com Power Control in UMTS

UMTS, unlike GSM, has a greater need to combat the near-far problem. A UE close to the Node-B transmitting at the same power as another at the cell edge will potentially block out the latter. To maintain reliable links to all UEs, the received power at the Node-B should be about the same. This means that propagation path loss between the UE and the Node-B should be taken into account. In an ideal environment, this alone is sufficient. But real environments are rarely ideal. Channel conditions vary, in the short term and in the long term. Recognizing all these, we can relate easily to the three main power control mechanism in UMTS: 1. Open loop power control: this relates directly to the path loss. As the name suggests, this control has no feedback. It simply sets the initial power at which the UE should transmit. This initial setting happens via RRC signaling. This control is in the UE and the RNC. 2. Outer loop power control: this relates to long term variations of the channel. A target SIR is specified. If the received SIR is less than this target, transmit power needs to be increased. Otherwise, it needs to be decreased. In practice, DL target quality is in terms of transport channel block error ratio (BLER). The BLER can be related to a target SIR. If the received SIR is less than the target, BLER is likely to be not met. Alternatively, if the BLER is more than the target, transmit power has to be increased. This control is in the UE and the RNC. This is also known as slow closed loop power control. It happens at the rate of 10100 Hz. 3. Inner loop power control: this is also known as fast closed loop power control. It happens at a rate of 1500 Hz to combat fast fading. This control is with the UE and the Node-B. While outer loop control is set at RRC level and executed at Layer 1, fast power control happens at Layer 1 in order to meet the BLER target set by outer loop control. The effect of this control is that even in a fading channel, the received power is maintained constant so as to achieve the BLER target. This is represented in Figure 1 [2]. Figure 1: UMTS Fast Power Control Combating Fast Fading


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In other words. both UL and DL allow for lower rates by which it is meant that TPC bits do not change from slot to slot. How can we then meet diverse BLER targets of transport channels mapped to the same physical channel? I am not aware of any solutions to this problem but my belief is that in practice only one BLER target is used.214]. As a result. For the slower rate. For DL power control. the rate of fast power control can be adjusted to suit the need. for non-real time services. The gain from this control is as much as 5. the UE considers TPC bits from 5 slots before changing its power [TS 25. Without it. For UL power control.Fast power control is important in keeping interference to a minimum and improving capacity. leaving it to RLC to retransmit. The reason is each transport channel can have its own quality target based on the Q0S of the service it carries.8 dB at the receiver for pedestrian speeds for 8kbps speech with 10ms interleaving and antenna diversity. The problems with fast power control are the spikes in power when deep fades are encountered. The gain is less at the transmitter and for higher speeds [2]. channel coding (convolutional vs. So although 1500 Hz is the maximum rate. DPC_MODE controls this behavior enabling the use of same TPC for 3 slots. level of error protection (CRC). Service QoS is implemented differently in terms of bandwidth. This may be necessary for the connection but it also introduces interference to neighboring cells where the UEs may not necessarily be experiencing adverse channel conditions. a higher BLER can be tolerated. Recognizing this fact. turbo) and spreading gain Confidential Page 2 of 7 . it is permissible to be in a fade and lose packets. ‘Power Control Algorithm’ tells the UE how TPC bits are processed. the target is used as an indication of the RL quality and not the QoS of the Radio Access Bearer. For example. Anyone familiar with the operations of transport channels and their multiplexing on a CCTrCH will realize the difficulty of meeting BLER target. transmit power would have higher to meet quality targets.

It must be mentioned at this point that BLER target cannot sometimes be met. In the UL. DPCCH and DPDCH are time multiplexed and each can operate at a different power. It has been shown that dynamic bearer switching in bad channel conditions improves BLER performance [4]. power control is extremely important in UMTS. Different DL channels can operate at different power levels. data rates have to be reduced to meet the target BLER. For PRACH. The design contains a lot of flexibility to allow power control at different levels. These gain factors are set independent of fast power control. Specific rules apply for F-DPCH. Power control in HSDPA is done very differently from R99 channels. If compressed mode is enabled. Possibly. βc and βd that adjust the transmit power. further dynamics are involved.(spreading factor). DPCCH and DPDCH operate at different power levels and these can vary with the TFC. there is no way it can respond positively to a TPC “UP” command. This is far better than dropping the call. For example. power control during SHO will be a separate post. if the Node-B is already transmitting at its highest possible power. Every TFC has its own gain factors. 12 TBs) to 128 kbps (20 ms. different fields of DL DPCCH can operate at different power levels. the power levels of E-DPCCH and E-DPDCH can be different and are in relation to DPCCH and DPDCH powers. SF 16. Possibly. The step sizes (in dB) for power adjustment can also be varied at the same rate as outer loop power control. For example. the service is switched from 384 kbps (10 ms TTI. 4 TBs). In addition. Decisions have to be made by Admission Control in the SRNC. In conclusion. SF 8. HSDPA and E-DCH power control will be a separate post. If E-DCH is used. in bad channels when meeting BLER is proving to be difficult. In the DL. Differentiation of power control happens at a finer level too. Likewise. the preamble and the message parts can operate at different power levels. Confidential Page 3 of 7 . some calls have to be dropped.

We can infer that power control is done implicitly because when modulation and coding are changed based on CQI feedback received from the UE on UL HS-DPCCH. This increases bandwidth for a given user. This calculation is also dependent on the UE category. CQI.1. Within the cell/sector. The Node-B is commanded by the CRNC with specific power offsets. There is a power offset for HS-SCCH that’s relative to DL DPCCH power. modulation could be changed from QPSK to 16 QAM with an additional increase in coding rate (less redundancy). 6A]. This increases overall system capacity towards what is optimal. However.2. This is an implementation issue and has been the subject of many patents. HSDPA does not have fast power control as in R99 DL DPCH. HSDPA has an associated channel in the UL (HS-DPCCH) that carries channel quality feedback and acknowledgments.2].2. Although reducing power.11]. This can be understood by acknowledging that WCDMA is an interference limited system. For HS-PDSCH. fast scheduling (another new feature in HSDPA) enables quick decisions so that one user may be given/denied more resources for relatively short time periods to make the best use of channel conditions at that moment in time. Beyond the 20 dB limit. when users close to the Node-B experience excellent channel conditions. This is indicated for every priority class with weights for every UE. where multiple codes are used. open loop power control exists. 4. ACK and NACK – all have their power offsets which are relative to UL DPCCH [TS 25. Thus.214. differentiation in terms of priority and UE is partly implemented with these power weights [TS 25. Node-B will also adjust its transmission power. Inner loop power control happens implicitly in HSDPA based on Adaptive Modulation and Coding (AMC). power control is just as important for HSDPA.2. Every CQI is associated with a reference power offset that is used by the UE when it calculates the CQI to send to the Node-B [TS 25. Such users do not benefit much by decreasing power nor does system capacity increase. Of course. It is then left to the Node-B to manage these power profiles efficiently. 9. Such benefits were not possible with only R99 fast power control.1. 5. Confidential Page 4 of 7 . all codes will be transmitted with the same power [TS 25. new techniques such as AMC are more beneficial.31lc].433.214. results in reduced interference this does not have significant impact for users close to the NodeB. These offsets are signaled using NBAP to the Node-B. It is known that power control dynamics is only 20 dB in DL and 70 dB in UL [1]. The transmission that the Node-B can use for HS-PDSCH is indicated as a percentage of the total power available to the Node-B.213. Thus.Power Control in HSPA Let us begin with HSDPA for which power control is significantly different from R99 channels.

data from different flows may need to be multiplexed in the same PDU to make the best of available bandwidth. Thus.1. Actual gain factors for each E-TFC are calculated by the UE. More commonly.5. Confidential Page 5 of 7 . RRC also signals the power offsets for each E-DPDCH. This is the case with R99 when UE chooses a TFC. For this reason. If a MAC-e PDU carries only one MAC-d flow the power profile can be easily met. inner loop controls the power of DPCCH which in turn affects the power of E-DPCCH.214.3].211. Of course. Complexity of HSUPA power control comes from the fact that inner loop and open loop controls are intimately tied to each other.Coming to HSUPA. The idea of using these reference gain factors is that every MAC-d flow is associated with a certain Q0S. the UE ought to choose an E-TFC according to the amount of data it has to send. 4.1. there are always non-zero bits of TPC (Transmit Power Control) which are used for inner loop power control of the UL DPCCH and UL DPDCH. In DL DPCCH. This is similar to the weights given for priority classes for HSDPA. In HSUPA.3]. Every TFC (Transport Format Combination) has a defined pair of gain factors. number of transport channel bits after radio frame segmentation and number of DPDCH are taken in account [TS 25.2.2. Power control of UL DPDCH is closely tied to UL DPCCH. These grants which are basically expressed in relation to power are sent on EAGCH and/or E-RGCH channels. There is defined offset between these two channels in terms of gain factors. E-DPCCH power is signaled by RRC and it is relative to DPCCH power offset [TS 25. The computed gain factors are quantized to reference gain factors signaled at RRC. there is a requirement that E-DPCCH can be transmitted only if DPCCH is also transmitted in the same slot [TS 25. When computed. For example. However. This affects the UE MAC in its choice of E-TFC for the next transmission. 4.2. 5.1. The HARQ power profile allows this QoS to be met. the channels in question are E-DPCCH and E-DPDCH.213. In fact. rate matching attribute. the scenario is a little closer to the power control R99 UL channels. The additional control for E-TFC is that amount of power the UE is allowed to use.1.3]. 5. These are either signaled at RRC or computed at Layer 1.2. This design gives flexibility to use higher power when data rate is higher. RRC signals a sets of compatible MAC-d flows that could be multiplexed in the same MAC-e PDU. This offset does not change often because it is fixed by RRC at SRNC. Calculations take into account the HARQ power profile which is signaled at RRC [TS 25. These offsets or gain factors are associated with E-TFC. Power control of HSUPA UL channels are tied to DPCCH. these two DL channels introduced for HSUPA play an important part in HSUPA power control by not just changing the power but also affecting the amount of data the UE is allowed to send.213.3].

1. Bo Bernhardsson. Power Control in WCDMA–Background.This can be seen as an enhancement or constraint to R99 inner loop power control. A UMTS DL DCH Error Model Based on Measurements in Live Networks. of Automatic Control. 4. Fredrik Gunnarsson and Fredrik Gustafsson. Pages 1113-1125.com/2007/12/17/power-control-inhspa/ 7.2. Introduction to RRM/PC. Austria. John Wiley & Sons. Control Engineering Practice. TS 25.214 8.214.2 Confidential Page 6 of 7 . Lund Institute of Technology. TS 25. HS-SCCH.1. This is a light-weight channel that functions just like DL DPCCH. Second Edition. Technische Universit¨at Wien. TS 25. Markus Rupp. 2. there is an optional parameter that specifies the maximum power of HSPDSCH. An additional comment is that whatever happens. offsets and grants can be applied bearing in mind the upper limit. Wolfgang Karner. Volume 11. 5.214. So if UL DPCCH is transmitted at a certain power. 4.2. Philipp Svoboda. TS 25.wordpress. The reason for introducing a new channel is to have minimum impact on previous releases of the standard. 6. This level should never be exceeded. Issue 10. E-RGCH and E-HICH taken together.213. References 1. WCDMA for UMTS. Institut f¨ur Nachrichtentechnik und Hochfrequenztechnik. http://mobilewireless.3 10. (Powerpoint presentation). total transmission power from either the Node-B or the UE is fixed to a certain level. 5. It was difficult to modify the slot formats of DL DPCH in a backward compatible manner since DL DPCCH and DL DPDCH are time multiplexed. Dept. TS 25. October 2003. Nokia1999. 5. 6A 9. Control theory aspects of power control in UMTS. We now know that HSUPA inner loop power control is partly done using TPC bits of DL DPCCH. Harri Holma and Antti Toskala. E-AGCH. 2002. What happens if only HSDPA is required in the DL and DL DPDCH is redundant? This problem has been solved with the introduction of a new DL channel called Fractional DPCH (F-DPCH). Jaana Laiho. At the Node-B.11 11.

L6R 2S6. Canada jsahni@wirexhibit. 151 Checkerberry Cres. Brampton.Please Contact Jassi (Jasminder Sahni) Business Head Wireless Exhibit Consulting Inc.com 647 407 7705 Confidential Page 7 of 7 .

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