EXERCISE 24: DIVERSITY IN NATURE Note: Answer Ex 24 of your lab manual.

Differentiate the 5 Kingdoms based on the criteria given. For Protists, Fungi, Plant and Animal, draw at least ONE representative of each Phylum/Division given in this handout. Label them. 5 Kingdoms and Characteristics based on: • Cell type • Body organization • Cellular specialization • Organ system • Habitat Kingdom Monera – prokaryotic, unicellular organisms Specimens: Staphylococcus Bacillus Spirillum Cyanobacteria: Oscillatoria and Nostoc Kingdom Protista – eukaryotic, highly diverse group of organisms Major Groups: • Photosynthetic protists – algae o Green algae  Division Euglenophyta - Euglena  Div. Chlorophyta - Spirogyra o Brown algae  Div. Phaeophyta – Sargassum, kelps  Div. Pyrrophyta – Pyrodinium bahamense (causes red tide), Ceratium  Div. Bacillariophyta – Navicula (common name: diatoms) o Red algae  Div. Rhodophyta - Porphyridium • Fungal-like protists (absorptive mode of nutrition) o Div. Myxomycota – plasmodial slime molds o Div. Acrasiomycota o Div. Oomycota – water molds o Div. Chytridiomycota - chytrids • Animal-like protists (ingestive) – Protozoans o Phylum Ciliophora – ciliated protists; Paramecium, Didinium o Phylum Sarcodina– with pseudopods; Amoeba o Phylum Mastigophora – with flagella; Trypanosoma (causes African Sleeping sickness) o Phylum Apicomplexa – adults are nonmotile; Plasmodium (causes malaria) Kingdom Fungi – multicellular, eukaryotic, spore-forming organisms • Division Ascomycota – sac fungi

produce nonmotile spores in a distinctive type of microscopic cell called an "ascus" (sac) o sac fungi include morels, truffles, Baker's yeast, Dead Man's Fingers, cup fungi, and majority of lichens such as Cladonia Division Basidiomycota - mushrooms o more advanced; reproduce sexually through formation of specialized club-shaped end cells called basidia that normally bear external spores (usually four), which are specialized meiospores called basidiospores o eg. mushrooms, puffballs, stinkhorns, bracket fungi, polypores, jelly fungi, boletes, chanterelles, earth stars, smuts, bunts, rusts, mirror yeasts, and human pathogenic yeast, Cryptococcus Division Deuteromycota o Informally called Fungi imperfecti (because sexual reproduction is unknown or may not occur in these species) o

Kingdom Plantae – multicellular, embryo-forming, eukaryotic, photosynthetic, usually terrestrial • Mosses • Ferns • Gymnosperms • Angiosperms Informal name Green algae Division name Chlorophyta Charophyta Common name green algae (chlorophytes) green algae (desmids & charophytes)

Bryophytes Marchantiophy liverworts ta Anthocerotoph hornworts yta Bryophyta Pteridophyt Lycopodiophyt a es Pteridophyta Seed plants Cycadophyta Ginkgophyta Pinophyta Gnetophyta mosses club mosses ferns, whisk ferns & horsetails cycads ginkgo conifers gnetophytes

Magnoliophyta flowering plants
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plant

Kingdom Animalia – muticellular, embryo-forming, eukaryotic, motile, ingestive organisms

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Phylum Porifera - sponges Phylum Cnidaria – jellyfish, corals Phylum Platyhelminthes (flatworms) – Dugesia, flukes, tapeworms Phylum Nematoda (roundworms) – Ascaris, hookworms, pinworms Phylum Annelida (segmented worms) - earthworm Phylum Mollusca o gastropods (one valve) eg. Snail, kuhol, sigay o bivalves (two valves) eg. Tahong, oyster o cephalopods eg. Octopus, squid Phylum Arthropoda o Insects – cockroach, ticks, mites, mosquitoes, fly o Crustaceans – crab, lobsters, shrimp o Arachnids – spiders, scorpions Phylum Echinodermata – starfish/seastar, brittle stars, sand dollar, sea urchin, sea cucumber Phylum Chordata o Bony and cartilaginous fishes o Amphibians o Reptiles o Birds o Mammals