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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The system safety concept calls for a risk management strategy based on identification, analysis of hazards and application of remedial controls using a systems-based approach. This is different from traditional safety strategies which rely on control of conditions and causes of an accident based either on the Epidemiological analysis or as a result of investigation of individual past accidents.. The concept of system safety is useful in demonstrating adequacy of technologies when difficulties are faced with probabilistic risk analysis. The underlying principle is one of synergy: a whole is more than sum of its parts. Systems-based approach to safety requires the application of scientific, technical and managerial skills to hazard identification, hazard analysis, and elimination, control, or management of hazards throughout the life-cycle of a system, program, project or an activity or a product. "Hazop" is one of several techniques available for identification of hazards.
• o • o o • •
1 System approach 1.1 Root cause analysis 2 Use in other fields 2.1 Safety engineering 2.2 Weapon system safety 3 References 4 External links
A system is defined as a set or group of interacting, interrelated or interdependent elements or parts that are organized and integrated to form a collective unity or a unified whole to achieve a common objective. This definition lays emphasis on the interactions between the parts of a system and the external environment to perform a specific task or function in the context of an operational environment. This focus on interactions is to take a view on the expected or unexpected
demands (inputs) that will be placed on the system and see whether necessary and sufficient resources are available to process the demands. These might take form of stresses. These stresses can be either expected, as part of normal operations, or unexpected, as part of unforeseen acts or conditions that produce beyond-normal (i.e., abnormal) stresses. This definition of a system, therefore, includes not only the product or the process but also the influences that the surrounding environment (including human interactions) may have on the product’s or process’s safety performance. Conversely, system safety also takes into account the effects of the system on its surrounding environment. Thus, a correct definition and management of interfaces becomes very important. Broader definitions of a system are the hardware, software, human systems integration, procedures and training. Therefore system safety as part of the systems engineering process should systematically address all of these domains and areas in engineering and operations in a concerted fashion to prevent, eliminate and control hazards. A “system", therefore, has implicit as well as explicit definition of boundaries to which the systematic process of hazard identification, hazard analysis and control is applied. The system can range in complexity from a manned spacecraft to an autonomous machine tool. The system safety concept helps the system designer(s) to model, analyse, gain awareness about, understand and eliminate the hazards, and apply controls to achieve an acceptable level of safety. Ineffective decision making in safety matters is regarded as the first step in the sequence of hazardous flow of events in the "Swiss Cheese" model of accident causation. Communications regarding system risk have an important role to play in correcting risk perceptions by creating, analysing and understanding information model to show what factors create and control the hazardous process. For almost any system, product, or service, the most effective means of limiting product liability and accident risks is to implement an organized system safety function, beginning in the conceptual design phase and continuing through to its development, fabrication, testing, production, use and ultimate disposal. The aim of the system safety concept is to gain assurance that a system and associated functionality behaves in a safe manner and is safe to operate. This assurance is necessary. Technological advances in the past have produced positive as well as negative effects.
A root cause analysis identifies the set of multiple causes that together might create a potential accident. Root cause techniques have been successfully borrowed from other disciplines and adapted to meet the needs of the system safety concept, most notably the tree structure from Fault Tree Analysis, which was originally an engineering technique. The root cause analysis techniques can be categorised into two groups: a) tree techniques, and b) check list methods. There are several root causal analysis techniques, e.g. Management Oversight and Risk Tree (MORT) analysis. Others are Event and Causal Factor Analysis (ECFA),Multilinear Events Sequencing, Sequentially Timed Events Plotting Procedure, Savannah River Plant Root Cause Analysis System. Use
in other fields
Safety engineering describes some of the methods used in nuclear and other industries. Traditional safety engineering techniques are focused on the consequences of human error and do not investigate the causes or reasons for the occurrence of human error. System safety concept can be applied to this traditional field to help identify the set of conditions for safe operation of the system. Modern and more complex systems with computer application and controls require functional hazard analyses and a set of detailed specifications at all levels that address safety attributes to be inherent in the design. Weapon
Weapon System Safety is an important application of the system safety field, due to the potentially destructive effects of a system failure or malfunction. A healthy skeptical attitude towards the system, when it is at the requirements definition and drawing-board stage, by conducting functional hazard analyses, would help in learning about the factors that create hazards and mitigations that control the hazards. A rigorous process is usually formally implemented as part of systems engineering to influence the design and improve the situation before the errors and faults weaken the system defences and cause accidents.
Typically weapons systems pertaining to ships, land vehicles, guided missiles and aircraft differ in hazards and effects; some are inherent, such as explosives, and some are created due to the specific operating environments (as in, for example, aircraft sustaining flight). In the military aircraft industry safety-critical functions are identified and the overall design architecture of hardware, software and human systems integration are thoroughly analyzed and explicit safety requirements are derived and specified during proven hazard analysis process to establish safeguards to ensure essential functions are not lost or function correctly in a predictable manner. Prevention of mishaps is the objective.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Workplace safety & health is a category of management responsibility in places of employment. To ensure the safety and health of workers, managers establish a focus on safety that can include elements such as: management leadership and commitment employee engagement accountability ensuring all task are carried out safely and efficiently and effectivily safety programs, policies, and plans safety processes, procedures, and practices safety goals and objectives safety inspections for workplace hazards safety program audits safety tracking & metrics hazard identification and control safety committees to promote employee involvement safety education and training safety communications to maintain a high level of awareness on safety
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1 Workplace fatalities statistics 1.1 European Union 1.2 US Statistics 2 See also 3 References 4 External links
Workplace European Country Austria Belgium Denmark Finland France Germany Greece Ireland Italy Luxembourg Netherlands Portugal Spain Sweden
Fatalities per 100,000 employees 4.8 2.4 1.8 1.9 2.9 2.3 3.0 3.2 2.8 3.2 2.0 7.6 3.7 1.2 1.1 2.5
Fatalities 145 41 27 29 318 465 48 52 427 6 60 285 365 28
United Kingdom 182 European Union 2,478 Data from 2003 
In most countries males comprise the vast majority of workplace fatalities. In the EU as a whole, 94% of death were of males. In the UK
the disparity was even greater with males comprising 97.4% of workplace deaths. US
The Bureau of Labor Statistics of the United States Department of Labor compiles information about workplace fatalities in the United States. Since 1992, the year with the most workplace fatalities was 1994 with 6,632 fatalities, and the lowest in 2002 with 5,534.
The Bureau also compiles information about the most dangerous jobs. The most recent information comes from the year 2006, during which 5,840 people died on the job. Job Fishermen Pilots Timber cutter Waste collectors Farmers and ranchers Power-line workers Miners Roofers Truck drivers Fatalities 53 104 66 37 292 38 156 81 957 Fatalities per 100,000 employees 147.2 90.4 84.6 61.0 40.7 37.2 34.9 34.5 33.5 27.5
Structural metal workers 36
Hearing conservation program
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Hearing conservation programs are design to prevent noise induced hearing loss. A written hearing conservation program is required by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) “whenever employee noise exposures equal or exceed an 8-hour time-weighted average sound level (TWA) of 85 decibels measured on the A scale (slow response) or, equivalently, a dose of fifty percent.”  This 8-hour time-weighted average is known as an exposure action value. While the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) also requires a hearing conservation program, MSHA does not require a written hearing conservation program. MSHA’s hearing conservation program requirement can be found in 30 CFR § 62.150, and requires has almost the same exact requirements as the OSHA hearing conservation program requirements. Therefore, only the OSHA standard 29 CFR 1910.95 will be discussed in detail.
• • • • o o • • • • • • • •
1 Program requirements 2 Sound survey 3 Administrative and engineering controls 4 Hearing protection device 4.1 Earplugs 4.2 Earmuffs 5 Noise reduction ratings 6 Audiometric testing program 7 Employee training and education 8 Record keeping 9 Program evaluation 10 See also 11 References 12 External links
The OSHA standard contains a series of program requirements. Engineering Controls: 29 CFR 1910.95(b)(1) requires that “feasible administrative or engineering controls shall be utilized. If such controls fail to reduce sound levels…personal protective equipment shall be provided and used to reduce sound levels…” Monitoring: 29 CFR 1910.95(d) requires that monitoring be conducted when “any employee’s exposure may equal or exceed an 8-hour time-weighted average of 85 decibels. Testing: 29 CFR 1910.95(g) requires an “audiometric testing program” for “all employees whose exposures equal or exceed an 8hour time-weighted average of 85 decibels”. Hearing Protectors: 29 CFR 1910.95(i) states that “employers shall make hearing protectors available to all employees exposed to an 8-hour time-weighted average of 85 decibels or greater at no cost to the employees” Training: 29 CFR 1910.95(k) mandates an annual “training program” for “all employees who are exposed to noise at or above an 8-hour time-weighted average of 85 decibels…” and mandates certain aspects of the training that must be included. This includes the effects of noise on hearing; purpose, advantages, disadvantages, and attenuation of different types of hearing protectors; purpose audiometric testing. Record Keeping: 29 CFR 1910.95(m) states that employers “shall maintain an accurate record of all employee exposure measurements…”
A sound survey is often completed to determine areas of potential high noise exposure. This type of survey is normally completed using asound level meter (SLM). There are three types of sound level meters. Type 0 is precision instrument normally used in laboratories. A type 1 is for precision measurements taken in the field. Type 2 sound level meters are less precise than type 1 and are often used to take all-purpose sound level measurements. Noise monitoring is generally completed
using a noise dosimeter that integrates “all continuous, intermittent and impulsive sound levels” to determine a person’s noise exposure level. Surveys must be repeated when there are significant changes in machinery and/or processes that would affect the noise level. Administrative
and engineering controls
Administrative and engineering controls are the preferred method to prevent noise exposure. Normally, administrative and engineering controls do not require personal protective equipment and therefore are normally more protective. However, it is not always feasible to use administrative and engineering controls as the only ways to prevent noise over-exposure. The key is to maintain an 8-hour time-weighted average of less than 85 dBA so that personal protective equipment is not required. Hearing
If engineering controls fail to maintain an 8-hour time-weighted average below 85 dBA, then a hearing protection device (hpd) is required. There are two general types of hpd’s: earplugs and ear muffs. Each one has its own benefits and drawbacks. The selection of the proper hpd to be worn is commonly done by an industrial hygienist so that the proper amount of noise protection is worn. OSHA requires that hpd be given free of charge. Earplugs There are four general classes of earplugs. These include: premolded, formable, custom molded and semi-insert. -Premolded earplugs do not require the plug to be formed before it is inserted into the ear. This prevents the plugs from becoming soiled before insertion. -Formable earplugs are made of a variety of substances. However, all each substance shares the common feature of being able to be shaped by the user prior to insertion. One drawback of this is the obvious need for the user to have clean hands while shaping the earplug. They do have the advantage of forming to the users ear, while many premolded earplugs do not accomplish this very well.
-Custom molded ear plugs are unique for each person, since they are cast from each user’s own ear canals. Therefore, they provide a personalized fit for each individual. -Semi-inserts are generally a soft earplug on the end of band. The band aides in maintaining the earplug in position. They are often useful since they can be quickly removed and inserted. Earmuffs Earmuffs are another type of hpd. The main difference between earmuffs and earplugs, is that earmuffs are not inserted inside the ear canal. Instead the muffs create a seal around the outside of the ear to prevent noise from reaching the inner ear. Earmuffs are easy to wear and often provide a more consistent fit than an earplug. There are earmuffs available that use the principle of active noise control to help reduce noise exposures. However, earmuffs are not commonly worn by people who have sideburns or glasses, who find earmuffs to be uncomfortable. Noise
The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires that all hearing protection devices be labeled with their associated noise reduction rating (NRR). The NRR provides the estimated attenuation of the hearing protection device. However, it has been found that the “labeled manufacturers' noise reduction ratings (NRRs) substantially overestimated the actual field attenuation performance.” To determine the amount of noise reduction afforded by a hearing protection device, OSHA recommends that 7 db be subtracted from the NRR. The NRR is generally given in a C-weighted format, so to obtain the A-weighted reduction, one must subtract 7 db. OSHA also recommends a 50% safety factor, therefore the final OSHA recommended reduction would be (NRR-7)/2. Audiometric
Audiometric testing is a very important part of a hearing conservation program. Audiometric testing allows for the identification of those that have lost significant hearing. Additionally, the testing allows for the identification of those who are in process of losing their hearing. Audiometric testing is most important in identifying those who have
permanent hearing loss. This is called noise-induced permanent threshold shift (NIPTS)  Employee
training and education
Proper training and education of those exposed to noise is the key to preventing noise-induced hearing loss. If employees are properly trained on how to follow a hearing conservation program, then the risk of noise-induced hearing loss is reduced. OSHA requires said training to be completed on an annual basis. Proper training is imperative since “even with a very modest amount of instruction attenuation performance can be significantly improved.” Record
OSHA requires that records of exposure measurements and audiometric tests be maintained. Records are also required to have the following:
name and job classification date of the audiogram examiner’s name calibration date employee’s most recent noise exposure assessment background sound pressure levels in audiometric test booths.
Noise exposure measurement records must be maintained for at least 2 years. Audiometric test records must be retained for the duration of the affected employee’s employment. Additionally, employees, former employees, representatives designated by the individual employee and the Assistant Secretary all must have access to these records. Program
Proper program evaluation is important in maintaining the health of hearing conservation program. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has created a checklist to help evaluate the effectiveness of a hearing conservation program. It can be found on their website. NIOSH recommends that fewer than 5% of exposed employees should have a 15 dB Significant Threshold Shift in the same ear and same frequency.
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health is pushing a higher emphasis on a hearing loss prevention program rather than a hearing conservation program. While this change may seem superfluous, it is important to note the advancement. Prevention implies a response by the workplace caused by initial signs of employee hearing loss rather than instilling a new set of policies (such as “buy quiet”) and thinking (such as hearing protection training and education) to decrease the possibility of occupational hearing loss from happening in the first place. The Buy Quiet policy is an easy way to progress towards a safer work environment. Many traditionally noisy tools and machines are now being redesigned in order to manufacture quieter running equipment, so a “buy quiet” purchase policy should not require new engineering solutions in most cases . As a part of the “buy quiet” campaign, the New York City Department of Environmental Protection released a products and vendor guidance sheet in order to assist contractors for achieving compliance with the New York City Noise Regulations. In order to make these plans effective, employees and administration need to be educated in occupational noise-induced hearing loss prevention. It is also necessary to identify and examine sources of noise first before being able to control the damage it may cause to hearing. For example, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health has conducted a study and created a database on handheld power tools for the sound power levels they expose their operators to. This Power Tools Database allows contractors in a trade-skill profession to monitor their exposure limits and allow them preparation to prevent permanent hearing damage. See
Noise-induced hearing loss
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is an increasingly prevalent disorder that results from exposure to high-intensity sound, especially over a long period of time.
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1 Description 2 Mechanism 3 Types 3.1 Acoustic trauma 3.2 Gradually developing NIHL 4 Prevention 5 Hearing loss in the workplace 5.1 Hearing loss for musicians 6 Workplace standards 7 Mitigation 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 External links
Description NIHL is a preventable hearing disorder that affects people of all ages and demographics. Mechanism NIHL occurs when too much sound intensity is transmitted into and through the auditory system. An acoustic signal from an energy source, such as a radio, enters into the external auditory canal, and is funneled through to the tympanic membrane. The tympanic membrane acts as an elastic diaphragm and drives the ossicular chain of the middle ear system into motion. Then the middle ear ossicles transfer mechanical energy to the cochlea by way of the stapes footplate hammering against the oval window of the cochlea. This hammering causes the fluid within the cochlea (perilymph and endolymph) to push against the stereocilia of the hair cells, which then transmit a signal to the central auditory system within the brain. When the ear is exposed to excessive sound levels or loud sounds over time, the overstimulation of the hair cells leads to heavy production of reactive oxygen species, leading to oxidative cell death. In animal experiments, antioxidant vitamins have been found to reduce hearing loss even when
administered the day after noise exposure. They were not able to fully prevent it.
Some of the abnormalities include metabolic exhaustion of the hair cells, structural changes and degeneration of structures within the hair cells, morphological changes of the cilia, ruptures of cell membranes, and complete degeneration and loss of hair cells, neural cells and supporting cells.
—Gelfand, 2001, p. 202
NIHL is therefore the consequence of overstimulation of the hair cells and supporting structures. Structural damage to hair cells (primarily the outer hair cells) will result in hearing loss that can be characterized by an attenuation and distortion of incoming auditory stimuli. Types The ear can be exposed to short periods in excess of 120 dB without permanent harm — albeit with discomfort and possibly pain; but long term exposure to sound levels over 80 dB can cause permanent hearing loss. There are two basic types of NIHL:
NIHL caused by acoustic trauma and gradually developing NIHL.
NIHL caused by acoustic trauma refers to permanent cochlear damage from a one-time exposure to excessive sound pressure. This form of NIHL commonly results from exposure to high-intensity sounds such as explosions, gunfire, a large drum hit loudly and firecrackers. Gradually
Gradually developing NIHL refers to permanent cochlear damage from repeated exposure to loud sounds over a period of time. Unlike NIHL from acoustic trauma, this form of NIHL does not occur from a single exposure to a high-intensity sound pressure level. Gradually developing NIHL can be caused by multiple exposures to any source of excessive volume, such as home and vehicle stereos, concerts, nightclubs, excessive noise in the workplace, and personal media players. The U.S.
Department of Labor’s Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) states that exposure to 85 dB(A) of noise, known as an exposure action value, for more than eight hours per daycan result in permanent hearing loss (Occupational Health and Safety Administration [OSHA], 2002). Since decibels are based on alogarithmic scale, every increase of 3 decibels SPL results in a doubling of intensity, meaning hearing loss can occur at a faster rate. Therefore, gradually developing NIHL occurs from the combination of sound intensity and duration of exposure. Both NIHL caused by acoustic trauma and gradually developing NIHL can often be characterized by a specific pattern presented in audiological findings. NIHL is generally observed to affect a person’s hearing sensitivity in the higher frequencies, especially at 4000 Hz. "Noise-induced impairments are usually associated with a notch-shaped high-frequency sensorineural loss that is worst at 4000 Hz, although the notch often occurs at 3000 or 6000 Hz, as well" (Gelfand, 2001, p. 202). Doctoral students at the University of Iowa have termed this notch, specific to a noise-induced etiology, a "muna." The symptoms of NIHL are usually presented equally in both ears (Gelfand). Not all audiological results from patients with NIHL match the above description. Often a decline in hearing sensitivity will occur at frequencies other than at the typical 3000–6000 Hz range. Variations arise from differences in people’s ear canal resonance, the frequency of the harmful acoustic signal, and the length of exposure (Rösler, 1994). As harmful noise exposure continues, the commonly affected frequencies will broaden and worsen in severity (Gelfand). "NIHL usually occurs initially at high frequencies (3, 4, or 6 kHz), and then spreads to the low frequencies (0.5, 1, or 2 kHz)" (Chen, 2003, p. 55). Prevention NIHL can easily be prevented through the use of some of the most simple, widely available and economical tools. This includes but is not limited to ear protection (i.e. earplugs and earmuffs), education, and hearing conservation programs. Earplugs and earmuffs can provide the wearer with at least 5 to 10 dB SPL of attenuation (Gelfand, 2001). According to a survey by Lass, Woodford, C. Lundeen, D. Lundeen and Everly-Myers (1987), which examined high school students’ attitudes and knowledge concerning hearing safety, 66% of the subjects reported
a positive response to wearing hearing protection devices if educated about NIHL. Unfortunately, more often than not, individuals will avoid the use of ear protection due to embarrassment, lack of comfort, and reduced sound quality.
However, the effectiveness of hearing protection programs is hindered by poor compliance in the use of hearing protection devices due to communication difficulties, comfort issues, individuals’ attitudes about protecting themselves from noiseinduced hearing loss, and individuals’ perceptions about how others who do not use hearing protection will view them if they choose to use hearing protection.
—Fausti et al., 2005, p. 51
loss in the workplace
About 30 million workers are exposed to hazardous noise, with an additional 9 million exposed to solvents and metals that put them at risk for hearing loss. Occupational hearing loss is one of the most common occupational diseases. 49% of male miners have hearing loss by the age of 50. By the age of 60, this number goes up to 70%. The following is a list of occupations that are most susceptible to hearing loss:
Agriculture Mining Construction Manufacturing Utilities Transportation Military Orchestra musicians Orchestra conductors
loss for musicians
Musicians, from classical orchestras to rock groups, are exposed to high decibel ranges. Although some rock musicians experience noise-induced hearing loss from their music, it is still debated as to
whether classical musicians are exposed to enough noise to causehearing impairments. Music-induced hearing loss is still a controversial topic for hearing researchers. While some studies have shown that the risk for hearing loss increases as music exposure increases, other studies found little to no correlation between the two. Experts at the 2006 "Noise-Induced Hearing Loss in Children at Work and Play" Conference agreed that further research into this field was still required before making a broad generalization about music-induced hearing loss. Workplace
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) describes standards for occupational noise exposure in articles 1910.95 and 1926.52 . OSHA states that an employer must implement hearing conservation programs for employees if the noise level of the workplace is equal to or above 85 dB(A) for an averaged eight-hour time period (Gelfand, 2001). OSHA also states that "exposure to impulsive or impact noise should not exceed 140 dB peak sound pressure level" (CFR 1910.95(b)(2)). The United States Department of Defense (DoD) instruction 605512 has some differences from OSHA 1910.95 standard, for example, OSHA 1910.95 uses a 5 dB exchange rate and DoD instruction 605512 uses a 3 dB exchange rate.
Hearing conservation programs in the workplace and in the general population seek to increase compliance and effectiveness of hearing protection protocols through audiometric screening tests and education on the dangers of noise exposure.
—Fausti et al., 2005, p. 51
Employees are required to wear hearing protection when it is identified that their eight-hour time weighted average (TWA) is above theexposure action value of 90 dB. If subsequent monitoring shows that 85 dB is not surpassed for an eight-hour TWA, the employee is no longer required to wear hearing protection (OSHA 3074, 2002 (Revised)). Mitigation
For people living with NIHL, there are several management options that can improve the ability to hear and effectively communicate. Management programs for people with NIHL include counseling and the use of hearing aids and FM systems. With proper amplification and counseling, the prognosis is excellent for people with NIHL. The prognosis has improved with the recent advancements in digital hearing aid technology, such as directional microphones, open-fit hearing aids, and more advanced algorithms. Annual audiological evaluations are recommended to monitor any changes in a patient’s hearing and to modify hearing-aid prescriptions. There are no medical options at present for a person with NIHL. However, current research for the possible use of drug and genetic therapies look hopeful (National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders [NIDCD], 2006). See
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