Solar Collector
•Mohamad Kharseh
•Email:m.Kharseh@gmail.com
1
Useful Heat Gained By The Collector
Not all of solar radiation hits the sloped surface can be used:
qu = S⋅ Ap − ql
The absorbed solar radiation can be derived from the beam and diffuse
radiation incident on the collector.
360 ⋅ n
Gon = Gsc ⋅ 1 + 0.033 ⋅ cos
365
τ b = ao + a1 ⋅ e( −k / cos θ z )
τ d = 0.271 − 0.294 ⋅ τ b
360 ⋅ n
Gc = (τ b + τ d ) ⋅ Gsc ⋅ 1 + 0.033 ⋅ cos ⋅ (cosφ ⋅ cosδ ⋅ cosω + sinφ ⋅ sinδ )
365 GdT = Gcd ⋅ Rd
cos θ
Rb =
cos θ z
GrT = Gc ⋅ Rr
1 + cos β
Rd =
2
1 − cos β
Rr =
2
4
Transmissivityabsorptivity Product Of Beam
Diffuse reflectivity of
Transmissivity of the cover
the glass
1
S = (τα )b ⋅ IbT + (τα )d ⋅ ( )
Cover system
IdT + IrT
τ(1α)ρd
τ
Absorptivity of
the absorber
τ(1α) Absorber
5
τα τα(1α)ρd τα(1α)2 ρ2d
Transmissivityabsorptivity Product Of Beam
τr, τa, τ
τ = τr ⋅ τa
7
Angle of incidence
Transmissivity due to Reflection and Refraction
sin 2 (θ r − θ ) tan 2 (θ r − θ )
ρI = ρ II =
sin 2 (θ r + θ ) tan 2 (θ r + θ )
sinθ nglass
=
sinθ r nair θ
(nglass/nair = 1.526)
θr
9
Transmissivity due to Absorption
τa = e( )
−K ⋅δc
Bouger’s Law: cosθr
11
Solar Energy Absorbed in Absorber
at incident angle θ
at incident angle θd
at incident angle θg
12
Solar Energy Absorbed in Absorber
14
Useful Heat Gained By The Collector
Not all of solar radiation hits the sloped surface can be used:
qu = S⋅ Ap − ql
(
q l = U l ⋅ A p ⋅ Tpm − Ta )
Tpm = Mean temperature of absorber plates
Ta = Ambient air temperature
16
Heat Losses from Collector
•Whenever the absorber plate is warmer than the
ambient air, heat is lost from the collector through:
(
qt = Ut ⋅ Ap ⋅ Tpm − Ta )
• the cover (top), [W]
qb = U b ⋅ Ap ⋅ (Tpm − Ta )
• the bottom, [W]
(
qs = Us ⋅ Ap ⋅ Tpm − Ta )
• the sides, [W]
17
Overall Heat Loss Coefficient
Then, the total heat losses is:
q l = qt + q b + qs
ql = U l ⋅ Ap ⋅ (Tpm − Ta )
U l = Ut + U b + Us
qu
19
Bottom Heat Losses Coefficient
•The heat losses coefficient through the bottom is
represented by two series resistors, R3 and R4. It is
possible to assume R4 is zero:
1 λ
Ub = =
R3 δ b
20
Side Loss Coefficient
Similarly, the heat transfer coefficient for the collector side is:
2 ⋅ L3 ⋅ (L1 + L2 ) λ
Us = ⋅
L1 ⋅ L2 δs
( )
f = 1 + 0.089 ⋅ α a − 0.1166 ⋅ α a ⋅ ε p ⋅ (1 + 0.07866N )
N = number of covers
C = 520 ⋅ ( 1 − 0.000051 ⋅ β ); 0 ≤ β ≤ 70
2
σ = StefanBoltzmann constant
εp = emissivity of plate
100
e = 0.43 ⋅ ( 1 − ) εg = emissivity of glass (0.88)
Tpm
αa = convection coefficient of ambient air (W/m2K)
νwind =Wind speed of ambient air (m/sec)
22
β = collector tilt (degree)
Heat Balance of Collector
( (
qu = Ap S − U l Tpm − Ta ))
23
Absorber Crosssection
•The useful heat gained by the absorber plate can be divided into:
1.the heat gained from the area above the tube
2.the heat gained from the fin
tube fin
WDo
W 24
Heat Gain per unit Length
The useful heat transfer rate to the fluid in the absorber crosssection is:
qu′ = [F ⋅ (W − Do ) + Do ] ⋅ [S − U l (Tb − Ta )]
tanh[m ⋅ (W − Do )/ 2]
F=
m ⋅ (W − Do )/ 2
Hyperbolic
tangent
Do= tube outer diameter
W = distance between tubes
Where m is :
Tb = local absorber temperature above the bond
m = (Ul/λpδp)½
λp = thermal conductivity of absorber plate
δp = thickness of absorber plate 25
Collector Efficiency Factor, F′
qu′ = [F ⋅ (W − Do ) + Do ] ⋅ [S − U l (Tb − Ta )]
To relate this expression to the local fluid temperature that results from
this heat transfer, the collector efficiency factor, F’, is introduced:
U0 1
F' = =
Ul 1 1
WU l +
U l ⋅ [F (W − Do ) + Do ] πDi α f
qu′ = F ′ ⋅ W ⋅ [S − U l (Tf − Ta )]
27
Heat Gain in Crosssection
dy
y
Number of tube in
the absorber plate
Ul ⋅n ⋅W ⋅F '
 y
Tf (y)Ta S/U l m ⋅c p
=e
Tfi Ta S/U l
Ul ⋅ Ap⋅F'

Tfo Ta S/U l m ⋅c p
= e
Tfi Ta S/U l 29
Heat Removal Factor, FR
•The heat removal factor, which relates the actual heat gain to the
maximum heat gain, is define as:
Ul ⋅ Ap
mc p
− F' ⋅
m ⋅Cp
FR = 1 − e
U l Ap
30
Heat Gain in Crosssection
qu = Ap ⋅ FR [S − U l (Tfi − Ta )]
31
Heat Gain in Crosssection
•Using FR the useful heat gain can now be determined
based on the inlet temperature.
• But the overall heat loss coefficient, Ul, is a function of the
mean plate temperature, Tpm
− F' ⋅ l p
U ⋅A
mc p m ⋅Cp qu = Ap ⋅ FR [S − U l (Tfi − Ta )]
FR = 1 − e
U l Ap
U0 1
F' = =
Ul 1 1
WU l +
U l ⋅ [F (W − Do ) + Do ] πDi α f
U l = Ut + U b + Us
−1
Ut =
N
+
1
+
(
σ ⋅ Tpm
2
)(
+ Ta2 ⋅ Tpm + Ta )
+ − + ⋅ ε
C Tpm − Ta
e αa 1 2 N f 1 0.133 p
⋅ + −N
T + ε p + 0.00591⋅ N ⋅ α a εg 32
pm N f
Mean Plate Temperature
1. Guess a first value of Ul (2 – 10 W/m2,K) and calculate
the heat gain, qu.
2. Tpm can then be calculated from the original heat gain
equation:
( (
qu = Ap S − U l Tpm − Ta ))
ηi=
qu
=
( )
m c p T fo T fi FR
= [SU (T T )]
L fi a
Ap I T Ap I T IT 34
Instantaneous Collector Efficiency
•The efficiency curve for a collector is plotted as a function of (T fi – Ta)/IT
[TfiTa/IT]⋅103 [K⋅m2/W]
The efficiency curve yields a straight line since FR, (τα) and Ul are
fairly constant for a collector type when the flow rate is constant
35
S = (τα)b ⋅ GbT + (τα)d ⋅ (GdT + GrT )
τ ⋅α
(τα ) =
1 − (1 − α )ρd
qu = Ap ⋅ FR [S − U l (Tfi − Ta )]
− F' ⋅ l p
U ⋅A
U0 1
mc p m ⋅Cp F' = =
FR = 1 − e Ul 1 1
U l Ap WU l +
U l ⋅ [F (W − Do ) + Do ] πDi α f
U l = Ut + U b + Us
−1
Ut =
N
+
1
+
( 2 2
)(
σ ⋅ Tpm + Ta ⋅ Tpm + Ta )
2N + f − 1 + 0.133 ⋅ ε p
C Tpm − Ta
e αa 1
⋅ + −N
T ε p + 0.00591⋅ N ⋅ α a εg 36
pm N +f