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ICEA - FAA 2009 14 – 15 NOVEMBER 2009 http://conference.faa.ro
The Faculty of Business and Administration University of Bucharest
The International Conference on Economics and Administration, Faculty of Administration and Business, University of Bucharest, Romania ICEA – FAA Bucharest, 14-15th November 2009
CAUSES OF DELAY IN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY IN LIBYA
Saleh Al Hadi Tumi firstname.lastname@example.org; School of Housing, Building and Planning, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia Abdelnaser Omran email@example.com; School of Housing, Building and Planning, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia Abdul Hamid Kadir Pakir firstname.lastname@example.org; School of Housing, Building and Planning, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia Abstract Delays are one of the biggest problems construction firms face. Delays can lead to many negative effects such as lawsuits between owners and contractors, increased costs, loss of productivity and revenue, and contract termination. Even though various studies have been considered into the causes affecting delays, these studies seldom discuss common and general causes of delays in construction projects. Thus, comprehensive study on these delays is essential. Since the problems are rather contextual, the study needs to focus on specific causes of delaying like insufficient coordination and ineffective communication between involved parties in construction projects located at Benghazi City in Libya. Literature review and a questionnaire survey targeted at construction projects in the Libya’s country and have been used as the tools to carry out this study. This paper presents the findings of a survey aimed for identifying some of the most important causes of delays in construction projects in the above mentioned city. It is hoped that these findings will guide efforts to enhance the performance of the construction Industry. This paper also explores and provides some guidelines and actionable information which can be led to enhance the construction process. Key words: Causes of delay, construction projects, Integration mechanism, Al Zentan City, Libya. 1. Introduction The Libyan construction industry contributes less to the country’s economy than do manufacturing or other services industries. Officially, construction accounted for only 2.1 % of the annual gross domestic product (GDP) (The Economist intelligence, 2003). However, the growth influenced the country’s economic development. As defined in developed counties (Hillebrandt, 1985), construction is considered unique in that it can stimulate the growth of other industrial sectors. Hence to consider growth of the construction industry in terms of its contribution to GDP in isolation is somewhat misleading that is ,to do so understates the crucial role played by construction .Therefore ,improving construction efficiency by means of costeffectiveness and timeliness would certainly contribute to cost saving for the country as a whole .Effort directed to cost and timeeffectiveness were associated with managing time and cost, which in this study was approached via investigating causes of delay at construction projects in Libya. Like other developing countries ,such as Nigeria (Okpala and Aniekwu,1988; Elinwa and Buba,1993; Mansfield et al., 1994 ), Saudi Arabia (Assaf et al., 1995) and Malaysia (Yong, 1988). Libya
some are delayed over a year. So it is essential to define the actual causes of delay in order to minimize and avoid the delays in any construction project. There has been a considerable and continued interest on the effects of construction delays. Mezher et al. contractors and architectural/engineering firms. labor shortage and inadequate labor skills. 2. (1995) studied the causes of delay in large building construction projects in Saudi Arabia.. It was found that owners had more concerns with regard to financial issues. “ a delay is the time during which some part of the construction project has been extended or not performed due to an unanticipated circumstance. possible prejudices and lack of effective communication. volatile. mainly supply of resources. and (3) problems caused by incompetence of contractors. shortage of material. Kumaraswamy et al. little work has been described in the literature concerning 266 . and improper planning. The method consisted of a set of equations. late deliveries. economic conditions. (2) problems caused by clients and consultants. and increase in quantities. contractors and consultants. (1998) conducted a survey of the causes of delays in the construction industry in Lebanon from the viewpoint of owners. while consultants considered project management issues to be the most important causes of delays. The results showed that the most important factors are financing and payment for completed works. design changes. To identify the effects of delays in construction project.. weather. Ogunlana (1995) presented a paper on method for computing activity delays and assessing their contributions to project delay. which could be easily coded into a computer program that would allow speedy access to project delay information and activity contributions. Assaf et al. user changes. as an example of developing economies. Delays occur in every construction project and the significant of these delays varies considerably from project to project. indicative of their experiences. To recommend strategies for improving project delivery based on the findings of the study. delays in payments to contractors and the resulting cash-flow problems during construction. The analysis also included the reported frequencies of time extensions for the different causes of delays. contractors regarded contractual relationships the most important. Mansfield et al. The researcher presented regression models of the relationship between actual and planned project duration for different types of building facilities. Libya. Al-Momani (2000) conducted a quantitative analysis of construction delays by examining the records of 130 public building projects constructed in Jordan during the period of 1990¯1997. Bramble and Callahan (1987) have defined that . “ An incident of delay can originate from within the contractor’s organization or from any of the other factors interfacing upon construction project. To identify the major causes of delays in construction project in the city of Al Zentan. Despite the necessity for such research. (1994) studied the causes of delay and cost overrun in construction projects in Nigeria. poor contract management.5% for road projects and 120. site conditions... Ogunlana et al. The construction industry is large. The results indicate that delays are extensive: the average ratio of actual completion time to the planned contract duration is 160. They concluded that the problems of the construction industry in developing economies could be nested in three layers: (1) problem of shortages or inadequacies in industry infrastructure. The most important causes of delay included approval of shop drawings. conflicts in work schedules of subcontractors.. Many and various studies were carried to assess the causes of delays in construction projects. design errors. 3.The International Conference on Administration and Business ICEA .3% for building projects.faa. A unique element of risk in the industry is the manner in which disputes and claims are woven through the fiber of the construction process. Abdullah & Battaineh (1999) evaluated the progress reports of 164 building and 28 highway projects constructed during the period 1996¯1999 in Jordan. and requires tremendous capital outlays. The survey revealed differences in perceptions of the relative significance of factors between the three groups. The researcher concluded that the main causes of delay in construction projects relate to designers. and examined the factors affecting productivity. The information available is diverse and widespread. (1998) surveyed the causes of construction delays in Hong Kong as seen by clients. (1996) studied the delays in building projects in Thailand. Some projects are only a few days behind the schedule.FAA 2009 14 – 15 NOVEMBER 2009 http://conference. changes in site conditions.ro The Faculty of Business and Administration University of Bucharest suffers construction time and cost overruns the intentions of this paper therefore are: 1. slow decision making and executive bureaucracy in the owners' organizations.
authority. The main objective of this study is to identify the main causes of delays in construction projects in Al Zentan City. the contractor is normally entitled to a time extension but no compensation for delay damages. Types of Delay Causes in Construction Projects There are two categories of delays used in determining delay damages: 3. An excusable.. unusual weather.2.2. Methodology The objectives defined in the preceding section were achieved through the accomplishment of the following tasks: The preliminary data for this research was collected through a literature review and the use of a 267 . (3) have priority in the critical path for delivery to the customer. The previously proposed factors contributing to construction delay were frequently observed in public projects.1 Non-compensable delays are caused by third parties or incidents beyond the control of both the owner and the contractor.faa. and third party claims and abandonment or termination of contract. 3. 3. 1998). and (5) are carried out within a system where the causes of incomplete or poor quality assignments are investigated and identified.The International Conference on Administration and Business ICEA . In this case. Ballard and Howell (1998) argued that construction planners should make only “quality assignments” where tasks not meeting these criterias: (1) sufficiently well defined (to be coordinated with other work and the inputs to be identified and assembled). Young and Jinijoo (1998) explain that top management support is required and this can be defined as the willingness of top management to provide necessary resources. 1982). Examples typically include acts of God. 1994). 4. 2002). while delay is a slowing down of work without stopping it entirely (Bartholomew.FAA 2009 14 – 15 NOVEMBER 2009 http://conference. This compensation may come about through either liquidated damages or actual damages. Liquidated damages are generally expressed as a daily rate that is based on a forecast of costs the owner is likely to incur in the event of late completion by the contractor. Decision making at the right time is important especially with a fast-trak project in preventing delays because the concept of using fast-tracking can be applied to traditional contract projects whereby construction starts prior to completion of the design/contract document (Ahuja et al. acts of government in its sovereign capacity. Construction planning has to be a much more decentralized activity to cope with the inherently uncertain nature of task duration. 1999. providing there is no liquidated damages clause in the contact. etc. which has proven to be a serious and very expensive problem for the construction industry.2.ro The Faculty of Business and Administration University of Bucharest public projects. (2) are ready to start (material. compensable delay usually leads to a schedule extension and exposes the owner to financial damages claimed by the contractor. the contractor incurs additional indirect costs for both extended field office and home office overhead and unabsorbed home office overhead. Delays in Project Many construction projects suffer from delay. Decision making process is used as the key to effective project management especially in value and risk analysis (Stuckenburck. (4) are commensurate in scale with the available labour for the coming week. design. It is important that general management keep track of project progress to reduce the possibility of delay occurrence or identify it at early stages (Martin. Libya through a survey and recommend few procedures to avoid it. In this case. 3. 1976). An example of this would be the late release of drawings from the owner's architect. fires.1 Inexcusable delays (Non. late completion of project increased time related costs. The contractor is generally not entitled to relief and must either make up the lost time through acceleration or compensate the owner. Suspension means stoppage of work directed to the contractor by a form from the client. strikes. should be deferred. Monitoring gives early warning of the possibility of contractor’s delays and helps in anticipating the consequences of changes that may be needed (Cleland. Abdul-Rahman and Berawi. Delays give rise to disruption of work and loss of productivity.2 Compensable delays are caused by the owner or the owner's agents. Excusable delays 3.Excusable delay) are caused solely by the contractor or its suppliers. However. and power. The actual frequency and magnitude of these factors is not known. and precedent works complete). 2.
clients and consultants in some projects in Libya. conference proceedings..” and “Design Errors” seem to be the third-ranked factors that cause delays in construction projects in Libya. The literature review was conducted through books. Consequently. (2003).The International Conference on Administration and Business ICEA . it was ranked as number fifth. financial/economic. they proved that a financial problem is confirmed by the survey as the main causes of delay. code-related) depending on their nature and mode of occurrence.faa. the Internet. this finding can be agreed with what found by Frimpong et al. The causes of delays are then classified into six broad categories (acts of God. construction-related. concrete. some of the causes for delays that may be encountered in a construction project were identified.ro The Faculty of Business and Administration University of Bucharest questionnaire survey targeted at some contractors. etc. In this step. The factors “Shortage of Supply i. 5. (2006) conducted a stud on delay mitigation in the Malaysian construction industry. The next important factor that causes delays in construction projects in Libya is “Shortage of Material”. the first ranking seemed to capture the respondents’ general felling that it is improper planning that are the major factor that causes delay in construction projects in Benghazi city.FAA 2009 14 – 15 NOVEMBER 2009 http://conference. design-related. 268 . management/ administrative. Based on the mean value criterion. Abdul-Rahman et al. steel. and international project management journals. Followed by “lack of effective communication” as the second ranked factor which caused delays. The data collected though questionnaire surveys are analyzed and recommendations are made to mitigate the delays. factors such as “Slow Decision Making” and “Financial Issues” were ranked fourth..e. Results & Discussion Table 1 presents the results of factor analysis of the items of contractor’s factors that cause delay in construction projects and their ranking as a whole.
etc.8 0.The International Conference on Administration and Business ICEA .3 0.8 3.2 Steps to avoid these delays? Table 2 shows that making risk management is ranked as an important factor to avoid delays in construction projects in Libya. concrete.. 269 .7 1.0 1.3 3.6 1.1 3.8 0.faa. Quality and Time Experience of Project Team Quality Assurance / Control Long Period for Approval of Tests and Inspections Political Influence Social Influence (Feedback From Resident) EIA Failure of RIBA Plan Of Work Application Site Accidents Negligence Project Management Issues Late Deliveries of Materials and Equipments Economic Conditions Changes of Design User Changes Liquated Damage (LAD) Negotiation During Construction Designers Mistakes During Construction Possible Prejudices Changed Orders and Mistakes and Discrepancies in Contract Documents Dispute (Variation Order) Religions Factors Weather Condition (Force-Marjue) Conflicts of the Drawing and Specification Mean 5.8 2.2 0.8 0.8 1.8 0.9 2.8 2.8 0.5 0.ro The Faculty of Business and Administration University of Bucharest Table 1.8 2.4 0.0 4.0 1.1 3.6 1. steel. Factors influencing delays in construction projects in the city of Zentan Factors Improper Planning Lack of Effective Communication Design Errors Shortage of Supply i.0 2. you should make proper planning.3 3.0 0.0 0.e.7 0.0 3.7 3.6 0.6 0. (2005) proved that in order to avoid delays during construction stage. Followed by proper planning as the second factor which need to be considered to avoid delays.9 0.8 0.7 0. Supplier Support.7 0.7 2. Slow Decision Making Financial Issues Shortage of Material Cash-Flow Problems During Construction Increase in Quantities Mismanagement by The Contractor (Financial.0 0. A research by Abdelnaser et al.2 3.6 2.8 3.0 1.2 2.6 3.2 3.6 3.4 0.8 1.7 0.9 0.9 0.5 0.8 1.8 1.9 2.5 0.5 0.8 0.8 0.4 3. Sub-Contractor) Executive Bureaucracy in The Owners' Organizations Notification of Extra Work Changes in Site Conditions Date of Notice to Proceed Financing Matters Payment for Completed Works Indicative of Experiences Conflicts in Work Schedules of Subcontractors Contractors Regarded Contractual Relationships Late Confirmation from Client and Consultant Regarding Cost.0 3.0 0.3 2.7 3.6 2.4 0.5 3.4 0.0 5.9 0.5 0.1 3.7 1.6 SD 0.5 3.7 3.2 2.7 2.0 3.8 2.7 0.8 2.6 2.FAA 2009 14 – 15 NOVEMBER 2009 http://conference.4 3.8 0.
7 4. Thus.1 SD 0.41 0. Selecting Expert Understand Their Assignment 5. Waste of Money and Time 4.6 6.5 3. In summary.9 4. Good Scheduling Programme 4. and provide some guidelines and actionable information that managers can utilize to manage their projects. It is important to improve the estimated activity duration according to the actual skills levels.3 4. Conclusion Construction delay is a critical function in construction projects. Declination of Reputation Rank 1 2 3 4 Mean 4.7 4. Further research is needed to investigate the limitations and potential improvements to causes of delays within each construction site.The International Conference on Administration and Business ICEA .9 4. efficiency of work time. Clear Contract and BQ 5.FAA 2009 14 – 15 NOVEMBER 2009 http://conference.33 0. from the study which curried out in Benghazi city in Libya.3 0.7 0. Making Risk Management 2.48 0. unexpected events. and the change of the control procedures of the public institutions needs to be recognized and the implications understood. Proper Planning 2. on ‘time’ completion. Avoidance of delays in construction projects in the city of Zentan Factors 1. Projects investigated in this study exhibit a delay in some construction sites in Benghazi city in Libya. Client Representative for Project 4.3 SD 0. Compute the Amount of Financial Damages Rank 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 Mean 4.2 3. Lost of Interest by the Stakeholder 2. 8 0.58 0.6 4. Proper Payment from Client 3.ro The Faculty of Business and Administration University of Bucharest Table 2.48 5. However. Blacklist by Authorities 3. 1996).faa. it was clear that “lost of interest by the stakeholder” ranked by the respondents as one of the most important factors which has an impact in construction project delays (Table 3).5 3. this paper summarized some reasons behind the delays caused in these sites and proposes some recommendation. coordination. this phenomenon is expected to continue unless management actions are taken to control these causes within the planned element of the design and construction works.67 0.3 3.3 The Impacts of the delays on construction projects in the city of Zentan An analysis is needed to identify the impact of delay on time and cost followed by taking the appropriate action to ease delay and minimise the cost required (Clogh. Prepare Insurance Claims 3.48 0.50 0. We believe that the arguments and findings presented in this study provide a good guidance for managerial intervention. which might enable the contractor organization to develop in house competitiveness for the achievement of one of the major goal in construction of a project. and mistakes and misunderstanding (Lock. Table 3.2 4.50 0. Impact of delays in construction projects Factors 1. 1981). good practice in planning. 270 . In practice.
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