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Characterization of Fly Ash from Various Locations of Electrostatic Precipitator
Research Scholar, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai, India
D. N. Singh
Dept. of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai, India
R. C. Phadke
General Manager, CHEMITHON Engineers Pvt. Ltd., Mumbai, India Keywords: electrostatic precipitator, flue gas conditioning, fly ash, characterization
ABSTRACT: Electrostatic precipitation is a well established technique to control the emission of particulate matter (fly ash or dust particles) from coal-fired thermal power stations. Flue gas conditioning, FGC, is a technique that involves addition of chemical agents to the flue gas in order to increase the collection efficiency of the Electrostatic Precipitators, ESPs. Several efforts have already been made by earlier researchers to characterize the fly ash from hoppers, to ascertain its suitability for various engineering applications. However, how characteristics of the fly ash inside the ESP, from one location to another, change has not yet been investigated in details. Such investigations would help in understanding the influence of flue gas conditioning on functioning of ESPs. With this in view, attempts were made to characterize the fly ash collected at various locations of the ESP unit of a power plant (viz., hopper, bottom portion, collection plate and Induced Draft (ID) fan). The study brings out the influence of flue gas conditioning on overall characteristics of the fly ash.
The population explosion and industrial growth are two traits of present day society, which require more electricity generated form the coal-fired thermal power stations. However, the combustion of coal results in production of an enormous quantity of the ash, which essentially constitutes of bottom- and fly-ash. The fly ash particles that are in the form of suspension in the flue gas, which comes out of the power stations, contribute to an increased suspended particulate matter, SPM. Hence, reduction in emission levels of the SPM becomes essential for safeguarding the environment. Electrostatic precipitation is a well established technique that employs application of electric field to separate out the suspended particles (fly ash or dust) from the flue gas, which comes out of thermal power stations by collecting it in hoppers (Navarrete et al., 1997; Parker, 1997; Kim and Lee, 1999; Bottner, 2003; Ray, 2004a; Hanne et al., 2006). Previous studies reveal that the collection efficiency of the ash can be enhanced by resorting to the flue gas conditioning, FGC, which deals with addition of different types of chemical additives (viz., sulphur trioxide, ammonia, salts of sodium) and sprinkling of water to the flue gas, which alters the resistivity of the fly ash and hence results in increased collection efficiency (Cheremisinoff, 1977; Brown et al., 1978; Harker and Pimparkar, 1988; ACRL, 1998; Alvarez et al., 2000; Ray, 2004b). With ever growing emphasis on the utilization of the fly ash, mainly in the cement and concrete, ceramic and electronic industries, researchers have conducted several studies on characterization of the fly ash from hoppers (Joshi and Lohtia, 1997; Bayat 1998; Foner et al. 1999; Sear, 2001; Kiattikomal et al. 2001; Singh and Kolay, 2002; Pandian, 2004; Moreno et al. 2005; Das and Yudhbir, 2006; Vassilev and Vassileva, 2007). However, how these characteristics of the fly ash get influenced due to the flue gas conditioning, has not yet been investigated in details. With this in view, an attempt has been made in this study to characterize the fly ash collected at various locations in the Electrostatic precipitator (ESP) unit of a power plant in India. These locations correspond to hopper, bottom portion, collection plate and Induced Draft (ID) fan of the ESP. Based on extensive investigations, it has been demonstrated that how FGC influences the overall characteristics of the fly ash in the ESP.
2 Materials and methods
Fly ash samples were collected from coal-based thermal power station of 210MW capacity, located in India.
by using Blaine’s air permeability apparatus (ASTM C 204-05). 2002) and the results are depicted in Fig. Table 2 Physical and chemical characteristics of the samples used in the study Sample HR ESP Plate ESP ID G 2. G. Table 1 Designation of samples used in the study Sampling Point Hopper Collection plate of ESP Bottom portion of ESP Induced Draft Fan Designation HR ESP Plate ESP ID 2. Liquid to solid (L/S) ratio of 10 and 20 was achieved by mixing 10 g and 5 g of the oven dried sample. The particle size distribution characteristics of the sample were obtained by conducting hydrometer tests (ASTM D 422-63. with 100 ml of the distilled water. 2. Ash samples from hopper were collected and mix together so as to create a representative sample. Portland cement was used as the standard reference material. Collection plates 4. were also collected during the shutdown of the power station for maintenance work. Induced Draft Fan Fig. The results are presented in Table 2. 2.27 2. for half an hour and later filtered. Bottom portion 3. samples from different locations of the ESP. Later. Hopper 2.215 0.5 20 5. Elico Ltd. as depicted in Fig.05 2.8 4.1 Physical characterization The sample was analyzed for its specific gravity.558 pH L/S=10 5.This power station is operated with dual flue gas conditioning system (ammonia and sulfur trioxide as the flue gas conditioning agents). by using an Ultra-Pycnometer (Quantachrome.5 4.389 0. continuously. This solution was stirred.36 2. which employs Helium gas (ASTM D 5550-00) and the specific surface area.7 5..70 S 2 (m /g) 0. USA).9 4. 3 From boiler 2 Stack 4 1 1.2 Chemical characterization The pH and electrical conductivity (EC) of the solution of the ash sample was measured by using a water quality analyzer (Model PE 136.432 0.1.0 4. India). respectively.7 EC (μS/cm) 10 20 158 86 579 333 1982 1004 1910 1056 2262 . This filtrate was used to determine the pH and EC of the solution and the results are presented in Table 2.8 4. 1 Sampling location in the ESP Details of these samples are presented in Table 1 and various analyses carried out to characterize these samples are presented in the following. S.
87 48.16 0.34 0.32 0. 1994).44 0.110 100 90 80 70 HR ESP Plate ESP ID % Finer 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1E-3 0.24 TiO2 1. was determined using an X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) setup.84 1. 3.78 35. 1 g of microcrystalline cellulose and isopropyl alcohol were mixed thoroughly. The oven dried sample was placed on the sample holder and the images were captured under various magnifications. the sample was applied with the gold coating to avoid the charge effect so that a clear image could be obtained.59 Fe2O3 3.42 K2O 1. Details of the sample preparation are presented in the following. Scanning Electron Microscopy Morphology of the sample was studied by employing a Scanning Electron Microscopy (Hitachi S3400N.82 4.99 SO3 0. 2 Particle size distribution of fly ash samples Chemical composition of the fly ash.05 P2O5 0. mullite and hematite.90 49. USA). The presence of minerals has been confirmed with the help of the data files presented by the Joint Committee on Powder Diffraction Standards (JCPDS.1 1 Particle Size (mm) Fig. The results are presented in Table 3.03 1. Holland) studies.69 0.08 CaO 0.24 0. 4 g ash sample.67 0.49 Na2O 0. Quartz is the major one.70 0. 2263 .78 1.73 0.47 0.07 0.73 0.90 40. among which.98 39.09 0.52 SiO2 59.3 Mineralogical characterization The sample was evaluated for its mineralogical characteristics by employing X-Ray diffraction (XRD) spectrometer (Phillips 2404.65 2.15 0.07 0. The sample was compressed with the help of a hydraulic jack and the chemical composition of the sample was determined by mounting the compressed dish (pellet) in the sample holder of the XRF setup.30 1.12 0. Micrographs of the fly ash samples are presented in Fig. 2. Table 3 Chemical composition of the samples used in the study Sample HR ESP Plate ESP ID Al2O3 31. followed by filling up the container by the dried sample. Prior to this.87 BaO 0.09 0.92 1. in the form of major oxides.74 4. Holland). (Phillips 1410. A small aluminum dish (with inner diameter of 33 mm and height of 12 mm) was taken and one third of this dish was filled with methyl-cellulose.00 % by weight MgO 0.57 54. 4. using a graphite monochromator and Cu-Kα radiation. It can be noted from the figure that the different crystalline phases of minerals present in the fly ash samples are Quartz. The sample was scanned from 2θ ranging from 5º to 80º.42 1.55 4.01 0. and the mixture was kept below an infrared lamp for slow drying. The results are depicted in Fig.4.24 0.
Mullite H .Quartz M .Q .Hematite 2000 1500 1000 500 0 2000 1500 M Q H MM ID HM QQ Q M Q ESP H Relative Intensity 1000 500 0 2000 1500 1000 500 0 2000 1500 1000 500 0 0 10 M Q MM H Q QM Q Q M Q Q ESP plate H MM M Q H M M QQ Q Q M Q Q HR Q M H HM MMQ Q Q Q M Q 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Cu-Kα (2θ) Fig. 3 X-Ray diffractograms of fly ash samples 2264 .
respectively. of various samples were plotted against various collection points. 6. and specific surface area. as depicted in Fig. It can be observed from these figures that both G and S are minimum and maximum for HR and ID.(a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) Fig. 4 Micro graphs of fly ash samples 3 Results and Discussion The specific gravity. The particle size distribution. clearly indicates the particle size variation for ash samples from different locations and mainly contains silt and clay size fractions. 2. This indicates that coarsest particles get collected in the hopper while the finest particles get collected in the ID fan. 5 and Fig. S. G. respectively. respectively. depicted in Fig. 2265 .
that the chemical composition of ash samples (in oxide form) by X-Ray fluorescence studies reveals that all the ash samples are having the major oxides (SiO2. Figs.. 7.75 0.7 0. It also consists of broken spheres filled with smaller spheres i. 6 Specific surface area of fly ash samples pH of the solution prepared from the ash samples. Al2O3.. 5 Specific gravity of fly ash samples Fig.e. pleurospheres (Fig.50 G 2. EC. increases. This results in collection of more particles (mostly small in size) in the ESP and hence. reveals that the surface of most of the spherical particles has attached microspheres.5 0. the increase in collection efficiency.00 1.9 2. Also. Further.6 2 2.0 HR ESP Plate ESP ID Fig.0 0.e. 7 pH and EC of fly ash samples 2266 .8 0.4b). It can also be observed from Fig 4(f) that the particles from ID fan of the ESP are the finest particles and hence exhibit much more agglomeration.75 1.3. It can be observed that the particles get agglomerated due to the increase in cohesion.25 S (m /g) 0. decreases slightly as moving towards the farthest portion of the ESP whereas. as depicted in Fig. cenospheres (Fig.50 HR ESP Plate ESP ID 0. 4.2 0. the electrical conductivity.00 1. Some particles (from hopper) are irregular in shape which indicates the presence of unburned carbon (Fig.1 2. Fe2O3) more than 70% and hence they belong to Class F ash (ASTM C 618). 4(d) and 4(e) depict the effect of FGC on fly ash samples collected inside the ESP.3 0. It can be observed from the figure that the fly ash samples contain mostly hollow spheres i. 4a).4 0. which in turns results in less emission from the stack/chimney of the power stations. it can also be noted from Table 3. 4c). The morphology of ash samples obtained by scanning electron microscopy. as depicted in Fig. 10 9 8 L/S=10 L/S=20 10000 L/S=10 L/S=20 6 5 4 3 2 1 EC (μS/cm) HR ESP Plate ESP ID 7 1000 pH 100 10 HR ESP Plate ESP ID Fig.
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