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Technique for indirect analysis of domestic

power consumers based on power pattern
recognition for smart energy metering

N. Nikolaev*, Y. Rangelov*, V. Valchev** and A. Marinov**

* Technical University of Varna/Department “Electric Power Engineering”, Varna, Bulgaria
Technical University of Varna/Department “Electronics and Microelectronics”, Varna, Bulgaria;;;

EDVHG RQ SRZHU SDWWHUQ UHFRJQLWLRQ 7KLV DSSURDFK FDQ EH Similar algorithm able to adapt itself to devices for
LPSOHPHQWHGLQWRDFHQWUDOVPDUWHQHUJ\PHWHUWKDWZLOOEH which the system has not been trained is proposed in [2].
DEOH WR LGHQWLI\ WKH HQHUJ\ FRQVXPHG E\ HDFK SDUWLFXODU In [3] an algorithm for indirect device recognition, based
SRZHU DSSOLDQFH 7KH VXJJHVWHG DSSURDFK LV EDVHG RQ on neural networks and electrical current harmonics is
UHFRJQL]LQJ WKH WUDQVLHQW SRZHU FKDQJH WKDW RFFXUV GXULQJ presented. Other methods for nonintrusive domestic load
WKH WXUQLQJ µRQ¶ DQG µRII¶ HOHFWULF GHYLFHV 7KLV WUDQVLHQW monitoring are available in [4-6].
The current contribution presents a new algorithm for
7KH DSSURDFK LV WHVWHG LQ VLPXODWLRQ DQG SURYHV IXQFWLRQDO nonintrusive indirect recognition of the appliances
IRUPRVWHOHFWULFDSSOLDQFHV,PSOHPHQWLQJLWWRJHWKHUZLWKD powered by the domestic mains electricity. The algorithm
VPDUW HQHUJ\ PHWHU IRUPV DQ LQWHOOLJHQW V\VWHP WKDW DOORZV detects deviations in the real power flowing through the
XVHUV DQG RSHUDWRUV WR HVWLPDWH WKH FRQWULEXWLRQ RI HDFK main cable which supplies the household. Then based on
HOHFWULF GHYLFH WR WKH WRWDO HQHUJ\ FRQVXPSWLRQ 7KH particular power signatures and a fuzzy logic controller
DGYDQWDJH RI VR IRUPHG V\VWHP LV WKDW RQO\ D VLQJOH FHQWUDO the switched appliance is determined. The presented
PHDVXULQJLVUHTXLUHGRPLWWLQJWKHQHFHVVLW\RILQVWDOOLQJD simulation results prove its stability in recognition of most
PHWHUWRHDFKGHYLFH of the “passive” appliances which form the biggest part of
the monthly electricity bill.
The paper continues with a brief description of the
Over the last decade, increasing attention has been simulation circuit, which is subject to test of the
paid to energy efficiency, not only in industry but also in algorithm. The proposed algorithm along with the
households. The fast growing economies demand higher simulation results are presented in section III. The
amounts of energy. Still fossil fuels are dominant source conclusions are drawn in section IV.
in the electric power production. However the EU has set
frames to ensure the displacement of these non eco fuels II. METHODOLOGY
by technologies based on renewable energy sources. The simulated circuit is shown on Fig. 1. The voltage
The roadmap for the energy sector development source supplying the house hold along with its internal
forecasts that big share of the energy needed to supply the impedance are designated as V S  Z S . The impedance
households will be produced by their own photovoltaic, reflects the voltage drop due to the loading of the
wind or other renewable energy installations. Along with electrical circuit.
the transition to local (distributed) power generation, the The measurement acquisition system includes an
energy consumption efficiency of the households has to be instantaneous current and voltage recorders. They are
increased. A fundamental problem for the domestic connected next to the voltage source in order to measure
consumers is to identify the energy consumption of each
electric appliance. The availability of this information
could allow the users to improve the efficiency. The
recent years’ research is focused on the development of a
central measurement device, which is able to recognize
the devices plugged in the mains electricity.
Reference [1] presents an algorithm for indirect
recognition of the devices plugged into the domestic
electrical installation. The algorithm is based on the
Matrix Pencil Method. A comparison of three controlling
methods – k Nearest Neighbor, Naive Bayes and Support Figure 1. Simulated circuit
Bulgarian scientific fund

the total current of the household. The measured current Laplace transformation in [7], or in any other book
and voltage instantaneous values are recorded and fed to dedicated to control theory.
the recognition algorithm.
During the simulation the appliances designated as RL
Load are switched ‘on’ and ‘off’. Fig. 2 shows a simulated
scenario with consecutively switched appliances with
three different power ratings - 865 W, 414 W and 112 W
respectively. Figure 4. Structure diagram of the control block

B. Block for Voltage Magnitude Compensation

Fig. 5 shows the diagram of the voltage magnitude
compensation block. Its purpose is to correct the measured
voltage when it is different from the nominal. This is
imposed by the fact that the heating appliances have a
quadratic power-voltage dependence:
P U2 / R (1)
Therefore, to prevent the influence of the power
deviation on the signal processing, the following
compensation is done:
Figure 2. Instantaneous current simulating the switching of three
appliances 2
§V ·
Vcorr ~ V ˜ ¨ nom ¸ (2)
SWITCHED DOMESTIC ALLPLIANCES In other words each instantaneous value of the voltage
The structure diagram of the algorithm for indirect is multiplied by the squared ratio of the nominal and the
recognition of electrical appliances is depicted in Fig. 3. measured rms values of the voltage. The corrected
The required input data is obtained from the data instantaneous voltage value is then fed to the signal
acquisition system which measures the instantaneous processing block. This compensation method was
current and voltage values. After a dedicated signal originally proposed in [8].
processing, the data (power signature) is fed to the device The voltage waveform of the source used in the
recognition block, which determines the switched simulation is shown in Fig. 6. The algorithm is tested with
appliance. a voltage magnitude deviation of 13 V and a 1 sec period.
Moreover, 5 % of 3rd and 5th harmonics are added.

Figure 3. General structure diagram of the recognition algorithm Figure 5. Voltage magnitude compensation block

A. Control Block C. Signal Processing Block

The control block detects the events of switching the
electrical appliances. Its structure diagram is shown in
Fig. 4. The input signal is the measured instantaneous
current. Then its mean value is calculated. During a
normal operation (no switching of devices) the current
mean value deviates around zero. However, a quickly
decaying impulse appears at a moment of device
switching. This impulse is differentiated and filtrated by
the next sub-block. Then its absolute value is determined
in order to make the control sensitive to both ‘on’ and
‘off’ events. When an event occurs the signal level
increases above the threshold of the relay block. The Figure 6. Waveform of the simulated voltage source
raising pulse on the output of the relay triggers the next
The structure diagram of the signal processing block is
block, which creates a single rectangular output signal
depicted in Fig. 7. The input signals are the instantaneous
with a length of exactly 0.2 sec.
current and the corrected instantaneous voltage. The
The interested reader can find more information about normalized instantaneous value of the power is obtained
modelling of differentiating and filtering functions by by the product of this two signals. After that, the mean
value (the averaging period is 1/f Fund ) gives the value of

the normalized real power. The normalized real power for The device recognition block is depicted in Fig. 10.
the simulated circuit is shown in Fig. 8 (a). This block uses the power signature provided by the signal
processing block. The signature value is fed in the
In order to distinguish the moment of device switching Sample/Hold block which is synchronized by the control
and the steady-state of the circuit the active power is fed block to provide as an output only the peak value of the
through the transfer function TF. This function power signature. This is important in order to ensure
differentiates and filtrates the input signal. The output of correct operation of the Fuzzy logic controller. Otherwise,
the TF is presented in Fig. 8 (b). This plot shows that if all values of the signal processing output are fed into the
when the circuit is in a steady-state the output signal is Fuzzy logic controller the output will provide fake results.
nearly zero. Further on, the filter smoothens the fast signal
deviations originating from the differentiation. Two input membership functions are defined for each
device, respectively for ‘on’ and ‘off’ state. Fig. 11 shows
the input membership functions for the presented
simulation with three devices. The probability distribution
functions are defined as triangular. The tip of the triangle
defines the value most likely to be observed when a
device is switched. The signal values spanned by the
triangle are set as ±10 % from the tip value.
Figure 7. Signal Processing Block

Figure 10. Device recognition block

Figure 8. Normalized active power and (b) the signal obtained after its
differentiation and filtration

When the rectangular 0.2 sec long impulse appears,

the logical Switch turns into ‘ON’ position and feeds the
output signal of the TF to the integrator. After 0.2 sec,
when the impulse turns from logical true to false, the
integrator is restarted and the logic Switch is turned back Figure 11. Input membership functions
to ‘OFF’ position. As a result an impulse with particular
peak value appears on the output of the integrator. This
peak value is the power signature which is unique for each
appliance. The integrator output signal from the
simulation is presented in Fig. 9. This plot shows that
despite the voltage magnitude deviation, the peak value
for the same device remains unchanged. However, if there
is no voltage magnitude compensation the power signature
will be different every time.
D. Device Recognition Block

Figure 12. Outputs membership functions

A membership function is defined for each output. The

Fuzzy logic controller implemented in the simulation has
two outputs for each device – one output for turning the
device ‘on’ and another one for turning the device ‘off’.
For all outputs the membership function is the same (see
Fig. 12).
The rules defining the logical relation between the
Figure 9. Output of the signal processing block (power signatures) inputs and the outputs of the Fuzzy logic controller are the

x ,I,QSXWLV Dev_1_ON WKHQ (Dev_1_ON is MF_out)
DQG (Dev_1_OFF is not MF_out) DQG (Dev_2_ON
is not MF_out) DQG (Dev_2_OFF is not MF_out)
DQG (Dev_3_ON is not MF_out) DQG (Dev_3_OFF
is not MF_out)
x ,I ,QSXW LV Dev_1_OFF WKHQ (Dev_1_ON is not
MF_out) DQG (Dev 1 OFF is MF_out) DQG
(Dev_2_ON is not MF_out) DQG (Dev_2_OFF is not
MF_out) DQG (Dev_3_ON is not MF_out) DQG
(Dev_3_OFF is not MF_out)
x ,I ,QSXW LV Dev_2_ON WKHQ (Dev_1_ON is not Figure 13. Output of the device recognition block
MF_out) DQG (Dev_1_OFF is not MF_out) DQG
(Dev_2_ON is MF_out) DQG (Dev_2_OFF is not end of

MF_out) DQG (Dev_3_ON is not MF_out) DQG

period ª §V ·
(Dev_3_OFF is not MF_out) Edevice ³
« state ˜ ¨ rms ¸ ˜ Pnom » ˜ dt
«¬ © Vnom ¹ »¼

x ,I ,QSXW LV Dev_2_OFF WKHQ (Dev_1_ON is not As explained in section III.B. the power-voltage
MF_out) DQG (Dev_1_OFF is not MF_out) DQG dependence is quadratic in general. Therefore the nominal
(Dev_2_ON is not MF_out) DQG (Dev_2_OFF is power of the device is corrected with the squared ratio
MF_out) DQG (Dev_3_ON is not MF_out) DQG between the measured rms and the nominal voltage value.
(Dev_3_OFF is not MF_out)
x ,I ,QSXW LV Dev_3_ON WKHQ (Dev_1_ON is not
MF_out) DQG (Dev_1_OFF is not MF_out) DQG The developed algorithm for indirect recognition of
(Dev_2_ON is not MF_out) DQG (Dev_2_OFF is not the switched domestic appliances is stable despite of the
MF_out) DQG (Dev_3_ON is MF_out) DQG disturbances of the power supply (voltage magnitude
(Dev_3_OFF is not MF_out) deviation and presence of harmonics). With its help most
of the “passive” appliances, such as boilers, electrical
x ,I ,QSXW LV Dev_3_OFF WKHQ (Dev_1_ON is not heaters, cookers, lighting bulbs and others are identified.
MF_out) DQG (Dev_1_OFF is not MF_out) DQG Based on that a database with their individual
(Dev_2_ON is not MF_out) DQG (Dev_2_OFF is not consumption is collected, providing the costumers with
MF_out) DQG (Dev_3_ON is not MF_out) DQG useful information for their energy expenses on each
(Dev_3_OFF is MF_out) device.
The settings of the Fuzzy logic controller are the ACKNOWLEDGMENT
This paper is prepared in the frames of Project
x Mamdani system: MU03/164 - “Intelligent systems for energy management
x And method – min and control of consumer expenses”, Ministry of
Education Youth and Science, Bulgarian National
x Or method – probor
Science Fund.
x Implication – prod
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