.29 0.31 0.33 0.34 0.35 0.38 0.40 0.26
Negative moment at
continuous edge 0.039 0.049 0.056 0.062 0.068 0.073 0.082 0.089 0.037 Two short edges
Positive moment at discontinuous
mid-span 0.030 0.036 0.042 0.047 0.051 0.055 0.062 0.067 0.028 Continuous edge 0.40 0.43 0.45 0.47 0.48 0.49 0.52 0.54 -
Two adjacent edges Discontinuous edge - - - - - - - - 0.26
discontinuous Two long edges
Negative moment at discontinuous
continuous edge 0.047 0.056 0.063 0.069 0.074 0.078 0.087 0.093 0.045 Continuous edge - - - - - - - - 0.40
Positive moment at Discontinuous edge 0.26 0.30 0.33 0.36 0.38 0.40 0.44 0.47 -
mid-span 0.036 0.042 0.047 0.051 0.055 0.059 0.065 0.070 0.034
Two short edges Three edges
discontinuous discontinuous (one
Negative moment at long edge continuous)
continuous edge 0.046 0.050 0.054 0.057 0.060 0.062 0.067 0.070 - Continuous edge 0.45 0.48 0.51 0.53 0.55 0.57 0.60 0.63 -
Positive moment at Discontinuous edge 0.30 0.32 0.34 0.35 0.36 0.37 0.39 0.41 0.29
mid-span 0.034 0.038 0.040 0.043 0.045 0.047 0.050 0.053 0.034 Three edges
Two long edges discontinuous (one
discontinuous short edge continuous)
Negative moment at Continuous edge - - - - - - - - 0.45
continuous edge - - - - - - - - 0.045 Discontinuous edge 0.29 0.33 0.36 0.38 0.40 0.42 0.45 0.48 0.30
Positive moment at
mid-span 0.034 0.046 0.056 0.065 0.072 0.078 0.091 0.100 0.034 Four edges
discontinuous
Three edges Discontinuous edge 0.33 0.36 0.39 0.41 0.43 0.45 0.48 0.50 0.33
discontinuous (one
long edge continuous)
Negative moment at
continuous edge 0.057 0.065 0.071 0.076 0.081 0.084 0.092 0.098 -
Positive moment at Table 3.10: Basic span / effective depth ratios for rectangular or flanged beam (Page 48)
mid-span 0.043 0.048 0.053 0.057 0.060 0.063 0.069 0.074 0.044
Three edges Support conditions Rectangular sections Flanged beams with
discontinuous (one bw / b < 0.3
short edge continuous)
Negative moment at Cantilever 7 5.6
continuous edge - - - - - - - - 0.058
Positive moment at Simply supported 20 16.0
mid-span 0.042 0.054 0.063 0.071 0.078 0.084 0.096 0.105 0.044
Four edges
Continuous 26 20.8
discontinuous
Positive moment at
mid-span 0.055 0.065 0.074 0.081 0.087 0.092 0.103 0.111 0.056

- 34 - - 35 -
Annex 6: Sample of Product Certificate

Table 3.29: Ultimate anchorage bond lengths and lap lengths as multiples of bar size
(Page 109)

Grade 460
Reinforcement type Grade
250 plain Deformed Deformed
Plain Fabric
type 1 type 2

Concrete cube strength 25


Tension anchorage and lap length 39 72 51 41 31

1.4 x tension lap 55 101 71 57 44

2.0 x tension lap 78 143 101 81 62

Compression anchorage length 32 58 41 32 25

Compression lap length 39 72 51 40 31


Concrete cube strength 30
Tension anchorage and lap length 36 66 46 37 29

1.4 x tension lap 50 92 64 52 40

2.0 x tension lap 71 131 92 74 57

Compression anchorage length 29 53 37 29 23

Compression lap length 36 66 46 37 29

Concrete cube strength 35


Tension anchorage and lap length 33 61 43 34 27

1.4 x tension lap 46 85 60 48 37

2.0 x tension lap 66 121 85 68 53

Compression anchorage length 27 49 34 27 21

Compression lap length 33 61 43 34 27

Concrete cube strength 40


Tension anchorage and lap length 31 57 40 32 25

1.4 x tension lap 43 80 56 45 35

2.0 x tension lap 62 113 80 64 49

Compression anchorage length 25 46 32 26 20

Compression lap length 31 57 40 32 25


NOTE: The values are rounded up to the whole number and the lengths derived from these values may
differ slightly from those calculated directly for each bar or wire size.

- 36 - - 37 -
Annex 7: Licence of YMC Issued by SIRIM QAS International Sdn Bhd Annex 8: Schedule of YMC Issued by SIRIM QAS International Sdn Bhd

- 38 - - 39 -
Annex 9: Perakuan Pematuhan Standard (Bahan Binaan) Issued by CIDB Annex 9: Perakuan Pematuhan Standard (Bahan Binaan) Issued by CIDB (continued)

- 40 - - 41 -
Annex 10: Description of product label Annex 11: Process at site

HANDLING FULL LAPPING

OVERHANGS TOP MESH LAYING

EDGES TOP MESH LAYING CASTING

- 42 - - 43 -
Annex 11: Process at site (continued) Annex 11: Process at site (continued)

WAY BENDING SHEAR WALL DESIGN SHEAR WALL SYSTEM

DROP BENDING ANCHORAGE BENDING SHEAR WALL SHEAR WALL SLAB DESIGN

TRANSPORTATION SERVICE LABELING OF FABRIC SUSPENDED SLAB TRANSPORTATION SERVICE

- 44 - - 45 -
Annex 12: Facilities Annex 13: Conversion Table
The bold figures in the central columns can be read as either the metric or the British Imperial measure. Thus 1 inch =
2.54 centimetres; or 1 centimetre = 0.3937 inch. For tens, move decimal point one place to the right, for hundreds two
places, etc. Then convert higher quantities thus : 2 ft. 9 in. = 33 in. = 76.2 cm. + 7.62 cm = 83.82 cm.

Linear Area Capacity

Inches Centimetres Sq. Yards Sq. Metres Pints Litres


.393700 1 2.54000 1.19599 1 .83613 1.75976 1 .56826
.787402 2 5.08000 2.39198 2 1.67226 3.51952 2 1.13652
1.181102 3 7.62000 3.58797 3 2.50839 5.27928 3 1.70478
WELDING MACHINE 1.574803
1.968504
4 10.16000
5 12.70000
4.78396
5.97995
4 3.34453
5 4.18065
7.03904
8.79880
4 2.27305
5 2.84131
2.362205 6 15.24000 7.17594 6 5.01678 10.55856 6 3.40957
2.755906 7 17.78000 8.37193 7 5.85291 12.31832 7 3.97783
3.149606 8 20.32000 9.56792 8 6.68904 14.07808 8 4.54609
3.543307 9 22.86000 10.76391 9 7.52517 15.83784 9 5.11435

Yards Metres Acres Hectares Gallons Litres


1.093613 1 .91440 2.47105 1 .40469 .21997 1 4.54609
2.187226 2 1.82880 4.94210 2 .80938 .43994 2 9.09218
3.280839 3 2.74320 7.41315 3 1.21407 .65991 3 13.63827
4.374452 4 3.65760 9.88420 4 1.61876 .87988 4 18.18436
5.468065 5 4.57200 12.35525 5 2.02345 1.09985 5 22.73045
6.561678 6 5.48640 14.82630 6 2.42814 1.31982 6 27.27654
7.655291 7 6.40080 17.29735 7 2.83283 1.53979 7 31.82263
8.748904 8 7.31520 19.76840 8 3.23752 1.75976 8 36.36872
9.842517 9 8.22960 22.23945 9 3.64221 1.97973 9 40.91481
SHEAR CUTTER Miles Kilometres Sq. Miles Sq. Kilometres Weights
.621371 1 1.60934 .38610 1 2.58999
1.242742 2 3.21869 .77220 2 5.17998 Ounces Grams
1.864113 3 4.82803 1.15830 3 7.76997 .035274 1 28.349523
2.485484 4 6.43738 1.54440 4 10.35996 .070548 2 56.699046
3.106855 5 8.04672 1.93050 5 12.94995 .105812 3 85.048569
3.728226 6 9.65606 2.31660 6 15.53994 .141096 4 113.398092
4.349597 7 11.26541 2.70270 7 18.12993 .176370 5 141.747615
4.970968 8 12.87475 3.08880 8 20.71992 .211644 6 170.097138
5.592339 9 14.48410 3.47490 9 23.30991 .246918 7 198.446661
.282192 8 226.796184
Area Volume .317466 9 255.145707

q. Inches Sq. Centimetres


S Cu. Feet Cu. Metres Pounds Kilograms
.15500 1 6.45160 35.31467 1 .02832 2.204622 1 .453592
BENDING MACHINE .31000 2 12.90320
.46500 3 19.35480
70.62934
105.94401
2 .05664
3 .08496
4.409244
6.613866
2 .907184
3 1.360776
.62000 4 25.80640 141.25868 4 .11328 8.818488 4 1.814368
.77500 5 32.25800 176.57335 5 .14160 11.023110 5 2.267960
.93000 6 38.70960 211.88802 6 .16992 13.227732 6 2.721552
1.08500 7 45.16120 247.20269 7 .19824 15.432354 7 3.175144
1.24000 8 51.61280 282.51736 8 .22656 17.636976 8 3.628736
1.39500 9 58.06440 317.83203 9 .25488 19.841598 9 4.082328

Sq. Feet Sq. Metres Cu. Yards Cu. Metres Tons* Kilograms
10.76391 1 .09290 1.30795 1 .76455 .000984 1 1016.0469
21.52782 2 .18580 2.61590 2 1.52910 .001968 2 2032.0938
32.29173 3 .27870 3.92385 3 2.29365 .002952 3 3048.1407
43.05564 4 .37160 5.23180 4 3.05820 .003936 4 4064.1876
53.81955 5 .46450 6.53975 5 3.82275 .004920 5 5080.2345
TENSILE TEST 64.58346 6 .55740 7.84770 6 4.58730 .005904 6 6096.2814
MACHINE 75.34737
86.11128
7 .65030
8 .74320
9.15565
10.46360
7 5.35185
8 6.11640
.006888
.007872
7 7112.3283
8 8128.3752
96.87519 9 .83610 11.77155 9 6.88095 .008856 9 9144.4221
*1 metric ton = 1,000kg

- 46 - - 47 -
PROJECT IN PROGRESS PROJECT IN PROGRESS
PROJECT IN PROGRESS PROJECT IN PROGRESS

180 Units PPR Housing


Project at Tanjung Tuang

Pr1ma Premier Matang

Liberty Grove TLS Marketing Sdn Bhd - Warehouse

- 48 - - 49 -
PROJECT IN PROGRESS PROJECT REFERENCE
PROJECT IN PROGRESS PROJECT REFERENCE

Unicity Sibu

Unimas

- 50 - - 51 -
PROJECT REFERENCE PROJECT REFERENCE
PROJECT REFERENCE PROJECT REFERENCE

- 52 - - 53 -
PROJECT REFERENCE PROJECT REFERENCE
PROJECT REFERENCE PROJECT REFERENCE

- 54 - - 55 -
PROJECT REFERENCE PROJECT REFERENCE
PROJECT REFERENCE PROJECT REFERENCE
Stutong Commerial Complex

Merdeka Plaza

XinTianDi Commercial Centre

Song Plaza

- 56 - - 57 -
PROJECT REFERENCE NEW RESIDENTIAL
PROJECT REFERENCE NEW RESIDENTIAL

Sekolah Kebangsaan
Gita No. 2

- 58 - - 59 -
NEW RESIDENTIAL
NEW RESIDENTIAL

- 60 -