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Moral Foundations

Moral foundations explain a research based-theory that compare the moral foundations
between people who are politically conservative and politically liberal. There are five
psychological foundations that included in the moral foundations questionnaire, which
• Harm/Care, which is about love, care, and not wanting to harm people and others.
• Fairness/Reciprocity, which is more about justice.
• In-group/Loyalty, which is about someone’s concerns to the group he/she belongs to,
value the group, paying attention to his/her group members interest, and others.
• Authority/Respect, which is about to highly value relationship between leader and
followers, respect the authority in a larger degree, respect the leader without
questioning any of his/her decision, and others.
• Purity/Sanctity, which is about to value something that is secrete, and others.

Someone who is politically liberal tend to have a high score on harm/care and
fairness/reciprocity. While, someone who is politically conservative tend to value more in-
group/loyalty, authority/respect, and purity/sanctity. Moreover, someone who have a high
value of spirituality, will tend to value every of the five moral foundations. These people
would have positive correlation with all of these five moral foundations.

Above is my score on moral foundations questionnaire. Based on the bar chart above, we can
see that my score on the five moral foundations are higher compare to the average score on
people who are politically liberal and conservative. In other words, I highly value harm/care,
fairness/reciprocity, in-group/loyalty, authority/respect, and purity/sanctity more than the
democratic and liberal people. Thus, we can conclude that I have a high value of spirituality.

Spirituality is someone who has a value that is opposite with materialistic. In general,
spirituality includes a sense of connection to something bigger than ourselves, and it typically
involves a search for meaning in life (Krentzman, n.d.). It may also refer to personal growth,
blissful experience or an encounter with one’s own “inner dimension (Thundiyil, 2016).”

In my opinion, as I have a high value on spirituality, I tend to be very idealistic. The good thing
is that, as these kind of people highly value all of the five moral foundations, they will try their
best to do everything what they that is ideal. Also, in my opinion, these kind of people tend
to be more rigid and have a high value of deontological ethics. However, these kind of people
may struggle to fit in to the society or even a company, as they tend to be rigid and have their
have “ideal standards”, which is triggered by the five moral foundations that they highly
valued. For example, I am a person who rarely be able to stay in one office or company for a
long time. The longest time I have worked in one office is only 1,5 years, my other works are
less or up to one year. My decision to quit from my previous jobs was about what I valued
was not or too hard to be implemented on those offices. This statement will be related to the
next questionnaire’s score, which is on social vigilantism.

Openness and Intellectuality Humanity: Social Vigilantism

Social vigilantism is an individual difference in the tendency of individuals to impress and
propagate their “superior” beliefs onto others to correct others’ more “ignorant” opinions.
Moreover, research indicates that social vigilantism is associated with greater expressions of
belief superiority and greater resistance to persuasion, as well as attitude importance and
extremity (yourmorals, n.d.). Someone with a high score of social vigilantism would like to
impose their value to other people. They tend to regard themselves as a hero that save the
world. However, they only pay attention to what they think is right. They might have difficulty
to accommodate different values that appear in the society, which can be unhelpful when
they need to work together as a group.

Above is my score on social vigilantism questionnaire. Based on the bar chart above, we can
see that my score on social vigilantism is higher compare to the average score among liberals,
conservatives, and libertarians. This means that I have a high tendency to impose my value to
other people. I have a propensity to only pay attention to what I think is right, and I have
difficulty to accommodate different values that appear in the society. This condition can be
viewed from two different side. It can be a good thing, because we need to stand still on our
own foundations, on what we valued. Otherwise, we can be a person who do not have any
principle in life, which later will lead us to confusion on how to live our life. However, this can
be viewed as an unfortunate value for myself and for the society. In relation to my example
on the previous questionnaire, what I have mentioned is that what I valued was not or too
hard to be implemented on my work environment on my previous offices. Moreover, this was
the main reason on why I had quit from those jobs. This condition may lead to a bad
impression on me when I wish to apply for a new job, and later to see my profile as a person
who liked to jump from one to another office. This can be also unfortunate to the previous
office that I had worked in, since they need to look for other person to cover my position, not
a long time after I stated to work on their office, due to my resignation.

Schwartz Values Scale

The Schwartz value scale measures the degree to which someone value each of ten domains
that Schwartz has found across many cultures. Value are defined as “desirable, trans-
situational goals, varying in importance, that serve as guiding principles in people’s lives.” The
Schwartz has found that the ten basic human values show a pattern of relationship that can
be graphed as a circle (see the pie chart below). Political liberals have been found to endorse
the “openness to change” values, while conservatives are more likely to endorse the
“conservation” values (yourmorals, n.d.).

People have different value which is determined by the priorities of the values below.
“openness to change” and “conservation” are opposite to each other. For example, if you
value “security” and “tradition”, you need to sacrifice your value of “self-direction”, and to
certain extend also “hedonism”. This is because “openness to change” is all about freedom,
while “conservation” is to conserve, and so it is opposed to change. Another example, “self-
transcendence” is opposite with “self-enhancement”. While, “self-direction” and
“universalism” is close to each other. Someone who value “universalism” tend to also value
“self-direction”. Someone who have high level of “power”, tend to also value “security”.
Someone who value “benevolence, also value “conformity” and “tradition”. Based on the pie
chart, value that that are next to each other are closely related, and value that are across
from each other tend to be opposed, or tend not to be strongly endorsed by the same person.

The values which are described by Schwartz as follows:
• Power, is about social status, prestige, control, dominance over people, and others.
• Achievement, is about personal success through demonstrating competence.
• Hedonism, is about pleasure or sensuous gratification for oneself.
• Stimulation, is about excitement, novelty, and challenge in life.
• Self-direction, is about independent thought and action.
• Universalism, is about understanding, appreciation, tolerance, and protection of the
welfare of all people and for nature.
• Benevolence, is about preservation and enhancement of the welfare of people.
• Tradition, is about respect, commitment, and acceptance of the customs and ideas
that traditional culture or religion provide.
• Conformity, is about restraint of actions, inclinations, and impulses likely to upset or
harm others and violate social expectation or norms.
• Security, is about safety, harmony, and stability of society, of relationships, and of self.

Above is my score on Schwartz value survey. Based on the bar chart above, we can see that
my score on the nine values are higher compare to the liberals and conservatives average

scores. While, for the value of power, I have a lower score compare to the conservatives, but
higher that the liberals average score. From the scores above, we can see that my top five
highest scores are on: benevolence, self-direction, conformity, universalism, and
achievement (see the below table and pie chart).

No Category Political View
(from highest to lowest score)
1 Benevolence Self-transcendence -
2 Self-direction Openness to change Liberals
3 Conformity Conservation Conservatives
4 Universalism Self-transcendence -
5 Achievement Self-enhancement -
6 Stimulation Openness to change Liberals
7 Hedonism Hedonism -
8 Security Conservation Conservatives
9 Tradition Conservation Conservatives
10 Power Self-enhancement -

2 4

5 3

From the table and the pie chart above, we can see that, based on my Schwartz value scores,
I cannot be classified as a person who are politically more into liberal or more into
conservative view. I scored high on “self-direction” which endorsed by the liberals, but I also
scored high on “conformity” which endorsed by the conservatives. Moreover, I also scored
high on “universalism” and “benevolence”, but also on “achievement”, which should be
opposed to each others, since the position on the pie chart are across to each others.

From those scores, I can conclude that I am a person who are helpful (benevolence),
independent and creative (self-direction), obedient (conformity), fair (universalism), and
ambitious (achievement). The value of “benevolence” is somehow related to the value of

“care/harm” from the first questionnaire, which strongly shows that I am a type of person
who are caring and enjoys on helping others. This is considered as a good value, since people
that valued those values have a high tendency to contribute to others and the society. If we
relate to the “universalism” and again, to see the value of “fairness/reciprocity” from the first
questionnaire, I can say that I am a person who value equality and justice. A person who value
both helpfulness and equality, can be a good contributor for the society. I also scored high on
“conformity”, which means I am a person who preserve the welfare of people, which is in line
with my other values: “universalism” and “benevolence”. Moreover, since I value equality
(universalism), I also value freedom (self-direction), which is in line. However, I score high on
“achievement”, which is theoretically should be opposed with the other values which I scored
high on. If we relate “achievement” with other values that I valued high on, it can be
interpreted that I have an ambition on having an equal and free environment for the society.