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Warren Chappell

& Robert Bringhurst

A SHORT
HISTORY
OF T H E
P R IN T E D
WORD
,
Second Edition Revised and Updated

Hartley & .Marks
P~U b lT S H £ R s

A S H O R T H IS T O R Y OF T H E P R I N T E D W ORD
published by
H A RT LE Y & MARKS P U B L IS H E R S IN C .
p o Box 147 3661 West Broadway
Point Roberts, w a Vancouver, b c
98281 v 6 r 2b 8

Original text copyright © 1970 The N ew York Times
N ew text © 1999 by Robert Bringhurst
All rights reserved.

Except for brief reviews, no part of this book may be reproduced in any form
or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording,
or by any information storage and retrieval system, without the written
permission o f the p ublisher.

Chappell, Warren, 1904-1991
A short history o f the printed word / Warren Chappell. - 2nd ed.
rev. and updated / by Robert Bringhurst.
p. cm.
Includes index.
i s b n 0 -88179-154-7
1. Printing - History. 1. Bringhurst, Robert, 1946-. n. Title,
z 124x47 1998 98-11931
6 8 6 .2 'o 9 -d c2 ii c ip

Printed in Canada
m 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 21

In memoriam
ALFRED A• KNOPF

(1 8 9 2 - 1 9 8 4 )

CONTENTS

Preface to the Revised Edition by R obert B ringhurst
p. ix
Preface to the First Edition by W arren Chappell
p.xi

List o f Illustrations
p.xv

C hapter I • Prologue to Discovery
P -3
C hapter I I • The Alphabet
p.22

C hapter I I I • Type: Cutting and Casting
P- 43
C hapter IV - Incunabula: 1440-1500
p.65
C hapter V - The Sixteenth Century
P-93
C h a p te r VI - The Seventeenth Century
P - 123
C hapter V II - The Eighteenth Century
P. 158

C hapter V I I I - The Nineteenth Century
p.191

C hapter IX * The Early Twentieth Cen tury: 19 o 0-1940
p. 227

C hapter X • The Second World War and After: 1940-19 7 0
p. 255

C hapter X I * The Digital Revolution and
the Close o f the Twentieth Century
P- 275
Index * p. 301

honest moves were on their way to being true. He knew why.it mattered. Yet not one of those techniques was merely a tech­ nique so far as Chappell was concerned. it appears to be the fashion to revise the books of the . and no technique of printing widi which he was not personally and viscer- ally familiar.Lately. Dishonest moves were false. It lived in his hands. Though his dates and names were not always correct. no medium of illustration. every move in the making of a book had a moral and spiritual dimension. present and to come. Chappell spent his whole life designing and illustrating books. For him as for his teacher Rudolf Koch. no process of type manufacture. and to all of their practitioners and all their beneficiaries. in 1970. out of which to make die books he made. Chappell cared about its history. and making texts and blocks and metal type and other components. Preface to the Revised Edition arren chappell was bom i n 1904 and died i n 1991. and he saw that history not as the private concern of a few professionals but as the substance of public value. he was the ideal person to unfold that history. . Like everyone who loves and serves a craft. every letter. His plain elucidations of the complex inter­ actions between humans and materials brought his story of the printed word alive. past. The his­ tory of each and every craft links the crafts to one another. This came out clearly in his writing. after a lifetime of devotion to the world of printing and publishing. There was. every tool. He published his Short History of the Printed Word in 1970.

was to make this book a collaboration. And the type is one he loved. but mostly he knew wThat historians don't know.and if we can and when we must. exactly that. and graver marks and acid stains in place of any footnotes. we ought to write some new ones. who gave permission for this revision. I disapprove in principle. both revised by other hands in recent years. a 5ft. but aged in boards for thirty years and somewhat mellowed. I wanted the names and dates set straight. Sjaak Hubregtse in Amsterdam. Chappell had a rock-solid knowledge of proce­ dures and techniques that had been current for half a millennium when he was writing . He knew some of the things that historians know. Scott & Corky McIntyre in Vancouver. among others . Fm grateful to Warren Chappell’s original publisher. insofar as that was possible. Much in the book has changed . The design is also his. though the third-person state­ ments are often my own. are examples close to home. and yet to hear the story told as Chappell told it. the firm of Alfred Knopf. Gerald Lange in Los Angeles. It was metal in the first edition. in fact. This is a third. Yet I have broken my own rule. Saul Steinberg’s Five Hundred Years of Printing and Geoffrey Dowding’s Introduction to the History of Printing Types. Chappell’s original plan. There is a reason.who shared their knowledge freely where mine failed. Dan Carr in Ashuelot. New Hampshire.ort Jrlistory of th e Trinted W ord deceased instead of writing new ones. but it is digital type now.and have all but disappeared in the past three decades. with silences in place of self-advertisements. and Sydney Shep in Wellington. New Zealand. and I am grateful to my friends .Kay Arnert and John Downer in Iowa City.but the “I” in the first ten chap­ ters is always Chappell speaking. in its second life. from a workbench rather than a key­ board. We ought in decency to leave the old books as they are . It is now. to stand beside the best ones of the past. ROBERT BRI NGHURST London / Vancouver • 1999 x .

but which i f perfected into an art. Preface to the First Edition n1922. and his conclusion that printing can be a broad and humanizing employment which can indeed befollowed merely as a trade. I ac­ quired my copy of Printing Types in 1927. Updike was not a believer in the good old days. The possibility that this is true provides a reasonable excuse for a simpler work. He knew that it has always been hard to do fine work. The breadth and depth and specialization of Printing Types make it overpowering for most laymen. .. by Daniel Berkeley Updike. and I would venture to say that like Cervantes’s Don Quixote it is better known by its title than its text. The work is so thoroughly admirable that it has seemed an impertinence for anyone to offer another history of printing. h a r v a r d u n i v e r s i t y p r e s s publishedPrintmgTypes: I Their History. the outstanding American printer-scholar. The glowing examples that mark the history of printing do not represent their periods so much as their dedicated producers. if only out of fear of comparison. I am struck by the timeliness of Updike’s brilliant presentation. which could serve as an introduction. or even broadened into a pro­ fession. More than forty years later. who managed to perfect their trade into an art. willperpettially open new horizons to our eyes and opportunities to our hands. during the time 1 was working with a New York printer in order to learn about type and impression firsthand. Forms and Use.

Symbols of most ancient origin can be put to­ gether in ways that stimulate the eye. founders. It is the mark of a good editor that he can be both persuasive and sustaining. the examples of printing that are of XU . and that my very special view of the history of printing is both valuable and communicable. and the mind. A Short History ot the Printed Word In 1927. printers and publishers who have helped to shape the printing of my time. The number of visitors to the pressroom of the Times and its small typo­ graphic museum have convinced him of the need for such a book. We are not really concerned here with the greatest. I believe that the area of communication which is now served by printing can never be en­ tirely usurped by any other means. Since then I have had some inti­ mate acquaintance with almost every aspect of the graphic arts and publishing. U sually. I think of printing as a medium. and had several years of contact with printmaking. through thought. when I was reading Printing Types. rare or beautiful. our interest lies chiefly in following the most significant developments and in­ fluences which have shaped the course of the printed word during the past five centuries. I had finished col­ lege. A page of printed type is one of the most abstract pieces of communi­ cation I can imagine. through pattern. rarest or most beautiful printed works be­ cause they are great. Exper­ ience has convinced me that calligraphy and printing have satisfied some of the deepest human needs. I hope that my friend is right. Rather. a bibliographic friend of the staff of the New York Times has insisted that I write a book for laymen about the printed word. and I view the history of print­ ing as a combination of the story of men and materials and the story of the development of the art itself. I had added punchcutting to my experience. For this reason. I have also been privileged to know a very large number of the artists. By the spring of 1932. nearly a half century after the first edition of Printing Types. Now. studied at the Art Students League. in tellectually and aesthetically.

and I regret that he found it necessary. that made me undertake the task. Lee Foster X lll . and who made that history or recorded it. illustration has been an important one. since they have played a major role in the development of production tools of the printing industry. the inevitable­ ness of its arrangement on the page. The strongest feelings I have about printing always return to three simple concepts: the sculptural nature of type. because it has generated a continuing search for methods of reproduction. I offer these to the reader not as a creed but as a working point of view. Instead. after 1814. It is my belief that both illustration and newspa­ pers deserve important consideration in any history of the printed word. when the London Times used the first power press. I have been endlessly aided by Adelaide Sharry. newspapers have been an important influence also. Oscar was asked to share it with me. and the strong encour­ agement of Alfred Knopf. And. in turn resulting in techniques affecting the manner in which the word was printed. because of other commitments. Among the influences on printing. In the actual preparation of the manuscript. to withdraw. it was the request of Allan Ullman. In my case.p Re fa c e to the First Edition greatest aesthetic merit are also those that have contributed most to the advancement of the craft. and the authority of its impres­ sion. many of those to whom I feel deeply obli gated have been my friends for the past four and a half decades. Sidney Jacobs and Oscar Ogg. To try to name them all would impose upon tire reader. from typing to copy editing. Anyone who attempts to recapitulate the essential story of western calligraphy and printing is aware of his debt to all those who have preceded him. I will restrict my list to those who have been intimately involved in making this book. Initially. W hen the project was originally proposed. from its conception to production.

To those who performed that task. For this reason. and to the museums.rb xiv . Connecticut -1970 i This was true for die first edition of this book. rather than an art book. libraries.Lino­ type for the body matter and captions. and handset Monotype for the display half-titles. the printing is being done by offset. and I wish to thank them publicly for their essential contributions. is being done in metal . on the other hand. I have thought of this as a book about an art. I also want to express my appreciation to Alfred Fairbank for the glimpse of his friend Edward Johnston.1 The New York Times assumed the arduous job of locating and photographing most of the two hundred illustrations that are used. title page and chapter openings. and of the illustrations as an integral part of the text. the type in this revised edition is digital. I am very grateful. As mentioned on page x and ex­ plained in detail on pages 57-58. . WARREN CHAPPELL Norwalk. publishers and foundries that cooperated. which he wrote especially for this volume. The composition. so that the plates can be shown exactly at the point where they are referred to in the text. A Short History or the Fruited Word and Judy Pomerantz.

Chicago / n y p l New York Public Library / n y t The New York J'imes/ p m l Pierpont Morgan Library. transitive serifs of italic link the [5] St Christopher. der Messung. The printed in China in 1194. fields. early 1450s. for a 17" x 22" (44 x 56 cm) laid l7l Rustic capitals. Frankfurt/ e m t Sir Edward Maunde Thompson. 1912) / f s l Folger Shake- speare Library. nyt I5Î Square capitals. DC / gm Gutenberg Museum. New York / u m l University of Michigan Library / v l Vatican Library. New York / n l Newberry Library. e m t M Semiuncials. e m t sheet. ’s-Gravenhage / m c l The Monotype Corporation Ltd / m o m a Museum of Modern Art. xv . intaglio. n y t W Square capitals. Washington. [3. An Introduction to Greek and Latin Palaeography (Oxford: Clarendon Press. Block print letters to each other. Underweysung PI 42-line Gutenberg Bible.1 T he intransitive serifs o f roman L3 Copyright page o f a book tie the letters to the line. CHAPTER I C H A P T E R ÏI w European Scriptorium. [8] Uncials. ILLUSTRATIONS KEY TO ABBREVIATIONS USED IN THE LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS: am Ashmolean Museum / b m British Museum / b n p Bibliothèque Nationale. L3 Uncials. 18] Papermaker’s watermark. g m M Albrecht Dürer. d a t e d 1423. gm hi Trajan capitals set against square 133 Printing surfaces: letterpress. [6] 15th-century playing card. planographic. Stempel Foundry. e m t W Dutch papermakers wire mold hi Rustic capitals. Mainz / h u p Harvard University Press / m b Museum van het Boek. Mainz. Paris / d s f D.

[1] Gutenberg Bible: the textblock. p m l ( reconstruction in the Gutenberg [20] CanceUaresca (chancery script). 1465. Klingspor foundry. Albrecht Pfister. [13] Roman type of Nicolas Jenson. [i8 j Gutenberg workshop [19] Scrittura umanistka. chapter in CHAPTER IV [t] Calligraphy and completed type. showing Eusebius {reduced). o f the Philosophers. [18] Scrittura umanistka. [10] Roman type o f Johann van [8] Planer. [6] Hartm sanitatis: the type. printing. [7] Counterpunching stake. Stern in 7972). [5] Mainz Psalter: the type. by gravers of a punchcutter. struck from punches cut by Venice. against the pin. Subiaco. Speyer (da Spira). Rudolph Rüzicka for Updike’s [15] Textura in a 14th-century Printing Types). e m t [14] Font of 12-point Linotype [12] Caroline minuscules. [15] Type of Caxton’s first book in [12] Plan and nomenclature of a English. cast by the [2] Gutenberg Bible : th e type. after Giovanni single measure. g m gravers (photographed by Philip [4] Mainz Psalter: initial. early 16th {19] Chase and lock-up o f a sixteen- century. Opera. Museum). “Janson” italic (based on Kis). h u p [16] Caxton’s first dated work in [13] Font of 12-point Linotype English: The Dictes and Sayings “Janson” roman (based on Kis). p m l . A 5ftort History ot the . inner construction. [16] Rotunda. h u p breviary. 1470. [13] Caroline minuscules. page form. made [17] Development o f written hands o f steel. [93 Original “Janson” matrices. e m t [35] Pair of printer’s cases (drawn by [14] Textura o f G u tenb erg’s tim e. 1465. g m [21] Chancery script. Pannartz. [3] The Mainz Psalter o f Fust & [2] Warren Chappell’s files and Schoffer. [irj Eusebius by Nicolas Jenson. made o f wood. [4] Diagram by Rudolf Koch [7] The first book with printed showing the simple tools and illustrations: Etlelstein. from square capitals to [37] Pressure system for letterpress humanistic script. ds f [12] Textblock from Jenson’s [10] Handcasting mold. 1470. 1477. Venice. e m t [16] Composing sticks: earliest type. [ti] Handcasting mold and gauges 1471. g m [5] Rudolf Koch filing a punch [8] Lactantms. adjustable. ny p l Miklos Kis. PML [6] Diagrams of counterpunching [9] First type of Sweynheym & by Rudolf Koch.Printed Word [n] Semiuncials. (photographed by Philip Van Doren [14 ] Rotunda by Juan de Yciar. Offenbach. piece of t y p e . Francesco Cresci modern style. Van Daren Stern in 1972). [3] A typecutter’s graver. Koch Antiqua.

[13] The Cardinal. revised c. 1557. Horae. Paris. Basel. Woodcut. [18] Philippe Pigouchet. H eirs of Andreas Wechel. [9 ] Positions o f knives: Ori entai an d Augsburg. 1522. Apocalypse. Poliphili. Manutius. Venice: Aldus Manutius. [12] Diogenes. De Hutnani corporis [4] Chancery' cursive from Arrighi’s fabrica. Hypnerotomachia Poliphili. type (reduced). Paris. Venice. [19] St Christopher on Horseback. n y p l type. cut by Francesco [23] G aram ond’s type. 1545. I2 5] Jean de Tournes. Lyon. type by Simon de Poliphili. [11] Two states of a Rembrandt drawing cut on wood by Jan C H A P T E R Vî Lievens. 1554. of Palladius. 1539. with Griffo. Lyon. T ide page. 1514. T itle page. 1546. Occidental. First Folio.UML [20] Geofroy Tory. Paris. Rockner containing diagram o f cut line. 1572. with italic type [22] G aram ond’s giws canon roman b y Francesco Griffo. Text by Guillaume [22] Text page of Hypnerotomachia Budé. [10J Gouge for woodcutting. Lyon. I543“5°. Paris. 1550. of Vespasiano Amphiareo. 1556. with Francesco Griffo’s Colines. Venice: Aldus largest size. case from II Perfetto scrittore. [29] Montaigne’s Essais. VL [24] Vesalius. [23] Roman type by Francesco [19 j Robert Estienne’s Cicero. n y p l writing manual. 1498. Kakndarhis. schwabacher alternate forms. [28 ] Fraktur designed by Vincenz [8] Woodcutting: position o f knife. from Hypnerotomachia type by Simon de Colines.ILLU STRA TIO N S [17] Ratdolt. Detail from the Bible. 1623. Polyglot [7] Durer. [1] T h e K ing James Bible. T itle page. [t 7] jean de Tournes. Paris. [26] Robert Granjon. 1525. Opera. 1535. initial by Geofroy Tory. 1580. 1499. 1499. April Frankfurt. n y p l Paris. 1557. Title page [6] Chancery-’ cursive from Pa latino’s using civilité. 1501. [15] Cresci. Métamorphose [5] Arrighi. [20] Albrecht Durer. Roman upper and lower Metalcut executed about 1475. Lievens. 1556. 1524. Apocalypse. 1586. used by the Griffo. 1498. [16] Simon de Colines. Chiaroscuro woodcut by Ugo da [2] Shakespeare. writing manual. [27] Christophe Pîantin. ^3] Letter written by Raphael. 160. 1508. 1501. by Parmigianino. c h a p te r v NYPL [21] G aram ond’s grec du roi: the [r] Virgil. [2] Aldine italic. 1498. Woodcut by Jan 1476. Antwerp. [18] Robert Estienne. [21] Francesco Colonna. 1543. Carpi. FSL . Livre [14J A page from the writing manual d ’heures. Type from the Coryciana d’Ovide figurée. Paris. Chapter N Y PL opening.

Illustration for [7] Fournier’s Manuel typographique. 1620. [8] The Fell types. NYPL [9] Type cut by Pierre Simon [17! Nathaniel Butter’s Corante of Fournier. Paris. [14] Bodoni’s posthumous Manmle [22] Roman type cut at Sedan by Jean tipografico. 1683. 1818. [28] First Bible in a Native American NYPL language (Massachusetts 1663. Tide [27] Bay Psalm Book. 1783. London. 1609. n y p l [11] Type cut by Jacques-Louis [19] The London Gazette. 1774. 1702. [6] Tide page of Baskerville’s quarto after Joshua Reynolds. Leiden: Elzevir. 1764. [15] Fleischman’s Text roman and [23] A plate by Simonneau tor die italic. 1640. [25] Handpress from Moxon’s 1704. n y p l Vafflard for F. NYPL Mecbafiick Exercises. 1642. n l [17] Defoe’s Weekly Review. Rembrandt van Rijn. Grandjean. N YPL transcribed and translated by [19] The New England Courant. Madrid. romain du roi. Didot. 1637. 1627. Cambridge. [16] Avisa Relation oder 7xitung. Woodcut by Jegher. 1781. [9] Pressure system for intaglio [2] Ro'/nain du roi as rendered by printing. 1665.-A. [7] Respublica. roman and italic. Neoclassical and Romantic N YPL letterforms. 1894. [6 ] Rubens. 1646. the Netherlands. Paris. i y u. by Claude Mellan. Lux daustri. [10] Title page by Poussin. [5] Baskervitle’s Great Primer [13] Aquatint by Francisco Goya. Parma. BM Didot. Specimen. Engraved [3] Renaissance. Imprimerie Royale. 1757. 1762. Mass. Don Quixote. Tratteggiato da penna. [12] Etching by Rembrandt remade 1734. N Y P L [4] Cervantes. 1721. 1605. Amsterdam. Franz Boas. ft] Title page. [14] Mezzotint by William Doughty. Paris. [18] The Spectator. n y p l Virgil. [15] Jacques Cailot. Médailles. roman. n y p l Paris.-A. [29] Title pages for Molière (1671) 1641. showing the [nj Etched illustrations by humanist vs the rationalist axis. page. [18] An English news sheet issued in [to] Title page by F. NYPL by his brother Pierre. 1655. Boston. [5] Engraved illustration by Rubens N YPL for Pompa introitus Ferdmandi. Didot.. [8] Fournier’s scale. Birmingham. 1640. used by François 1621. b n p [16] Text type o f Juan de Yriarte’s [24] Page from Francesco Pisani’s Obras sueltas. used 1690. [4] Casl on’s Great Primer roman. 1743. 1799. [26] Excerpt from Chinook Texts. [21] The first publication o f the [13] Bodoni. Baroque. London. as a linecut. A Short History' ot the Printed Word [3] Star Chamber decree. N Y P L XV111 . Paris. 1702. sive Status regni CHAPTER v n Poloniae. ]i2j Type cut by Firmin Didot. n y p l Jannon. 1739. N Y P L and Racine (1691). [20] Harris’s Publick Occurrences.

The Kelmscott Chaucer.R AT I O N S [20] The Connecticut Courant. [14] Daumier. Edinburgh. London. wood. Paris. The Book of Job. 1896. [21] T he Daily Courant. ^ 33 . the first newspaper printed on a power C H A P T E R IX press. dsf Laborde’s Chansons. n y p l [4] Title page of specimen issued by [3] T. n y p l handlettered title. [15] Menzel. [16] Linotype machine. Romantic face Sanderson. [6] Scotch Roman from Alexander PML Wilson & Sons. from William Thorowgood’s [5] Updike. 1821. Troy type. London. BM illustration for Robert Macaire. Wood engraved 1702. 1926. [3] The spirit of the broadnib pen [1] Ashendene Press type. 1814. Cobden-Sanderson. [4] Emery Walker & T J. Centaur type. [25! Moreau. }i] Pressure system for London. 1838. Engraving for Sterne’s MCL Tristram Shandy. Kennerley type with a Transmian. m c l [20] The Yellow Book. 1834. n yp l N Y PL XIX . London. 1896. London. Virgil’s Eclogues. Paris. n y p l [7] William Pickering’s revival of [7] Rogers. 1817. n y p l 181 Delacroix. [19] Monotype m ats and punch. Cobden- [5] English N'° 2. Aquatint [12] Picasso. 1760. 1764. Ruth and Esther. 1773. Lithograph for Rue Alphabet. n y p l for Oliver Twist. n y p l planographic printing. 1819. Woodcut illustration for 1826. Le Chef-d’œuvre inconnu. Cranach Press Virgil. [6] Bruce Rogers.Morris. Knight.I L LUST. Etched illustration Hartford. Charles and Martha Amory. [11] Maillol. 1842. [ioJ Blake. and the spirit of the pointed [2] Pissarro. [8 ] Rogers. [12) Thomas Rowlandson. 1824. Wood-engraved N Y PL illustration for Geschichte [23] Graver for working on endgrain Friedrichs des Groszen. Journal of Madam Caslon’s type. [18] Monotype keyboard and caster. Oxford Bible. N Y PL Virgil. Wood engravings for [10] Kessler.J. [22] Willi am Morris. 1905. mats and punch. 1920. 1840. Illustration for Balz-ac’s for The Vicar of Wakefield. Engraving for pattern. 1915. [26] Hogarth. [22] Thomas Bewick. Illustration for Paris. [9] Goudy. Eragny Press Book of quill: orientation and pressure. [2] The Times (London). Paris. Opening page o f The [9] Daumier. n y p l [21] . 1947. 1796. Cover design ch apter v tn by Aubrey Beardsley. n y p l Tame. [11] William Blake. dsf [24] T he manner of holding a graver. 1922. 1935. 1844. Somerville’s The Chase. The Wedding Journey of foundry. London. [13] Craikshank. Lithograph for Faust. [17] Linotype pattern drawing. Doves the foundry of Pierre Didot Press Bible. 1828. Doves Roman.

by William Morris and one cut by Martin Majoor.’ [8] Modern production offset press in Smoothing the Ground. Optima (1958). 1993. French Fries. N ew York. 1931. Cirque de l'étoile filante. Kônig Agilulf. 1921. for Cirque de Fétoile Laughlin. Hans-Eduard [r7] Troy and Wailau. Wood-engraved C H A P T E R XI illustrations. [14] Manet. [5] Daumier. Golden Cockerel [7] Paul Blackburn. [7] Reiner. Press. [153 Eichenauer. [6] Rouault. lmagohgies: Media Philosophy. by Robert Slimbach. Detail. The Omitted Press. N ew Directions. Lincoln. Proof o f roman type Adobe Systems. Berkeley. The Telephone [4] Trajan us Presse. Routledge. Berlin. 1951. 1995. [12] Avital Ronell. designed by Warren Chappell [3] Four unserifed types: Eric Gill’s and cut in lead by Gustav Gill Sans (1927). London. of Nebraska engravings by Imre Reiner. by Robert Slimbach. by Fred Smeijers. The Cantos. Comparison Meier’s Syntax (1969). Lincoln. wood engraving [15] Dell Hymes. engraving in Le Monde illustré. of Juliana. Rudolf Koch. h y p l [ i] Sanvito. 1989. 1993. mb Nebraska Press. Futura (1927). Ninja Press. Visual [1] Picasso. Schizophrenia. Dreiser’s [8] The Fragments o f ITerakleitos. 1991-94. Blumenthal with illustrations by [9] W. edited printing five colors on both sides by Brian Swann. [5] Quadraat Serif and Quadraat Boccaccio. printed by Joseph Peter Koch. XX . Manuel Cordova. A s n o r t History of the P rin ted Word [13] Rouauit. 1983. U. 1970. 1984. Early sketch for [nj Jacques Derrida. 1875. 1942. [3] Tschichold. 1955. The Real World of Reginald Marsh. 1990.1869. Taylor & Esa Saarinen. 1983. . [19] Willi Wiegand. Die Frosche. [21] Limited Editions Club. Sister Canie. [2] Sem Hartz. Rochester. Aquatint illustration for Studies Workshop. Divina Commedia. 1994. Victoria Howard's for Die Frosche. 193B. Glas. of continuous rolls. [20] Eric Gill. Detail. for Poe’s The Raven. James engraving. Hermann Zapf’s [16] Jan van Krimpen’s Lutetia type. 1986. 1932. Walter Hamady. Lithographic illustration Adobe Systems. wood [13] Mark C. N ew filante. Carolee Campbell. 1939. Paris. Journals. Aristophanes’ Book: Technology. ‘Gitskiix and His Older Brother. Detail. FontShop. U.S. 1939. Sans. Merwin. 1992-96. n y p l [6] True and false small caps. [2] Caflisch. Bremer Presse FontShop. NYPL Perishable Press. of a rotunda type designed by [4] Scala Serif and Scala Sans. The Four Gospels. Buffon’s Histoire naturelle. Paul Renner’s Eichenauer. Sabon roman. [18] Rudolf Koch’s Wailau type. m om a York. Berkeley. Berlin. with wood Elective Speech. cha pter x [10] Warren Lehrer & Dennis Bernstein. wood [14] Ezra Pound.

A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PRINTED WORD .

.

Apart from its importance as a means of communication. tech- 3 . and continues to have. typographic printing has been F a force of immense importance. On the highest level . CHAPTER I Prologue to Discovery o r n early te n cen tu ries. By typographic printing Ï mean impressions from master sets of characters accurately com­ posed into words. This does not seem in retrospect like a very large order. freedom of die press remains a vital fact or aspiration in most societies of the world. defended in Milton’s Areopagitica and protected in the US Bill of Rights. It remains the greatest means of communication across time. and its widespread use for the manufacture of mass opin­ ion in place of individual thought. it was the great means of communica­ tion over distances in space. Such printing has been the tool of learning. print­ ing has had. an impressive life as an art and craft. The press has also become and re­ mained a symbol of freedom. The key that unlocked practical printing was movable metal type. the preserver of knowledge and the medium of litera­ ture. On the lowest level diere is a childlike pleasure to be derived from stamping and duplicating. lines and pages. not greatly removed from the de­ light of making mud pies.that of the best composition and presswork .printing affords the artist the many and varied satisfacti ons of meaningful texture and form. Despite the press’s role in the spread of commercial propaganda and other forms of information pollution. Until the electronic age.

. as reconstructed a t the Gutenberg Museum. A S h o rt H isto ry o t the P rin te d W ord 1.1 A European scriptorium. M ainz.

the prin­ cipal reason for apathy . kid or lamb. organized calligraphers and illumina­ tors brought political pressure to bear to restrict new methods of duplication. In the second century b c . and many people know.or. Many people know that Gutenberg printed a Bible. But appreciable forces stood in the way. The eleventh-century (Song Dynasty) essayist Shën Kuo de­ scribes the process of printing from movable type in some detail and gives the name of the first master of the process as Bi Shëng. When Gutenberg applied the same technol­ ogy to alphabetic writing.became a center for the preparation of such skins. vested interests which opposed change. It is from Pergamenos that our word “parchment” is derived. chiefly sheep or goat. But the chief deterrent . In fact. which has been scraped. or think they know. The Origins of Printing Everyone. paper was not generally available until late in the thirteenth century. It was the great surge of the Ren­ aissance that changed this. the Greek city of Pergamon . even if not everyone knows that he was born in Mainz circa 1394 and died in 1468. because of the thousands of different characters required. Documents were for the most part written on parchment or vellum.) And there were. as always. In the early days of printing. it seems. In Europe. that he invented the process of printing from movable type. (Parchment is animal skin. more accurately. has heard of Johann Gutenberg. four centuries after Bf Shëng had in- 5 . for in­ stance. dressed and prepared as a basis for writing.now Bergama in western Turkey . Vellum is parchment made from the skin of a newborn calf. W hen few could read. there are many books still in existence that were printed from movable type in China and Korea before Gutenberg was born. But printing from handset metal or ceramic type was never an un­ qualified success in China.was ignorance. the need for books was limited.nically.

Mainz. as reconstructed at the Gutenberg Museum.i A European scriptorium. . A Short H isto ry of the Printed Word i.

and many people know. even if not everyone knows that he was bom in Mainz circa 1394 and died in 1468. organized calligraphers and illumina­ tors brought political pressure to bear to restrict new methods of duplication. In the second century bc. it seems. kid or lamb. Vellum is parchment made from the skin of a newborn calf.now Bergama in western Turkey . or think they know. Many people know that Gutenberg printed a Bible. W hen Gutenberg applied the same technol­ ogy to alphabetic writing. In Europe. It was the great surge of the Ren­ aissance that changed this. the need for books was limited.) And there were.nically. But the chief deterrent . the prin­ cipal reason for apathy . But appreciable forces stood in the way. has heard of Johann Gutenberg. as always. four centuries after Bi Shëng had in- 5 . But printing from handset metal or ceramic type was never an un­ qualified success in China. (Parchment is animal skin. vested interests which opposed change. It is from Pergamenos that our word “parchment” is derived.was ignorance. the Greek city of Pergamon . more accurately. paper was not generally available until late in the thirteenth century. chiefly sheep or goat.became a center for the preparation of such skins. W hen few could read. Documents were for the most part written on parchment or vellum. there are many books still in existence that were printed from movable type in China and Korea before Gutenberg was born. The eleventh-century (Song Dynasty) essayist Shën Kuo de­ scribes the process of printing from movable type in some detail and gives the name of the first master of the process as Bf Shëng. that he invented the process of printing from movable type. dressed and prepared as a basis for writing. because of the thousands of different characters required. In fact. which has been scraped.or. The Origins of Printing Everyone. In the early days of printing. for in­ stance.

but it was indeed a significant step in a long. and finally worldwide typographic revolution. W hat does printing mean? It is the process of duplicating images onto or into a base. and usually through some me­ chanical means. vented it. The first employs a raised image and pro­ duces an indented one. There are three basic methods: letterpress. usually paper. M a in z. Each method requires a different kind of press. intaglio and planographic printing. often slow.so named because a large part of th e text was set in two columns of 42 lines each . Gutenberg’s extraordinarily handsome 42~line Bible . In the third method. The second employs an engraved (lowered) image and produces one that is raised from the paper.was printed between 1452 and 1455. the principle at work is one of chemical affinity. early 1450s. but the term impression is 6 .2 Forty-two-line Gutenberg Bible. and the image that results is likewise flat on the surface of the paper. A Short History of the Printed Word 1. The image printed from is level with the surface of the plate or stone. It is far from being the earliest printed book. a great change in the use and abuse of visible language began.

and the printed image therefore stands up from the surface of the paper. Goethe said it is necessary to understand the mechanical side of a craft in order to judge it . went further even than Goethe. letter- press. Yet William Blake. feels impression.an opinion at sharp variance with the romantic belief that knowledge and craftsmanship are dangerous and can destroy intu­ ition and sensitivity. intaglio. and more the man of vision than most. I believe that for understanding of the printing medium. poet and painter. figuratively speaking.c Ha f t e r i * Prologue to Discovery! used in all three cases. We . and by trained I do not nec­ essarily mean the eye of the professional designer or printer but that of the dedicated and experienced amateur as well. One speaks of the impression of an engraver’s press. a simple tactile response is apparent when a curious layman runs a finger over a calling card or announcement to find out if the lettering is indented. It is necessary to experience prin ting by touch as well as sight.3 P rin tin g surfaces: letterpress. even though the image in the printing plate is graven into the surface. For example. offset (planographic) or intaglio (engraved). planographic. flat or rai sed . dates and personalities are less important than changing forms and tex­ tures. Poets. A trained eye. painters and others have subscribed to that romantic fear.I 1.which is to say. He said that mechanical excellence is the only vehicle of genius.

but clearly it involves an­ other fundamental shift. edited and printed at high speed. and for nearly six in Europe. Once these units of visible language have been cast in multiple copies. and blossomed suddenly in Europe in the fifteenth. Korea. A. Japan and Tibet. metal for the second. Each of these phases has its fundamental medium: wood for the first phase. Printed texts have been a part of human life for some twelve centuries in China. They depend upon the forms that writing takes in the two simplest technologies of all: the graphic and the glyphic: the handwritten and hand-carved. they can be endlessly assembled. disassembled and reassembled into an infinite number of texts. texts and scripts alike are electronically described in forms that can be stored. This phase began in the eleventh century in China and Korea.in China. transmitted. In this phase. But these printed texts preserve much 8 .and continued in extensive use much longer . but the method was used much earlier . double root. electronic information for the third. S h o rt History41 of the P rin te d 'Word must keep this in mind in understanding the nature and develop­ ment of printing. T he second phase depends on the carving and casting of indi­ vidual letters or characters. Some handsome books were printed by this method in Europe in the fifteenth century. The third phase has only just begun. and thus treating the written text like any woodcut illustra- tion. deep. when Johann Gutenberg applied this 400- year-old Chinese technical advance to a far tinier character set: the gothic scribal version of the Latin alphabet. Those two manual technologies are equal in antiquity and deeply interdependent. That is what is meant by movable type. these three approaches share an old. on complex but small devices that anyone can buy and a child can learn to operate. It involves the carving of whole pages into flat wooden blocks. The first begins in the early eighth century a d in China and Korea. Different as they are. The history of printed texts now seems to fail into three major phases.

1.4 Copyright page o f a hook printed in China in 1194. They rest on a joint heritage of manuscripts and in­ scriptions that goes hack fifty centuries or more. older forms. At an earlier level still . and they require no technology at all.writing and printing are one. to the first written and carved texts. They both .the prelinguistic level .

regard­ less of the particular disciplines wi thin which they work. Intelligent discussion of the changing directions in contempo­ rary graphic art has to be viewed against the background of past accomplishments. and especially in the context of those elements that are seminal. 35o. it remained a primary means of book illustration in Europe. Although the new methods may seem to impose fewer restrictions. Printing from handcut woodblock pages remained the primary method for Chinese. and should not. reappearing in every period and every technique. One phase doesn’t disappear. More than one such artist has con­ tended that these limits are essential. be drastically altered by what appears to be a major change of means.ooo. like the making of woodcuts. The continuity of printing need not. Japanese and Tibetan text until the end of die nineteenth century. All of the necessary techniques and materials were there in one form or another. although it must have been very much in the air.combines the use of com­ puters with this oldest of Oriental printing techniques.involuntary but eloquent . an d the air was becoming increasingly charged. A world without boundaries is a world without art. Photo­ polymer printing from digital type . It is useful to remember that the phases of printing history are not mutually exclusive. also re­ mains a creative and vital artistic medium. They are much more like die branches of a tree. or cease to bear its fruit. intellectually. It is worth noting in this regard that 10 . be­ cause another has begun. even if commerce has all but forgotten it. it is rea­ sonable to assume that the most able artists and craftsmen. Typographic printing did not drop into Europe from the heav­ ens. Printing from movable metal type.oooyears ago at least. For nearly as long.goes back to the first terrestrial animals. will always seek the limits of their medium. the emerging Renaissance. A Short History of the Printed Word begin with the leaving of footprints. That kind of writing and print- ing . with.a new artistic medium dis­ cussed in the last chapter of this book .

was a goldsmith. The cus­ tom surely reached Europe by the end of the fourteenth century. Pre-Typographic Printing in Europe In Europe and Asia alike.Gutenberg. The makers of these prints were often monks working within the privileged walls of their orders. but the earliest dated European proofs are from early in the fif­ teenth. Since lay woodblock cutters were often working outside the law. and later techniques have contributed very few aesthetic improvements. thus surrounding the venture with mystery and leaving us a minimum of hard facts about time and origin. Making the prints themselves was hardly an industry. The prints were linked. saviors and saints. in other words. the devotional prints were largely a by- product of pilgrimage. His training prepared him for sculpting a letter in steel. It is possible that die Venetian woodblock cutters enjoyed some form of protection by the state. to the artificial business of tourism. from which a casting mold could be made. their cards were printed and distributed in stealth. The St Christopher (1423) shown overleaf is perhaps the most famous and familiar of all these early prints. They could be printed and handcolored without the need of anything so solid1 11 . The popularity of card-playing also helped to stimulate the early use of block printing. which even then had various forms of official support. the methods he adapted from his earlier experience changed little in principle. As long as type-punches were cut by hand. like other early European printers. In Europe at least. All means of identification were avoided. for in 1441 they appealed to the Signoria for aid in the form of restrictions on the importation of cards and printed figures. the earliest major use of woodblocks was for reproducing portraits of spiritual heroes: bodhisattvas and buddhas. and pilgrimage was encouraged by an in­ crease in the granting of indulgences for visits to lesser shrines.

The usual method was jrotton printing ~ rubbing or burnishing the back of the sheet.) 12 . as a press. (In Asia bamboo leaves stretched over circular forms are still in use as bur­ nishers for prints. Block p rin t dated 1423. as it rests on the inked block. by means of a smaller block or other suitable tool. and substantial. i .5 S t Christopher.

and Roger of Sicily established a shop for printing cloth at Palermo in the middle of the twelfth century. Printed cloth is pre-Christian. Coptic examples are extant from the sixth century a d . Specimens of thirteenth-century cloth and the .6 Fifteenth-century playing card. 1 . Well before the fourteenth century woodblocks were also used in the decoration of textiles.

bamboo and other fibers were soaked and beaten to a pulp. which to print it are still in existence.belong to the time of Gutenberg and later. chiefly of linen fibers. which was the brush. But the earliest known European xylo­ graphie books . and the materials used for the screen. proved no obstacle to the writing instrument it served. T he Moors carried papermaking into Europe. Paper was made in China during the Hàn Dynasty (first century b c ). and when the first Italian paper mill was es­ tablished. early in the seventh century. producing a rag sheet. and the Arabs may have learned of the technique from Chinese prisoners. A Short History of the Printed Word blocks with. held together by hairs or threads to make a flexible bamboo matting on which the pulp could be drained and formed. and is of necessity. Mulberry. evidently. The Invention and Spread of Papermaking We have mentioned already that one of the limiting factors in developing European printed books lay in the lack of a satisfactory material from which to make them. had there been readers in Europe to read them. however. and Chinese sources say that Cài Lün created an efficient. The methods of breaking down the fibers. a limited and expensive surface. In 1085 there was a mill at Jativa. The pulp was spread on cloth to form and dry. 14 . In the interval paper was produced in Japan. T he re­ sulting sheet of paper was coarse and long-fibered. In the eighth it appeared in Samarkand. from handcarved slabs . Spain. un­ dem ent improvements. Vellum was. ready for printed books before Gutenberg appeared. It took a thousand years for Cài Lun’s process to reach Europe.books in which the text is printed like a woodcut. This. As the process evolved. at Fabriano. Europe was not. the doth was replaced by thin strips of bam­ boo. rather than before. Texts could have been printed from such blocks at any time. sustainable papermaking process about a d 105. in the latter half of the thirteenth century.

which is known as furnish. fine handmade paper is still being produced there. stamping machines run by water power had replaced the cruder pounding mortars for producing pulp. more delicate round wires were substituted for the flat wires of earlier molds. Paper reflected these refinements in terms of weight. flexibility. in much the same way as it was around the time of Gutenberg’s birth. After the vatman dips his mold into die pulp. Nearly 700 years after the establishment of the Fabriano mill. Thou gh the edge of the frame can be made to act as a kind of benchmark.-7 Dutch papermaker’s wire moldfor a i f ' x 22" (44 x 56 cm) laid sheet. strength and character.1. to help determine the amount 15 . In addition. he shakes or oscillates the frame in such a way that the fibers cross and mesh to strength en the sheet.

then hung to dry. à Short History ot the Printed Word of pulp to be dipped up. and the horizontals the laid lines. with a solution of starch or animal glue.) . they are pressed. After that. freeing the mold-screen for reuse. called the water leaf. After sizing. which is to say coated. the remain­ der. After the water has run off. i . ( The verticals represent the chain lines. pressed and hung to dry. is couched ~ that is. to make them less absorbent. pressed onto a woolen felt to which it adheres. 8 Papermaker’s watermark. they may be sized. everything depends on the experience and sensitivity of the workman. Couched sheets are stacked.

of course. between the latter years of the thirteenth and the end of the sixteenth century more than 16. Giotto was bom around 1276. One of Leonardo’s contemporaries was Christopher Columbus. paper is used for making charts and maps and keeping records. on the eve of the official birth of European printing.000 individual watermarks were in use throughout Europe. Masaccio’s powerful and innovative frescoes in the Brancacci Chapel in Florence were painted. !7 . the battle of Agincourt took place in 1415. Petrarch in 1304. It is of interest that the spread of paper in Europe coincides with a great resurgence of European literature and art. The imaginations of some in the fifteenth century were rich with the ideas of a new era. papermaking spread rapidly. Though it had taken ten centuries for the concept of turning reconstituted fibers into paper to travel from China to Europe. Villon in 1431. Filippo Brunelleschi in 1377. which is formed into simple. at Troyes (1338). several years before the execution of Joan of Arc. In France.) Paper is used for printing. which are important to the intellect but also to the exercise of power. They leave their unobtrusive trace in every sheet and so identify the maker. and their young creator was already dead.g h a pT E Ri * Prologue to Discovery In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries.two methods of storytelling older by far than print. jan van Eyck around 1390. Joan of Arc was burned at the stake in 1431. and the English were finally driven from the country in the middle of the cen tury. and in Germany at Nürnberg (1389). but it is also used for writ­ ing and for drawing . flat designs and sewn onto the screen. Mantegna in the same year as Villon. Among the earliest manufactories were those in France. and Leonardo in 1452. Masaccio in 1401. Chaucer in 1340. Apart from its importance to poetry and portraiture. (The watermarks that appear in handmade paper are made from wire. those of others were full of fear. Dante was born in 1265. Boccaccio in 1313.

who needed genius. There were no short cuts to learning. Basle. Lyons. Next comes the age of the acquisitions and libraries. 1875-86). Florence. They began their task by digesting and arranging the contents of the libraries. to punctuate. and printers. no dic­ tionaries of antiquities. together with the teachers of Greek. that everlasting solace of humanity which exists in the classics. All subsequent achievements in thefield of scholarship sink into insignificance beside the labours of these men. London. enthusiasm. and Paris groaned with printing presses. who in thefirst half of the lyth century escapedfrom Constantinople with preciousfreights ofclassic literature. Then came the third age of scholarship . in his Renaissance in Italy (7 volumes. Plato. men of supreme devotion and of mighty brain. writes of three stages in the history of scholar­ ship during the Renaissance: Thefirst is the age of passionate desire. are the heroes of this secondperiod. Cosimo de' Medici. the Stephani. andFroben toiled by night and day. to commit to the press. Greek type had to be struck. Nicholas V.. whofounded the Vatican Library in 1453. and Poggio Bracciolini. and the . The text and the canon of Homer. no comprehensive lexicons. They inspired the Italians with a thirst for antique culture. Petrarch poring over a Homer he could not understand. What had been collected by Poggio and Aurispa had now to be explained by Ficino. A Short History of the Printed Word Humanism and the Renaissance John Addington Symonds. Aristotle. are the heroes of this period.. to accentuate. who began the Medicean Collection a little earlie?. and Boccaccio in his maturity learning Greek in- order that he might drink from the well-head of poetic inspiration. who ran­ sacked all the cities and convents of Europefor manuscripts. Each student had to hold in his brain the whole mass of classical erudition. Venice. The Aldi. no carefully prepared thesauri of mythology and history. Poliziano. and the tragedians had to be decided. whose work it was to ascer­ tain the right reading of sentences. and Erasmus. philologers. employing scores of scholars.the age of the critics. and to place beyond the reach of monkish hatred or of envious time..

This passage from Symonds voices the interest in the Renais­ sance that was reawakened in England during the latter part of the nineteenth century and culminated in the efforts of William Morris. Emery Walker.and many have adopted it as such . Morris’s Kelmscott Press - founded in 1891 at Hammersmith. Virgil was printed in 1430. for to them. Both groups in 19 . were endured by those heroes of humanising scholarship. If one thinks of industrialism as a new religion . whom.sympathy of Europe for the accomplishment of their titan ic task. what agonies of doubt and expecta­ tion. our certainly of thefuture of human culture. The history of the printed word over the course of the twentieth century is a reminder that ideas and innova­ tions born in Song Dynasty China and the European Renaissance are anything but dead.marked the beginning of a strong Neohumanist movement in type design. London .488. Sydney Cockerell. Homer in 1. which had mech­ anized printing to a point where its character had been largely sac­ rificed to expediency. Few designers of the twentieth century were not influenced in some manner or to some degree by the aims and attitudes of that small dedicated group.then it is easy to see the analogy between William Morris and his colleagues and successors on the one hand and the fifteenth-century humanists on the other. Bruce Rogers and oth­ ers to rediscover and reemploy the techniques of bookmaking as they were practiced in the early days of the art. or of Johannes Froben? Yet. calligraphy and the other arts of the book. our stores of intellectual enjoyment. our command of the past. this we surely ought to do. But what vigils. we owe in a great measure the freedom of our spirit. or of Henricus Stephanus [Henri Estienne]. we are apt to think of merely as pedants! Which of us now warms and thrills with emotion at hearing the name of Aldus Manutius. what anxious expenditure of thought. Plato in 1513. Aristotle in 1495. They then became the inalienable heritage of mankind. This was essentially a counterrevolt against the Industrial Revolution.

His works had wide circulation. Short H isto ry o f the Printed Word their way . and a book on the art of letter writing. for instance. The humanism which had been the inspiration of the Renaissance. dictionaries. The poet-scholars who did so much to rescue and spread the literature and language of Greece and Rome exerted great influence on their times. By the end of World War I. One humanist who occupies a special place in the story of print­ ing is the Dutch-bom Desiderius Erasmus. a work on Greek and Latin pronunciation. They stood against the forces which had lost sight of man. went through at least a hundred printings and a dozen different editions during his own lifetime. the precious mannerisms and medievalisms of the Pre-Raphaelites and that unfortunate manifestation known as 20 . We will meet him more than once in this brief history. Benchmarks of Printing What William Morris and his associates began at the Kelmscott Press spread rapidly through Europe and North America. the letterforms of our alphabet were preserved for us by the devotion of the humanists to classical culture. We owe them not only a literature and a culture but the means to build new literatures and cultures of our own. They were leaders in cultural and political affairs. came out of the classical culture and cult of antiquity of the fourteenth century. In addition to the linguistic disciplines developed and streng­ thened by the study and use of Greek and Latin. They were also the architects of new educational methods. in extolling the per­ fection. His Colloquies.right down to the shapes of the letterforms they drew and carved and wrote ~ extolled human values and accomplish­ ments and sought to rediscover and preserve them. A. Here. it is enough to say that among his publications were grammars. In their persons. especially in Italy. and the power of God or the machine. they were the repositories of the knowl­ edge of antiqui ty.

Cen­ tral to the attitudes of the fifty years between 1890 and 1940 was a desire to return to original printing surfaces or at least to learn to understand them. not in order to oppose them but to direct them effectively.and if not to circumvent it. a regard for the sculptural nature of type as it was produced first in eleventh-century China and then by European punchcutters of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. . it is necessary to measure the new means against their contributions to human values. Now more than ever before. the evolving tech­ nology in the field of printing far outstripped in scope and rapidity anything known during the Industrial Revolution. and to compare the two without asking the slightest concession for the older piece. are that good. Second. events. These four to­ gether determine the form and texture of a piece of printing. though it was made 550 years ago. As the third and fourth benchmarks I would suggest awareness of the arrangement of type and the actual impression from it. like the best of the old paintings. and an appreciation of its practical as well as its aesthetic aspects. The best of the old books. W hat are the benchmarks that can serve as references and guides in tracing the history of printing? I would put first an under­ standing of the alphabet. and are outside the time flow of people. on ei­ ther aesthetic or technical grounds. places. That meant of course that artists and printers wanted to circumvent the camera .art nouveau had been sloughed off.later the computer . then to control it precisely enough to maintain the integrity of impression. the tactility of the object. and efforts to recapture basic values in printing craftsmanship became less self-conscious. developments and dates. In the second half of the twentieth century. It is possible to put the best piece of contemporary print­ ing beside a page of the Gutenberg Bible. and the scale of the original design.

the L/I (ew or barred L).. 3* 3 i ïo C H A P T E R II = ? The Alphabet fos l e t t e r f o r m s w e u se stem in large part from lapidmj Roman capitals . which dropped from use in EmgJish at the end of the eighteenth century but is still in use in Oerman. though not all have found a place in modem English. (The capital form of fi is simply double-S. we derive the X T .Z " come to us separately from Greek. the Œ /œ (ethel) used in French . Sahaptin. As writing systems go.Y . This means they stand for speech sounds. which has long been used in Polish and now is used in Navajo. and the 6 (eszett). One classic model is •'/ the inscription on the column erected in Rome about a d 114 by the Emperor Trajan.. V. .letters incised into stone with a chisel . Three : X more -K . giving the minimal English total of twenty-six. of course. Other letters have been added too.) The symbols that compose an alphabet are phonograms. The U and W are outgrowths of the V form. the 0 /o (slashed 0 ) and Æ/æ (ash or aesc) used in Danish and Norwegian. Chipewyan and many other Native American languages. Kwakwala. classic forms of the twenty letters of the old Latin alphabet. not for objects or ideas.. they embody an extreme and convenient state : : W Ê&& . the 1 (dotless i) of Turki sh.are postclassical additions. andtheJ is an alternate form of Ï.that came to hill flower early in the Christian era. A further three U. From this and other inscriptions. W . They include the 1?/ja (thorn) and D/9 (eth) used in Icelandic and Vietnamese .

in. and English spelling mixes up phonetic and etymological information. requiring a shift to Latin 23 . Anoth er factor of importance is the direction in which the writing moves. classical Mayan and early Egyptian. called boustrophedon. early texts from the Mediterranean written in spirals. the ninth or eighth century bc . is a modest twenty-six letters. in­ cluding those of Arabic and Hebrew.A Short History of the Printed Word of simplification. but each of these looks different in the lower case and caps. Other kinds of writing include syllabic scripts. is still in use with Braille. The English alphabet. Japanese is written nowin a mixture of scripts. starting from the center. Their number is one measure of the work involved in making and in using the materials for printing. The latter method. not to the language. Hindi and Cree. we say. evidently first achieved by the Phoenicians and the Greeks. all the systems humans use are impure and imperfectly con­ sistent. and logographic scripts. Then we need some numerals. Chinese and Japanese are often written vertically. W ith a government decree of 1928. W hen the Greeks began to write. such as those used for Chinese. consonantal scripts. they wrote from right to left. the number and frequency of diacritics. such as those in use for Sanskrit. Both the Chinese and the old Egyptian logographs are par­ tially phonetic. There are short. For typography and printing. logo­ graphic and syllabic. So was old Egyptian. the Arabic and Hebrew scripts write long vowels but not short ones. from left to right. and different once again in roman and italic. the important considerations include the size of the basic character set. Their frequencies and forms have powerful effects upon the texture of the page and the experience of reading. the number of alternate character sets. or alternated line by line between the two. This gives us several hundred graphic elements instead of twenty-six. In reality. The direction belongs to the script. Turkish was always written right to left when it was written in Arabic char­ acters. and of course the style and structure of the glyphs. punctuation marks and other kinds of sym­ bols.

a letter artist should respond through memory and the particular tool in his hand to the special requirements of his design.we can still see the heritage of the scripts we use today. shape and rhythm. This 24 . The subtleties of the great Roman forms have always eluded the compass and square. One logical and rewarding way is to think of the forms as a series of geometrical variations on a theme of square. Albrecht Dürer and Geofroy Tory. will become a frieze of contracting and expanding spatial interruptions. and in their letterforms . The Roman Alphabet Earlier. The perfect expression of a letter remains in the mind of an artist as a pure concept of form. A Short History of the Printed Word characters. when set together. physical record of the physical and spiri­ tual act of writing . no set of rules can be slavishly held to. essen­ tially abstract in nature. T he tools used in making letters are formidable forces in de­ veloping their character. circle and triangle. such as those conceived by Luca Pacioli. The round forms bespeak circles and parts of cir­ cles. A letter should seem to be of one piece. sculpturally. These. Just as a draftsman uses a model for a figure drawing. But despite many efforts to develop formulae for the construc­ tion of the alphabet. Here. This heritage is echoed in the original European method of typemaking.in the direct. I call attention to the fact that the archetypes for our written and printed alphabets were carved letters. Latin manuscripts go back to the first century b c . I stressed my strong belief in the sculptural nature of type. the direction of Turkish writing and reading was sud­ denly reversed. There are several ways of reaching a general understanding of the basic nature of roman. nota sum of parts. where written forms were translated. The great monumental Roman letters can be thought of as hav­ ing simple geometric bones. so fleshed-out that the straights and curves relate organically. into steel.

Almost every lettershape carries its contained 2 . and is responsible for the liveliness as well as the nobility of die great classic carvings.1 Albrecht D urer U n d e rw e y su n g d e r M es su n g . Nürnberg . ly a y 25 .c h a p t e r ii * T he Alphabet breathing quality is the very essence of the inscriptional concept.

in composition. space .like the space inside the O .2 Trajan capitals set against. square fields to demonstrate the proportion and rhythms o f roman. This space is related. These counters are not only vital to tire color of a letterform 26 . À Short History of the Prin ted Word 2 . to the spaces between letters.which in type is called the counter.

not its hue). and the variations from. to show their forms against half the field. The history of letterforms from Trajan’s time to Guten­ berg’s is the history of calligraphy . there are ex­ amples of mural writing made with a fiat brush. cumulative forms wri tten quickly but precisely. (the color of a letter or a page means its black-and-whiteness. or wedge-shaped point.the broadnib pen and all its relatives . often bilateral serifs o f roman tie the letters to the line. This is perhaps better shown than de­ scribed.2. Thus the an­ tiquity of the flat-edged instrument . If. This is one obvious way of laying out an inscription to be incised in stone. narrow S to wide M become clear as skeletal archetypes. The broadnib pen is the tongue of the hand. one thinks of the shapes in relation to square fields. which are subdivided in the cases of the narrow E and S. proportion can be more dramatically understood in a structural way. The thick-and-thin characteristics of these examples indicate their de­ velopment from written forms produced with a wide-edged took In Pompeii. In figure 2. L I T T E R A S C R I P T A M A N E T 2. which was destroyed in the first century a d . in visualizing roman.4 Latin square capitals. The transitive and unilateral serifs o f italic link the letters to each other. 27 .chapter n * The Alphabet hijlm rxy h i j l m r x y 2.and the history of calligraphy is the history of highly abstract.is established in shaping the appearance of Western al­ phabets. several letters based on the Trajan capitals are set against square fields.3 The intransitive. they are also integral parts of it. with reeds and quills sharpened to a flat.

a craftsman produced a strong terminal with a bracketed appearance. These capitals were used for important works from the second century into about the fifth cen­ tury and their proportions had much in common with the lapidary capitals. 2 . The principal differences lay in their strong contrasts of thicks and thins. owe their evolution wholly to the pen. Ameliorations of Roman The more formal written letters of the Roman period are known as square capitals (capitalis qiiadrata). by contrast.5 Square capitals. An intransitive roman serif is a terminal device. Performing a simi­ lar function for type. Transitive italic serifs. By using a chisel in such a way that the finishing cuts were wider. functionally em­ ployed to strengthen lines which otherwise wtmld tend to fall away optically. This is especially true of incised lines.6 Rustic capitals. roman serifs continue to be seen on the major­ ity of faces in general use. 28 . A Short History o f th e Printed Word 2 . and the pen-derived serifs of the square capitals. They derive in large part from the example of the chisel.

against which the round and diagonal strokes make their pattern and the horizontals provide their accent.m M ik ù t i lÜ lA ii^ Â ^ f ià ÿ ^ O Î C A A D a t l h l A 1 2 . requiring fewer strokes and pen lifts yet providing a beat or rhythm of their own so that spacing . Much could be learned from these early forms that would be of value in design­ ing a condensed typeface for use in newspaper headlines. and this limited their usage. By holding a flat- nibbed pen or wedge-shaped brush at an acute angle.7 Rustic capitals. as the square capitals. Forms es­ sentially full and round cannot be accommodated to narrow usage trrrepA scwprx <mNer 2 .S|u ?> |bi 0 . usually to save space.both for color and for legibil­ ity . . Such economy was called for when the mater­ ial being written on was rare and costly vellum.could be more easily controlled. the writer thins the verticals to a point where they become little more than a recurring beat.chapter n • The Alphabet tvÿeu msi. T he story of writing can be told in terms of the search for simpler forms. Square capitals are not easy to write.8 Uncials.C y J ! AN iîfjWÂl YAC£f:iAA <i k u m r s i i a 4 ô à t ï 'N li A M . Such an amelioration is embodied in the rustic capitals which belong to the same period. roughly.C ^ oc ^c-Kf £ ^ 3 ui rG Ü / H £ l S iW A Q y M A » . These rustic letters anticipate an ever-recurring tendency to condense.

called uncial.1 0 Semiuncials. there developed a style of writing that had as its chief characteristic the rounding off of certain angles and joints. These 2 . A Short History of the Printed Word 2. (The color-dotting in the joints of many headline faces could be avoided by designs stemming from naturally condensed forms.9 Uncials.) By the fourth century. This script. Rounded forms were used chiefly to increase speed. carried into the eighth century. since the curves reduced the number of strokes required to shape the letters. simply by squeezing them together. .

ascending and descending elements appear. A notable change in the curves of these al­ phabets was caused by the manner in which the pen was held. As noted ear­ lier. Four hypothetical guidelines.M . This new vari­ ation provided an alphabet that was easier to write and could have great intrinsic beauty as well . are implied in the half uncials. Early in the sixth century. Roman letters stood between two hypothet­ ical horizontal lines. in addition to inherent legibility. or semiuncial. and therefore have a natural authority.witness the Irish and English ver­ sions of the half uncial. They fill with ink and blight the texture of the page. H . It was the beginning of what we now call lower case. came into use. forms flow directly and easily from a quill or reed. D. often perpendicular to the line. On the Continent. U and Q. especially in comparison to the best work being done in England and Ireland. as opposed to die comfortable angle or classical axis used for writing rustic and classical capitals. angular pen-written joints are hard to keep clear and open. eighth and ninth centuries.i t Semiuncials. not two. the calligraphic hands of this period had de­ generated. Half un­ cials belong to the seventh. Under the influence of a corrupted Roman 31 . In these early years. the half uncial. E. This grew to be a script quite different from the capitals. The change affected the forms of A.c: h a p T e R 11 • The A lphabet 2 .

A Short History of the Printed Word 2 . There had been no unifying force to fill the vacuum caused by the dissolution of the Roman Empire.more a lounging script than a running script . he wanted the most beautiful and accurate copies made of the finest existing manuscripts. but 32 . Such an undertaking called for the develop­ ment of a standard model hand that could be practiced throughout the Emperor’s domains. He did not evidently intend any textual revision. In 789 he ordered a revision of the books of the church. cursive -. a true small letter.1 2 Caroline (or Carolingian) minuscules. and all means of expression naturally fell victim to provincialism. instead. The Caroline {or Carolingian) Minuscule Such was the state of calligraphy when Charlemagne came to power in 768.Europe’s book hands had suffered. T he result was the beautiful Caroline minuscule. with definite classic ancestry.

or capitals (often built up with more than a single pen stroke). The script tends to avoid abbreviated forms and excessive ligatures. The curved forms that spring from straight stems have an organic relation to the source. (It is called Caroline or Carolingian after Charlemagne’s Latin name: Carolus Magnus. and the scholarly enterprise underlying it. much as a growing leaf does in nature. it was used in the same way.c h a p t e r i i • The A lphabet 2 . movable type for printing. Thus each char­ acter develops its independent form. not only in France but in all of western Europe. Improvements in the organi­ zation of the text. employing a four-line system. begin a paragraph. All of these considerations have a strong bearing on the making of a workable. from 796 to 804. The Caroline minuscule is the true ancestor of our lowercase printing type. We owe to these centuries much more titan a fresh new writing hand.1 3 Caroline mimtscuks. Tours. a section or a sentence. through more detailed punctuation and more painstaking line and paragraph arrangements. who was Abbot of St Martin’s.) The Caroline script may have been designed by Alcuin of York. W ithout the Caroline reform. and minuscules continue it. there would 33 . T he spread of this letter was rapid. Majuscules. The Caroline minuscule not only looks like lower case. Intro­ duced into England in the tenth century. rounded and relatively wide. The forms are simple. where it was dominant for many years. it was generally adopted there after the Norman Conquest. clear and handsome. The script is an outward sign of an inwardly new way of thinking about texts and their importance. are also hallmarks of this period.

À Short History of the Printed Word 2 . By the eleventh century there was a general tendency toward 2 . especially north to south. the Low Countries and Eng­ land showed some kinship.1 4 Textura o f G utenberg’s time. and Italy. it could not be everyone’s solution. at least for a time. Thus the writing in northern France. 34 . Spain and southern France shared certain common characteristics of style. national characteristics and experience found their way back into letterforms.1 5 Textura from a 14th-century breviary. Inevitably. Post-Caroline Hands Despite the wide appeal and use of the Caroline minuscule. have been serious losses in the quality and number of earlier texts that reached the Renaissance. The large di­ visions were essentially geographical.

Southward. the achievement of even color throughout the page was partly mechanical. d andp have a condensed hexago­ nal shape. known as rotunda. It was as rich in color as textura.is known as tex­ tura. there was strong resistance to the strict angularity of the northern scripts. all these forms are known in modern English as blacklet- ter scripts. and in England as black letter.c h a p t e r ii * The Alphabet ifittera scripta matict 2 . There. compression of forms for style’s sake is one thing. Again. but its style was reminiscent of classic roman. due to the regular beat of the verticals and the evenness of the counters. calligraphers imparted to their pages a completely different rhythm. Roman capitals have been described as having a breathing rhythm. the gothic or 35 . quite another is the development of a more measured system of spacing by usin g an alphabet of greater homogeneity. The particularly sharp. after Giovanni Francesco Cresci. To some degree. was developed. This gothic script acquired many forms and names. In general. A textura of the fifteenth century served as a model for the type used in Gutenberg’s 42-line Bible. this was surely due in part to a desire to economize on parchment and on time.1 6 Rotunda. and the serifs look like little diamonds .in which the 0 and the bowls of letters such as b. smaller and more condensed letters. in Italy and Spain. In first reducing the full round forms and then finally eliminating them. northern form . The diagonal couplings and footings of the letters gave them a pointed effect. the new script had the pattern of a picket fence. However. a rounder kind of blackletter. but they also served as terminal accents. in France as lettre de forme. especially as expressed in the Caroline minuscule. Because of their relative darkness. It was known in fourteenth-century Germany as Textur. similar in function to serifs.

In addition. Scribes were perfecting this hand just as the first great examples of European printing were being produced. written capitals they used the early lapidary letters. This is especially so where space limitations require a high letter count to the line. known in Italian as scrittura umanistica. the gothic scripts had many advantages. even when the modifications seem extreme. but it was significantly rounder than die nordiern gothics it was destined to supplant. and it was lighter dian any blackletter. a Renaissance roman hand. the Italian whiteletter or humanistic roman 36 . arising from their dark­ ness and efficiency. Despite all calligraphic short­ comings. It is the most direct link between the Caroline minus­ cule and our present lowercase type. of roman lower case that the script looks weak and small. Humanistic Script and Chancery Cursive Rotunda was not the only script that arose as an alternative to the northern gothic styles. The humanistic script was a more compressed letter than its Caroline predecessor. There was also the neo-Caroline whiteletter. there is die es­ sential authority of blackletter minuscules. They found the model for their lower case in ninth- century writing. W ith roman the situation is reversed: the capitals have the authority and the lower case is a series of improvisations. especially in ease of writing. A Short History of the Printed Word blackletter hands can be traced to variations on the Caroline. die Renaissance had rekindled endiusiasm for classic culture and callig­ raphers sought pre-goth ic models for their transcriptions of classi­ cal texts. From the standpoint of the scribe. however. Early manuscripts in this script (late fourteenth and early fifteenth centuries) are sometimes labored and unsteady. or x-height. As models for their new. The same cannot be said of blackletter majuscules. The elegance achieved by the use of long ascenders and descenders can so reduce the torso. In the fifteenth century.

il il € \-M) Ih o rtm e C r u .Ui'K’ i ï V HI.%»■: re m 1a I v r n a c u ^% s 11*1 ^ »g c »*r t u m *ir t .. v u t u m a g t u a r g r u t c a cur.H u S H i.A n iu ria io .1 8 Scrittura umanistka.-i i c i u i l ' b i t 1norm s ui . 37 .% I. I f o m i c n ^ ■■ . in quo la fig u r e -. ..pro enr!ore x jn 4 etcrcndo.OitHH s. ■.- Sf o r t u 1n .Hu 10U iff i ..! tH I TH .NS Î1 . square capitals to humanistic script. littera fenpta maner 2 .>• I « .11 turn.c h a p t e r il « The Alphabet 2 . \ 3 . 'KiCS ï t  t ‘l Is tl.1 7 Development o f written handsfrom. sci P o tin n ic n e i Ui )v m u u n •in ïiifM flÔ 2 .-*■ J ■ ■ .w iu ' 'i h r g u 'H S M u tr c n f o ! iC ïb i-^ îin ^ T g îitiT ^ lifp 'r e r p f o f n a & r f o r i n rv ifac foriMifS. : V CTCCI.auo H .1 9 Scrittura umanistica.

The forms are more compressed than in scrittura uma- nistica. and the rhythmic beat of nearly even strokes and spaces cre­ ates a characteristic pattern. C a n t t m n s c w 2. The cursive quality is built into the letters. Round forms become elliptical. The tendency is toward a gentle slope - something less than io° . approaching a parallelogram. was translated into type and became the first italic. written with greater speed. an offspring of the scrittura umanistica. cancellaresca. but in time it became the basic typographic tool. Littera senpm maner 2. Chancery cursive is an outgrowth of the neo-Caroline hand. for accent. (The slope is less than 4 ° ) O f all the semiformal hands developed over the years of the emerging Latin alphabet. It has renewed importance too. Fairly early in the history of printing. cancellaresca or chancery script (so-called because of its use by papal secretaries) is surely the most beautiful. A Short H isto ry of the Printed Word became the dominant script of Europe and worked against the reemergence of many national hands. just as it does as in blackletter. It is rooted in their structure.20 Cancellaresca ( chancery script). early 16th century. It was first used alone. Upright 38 . not their slope. because of twentieth-century efforts to revive it for private correspondence.21 Chancery script.but slanting is not obligatory. chiefly to save space.

chapter ii * The Alphabet roman capitals were used with this script. It articulates it - just the way the joints articulate the hand. This should come as no surprise. and sewing them down the side to make a codex . Another major step was the division of the stream of writing into standardized units of transmission. for instance. many other things are possible: page numbers.they leave innumerable subtleties of speech unrepresented . you have a signature consisting of two leaves or four pages. Linguistic no­ tation. if it tries to say too much. Cutting up the scroll into uniform but arbitrary por­ tions. ends up by saying nothing.must at first have seemed a leap into arid technological abstraction. which can be represented either as syllables or as consonants and vowels. Once that leap is made. That is a fancy way of saying chopping the text tip into pages.but their crudeness is a virtue. this step was slow in coming. If you take a rectangular sheet of paper and fold it in half. Fold it again and you have a signature oifour leaves 39 . The same is true of speech itself: it fails if it tries to say too much about whatever the speaker is thinking.a manu­ script book . it would be far too tedious to write and too complex to read. Making a book in codex form is more roundabout than making a scroll. running heads and indices. was a major step in the history of human civilization. The codex does for the text what the alphabet does for the language. This is what is calledfolio form. All such systems are crude . hut they were small in relationship to the overall height of the four-line system The Invention of the Page The division of the stream of speech into particles of sound. Simple as it sounds. like musical notation. If writing represented ail the gestures and inflections and tonalities of speech. It would also leave too little scope for reinterpretation.

and the bones were made to fit inside the flesh as finely as a hand inside a glove. lowercase roman and lowercase italic. script. Scribes understandably set themselves against such an economic threat. They were regarded as actual models to be imitated as closely as possible. and not designed to reflect in any way the difference between man­ uscript and printing. This is quarto form. notably Florence. W ith the perfecting of the humanistic script in the fifteenth century. the book can be safely stored. semi- formal and epistolary. comfortably read and easily referenced for centuries. A Short History of the Printed Word or eight pages. and their patrons were often equally con- 40 . In many places. Fold it yet again and there are eight leaves or sixteen pages. In any of these formats. paper and binding are sound. The purpose of the fi rst printers was to compete with calligraphers. The Final Flowering of Calligraphy This chapter began with the statement that today’s letterforms stem from the carved Roman capitals of twenty centuries ago. At this stage. which is the sextodecimo form. The written alphabet and handcut punches are the flesh and bones of typographic printing. the book can be sewn through the spine and protectively encased. Sig­ natures of six and twelve leaves (called sexto and duodecimo forms) are feasible as well. the coming of printing was strongly resisted. T he letterforms cut and cast by Gutenberg and other early printers were accordingly modeled on popular manuscript hands of the day. These correspond to our present roman capitals. The bound manuscripts of the fifteenth century were more than mere prefigurements of the first European printed books. A fourth fold produces sixteen leaves or thirty-two pages. the domi­ nant alphabet could be divided into three classes: formal. the octavo form. If the text. the aesthetics of type design had come full circle and classic forms were again firmly established as ideal archetypes.

a complete Albertus Magnus. with their complete works . those who under- 41 . those first printed books: The library of Urbino. and included every work in medicine which was then to be had. however. and with all their translations. or the only exist­ ing text of an old writer. of St Mark at Florence. all of Menander. now in the Vatican. The purchase of an ancient manuscript. or the only cmnplete. It was systematically extended and completed. a good deal of information as to the way in which manuscripts and libraries were multiplied.g h AP T e:r ii • The Alphabet temptuous of what they considered the vulgar and mechanical imi­ tations of good manuscripts. further. yet in the list of classics wefind all the [.occupied the first place. and spent in the course of time no less than 30. else the philologists would have soon edited it. and his account ofit forms an idealpicture of a library of the Renaissance. was naturally a lucky accident of which we need take nofurther account. In The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy. was wholly the work of the great Federigo of Montefeltro. There was a complete Thomas Aquinas. which contained a rare. and even of the library at Oxford.Dante and Boccaccio. Theology and the Middle Ages were perhaps mostfully rep­ resented. The collection. Among the professional copyists. all of Pindar. Then fol­ lowed twenty-five select humanists. The last codex must have quickly disappearedfrom Urbino.000 ducats on the collection. It was noted with pride that in richness and completeness none could rival Urbino. As a boy he had begun to collect. Among the Greek man­ uscripts the Fathers of the Churchfa r outnumbered the rest.survivingJ works of Sophocles. Among the “modems? the great writers of the 14th centmy . a complete Bonaventura. the Swiss historian Jacob Burckhardt gives an interesting picture of the libraries and the copyists during the time of the incunables or incunabula. A t Urbino there were catalogues ofthe libraries ofthe Vatican. chiefly by the help of Vespasiano. was a many- sided one. of the Visconti at Pavia. We have. invariably with both their Latin and Italian writings. in after years he kept thirty orforty scrittori employed in various places.

and Vespasiano. whereupon Cosimo bargained to pay him so much a day. and the pay they re­ ceived very large. made in 1878 from the second German edition of 1869. the binding. probably men who were in search offavours at the papal court. It is remarkable. he sent for Vespasiano. though. it is intelligible that the sudden appearance of printed books was greeted at first with anything but favour. delivered zoo volumes in twenty-two months. withforty-five writers under him. When Cosimo de' Medici was in a hurry toform a li­ brary for his favourite foundation. since those that were worth getting could not be had eas­ ily. how often this admirable book on the Italian Renaissance has been set in type that contradicts its spirit . and received from him the advice to give up•all thoughts of purchasing books. partly schoolmasters and needy men of learning. Federigo of Urbino [said the scribe Vespasiano da Bisticci] “would have been ashamed to own a printed book ” Burcldhardt's book was first published in Basel in i860 and has gone through hundreds of editions in many different languages. The rest. both in the Vatican and at Urbino.. The material used to write on when the work was ordered by great or wealthy people was always parchment. and who kept themselves alive mean­ while by this means. were partly mere clerks who made their living by such works. and it was they especially who bore the name of scrittori. as of this book. It is a theme of Burckhardt’s hook. was a uniform crimson velvet with silver clasps. but rather to make use of the copyists. The copyists at Rome in the time of Nicholas V were mostly Germans and Frenchmen . simply called copisti. It is quoted here in Samuel Middlemore’s translation. Where there was so much care to show honour to the contents of a book by the beauty of its outwardform. who desired an addition to their income. Their number was always limited. 42 ..“bar­ barians”as the Italian humanists called them..even when good types of Ital­ ian Renaissance design (or other types of Renaissance inspiration) were readily available. that the form of tilings has meani ng and does matter. the Badia below Fiesole. A Short History of the Printed Word stood Greek took the highest place.

they are also easier to cut. several romans of lasting value and wide in­ fluence had appeared. Overleaf is an example: Koch An tiqua in calligraphy and type. he had no question about the character of the letter he was looking for: the best possible imitation of the most highly regarded manuscript hand of his day. and in time. 43 .continued to enjoy wide use until World War II. and cut directly from these models. frakturs. when roman type replaced them. because just as gothic letterforms are easier to write than roman. CHAPTER III Type: Cutting and Casting h e n G u t e n b e r g b e g a n hi s s e a rc h f o r a p ra c tic a l way to make movable type. There is less subtlety in gothic shapes as well as in the mechan­ ics of joining them in words and sentences. however. it was extremely interesting to me to observe that he still used the calligraphic approach for a number of his types. to use roman letters as examples. northern black] etters were at that time in the ascendency in Mainz. underlining the letters he regarded as most. of course. roman had super­ seded blackletter everywhere except in Germany. W hen I worked with Rudolf Koch. In describing the way type is cut by hand. schwabachers (bastardas) and some rotundas . There. I prefer. This acci­ dent helped the first European typecutter. Fortuitously.three classes of black- letter . Within fifteen years of Gutenberg’s initial achievement. then went through them. Instead of drawing letters in outline. he wrote long passages. successful.

rn . cast by Klingspor. The solution is a metal mold that holds individual metal matrices.5 De^cmVerclerLe^erscliuf'uneridltdie Ldob den /\ckA errL ^ ? L in d v u d iapfere Seelcn ^jew aliujet S tre ite r^ u m HEcL&y Scndete^ ^. erscKuf unendlidie N o t / den A c k â ern/ U n d viel tapfere Seelen gewaltiger Streiter zum H a d e s Sendete. + -!. • I .-}- a L . ' y ^ 1 E \ / 0 0 ABCDEFGHUKLMNOPQ^ S T U V W X Y Z . right-reading. A matrix is a three-dimensional. clay and wooden molds have all been tried. . etn V erd e rte r./^N^cL J ie u . • if *y ' E. 0 ° A B C D E F G H I J K I M N O P Q R si uvwxyz a t c d e f g k i j l < [ m n o p q r s t u v w x y ? ! o ^ 3. Tools and Preparatmi At the heart of the process of making movable type is the mold used for casting.“n.1 Calligraphy and completed type. * o * |3 ' cj - ï * 6' ‘ t / * u * v * w a x ^ -î. ft j 5 A S in g e Je n C S r o I / o C S o t t i n .[eiws’oLrietf . but such approaches are impractical as well as aesthetically unsatis­ fying. negative 44 . % M TG >. Koch A n tiqu a. J e s FeleussoLnes A L I I eus D e r.c * d-c-IL qr • K. -I. Sand. A Short History of the Printed Word S in g e i n C^TrolJ/O C J ? cÎts fe.

45 .3 .2 W arrm Chappell's files and gravers.

The matrix is created in its turn by striking it with a punch. the tools required by the punch- cutter are numerous files.3 A typecutter V graver. usually some 2 lA inches (6 cm) long with a face of sufficient size to contain the letter. which are punches.4 D iagram by Rudolf Koch showing the simple took and gravers o f a pimchcntter. À Short History of the Printed Word 3 . one of his first exercises was to make his chasing tools. in the end of which a positive image of the letter has been carved. image of the letter. 46 . fo r atritenjl tl|eDuriap-£> 3 . positive letter on die face of the type is cast. The skil ls needed to cut and use punches were current in Europe in the fifteenth century because they were part of the goldsmith’s apprenticeship. Besides gauges and squares. The stock for a punch is square rod of carbon steel. gravers and a special instrument or two. from which die backward-reading.

gravers and a stake fo r counterpunching. fast-cutting files used in the prelim­ inary dressing and shaping of the punch.) 47 . {In the foreground: heavier files.a vise.5 Rudolf Koch filin g a punch against the pin. medium size files. These are small steel punches which. The depression thus 3 . they do not have the sweeping keel of those used by wood engravers. Many of the early typecutters also used counterpunches. and small size ones that take a minimum bite from die steel. are struck into the face of the unhardened punch itself. a torch fo r hardening the finished punches. The gravers used in typecutting are straight- bellied. A t the rear can he seen.Files are of three kinds: big. when hardened. fine tex­ tured for the most part. and the stones on which the surfaces are planed.

A Short History of the Printed Word formed corresponds to the space within a letter. Then a terminal is fashioned at the butt end so that the force of the strike will be delivered through the center of the punch. a mark is filed to indicate the bottom of the letter-to-be. the outer form of the letter is normally cut first.) Among the basic pieces of equipment needed is a pin.6 Diagrams o f coun terpunch m g by Rudolf Koch. The first task of the typecutter is to prepare the steel stock. There must also be a vise available to hold the punches for fast shaping with the heavy file. . The bar is planed with a heavy file so that two sides are finished. W hen a counterpunch is not used. Near the butt end. nicked to allow the work to be held and supported for filing and en­ graving. It is a projection of wood. The face end of the punch is finished. smooth and at right angles. giving maximum clarity to the inner white space of each letter. then polished. the counter afterward. similar to that used by a goldsmith or jeweler. The lettershape is then filed around the depression in the punch. first filed at right angles to the finished sides. A 3 . called the counter. T he punchcutter’s version of this simple adjunct to his bench is placed at about chest height. (This corres­ ponds to the nick that is cast into the body of every finished piece of metal type and serves the same purpose: it lets the worker know by touch alone which way is up.

This resurfacing can be done with a hard stone. To achieve the crossbar. The first.is divided into two parts by the crossbar. The device that keeps the punch at right angles to the planing surface is merely a block of steel with a corner angle machined into it. Here the inner space . This trench will leave the crossbar standing after the punch is struck. however.the counter of the H . after each revision. The Counterpunch As an example of counterpunching techniques. it must be hardened before it is used for striking. W hen a counterpunch has been brought to its final form. might prefer to use a wedge-shaped counter-counterpunch to make the trench. the counterpunch must be shaped with a trench across the middle. in which the punch can be held for resurfacing its face. To test progress. Such a lead surface may be hammered out. This allows us to use a set of illustrations which were made by Rudolf Koch in 1932. The face of a counterpunch shapes the floor of the final coun­ ters. A11 accomplished punchcutter. A fourth basic necessity is a planer. Such a trench could be shaped by filing. the counterpunch starts out looking like a rectangle with a depression across it. or with an abrasive sprinkled on a flat area. the counter- punch is struck. and a proper stand to hold it are required. Then the counterpunch can be worked against the pin and given its form. Thus. will form the inner margins of the letter. or loupe. after it has been filled with strikes. a roman capital H is chosen to take through the process. First it is heated to a 49 . rough-shaping file cuts are made in a vise. into a piece of lead. The rims of these counters. and used again. such as one used for sharpening tools. The surface of the counter­ punch is disturbed by the strike and has to be replaned. at a depth equal to the strike. in this case.low-power magnifying glass.

The simplest stakes are merely adjustable collars. die inner form of die letter was completed with the striki ng of the counterpunch. the type bar is worked against the pin with flat. metal is displaced and die face of the punch is dis­ torted. In that stage the steel is glass-hard and brittle. A Short History of the Printed Word cherry red and chilled. If the punchcutter has been lucky. initial shaping be­ ing made at a relatively obtuse angle. At any point 50 . it is best to have some sort of stake to hold the two steel rods steady in their re- 3 .6 shows the face of a punch at this stage: fiat. The bar of steel must be put in the planing angle and its surface refinished. The punch is now put into the vise and roughed down to its H form. widi a two- part rectangular depression. while a more advanced version has its own heavy base to provide extra draw under the force of the hammer.e. When the strike into the punch is made.7 Counterpunch m g stake. the mirror image of the printed impression.. i. It must be annealed by reheating it to a straw color in order to keep it from cracking tinder stress. just as it was when the counterpunch was made. Afterwards. round and triangular files. lated positions. Figure 3. It is better than a flat file for achieving a straight stem. To strike the counter into the face of the punch stock. The letter as cut and as cast is reversed. be­ cause a fiat file tends to bite faster at die terminals of a line. Perhaps the most useful of the file shapes is the double half-round (birds tongue).

Since two sides are squared to each other and to the face of the punch.8 Planer. It is an essential virtue of the punchcutting method that the design is constantly in flux. The weight of an entire alpha­ bet may be changed simply by putting it on the planer. it is possible to change this angle by filing the sides of the punch. his method differed radically from calligraphic practice. the punch leaves a brilliant image.c h a pT e R i n * Type: C u ttin g and C asting in. 3 . the process. its tip acquires a coating of lampblack. This causes the face of the punch to sweat. The resulting change of cant makes possible swift renewal of the surface of the metal by planing any selected part of the face. All the refinements were carried forward by 51 . W hen touched to a piece of chalky cameo paper. His written models were translated into steel through a sculptural process. a proof of the work is easily taken by bringing the punch up close to the flame of an alcohol lamp. The Sculpttiral Aspect At this point it is easy to understand the value of the careful preparation of the steel stock. and since these relationships have in turn been adjusted to the angle of the planer during the Anal grinding of the face. Thus correcting can be carried on without exten­ sive recutting. Although Gutenberg was interested in. and when plunged into the flame. imitating the appearance of manuscript books.

produced a series of faces which are still the major models for many of the types we use today. for striking. This planing is done with a file laid fiat. A Short History of the Printed Word direct aiid plastic means. Once the smoke proofs show that the desired form has been achieved. a material which wotdd properly respond to the strike wras needed . In addition to durabil­ ity. The chief ingredient of type metal was lead. is worked across the file. casting quality had to be considered in choosing the compo­ nents of the m etal. The matrix. Even in the use of engraving tools. Finally. To cast type consistently. A nee- 52 . a steeper one is obviously more practical. is made steeper. held with the fingers of both hands. the angle of the punch. type­ cutting calls for handling that is much more related to scraping and paring than to delineating. which. was harder on the punches. although longer-lived than copper. After the letterform is driven into the surface of the matrix. It was also necessary that every dimension be as compatible as possible and that the position on the body be constant so that dancing lines are avoided. Guten­ berg sought in developing a means for casting movable type. a matrix had to be developed along with an adjustable hand mold that would carry it. from face to sides. coupled with the high state of calligraphy during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. the punches are hardened and annealed. to which antimony was added for hardening and tin for its melting properties. S t r i k in g a n d J u s ti fy i n g th e M a t r i x Accuracy and strength were the characteristics which. Copper has many advantages and was preferred to brass. Accu­ racy was not just a matter of the height of the type. any metal which has been upset must be planed dowrn. Punchcutting as it was practiced in the earliest days of printing. For the matrix. For purposes of correction an obtuse angle was needed.

but the basic techniques were not greatly altered.c h a F T E R 11 î * Type: C u ttin g and C asting 3.10 incorporates some improve­ ments on the first model. by alternate filing and testing. There were improvements in the composition of type metal and in the de­ sign and construction of the hand mold. struck fro m punches cut by Miklos Kis (enlarged).9 Original “Janson" matrices. but it is still simple in construction and in 53 . and the art changed little for several centuries. The leveling and squaring-up of the strike. die depth-gauge is used to test the floor of the strike in relation to the face of the matrix. is known asjustification of the matrix. The mold shown in figure 3. The casting of type was Gutenberg’s great contribution to prac­ tical printing.

it blocks one end and is held in position by a strong horseshoe-shaped spring. This device aids the drop of the type metal into the mold. After casting. The flared shape. A Short Hi stow of the Printed Word use. known as the jet. When the matrix is placed in this mold. The wood covers can be replaced if they become broken or badly burned out. The mold allows numerous adjustments to position the letter on the body and to control the body width. H ot metal is dipped from a crucible with a small ladle. the two halves are encased in wood. 3 . As a protection for the typecaster. the jets are broken off. The other end of the mold is flared so that it forms a funnel shape when the two halves are put together. showing inner construction. often delivered by raising die thigh. a jerk of the instrument or a blow against the spring. The type is put in a dressing 54 . gives extra thrust to the metal for sharper castings.1 0 Handcasting mold. was not present in the first molds. As it is poured into the mouth of the mold. It consists of two halves that fit togedier to form a casting box of adjustable dimensions.

918 inch high in America). and it cuts the basal groove as well as smoothing the feet. ( Bottom center: needle depth-gauge.ch a pTeR in * Type: C u ttin g and Casting 3 . ) stick and finished with a planelike tool. The finished product is composed of 55 . 11 Handcasting mold and gauges. This assures that the letter is type-high (0.

printers cast their own types. but it was not generally adopted until the 1870s . Twelve points make one pica. more easily na med and understood in this diagram reproduced from the drawing made by Rudolph Ruzicka for D.35 mm. through the use of standard patterns. and solutions to them were few and slow in coming. A point. is 0. there are approximately 72 points to the inch or 28. Hair-line Stem.1 2 Plan and nomenclature o f a piece o f type. was only a few years away. In the present system. A Short History of the Printed Word numerous parts. and as these increased in number there were demands for more uniformity.22 mm or a sixth of an inch. which is 4. based on his. Updike’s PrintingTypes: Their History. a French typefounder. But there were many problems. The sixteenth century saw the establishment of independent type foundries. in other words.at which point the mechanization of typecutting. Forms and Use. The American point system finally gave some order to typographic mea­ surements. -Counter Serifs Beard of Neck Shoulder 3 . There were no uniform standards and some printers favored nonconforming typographic material to discourage pirating of their designs.B. The idea of a point system originated in 1737 with Pierre Fournier. In the early years. 56 .0138 inch or 0. and not always happy ones.5 points per centimetre.

but these two spellings have the same pronunciation. They were at first misidentified as the work of the Dutch typefounder Anton janson. another change was made: the typographic point. the font is a set of patterns that can usually be rendered in any size. brevier and pica. A font of foundry type. incidentally. and unfortunately for Kis. Matrices for hot- metal composing machines are often cut mechanically from pat­ terns. exists in one size only. metal type cast from matrices struck with Kis’s punches could still be purchased for handsetting. is an alternative spelling offont. Linotype commissioned Adrian Frutiger to create a dig- 57 .) As an example. There may be several sets of patterns. This is a digital type based on a set of punches cut at Amsterdam near the end of the seventeeth century by the Hungar­ ian punchcutter Miklos Totfalusi Kis. And with the shift to digital composition in the 1980s.) Forty years later. in computerized environ­ ments. W ith the point system. the text of this book is set in 11-point Linotype Janson Text. but no two sets of handcut punches can ever be the same. was redefined as precisely the 72nd part of an inch. (Fount.Before the adoption of the American point system. In 1954. Until the Stempel foundry closed in the 1980s. each of which is used for several sizes. however. the misiden- tification became a convention of typographic commerce. or are made from mechanically cut punches. such as nonpareil. The Font A font of type is the complete collection of its characters. those sizes became 6-point. type sizes were indicated by names. 8-point and 12-point. In dig­ ital or photographic type. The design may be recut in other sizes. Early in the twentieth cen­ tury these punches were acquired by the Stempel foundry in Frankfurt. Hermann Zapf adapted Kis’s design for hot- metal setting on the Linotype machine. (That was the typeface and composing system used for the first edition of this book.

and it is set on a computer. it is Kis’s design. not a Linotype machine. À Short History of the Printed Word A B C D E F G H IJK L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A B C D E F G H IJK L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z abcdefghijkimnopqrstuvwxyz Æ Œ Æ Œ æ œ hflffffiffl AÂA EÊ ÎI ÂÀÂA Ç ÉÈEË Ï 6 U âàâââââ^âà çc éèêëëëeêê min nh ôôôoôôôô do do s§ üùûüüüûû 1234567890 1234567890 A flf>@ & &( ) .1 4 Font o f 12-point Linotype “Janson ” italic ( based on Kis). ital version of the design.1 3 Font ofiz-point Linotype “Janson ” roman ( based on Ris). The type is still sold as Linotype Janson Text. -------. ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ abcdefghijkimnopqrstuvwxyz ÆŒæœf i f l f f f Ji f f l AAÂEÊIÎ âàâaâaâqââ çc éèêëëëeêê uîïïï rm ôoôdôôôô oô 00 s$ üùûüüüûû 12H H 1890 1234567890 Ta Te To Tr Tu Tw Ty Va Ve Vo Wa We Wî Wo Wr Ya Ye Yo g jp q y gjpqy 3 . though it is not Jansen’s design. .[ ] U H Ta Te To Tr Tu Tw Ty Va Ve Vo Wa We Wï Wo Wr Ya Ye Yo Pa % 3/b A % % % 2/? 3 . That (with some further handtooling and improvement) is the typeface you are reading.

chap T e R n i » T y p e : C u t t in g a n d C a stin g

H a n d Composition

F o n ts vary in size according to the language they are intended
fo r an d th e special o r alternative characters involved. T h e font used
in G u te n b e rg ’s 42-line Bible included no fewer than 290 charac­
te rs, th o u g h th e text is all in Latin, w hich requires a basic character
se t o f on ly forty letters —tw enty lowercase and twenty caps - and
som e m arks o f punctuation. T h e large num ber of extra sorts (extra
glyphs o r typographic characters) was the result of G utenberg’s
reso lv e to im itate th e abbreviations, ligatures and other special char­
a cte rs found in th e contem porary manuscripts that were his mod­
els. (A lig atu re is tw o o r m ore signs, such as ffi or ft, which are
w ritte n as one by a scribe and cast as one in the type foundry.)
T h e n u m b e r o f individual letters in a foundry font will vary as

3.15 Pair o f printer's cases (drawn by Rudolph Rüzicka fo r D.B. Updike s
Printing Types).

À Short Historys' of the Printed Word

3.16 Composing sticks: earliest type, single measure, made of wood; modem
style, adjustable in measure, made of steel.

well. Letters are cast according to the frequency of their use, and
this, of course, will van7with the language. In fonts that are cast for
setting English, there will be more ris than cfs or ads. In a font for
setting French, there will be é ’s and è:s and As.
A font of type is stored in a subdivided case or, often, a pair of
cases. I11 one, there are C A P IT A L S , s m a l l c a p i t a l s and vari­
ous special characters. In the other are small letters (descendants of
scrittura umanistica), numerals and spacing material. W here cases
are used in pairs, they are usually set one above the other on a slop­
ing frame that rests on the type cabinet, high enough so the com­
positor can work standing. From the working position of the two
cases comes the now7familiar terminology: majuscules (capitals) are
in the upper case and minuscules in the lower.
A line of foundry type is still set, or composed, in a hand-held, ad­
justable frame called a stick, just as it has been for centuries. Since
the letters read in reverse, right-to-left, they are assembled upside
down, allowing left-right progression by the compositor. An ad­
justable stop on the stick is set to the line length required, and when
the approximate maximum number of letters has been assembled,
the line can be justified by altering the spacing between words.

60

----------------------------------------------------- i

^ y

3 .1 7 Pressure system fo r letterpress printing.

After several lines have been composed in die stick they are trans­
ferred to a long steel tray, open at one end, called a galley. Type is
worked and stored in dais form until made up into pages. The first
proofs, pulled on long sheets of paper, are called galley proofs.

The Handpress
Handpresses, such as the one Gutenberg developed, are for the
most part platen presses. Essentially, what is involved is the lowering
of a heavy iron plate, the platen, under controlled pressure, against
the horizontal, firmly supported type form. Although it is known
that a cabinetmaker named Konrad Saspoch built Gutenberg’s
press, no detailed descriptions of it or other very early models have
survived. The general style of it is known, however, and is well illus­
trated in the reconstruction on exhibit at the Gutenberg Museum
in Mainz. A complete fifteen th-centmryprintshop is also effectively
reproduced there.
The bed of the press is the part that holds the form for inking
and printing. The type form is made up of pages locked into a metal
frame, called a chase, by means of wooden or metal wedges, known

À S h o rt History o f the Printed Word

62

as quoins. Blank areas in a page or along margins are filled in with
blocks known as furniture. The arrangement of the pages in the
chase, with the printed pages in proper sequence for folding, is
called the imposing scheme. The two sides of an octavo (16-page) sig­
nature could be locked in the chase like this:

3.19 Chase and lock-up of a sixteen-page form..

(Remember, in interpreting this diagram, that the type in the
bed of the press reads backwards. W hen the paper is fed and the
lever is pulled, right-reading text is imprinted into the face-down
side of the sheet.)
The bed is movable, on a track or forestay tit at allows it to be
moved from under the platen and its lever-operated screw. T he lat­
ter, much like the screw of a wine press, is steeply7pitched to deliver
its force through a minimum saving of the lever. Hinged to the
bed is a frame, the tympan, on which paper can be stretched. This
provides packing between the platen and the sheet which is to be

63

A Short History of the Printed Word

printed. It is possible to build up areas on the tympan with thin
layers of paper, to compensate for high, and low areas in the type.
This is called overlay. It also is possible to build up areas beneath the
form: underlay. The whole is referred to as makeready.
There is a second, hinged, unit, the frisket, which protects the
printed sheet and keeps it clean. It carries a paper shield with a cut­
out area equal to the type form. After the type has been inked with a
pair of ink balls (or nowadays, with a roller), a sheet of paper is laid
on the tympan against preset guides. The frisket is closed over it,
leaving exposed only that section of the paper that is to be printed
on. It should he noted that it is customary to dampen paper for
handpress printing in order to counteract the sizing and soften the
surface.
T he bed assembly is moved under the platen and the lever
pulled. Then the bed is moved out again, the tympan and frisket are
lifted, and the paper is removed. This procedure is repeated for
each impression. On the early presses, pressure was so inadequate
that it was sometimes necessary, when forms were large, to move
the work piecemeal under the platen, employing a series of pulls on
the lever.
It seems incredible that the numerous trials and failures, the
ideas and the artifacts that led to the appearance of that first spec­
tacular book to come from a. European press - Gutenberg's 42-îine
Bible - could have disappeared so completely. But it must be re­
membered that the scribes and illuminators wielded sufficient po­
litical power to have duplication of their works interdicted, except
when done by hand. We have mentioned both the clandestine ex­
porting of prints and playing cards from Germany into Italy and the
demand by Venetian woodblock cutters for legal protection. That
was in 1441. Gutenberg by7then must already have spent some years
developing his ideas.

Duenne told a Strasbourg judge that Gutenberg had been engaged for three years on a project which had to do with printing. but it has come to stand par­ ticularly for those books printed in Europe before 1500. meaning “cradle*” It can refer to the earliest stages in the development of anything. This was insufficient for his needs. in connection with a lawsuit. working for a time with a gold­ smith named Hans Duenne. The last record of Gutenberg’s presence in Strasbourg is a tax payment in 1444. and he was again seeking financial backing only two years later. In 1438 he already had the press which Saspoch made for him. He lived in Mainz until 1428. Once more then. This . our attention focuses at first on Gutenberg. His full name was Johann Gens- fleisch zum Gutenberg. The 42~Line Bible By 1448 he had returned to Mainz and had obtained a loan of 150 gulden from a relative there. and was the son of a member of the gentry. He was also purchasing lead. this suggests that he had reached the stage of cast­ ing. There he resided between 1434 and 1444. Friele zum Gensfteisch. when a dis­ pute related to his guild caused him to move to Strasbourg. In 1439. incunabula) comes from T the Latin cunae. about the year 1397. CHAPTER IV Incunabula: 1440-1500 he w o rd incunabuium (plural. He was born in Mainz.

Smfummimnon babrat margftao : quto îmqui fmtimralut.lDumnâ tteâsü amOimtOü faÉ si|. Si qa iliia no» bOopta manuüipminû*i rntllü op? turnmnimr ■*normoiomr: ntq?ipt mtûtlbe.jjftmfitta ru aqiarutrit çlprniû tü.1|uOiciûquoqi non Oi&emcut: bur non tmfnxbnmnnrtp otpbanis nttpugionmlâmabunt ab inniria: ta r FateJapiOibua Orraotelmn* quia nnbüpolûimûrut tomîmle im ira &mroî?illotagtm i iapiort vau* mtnrmütdintnir. n raalarmgirant famûotro obifiab- m area fiu&umt ftmamatiuiJBr* taisant tumiliie. flHulima aüt ntcûOate jamû tt argnrtûtt ut&îramtûquo 0# fumtoinmjs fiOfm:tamOta offa ptmfunt anfomt iUio tt abîbût : ntt nlîuaq•£u mt alîqua t| ipîaa& te übî aujdiiüftrmt.Bimmitf anm m talita: lusOip&Oopaa manuu boïm: % nul^ nun mftrraüa ismmsr? nipmrJjO.&omô trgo rSimaOüiS am tmq 1aucmq:ratitcotmquibf ipfoq Btaoü tilos tflfeetejrtotim sram fugirmitiibimbunturrtpi utro finit îpte rniorta non ijonorimbue ra : 4 ttabta fnuûio rôburmtur. ârgi aûr tum auoîmnt mutu non psüf loqm trbtilo ns n&&mr.lDuomô «go frm term s mu autant fanmoim : it m Stbrât quonîâ Sij funt qui ntt Dr nrfmit nmm üiaa *Mina &ioa.B)ol quibî tt luna arfiOtra t&Hloa rfir ornai jâ fabrie aûr i am tum fint^lmoîoa ttnnîlTa as nn£i> ri&nl»Ma fût iHicbii aliuo mit nifi tarm obausîunt: ümtlirtr n fuîgur iSqti uoiôttûr fat8&ima. &mt ab mtiûûa gentil» Kr ite qui S t a t e nttnten ûïuitîaa poQimn mani&taa funt quia nonmntOq: imp main mribum. lum m op?i ipüeë.lDuomô ttgo tftï^ offmklhm ao brl: patenta abra manoü I am rmptüm quia Oqfûtf loqnntuart pciïint frarirequi no fjfc jRon afurfe rmp a iatromte f?lîbt^ btantüJfrtpi mmttütptm* : t t e tabûtOqügnfi 1lapiorî 1inaurari 1 qutnrta.i|taq}mtims tft àaab aiiquotmnftaOmnîidt:^ tsegnnsSmmmr uînutffiiâsut ma mr bit rgprabrar tp m non fit signa in oomo utilefquo glonabîtur qui babîra fitwiparnnp&raîa miamra* poüitrrilluOvèSÙûW:utl oftiiïî t a pma üUDraia aûtqur iiliabut M a mo qboifioOîr que in pacefuntrig funt.&rgërcgioni no nunc ntû as mTuranonretour :St üt&itanrrnnn pluutâ bommiluOm mtdbtatritominr aonliltabnrJOt' bunt.1 Gutenberg or qx-line Bible: the textblock (reduced).nra. tpi Otj iîloo. 66 .Rümüc am tauaim to.BnOfttifuomnfOij£lDuia mu* mâipiquiia Éariuut non finit rauln lira®ajpsnrn Bip argramo it mw S t a t e Item s ttgo poOimtraq ta i lîgtma :i in tumnte isq faotüm tatam Ê î ab tpi©fir bîi^iKdiqur' m Mm tmtmarn mmm friflaa it nuit aüt fairairmprabnû^poûea fii> capita*batfcStafatsi : quoq capita tuna.BuOi ttgonotû eftqa non rsqmtût. Ijoipmaüt 4. |E?*. jRamtumfupummt 1Ü10pim nufta firat. Mis b libtâtrmtp &malmfi rapmt£ mftquffl mail patmtucab aiiquo nr/ (Ham turn fmt lignrattmauram it tnfiqumitapotetaiNKrrnttB margrataœ:lmrar psfita quia fallu «gmt totem pof&mt imp ante.Jtattûinn&mt rti tt argmtti : qui am relut mr a te igms moomütmmiigomq^ srgm^ oàus.

Vespasiano. H e designed and apparently cast type.000 gulden. From Paris he moved to Mainz. 1455. A crew of forty-five Renaissance editors. By that time. . After still another borrowing. where he met and married Fust’s daughter. time he borrowed 800 gulden. and he was a calligrapher who was work­ ing in Paris at the beginning of the second half of the fifteenth century. a wealthy Mainz merchant. His books and tools were forfeited to satisfy the debt. with those forty-five writ­ ers in his employ. The irony of this misfortune lay in the imminent appearance of his mas- terwork. W ithin a few decades after his Bible was printed. compositors. then his heir. a sum Gutenberg was unable to pay. needed almost two years to finish 200 books. We must turn now from Gutenberg. presses began to produce the grammars and dictionaries that were to be the basic tools for increasing literacy. His name was Peter Schôffer. proofreaders and pressmen could do about the same . at six per cent interest.but they could make those books in several hundred copies each. to contemplate the man who would help Johann Fust carry on the Gutenberg venture. from Johann Fust. piuDt ftlt mt btfcïplraâpris tut tt nt htratttas Irarat rarie tutrmaiifcatur gratia rapmtuon toupttotollo tun* fftli tttUt tt laffanffîntpttQtf0:ntat? qrndtas tfe»^t OtjEtdtotot nohîfrü* 4. the 42-line Bible.2 Fony-two-line Bible: the type. the loans and interest had reached more than 2. T he loan was secured by a mort­ gage on Gutenberg’s equipment. and he became at first Fust’s working partner. the agreement was foreclosed.

The text types used in both Bible and Psalter are texturas. Fust and Schoffer In 1457. Among the notable features of the Mainz Psalter are its large two-color printed initials. the large and handsome Mainz Psalter appeared.3 The M ainz Psalter o f Fust ix Schoffer. inked indi­ vidually in red and blue. This feat was probably accomplished by preparing nested woodblocks which could be separated. A Short History of the Printed Word 4 . and reassembled to print both colors. along with the black type. it wo uld seem that at least the initial work must already have been done by Gutenberg. in one impression. Considering the time and expertise re­ quired for such an undertaking. It bore the first colophon. shortly after the appearance of Gutenberg’s big Bible. The name alludes to the woven texture of a page that is written in such 68 . giving the date of publication and the names of Fust and Schoffer as its publishers.

5 show two sizes of type. but they are less jagged and spiky than many other fonts that followed.in tea tenant nolfifas W m in m Itgt mis raîùïtabîtur Dît at no­ i l to. S t rat tangs Itpü qunb plàtatû ttt 4 . They are also generous in their forms. Like all texturas. 69 . and drawn with a vertical axis instead of written with the pen held at a comfortable angle. Nonetheless. but as texture types go.iÿct) -. In both these books the types are large in size. capitals ap­ pear. T he lines. They are quite different from the lower case . earns wr «pu non attjtmofflmîmpîoa.4 and 4. In both sizes.-----.round instead of angular. especially in the body of the Psalter. The lines from the Fust and Schoffer Psalter reproduced in figures 4. chapter iv • Incunabula: 1440-1500 letters.ifi----. they are angular and pointed. The letterforms are sharp. dots and other decorative touches often added to such capitals are not solely for ornament. they too are charac­ teristic of the time. dintnajttaatoritnon omtnîniafttûtatitflt Imttt non ftùît.4 M a in z Psalter: initial and text type (reduced). These additions help to reduce the large counters which could otherwise open up holes in the overall texture and color of the type mass. they possess an exemplary simpli­ city. especially against the close-packed vertical rhythm of the lower case.

decorative letters which stand out from the body of the text are known as versais. Here they indicate the degree to which the early printers were committed to imitating the illuminators as well as the calligraphers. they were compound. Naturally.6 H o r t u s s a n ita tis : the type. who died of the plague in 1466 on a visit to Paris. In manuscripts. Fust. Two of Schoffer?s most famous works .did not appear until 1485 and 1492. A Short History of the Printed Word fifgtmapüimmum (AmîrfrmDûtinare 4 . *Vnb awQ affogmu^ct $w£r incCfiîcÇttftyt von^cm Per jO §<tnnc& tttcfîrc fpncPr trermitr fîcrcft^ci t>ic CcPPcrt>n5 Prcftgt tinf?cn $n c^cti macPf gcfîin ten ftangffcyt afo$an tfï^ic qeffucPt vn%t tmffcr fnS 6oVct$ic nmrmc m?cm Pud>c vn^npet fie vfi mecPrtgl fca von nutlet tyn pfttfïer atfo*Viym twtmtMttt-foi fttfp CoifgcPwnc cyn foie* vn$ cyn Coir Baft vat vitôct gemifser vf?cinpBt/W gcmacP teyt v ff^m Pad?* 3tcm wtz3m fa& fimgc $yt ge nut* 3Ûfrômen^en fafft von trermur mit snefer verm ttefitla voit $n Çant üpermut fafft gemettget mit f 4 . .the Hortus sanitatis (a German herbal) and Chronik der Sachsen (a history) . not so his father- in-law. these letters also serve quite practical purposes. or built-up forms. drawn rather than written. They indicate textual breaks and stresses.5 M a in z Psalter: the type. Peter Schoffer led a long and productive life. The large. Both were extensively illustrated with woodcuts.

and finally by a grandson. One conse­ quence of that attack was an exodus of printers from the city. In 1465 he became attached to the court of Adolf of Nassau. In 1462. Earlier. the Catholicon. recorded his acquisition of some printing equipment that had be­ longed to Gutenberg at the time of his death. the name Schoffer was associated for a full century with the making of books. elastic in size. Ivo Schoffer. known as schwabacher or bastarda. like most feudal states. from their archbishop. D r Conrad Humery. The Death of Gutenberg Gutenberg did not outlast Fust by very long. we know much less than we would like. These articles were turned over to Humery by the archbishop. 71 . in 1460. north and west from the urban conglomeration of Wiesbaden. Mainz was sacked and partly burned by soldiers from this duchy.The type of the Hortus sanitath is another. This may be Gutenberg’s work too. who had a very distinguished career as a punchcutter. a Latin dictionary written two centuries ear­ lier by Johann Balbus. but at times almost as large as the present state of Delaware. It was formerly a duchy. In February of 1468. who contin­ ued printing until 1555. printed in Mainz. Peter Schoffer was succeeded by his son Johann. thus hastening the spread of the infant art to other towns and countries. Exodus of the Mainz Printers Nassau is now a small. and it may be assumed that the recipient had been of some economic help to the always financially embarrassed printer. old town on the Lahn River. Thus. there appeared. less formal kind of black- letter. it appears. Frankfurt and Mainz. After his death in 1502. a Mainz advocate. dying in 1468. under orders. Of his later years. who was then Archbishop of Mainz. a younger son Peter.

there were presses in Strasbourg and Bamberg. there was printing in Kôln. became the first Venetian printer.7 The first book with printed illustrations: E d e ls te in . when Konrad Sweyn- heym and Arnold Pannartz set up a shop in the monastery at Subi- aco. illustrated with wood- cuts based on French manuscript illumination. It was in Bamberg in 1461 that Albrecht Pfister printed Edelstein. . east of Rome. he brought out Boccaccio’s De Claris mulieribus. another German. a particularly significant year. In 1470. In 1473. Zainer distin- 4 . In 1469. Johann Zainer became the first printer in Ulm. by Albrecht Pfister. Johann van Speyer. in 1468. A Short H isto ry of the Printed Word Even before the sack of Mainz. and in Venice die great French typographer Nicolas Jenson opened his own independent operation. Four years later the art moved into Italy. Here the type and woodcuts were printed in separate impressions. a printing shop was installed at the Sorbonne by three German-speaking printers whom the rector had invited to Paris. In 1466. in Augsburg and in Rome itself. die first book with printed illustrations.

The Mainz influence was dominant for the first fifteen years of bookmaking. protection and financial support guaranteed success. The Press at Subiaco For these printers. Typographers and printers from other countries. must have been greatly governed by the demand for printing elsewhere.guished himself not only by his printing but by the quality of editing and scholarship apparent in his publications. were apprenticed at Mainz. in 1462. Just such a set of circumstances led Sweynheym and 73 . their language chiefly Latin (which the Germans were already used to). The supply of trained craftsmen was relatively small. they offered the most ideal inducements. Since the churches were among the principal customers for books. and their means ample. such as Schoffer and Jenson from France. The exodus from that city.

Sweynheym had worked with Schoffer at Mainz. Subiaco.noftrc neftelia*Hi om s pcipuama nobitem prjtercetms. their work achieves a roman mise en page or page design.qbus tilt pôfi me cerrc non rcpugnare. After producing a Donatus.ut büana dtuntis mbuâc auctontate:cü pcdnsbum. working together until 1473. The lower case of both has a Carolingian structure. they printed about fifty books. Their press was set up at the Benedictine house. It seems likely that the Cicero was finished first. After printing the St Augustine.9 First type ofSweynheym & Pannartz. where they lived as lay brothers. only two other books were printed at Subiaco. and the lines are leaded out (vertically spaced) more generously than is usual with blackletter.) The capitals in the Sweynheym and Pannartz faces are roman. (The separation of roman and italic was still hundreds of years in the future when the Caroline or Carolin­ gian script evolved. Santa Scholastica.ne mbdapud Ifbsagar materta^edar* Ea igr cjufiamus reftimoma. There. Enri mmomu AppoUodoms jdc sitde rial ac popular! fnagl 4. A Short History of the Printed Word agic. In both these re­ spects. of which no copy is extant. Que nue (âne omittamus. Aside from the Donatus and the Lactantius. which is the first Italian book to bear a date.SibiUas plunrtu et maxi'mi aud grjcoy: Anftoricuster Appollodorus . buermr. The two types used by Sweynheym and Pannartz were strongly influenced by the m inim i umanistica but bear gothic traces too.Erithrcus . and Pannartz came from Koln. uniting many fea­ tures of roman and italic. 1465. they printed De Divtnis institutionibus of Lactantius. 7 4 . but it is undated. Sweynheym and Pannartz moved their press to the palace of the Massimi family in Rome. Pannartz to Italy in 1465. These were Cicero’s De Oratore and St Augustine’s De Civitate Dei.

It was Epistolae ad familiares by Cicero. Fust and Schoffer published the first book to have a printed title page. The type used by the Van Speyers has extraordinary clarity. a Gutenberg workman named Berthold Ruppel went to Basel and became Switzerland’s first printer. He encountered opposition from Augsburg woodcut makers and block-printers. seeking in fact to patent it as a new inven- 75 . Five presses were soon added. the first European book in which page numbers are printed. Johann died. who feared his competition. In 1470. Abbot of St Ulrich. leaving his brother Wendelin to finish his edition of St Augustine’s De Civitate Dei. and it was Günther Zainer who set it on its course. and it is likely that the fearful woodcarvers and playing-card makers were soon absorbed into the new opera­ tion. It consists of purely roman forms that are directly recognizable as such even by narrower modern standards. and its printer w'as Johann van Speyer (Giovanni da Spira). The first book to come from his press was Meditationes de vita Christi.became one of the great printing centers of Germany. Printing in Venice T he first book printed in Venice was completed in 1469. and under Zainer’s tutelage printers were trained. He also obtained sup­ port from Melchi or von Stamhaim. The Strasbourg printer Günther Zainer (Johann Zai ner $ cousin) moved his press to Augsburg in 1468. It was followed by Pliny’s Historia nat~ uralis. Hans Holbein’s town . at Mainz. with greatly expanded duties and opportunities. who offered him room for his press. Zainer used many woodcuts in his books.later the town of Leopold Mozart and Bertolt Brecht .c hapte R iv • Incunabula : 1440-1500 Printing in Switzerland and Germany In 1463. In 1464. Such de­ mands were to elevate the craft for several hundred years to come. The brothers made great claims for their design.

make molds and cast metal with precision and efficiency at very small sizes.10 Roman type o f Johann van Speyer ( Giovanni da Spira).uct cogatad terram: &c ideo incaelo cflc non pc ilti hormis in terra erant nemorofa arque fru&uofa: obtinuit. efFicit: utex metallis que maquis pofttacontmuo fub 4. Before learning type- making at Mainz. The Eusebius is a milestone In the de­ velopment of the roman type page.Sedquia &ad hoc refpondendu cfl:ucl prop quo afeendit in caelum :ucl propter faneftorum qualia i funt: intucantur paulo attendus pondéra ipa terrena. 2470. Short History of th e Printed Word tion. The death of Johann van Speyer in 1470 put an end to this re­ striction. It may be that Jen­ son’s own fine roman and Greek are really revisions of fonts he cut for the Van Speyers. They succeeded in obtaining legal if not practical protection against plagiarism for five years. in northern Bur­ gundy. He too. he was a mintmaster. Venice. had training as a goldsmith. and of the Greek used by Wendelin van Speyer. It is Jenson’s first book. A. in other words. perhaps. And he knew and loved letters. E d ncceflccft inquiunt: ut terrena corpora natu ten eat.There are reasons to sus­ pect that Jenson was the author of Johann van Speyer’s roman type. and in that year Eusebius’ De Praeparatione evangeiica was published by Nicolas Jenson. printed in his first type. He already knew how to cut punches. NicolasJenson Jenson was bom about 1420 at Sommevoire. 76 . but it was not. possibly at Tours. Between 1470 and 1480 he printed some 150 books and established a lasting reputation for his types.

espe­ cially with booksellers. and her two children. at the height of Jenson’s Italian career. Jenson was a success in his own time. One of these. There are clues connecting Jenson with Frankfurt. the letterforms Jenson employed . It is also of interest to note that among the shareholders in Jenson’s last part­ nership were Dona Paula. who was involved in the book business as early as 1455. he has remained an inspiration. both artistically and finan­ cially. In making coins and medallions. appears in Venice twenty years later. 1470. He died in 1480 in Rome. Venice. Certainly. It is not at all impossible that Jenson had some direct contact with Gutenberg. Jenson was associated with Frankfurt merchants. The presence of these three lends weight to the theory thatjenson cut the types of the Van Speyers. and some which place Gutenberg there from the time he lost his equipment in Mainz until 1468.chapter iv * Incunabula: 1440-1500 4. Peter Ugelheimer. where he had gone at the invitation of Pope Sixtus IV. The Eusebius type is a marvel.1 t Eusebius printed by NicolasJenson. but its maker attained his mas­ tery and knowledge little by little. the widow of Johann van Speyer. which gave him even greater sensitivity to the sculptural nature of type than one would otherwise expect in a goldsmith-turned-punchcutter. It is my be­ lief that his influence came partly from early training. Beyond his time.

Non enim id fcrutâdum nobis modo eft. 78 . Quare multarum quoq? gentium patrem diuina oracula futurüuac m ipfo benedicédas oés genres hocutdelicSd ipfum quod iam nos uideüs aperce pnedicÆumeft:cuius ille iuftttiæ pcrfedaoém non mofaica lege fed fide côfecutus eft:qui poft muitas dei uifiones legitrimum genuic filium:quern primum omnium diuino pfuafus oraculo drcuâdit:ô£ cxteris qui ab eo nafceretur tradidit:uel ad manifeftum mulatudinis eorum future fignum:uel uthocquafi patemxuirtutis îftgnefiîù re> rinétes maiores fuos imitari conaretrauc qbufcüqj aliis decaufis.Quum autéiam uidorludando euafit:& fpecularionis fruebat bonis:tue Ifraelem ipfedeus appellauit æterna premia bearitudméqj ulrimam qux i n uifione dei confiait ei largiens: hommem enim qui deum uideat Ifrael nomen fignificat.12 1'extblockfrom Jenson ’s Eusebius (:reduced ). Ab hoc.Poft Habraam films eius Ifaac in pietace fucceiïït:fœlice hac hxreditate a parétibus accxpta:q uni uxorî coniunchis quum geminos genuifiet caftitatis amore ab uxore poftea didturabftinuifTe.Soii qppe a creaturis naturali rone éc lcge mata nô fcnpta ad cognitioni uen dei trifiere:& uoluptate corporis côtépca ad redam uitam puenifïe fcribuntkum quibus omibus prxdarus ille tottus generis origo Habraam numerâdus efhcui fcriptura mirabilem iuftitiâ quâ non a mofaica lege(feprima efm pofi: Habraa generatione Mopfes nafdtur)fed naturali fuit ratione confecutus fuma cum laude atteflatur.Iacob efm athlerâ ôc exercécem felatinedicerepoflumus: quam appellations primû habuic:quû prafticis operaaoîbus multos pro pietate labo res ferebat.xih iudxorum tribus .pfedtx füt. Quare nec iudæos(pofteris enî hoc nomcn fuir)neqj gentiles :quoniam non urgentes plural itatem deorum inducebantfea hebrxos pro prie noiamus autab Hebere utdidxî cfhaut qa id nomen cranficiuos fignificat.& nos in hbro que infcnpfiûs 4. Credidic emm Habraam deo Ôdreputatû eft ei in iuftitiam.Innumerabiîia de uita îftorum uirorum forticudine prudenria pietateqj did pofïuntiquorum alia fecundum feripture uerba hiflorice confiderantur:aIia tropologice ac allegorice interprctâtîde qbus multi côfcripferût. qui omnibus ui aquarum fubmcrfïs aim filiis fuis fimul ac nuribus mirabili quodi modo quafi femen h u à n i generis confèruatus efttque urina quafi uiuam quandam tmaginem imitari nobis contmgat:& hi quidem ante diluuium fucrunt:poft diluuiumautem alii quorüunus altifïimi dei facerdos iuftitix acpietatis miraculo rex mfhis lingua he- brxom appellatus efbapud quos nec dromafionis nec mofaicx legis ulla menao erat.Ab ifto natus é Iacob qui ^pptcr cumulatu uirtutis prouetum Ifrael eriam appellatus eft duobus noibus ^ppterduphcem uirtutis ufü.

used in his expanding production of medical and historical works. His fame nonetheless now rests on his contribution to the form of roman type and to its mise en page. In 1471 Jenson produced an excellent Greek type . In 1474 he began to cut a series of ro­ tundas. In spite of the success of the Venetian printers. Some critics have complained that Jenson’s type lacks perfection in detail. 1471. Part of the character of a Jenson page derives from the fitting of the letters.the first com­ plete Greek type and still one of the best . Florentine bib­ liophiles remained aloof from the press. often beautiful capitals that could summon the spirit of Rome.Et ptds in morem ad digitos ietitefdt habendo* Eiufmodi figuratioparumadmiTit ex feperf«îhim:nec conuenitad mittere uc aut pofïït:au t debeat cum cxteris temporibus p totam declinauonem uim incipiendi figmficare• Abfurdu i ergo ea quse funt închoatiua perfe^o tempore defm{re:6£ mox fucurum deciinando inchoadua efle demoftrare'Ncc enimpoteftcum tota uerbi fperies inchoatma dfcatur alia 4 .though he used it only to print excerpts and quotations. its composition and arrangement on the page. there is sufficient space between them to match the space within the counters.1 3 Roman type o f Nicolas Jenson. The answer to this charge lies plainly on the page. It is the elusive inevitability of Jenson’s forms that has made them models for over 500 years. where the even color of the type mass and the great legibility of the forms prove without a further word that the punchcutter and printer achieved his aims. Dressmaker details and elegant touches do not bear constant repetition. were capitals. It is reasonable to assume that Jenson’s Latin background and his proficiency in roman forms were of incalculable impor­ tance in translating humanistic script from manuscript to type. It was a time of high attain- 79 .

Lambert Palmart was the first Spanish printer and Matthaeus of Flanders the second. Italy accounted for forty- seven. Only when Antonio Miscomini. there were printers at Toulouse. moved his press from Modena to Florence in 1489 did that great center of art join in the magic of Renaissance printing. Poitiers and. In the following' centuries. Palmart’s first font was a roman. Bernardo Cennini. who had been called to the Sorbonne in 1470. especially rotundas. who was trained in Venice. 1471. the number grew to more than a hundred. Freiburger. A Short History of th e Printed Word ment by their calligraphic school. Michelangelo was then in his early teens. Before the end of that decade. 80 . Pri nting was introduced into Spain. and a cultural industry had come into be­ ing. Seville. at Lyon. Angers. their works rapidly assumed a recognizably Spanish style. as elsewhere. Gering and Kranz. fourteen European cities could boast printing offices. besides the three Swiss and Germans. printers who were not themselves northern Eu­ ropeans had at least been trained in the north. O f that number. It would seem that foreign influences either succumbed to the strong nationalism of Spain or were at least absorbed into it. In Spain. well represented by the work of Antonio Sinibaldi. The first book printed in Florence was produced by another goldsmith. at Valencia. most importantly. but the Spaniards quickly as­ serted their preference for hlackletter type. shows this form to best advantage. Yet the state of the art was no longer tentative. The Spread ofPrinting: Spain and the Low Countries From 1450 or thereabouts until. 1470. At this date. the spread of printing was carried on by itinerant north­ erners. presses were established in Zaragoza. Vienne. a wri ting hook published in 1550 at Zaragoza. In France. Regardless the nationality of the earliest printers in Spain. in 1474. From 1470 to 1480. Tor- tosa. Juan de Yciar’s Arte subtilissima. Barcelona and Lérida. but it is indifferent in quality7.

Arnaldo Guillén de Brocar cut the Complutensian Greek: a piece of typographic art stylistically in tune and fully on par with the work of Nicolas Jenson....... Delft... ] ____ ___ .. ..^ F O R M A D A >$---------1-----.. x I 1 E X C V D E BAT> 4. There are some undated works.. by Ketelaer and de Leempt.. ■T. in 1510.14 Rotunda by Juan de Yciar.. Tflû» i i T R A .And at Alcala de Henares... This date is established by two books.....l‘ . Bi . A few years after the Utrecht books appeared. _A_____ ^ 1 ! O A N N £ nS " DE Y c I A R.... printing shops were opened in Deventer.ï ' S| toIT & -2 # 1 ® t l I I 0 0 k = = j s f c : . ..Xj . near Madrid. however...T 2-------------'■> jx.. Spain became both the source and the preserver of some of the world’s finest roman types.. perhaps as early as 1471.. T R U m o 9 \Y 5 lt M T 1 'v----------. Gouda and elsewhere in the Netherlands... produced in Utrecht in that year. presumed to have been printed several years before.. and printing was introduced in neighboring Belgium. The earliest firm date for printing in the Netherlands is 1473.V. -J jly> y _______jg 9 Cfi p _____ X.....

A Short History of the Printed Word in épm< of trou6D*ue Uoaitbtf anb of t$< potto fkpn§ and. and there made connections helpful in advancing his future career as a printer-publisher. that he first 82 . and he called it Recuyett of the Historyes ofTroye. 2fnb? aofbt <$«tf ItoÇirQ* tnrfrtf) of tQt gttum ft « l}ig fceffaiecôtj 4. The first Belgian press opened at Aalst in 1473. and by 1480 at Oudenaarde. he apprenticed to the wealthy Robert Large. Matrices for this font still exist and are held by the En­ schede Museum in Haarlem. This crisp and beautifully cut type appears to be the oldest font still in existence. t«pgnpng a« Xbtff njtf^c t-oj «ttgfottfy ant. Caxton began his translation of Le Fèvre’s Recueil in the 1460s and completed it at Kdln in 1471. soon to be Lord Mayor of London. William Caxton At Brugge. presses were in operation at Leuven. Brugge and Brussels. William Caxton printed the first book in. It was his own translation of Raoul Le Fèvre’s Le Recueil des histoires de Troyes. he was in business in Brugge. thefirst bookprinted in English. rising to the governorship of the Guild of English Merchants. In the 1440s. English. (A recueil or recuyell is a compilation or collec­ tion. evidently. in Belgium. O f equal interest with any book left us by these presses is a font of 14-point textura type cut at Antwerp in 1492 by Henric Letter- snider. frmmcp ao nj aft otfytr pGiatff v t tÇurgÇ t§< Utrnlfc? tfyat ie to tb tis f$« pet* of 01 tfjoufïmt? four Qjnberfe?Cjrp. W ithin a dozen yeai's he was prominent in the Mercers’ Company. near Amsterdam.) Caxton was born about 1422. It was there. In 1438. Soon afterward.15 ofCaxton’s Recuyell. in 1473 or early 1474.

of the style called bastarda or bâtarde. open-tailed g.. y with a straight stroke on the left. a single-storey a and a one-eyed. fat ■fws «winfegt fwrp ffk ^mwvQÊnb? *4 %«»/«« it p&co féb? / ««b? $ itn ) 4 wf&fc tS&nfwnàtf* $ ff 909/ ïje éfe $4nfhtKufcr 4 t o ÇtmgfwÈç %m ii 8gîttg«0g wg$t fy tfy f&tfc« f8Ka tSga* <n? ' ff«mc tfym f * Q^nb? t t o #nfc»t* 8 ^ 9 +9+ golBtte« c f tBoSoj? cfo# îÿ gtw ♦Qtnb? (0 ^ «ttb? p n m x WSb?ç»»9f<lf <if Çi«s^5 +^otttm« «jrebç $09 *5% |? t o «€tb? bjgfg / ^ f«gas 8. looped and hooked ascenders.c h a. «uifôj &tlo ^ f4>. in . The type they made was a cursive Flemish blackletter or gothic. near the Abbey. a priest from Mainz who had by then establi shed Kdln’s first press. became interested in printing. P T e R i. In 1475. v ® Incunabula: 1440—1500 parfont Q Çfr. establishing his press at the Sign of the Red Pale in Westminster. On returning to Brugge. Caxton set up a press to print his book and invited the calligrapher Colard Mansion to join him in the project.. Caxton returned to England.16 Textblock of Caxton s Dictes and Sayings of the Philosophers. Its prominent fea­ tures include pointed descenders. There.anb? Swrén ngng£■çjtnîy f«£» gcto?(cudrlii £fboedjjat&*tiftktffmt é>m î fem|3fea'o«C'Qfafy fâj«o p&t^s t$ tnt of ■* ' &ffr doigte «nwij «tag prefeni 6>$tfy/£ ifdjbu a p §tip «g 8009 6ft $?)v tik& ii & «gw«6& $«& fyn} % ^S««w affety %gPgÇgamfôfy Sk«* || 1* jf fort. He may have learned the craft from Ulrich Zell. 1477. * • «*tb? ftkSnt %>9 4^ „ QÎ&çf««bîç ^ gttée «?9 «f $p3f9 ^ 8éê «g«itoe ŸÇt«çeb? §(>9 |e f«ftc £ Wt$ % fttiî / f^Mtg 4 ®a* ^ mio^g « i » ^ «n£ç λb5f no^m«fftbe/|: ^ ^ue & 4. -'^ mnç tfiat t o sf 6?®fc^*» ^Ijc btfjmafeb? fj> é$î l&tfffcrônty % l h) &éw««V*SDÇi<9é 4 fewnwb. ®ttbkï<m@of a Tfcggoanb? 4 I t o *4ffgfcf? *■' .tç ïfy tSéfc fctfpôfç&r? te? /But U» fjtttice / «tttç $jb btfpofîb? §ai# >rç>nî*/krf 09 Çiÿ?weu«g/«3* ^ %f t o m f ffc? ipafcwe e««£tt /««b? fô«? «^t&? §i«j 3 f $ttc : etj twffcwn<fc 6) bgê b) jîsôpæGin» otx$i« ffcct ffstsj ($*&/?& attJfci«bj/î^:rfétttfM« ont “tp rfÿt Btgt ê> £ffe «%£ t£cs£» i« a$ GGè<1Rhib? fâjt>»è* a png mm) tlja£ SBof» notf &*ne hj (ns gonflé 3f noftoGcptgnt & ( k n e ^ u ^ a f t fouc fseme to & &£(>» .

A Short History of die Printed Word 1477. in Venice instead of Koln. dedication and business acumen enough to make his chosen calling pay. their names. E r h a r d R a td o lt While Caxton was printing at Westminster. Erhard Ratdolt was at work in Venice. Caxton has nevertheless served England well as a model printer-publisher. At his death in 1491. appeared with Ratdolt’s in their Kalendarius of 1476. Ratdolt might have been just the partner for Caxton’s English establishment He did have partners of his own. an earlier release from the thralldom of the blackletter and an earlier appreciation of the full resources of roman. in England. and to print from it. Peter Loeslein and Bernhart Maler. he printed his first dated work: Dictes and Sayings of the Philoso­ phers. craftsmanship. was actu­ ally written in Egypt by Mubashshir ihn Fâtik at the same time as Bt Shëng. T he first dated book in the Eng­ lish language. printed nine years after Gutenbergs death. was inventing movable type.for his edition of Euclid’s Elements . Maler probably designed and cut the decora­ tive material. There he created the first printed decorative tide pages and . translated. Latin and French from an eleventh-century Arabic original. He was responsible for some of the finest books. Had he done so. there might have been. Returning to his native Augsburg in 1486. a city whose work became the model for all Europe. in both design and execution. printed in Venice. by way of Spanish. Caxton had printed nearly a hundred ivorks. He was also an innovator in the printing of multicolor woodcuts.the first printed mathematical diagrams. combining as he did scholarship. in China. Ratdolt printed his . If he was not a model typographer. It is interesting to speculate how the style of English and American printing might have developed if Caxton had learned to work type.

He died there in 1527 or 1528. Quant* terre fe reçe a(b thotoro. one of Greek. Kalendarius. In un ùnftanu eu £u quai bora fia : Quai Cm»lanno . e rum i fcgnifoo» Ddfcnpb dit gran polo da ogmlai i Os'anoori Cble . 85 . 1476. It shows a generous selection for a fifteenth-century printer: ten sizes of rotunda.) In Augsburg. even in Venice itself. three of roman. e tuna eclipfifat. loanne démonté tegto quefib fexe V Cogîier cal kumaoo non graue fia In breue tempo: eeon poeb» pene&e * Cbi terne cotai tpexe Scampa mmi< I nomidi impreÆsrt* Son qui «Ubaflo di toffi colon * X Vcnetsj#* * £km iïêm piclor de Auguft* ‘. and a sample ornamental capital. Ratdolt kept on printing for more than thirty years.': Dil kalendatio :cbe Con*gran facilita . giorno : tempo 1t tnexç î Cbe tut» pond ton daftrotagu. opta 4a ogmparteeim hlbrodom: Non fu piu pretiofa gemma. handsome type specimen sheet.'mas'. Venice. possibly the first font catalog ever produced. r u f b f ie m dur. (Rotunda was then more popular than roman. about eighty years of age.17 Ratdolt. l^ n g e n c e o £rba»du»ratdolt de ÀuguîU 4. magran lauoro Qui numéro aureo .

1498. 86 . Among the important centers for printing were London. English and French Incunabula During the final twenty years of the fifteenth century. A Short History of the Printed Word 4 . L i v r e d ’h e u r e s . over a hundred European towns were added to the list of those with presses. Paris.1 8 Philippe Pigouchet.

Lisbon. Munich. and their office continued to make significant contribu­ tions to printing until the end of the century. Pynson had a sense of style that raised him above other English printers of the fifteenth century. John Lettou. some of the finest roman types ever made were made in Paris and Lyon. Freiburger and Kranz. This is the first French book with printed illustrations.Leipzig. Lyon was a great commercial center. Among the notable aspects of French manuscript production were the Horae. Stockholm. and especially the cursive vernacular lettres bâtarde. though Gering cut whiteletter types for the Sorbonne. Guillaume Le Roy in­ troduced printing there in 1473. remained. the Swiss Ulrich Gering. He printed until 1528 and died in 1530. who named his press in New York the Pynson Printers. The writing and illumination of such books provided some of the most magnificent examples of French calligraphy and miniature painting. Pie was joined later by Berthold Rembolt. set out to match that achievement in type and 87 . but early French taste favored pointed gothics.) Pynson was bom in Normandy and learned printing in Rouen. It was also relatively free from ecclesiastical censorship. William de Machlinia and Richard Pyn- son were early printers. In London. using types and woodcuts imported from Basel. O f the three printers brought to the Sorbonne in 1470. Lyon came close to matching Paris. Five years later. round goth­ ics. Several French print­ ers. Like Venice. Hamburg and Copenhagen. it would seem. He took over the shop of De Machlinia about 1490. Most fifteenth-century French books are set in blackletter. returned to Germany in 1477. two. in a transl ation by John Lyd­ gate. Le Mirouer de la rédemption was printed in Lyon. or Books of Hours. He also began England’s slow conversion from blackletter to roman type. From the standpoint of activity. In time. The third. (These are two reasons why he was memorialized four centuries later by the American typographer Elmer Adler. and in 1494 he issued Boccaccio’s Fall of the Princes.

) woodcuts. Philippe Pigouchet. this specialty continued. is related to the niello work o f goldsmiths. A Short History of die Printed Word 4 . is an excellent representative of the group. whose Livre d'heures was printed in 1498 at Paris. In the following century. 1 9 S t C h r i s t o p h e r o n H o r s e b a c k . . One of these. ( The technique. called m a n i è r e c r i b l é e . M etalcut executed about 1477 with gravers and punches.

A p o c a ly p s e . This occurred both with the cutting of type and with the art of making woodcuts.c h a p T e R ï v • Incunabula: 1440—1500 4 . There is no more spec- 89 . Woodcut. 1498. printing was beginning to develop and perfect its own practitioners. Albrecht Dürer and Aldus Manutïus Like any new medium.2 0 Albrecht Durer.

printed by Aldus Manutius in Venice in 1499. Venice: Aldus.2 1 Colonna. In Venice in 1494.perhaps Benedetto Bordon .festina lente. In 1502 he adopted his printer’s mark: the dolphin and anchor. and he envisioned the use of printing in a revival of classical wisdom. Each of these books attains. tacular example of the latter than the cuts made by Albrecht Dürer in 1498 for the Apocalypse. he founded the Aldine Press. or Aldo Manuzio. a perfect marriage of two independent voices: type and illustration. printed in Nürnberg by Anton Koberger. near Rome. as in polyphonic music. 1499. These are forward-looking books that begin the sixteenth century more than they end the fifteenth. “Hurry slowly. about 1450.made an equally impressive set of woodcut illustrations for Francesco Colonna’s Hypnerotomachia Poliphili. They represent a great aesthetic achievement as well as a technical one. A Short History of the Printed Word 4 . Aldus Manutius. An unnamed artist . H y p n e r o to m a c h ia P o lip h ili. His studies at Rome and Ferrara included Greek. was born at Bassiano. an old Roman symbol for the popular motto.” 90 .

The first of these romans appears in Pietro 9* .Nctalecemmtegeftoeie Pyrrho cûlenoueMufe& Apotlineîmedio pulfarc dalla nature ipfTo.di un o mtrabile palbrio. to cut his roman and Greek fonts. the writing of new works and the proofing of newly printed sheets were continuous activities. PBJ MVS EL SEQVENTE triupho no mcno miraucgUofo S pnmoJmpo chccgli hauea fe^tro uoiubiierotemtte. & fongo acçeptiflimo acupidinc neîla finiftra mano. to live in his house. del di&o q le eî prûno.2 2 Text page o / H y p n e r o to m a c h ia P o lip h ili. Equally important. where the editing of manuscripts. a great master of punchcutting. and to cut the first italic. &multe aître matrone & allante NymphcDcgli quali ufoxuade uno una Hammula.Cum obftttriceftu pcfaâe. Laxide&la forma. including Erasmus.&gliradik&ii mcditullo défia fco achatt.ma lerabeUeerao di cyaneo Saphyro orientale.m unocubile regio colloca ca.di cadidc uéuîe uagamétc uaricaro. he employed Francesco GrifFo of Bologna. * * 4 . Aldus invited scholars of Greek. with Griffo !r type ( reduced ).&delal tro ouo duc fpe&ariffi me (idle.ailamagica gratifîimo. Nella tabeîla dexrra mirai «fcalpto una inlîgne Macroa che dut oui hauea partimco.atomatodcfoindiluîedoro .

non riftaroal pocere.ET COM O PER LI PREDE C ESSOR I S V I T R I V I S I O F V E EDIFICATO. The sixteenth century was the age of the great manuals of handwriting. As the fifteenth century ended. Hypnerotomachia Poliphili. 1499.E T PER Q V A LEM O DO DISAVEDVTA e t INSCIA d is c o n c iA M E N T B SE INAM OROE D I LEI IL S V O DILECTO FOLIPHILO.Lcquale femota qualuque hefïtationc epiêpiuche ft congruerebbealtronde/lignamentemeritino piu uberrimo fluuio di doquentia . Bembo’s De Aetna.cumtroppo piurdhmdaefeganaa&cum piu exornatapoli 4. As more people learned to read.ETDIQVEL LA C E N T E L E L I A O R IV N D A . but calligraphy was not by any means a dying trade or waning in­ fluence.Printed Word N A R R A QVIVÏ LA DIVA POLIA LA NOBILE ET A N T I Q V A OR I G I N E SVA. 92 . printing was well established. so more learned to write. and often with great style and distinction. A. Griffo’s contributions to roman type include an improved bal­ ance between capitals and lower case. achieved by cutting the capi­ tals slightly shorter than ascending letters such as b and dy and by slightly reducing the stroke weight of the capitals. The italic was used to print the poems of Virgil in 1501. Nondi meno uolendo io cum tuti gli meiexili cona> t* del intelleÔot6tcum lamia paucula fuffirie tia di fati&re aile uoftre pkqeuole perittonc.quale latemfica raucitatedel urinante Elâcho al fua^ ue canto delà piangeuole Philomela. A revised version of the same font appears in the Hypnerotomachia Poliphili.23 Roman type by Francesco Griffo. Some of its most beautiful examples lay ahead. published by Aldus in 1495. E MI E DEBILE VOCE TALE O G R A tiofe&diue Nymphe abfoneperucnerano Be mconctncalla. tioftra benigna audictu . Short History of the .

Mexico. Rumania.000 editions. The religious.000 books. India. Massachusetts ~ and along with the press had a substantive culture of publishing. Ireland. in which some 12.100 shops in 200 cities.000. had been produced. 1556. though he had relinquished control of his shop a few years earlier. in some 30. 1508. Palestine. as an example. In 1500. 1503. very little had changed since the time of Gutenberg. Peru. social and economic ferment that 93 . however. 1534. 1550. The ap­ pearance of technical progress stemmed from increased skill in the craft. died in 1502. CHAPTER V The Sixteenth Century ï in v e n to r y o f t h e p h y s i c a l a n d m a t e r i a l progress of printing until the year 1500 would reveal more than 1. Russia. It was not until 1550 that a Nürnberg mechanic fitted a press with a metal thread for the power action. with all the experience that implies. Mexico had a printing press a full century before the first in the British colonies. 1553. political. printing was to spread to many countries: Turkey. On the aesthetic side. 1563. In the new century. Mechan­ ically. 1584. presses still used wooden screws to deliver the force for the impression. Peter Schôffer the elder. He rep­ resented. the full course of printing history. the high state of calligraphy during that period provided an atmosphere of understanding and taste for letterforms that has been of lasting benefit in establishing the classic models for type families. at Cam­ bridge. in one lifespan.

structure of the Middle Ages was being challenged in almost every respect. helped to spread printing.I A Short History of the Printed Word 5. Guidobaldo da Montefeltro.one of the loveliest. It is not too much to say diat the tool of change was the press. Venice: Aldus. Aldus’s edition of the Flypnerotomachia Poliphili . The first printing of Alar- tin Luther’s translation of the New Testament. whose father Federigo “would have been ashamed to own a printed book. with italic type by Francesco Griffo. 94 . in turn. and that diis change. most light-hearted of all printed books and one of the last of the incunabula .” collected books himself and evidently loved them dearly. 1501. It was die century of Luther and Calvin. the eco­ nomic and social. Opera. Duke of Urbino.1 Virgil.is dedicated to Guidobaldo. of the Peasants’ War and the Knights’ War. was completed in 1522. marked the sixteenth century in Europe is well known. with illustrations by Lucas Cranach the elder.

9 . 1501.pctula F lorihusmfHltent. and italic was re­ garded as an independent face.” Another purpose was perhaps to bridge the vast difference in typographic texture between his roman and his cursive Greek fonts (grown. The chancery script was being written with greatest distinction at the time of the first books printed in italic type. the Satires of Juvenal and Persius . M agktrûmosty duasJotwstytxordirKgniis M o res. or chancery script. One of its master practitioners was Raphael. L I B E R QV A . Whole hooks .R.etjb td id tet fx > ÿ u l(ts. he had in fact been proposed as a papal secretary. 1 n terni U hrtdtkm isnm gltm djifim N umitut Una[imnt.ttfr* U d d ia tm . Petrarchs poems.were printed in italic type.h*di<i. Qwo neçfitumtif dditus(mtmpabuUuenti F trredomum frohibaU)ru$ouef.c Ha p t er v * The Sixteenth Century The Introduction ofItalic W hen Aldus commissioned a cursive type based on the cancel- laresca. from different manuscript models). cut by Griffb. while artists. poets and scholars wnote italic script with great pleasure and great style.fktu>'^ pctmdt. 5.TV 5- KotOms dtrii mlli^ccelejhd dom f Mxe^HarJumcetidm Uxams afpke far km» J^dmiranddAbi leuiüfpetfxcuU rcrü. Shortly before his appoint­ ment as painter at the palace of Pope Julius II. V rindpiojcdes dpibus. of course. imitating Italian vernacular handwriting.d*dit'y uoattus Ajpolio.the works of Virgil.VM. GEORGÏCOR.2 Aldine italic.outerrons humid atmfo D eattt4troremtetfurgntcs dttrrdtherbds. not a helpmeet to roman. one purpose was to produce a condensed letter for use in small for­ mats which might “more conveniently be held in the hand and learned by heart.

. A p ril 1508.5-3 L etter w ritten by Raphael.

e t J l a t m .4 Chancery cursive from ArrighVs writing manual . api v i m tempore v i m P erpetu o . AU three of them pro­ duced writing manuals.5 Arrighi. 1524.p[us ixcam te Jare an acdpere ? ' ¥ <^Paftfus ‘T èeéaféts TR^o * 5 . the third in H *c votes eefcbrare yJ it ter vtm s H e rn e s. Among the writing masters of the period. there are three whose names stand out: Ludovico Vicentino degli Arrighi. j/e m < D as Jotem . 1522. et ipse t r i m s . the first two in 1522 and 1524. Giovanantonio Taghente and Giovanni Battista Palatino. A Short History of the Printed Word 5 . . m tnm N o n eji . Type from the C o ry c ia n a ofPalladius. iffe opus e f l . n e jm m t (wc mommenta n m i * H <tf tfjitur ( w y t i c m Jtnt notÿjtm a.

y 1540. was more formal than Griffo’s first italic. This type. It had longer extenders. These books were cut on wood.6 Chancery cursive from Palatino }s w ritin g m-anual. In 1523.but this book also contained several pages printed from italic type of his design. Griffo had at first adopted the contempo­ rary scribes’ use of small. Arrighi. and required fewer ligatures than Griffo’s. they have given too many students a false impression of the rhythm of the chancery hand. cdaimsOBaju^tafatims Smdtfaf r ~ B ^ o m y i(ÿ u d r P c r tflr in m J b im o M DXXXX 5. It also differed in its treatment of the capitals.c h apt er v • The Sixteenth C entury / j Ç \ j utio (d & Jm Jfxtm m n tfm J . and so consumed in vertical space everything it saved in the horizontal measure. w tr itu to tt? . Arrighi’s type was open. and again in 1566. cut for Aldus. HomâofofmtraTdofcamtutfat. published a second manual. Beautiful as they are. This is due as much to problems in getting the writing onto the wood blocks as it is to stiffening of forms in the cutting. the first of six that Arrighi designed. Though more extravagant in form. The flow of the hand is not caught in the plates of these books. like the earliest Chinese printing. a papal scribe. also executed hi wood blocks . Arrighi preferred upright capitals of an intermediate 99 . upright roman capitals with a cursive lower case.1545. leg­ ible.

Dürer returned to a uniquely productive life in Nürnberg. Outstanding craftsmen were required to cut D tirer’s designs. high level of excellence in the hands of Albrecht Dürer. In his early teens he had worked with Michael Wohlge­ muth. contain­ ing some of the finest woodcut illustration and related typography of the Renaissance. as Griffo had in his later italics. including an extremely valuable visit to Italy. The Woodcut Aldus Manutius was a businessman as well as a scholar-printer and typographic innovator. Short History of die Printed Word size. I have no doubt that Dürer could cut anything he drew. In the closing years of the fifteenth century. IOO . His types. Dürer is harder to catalog than Andrea Mantegna. Yet he could view such changes from the vantage point of one who had produced a land­ mark among the incunabula: the Hypnerotomachia Poliphili. swash italic capitals. with the increase of liter­ acy and printing. Vasari recalls Raphael’s appraisal that if he had known the antique. the Italian he admired so much. the illustrator of many of Koberger’s books. He foresaw. W ith him. A. the woodcut reached a new. After extensive travel. belong to the later phase of the Renaissance which is known to art historians as the Mannerist phase. the independent print takes on added signifi­ cance in the history of printing. Arrighi introduced a new calligraphic complication: decorative. Black-and-white line is made to carry a richer freight of texture and graphic color. which he cut for the great Jew­ ish printer Gershom Soncino and for his own use at Bologna. Talent attracts tal­ ent. it also trains it. But after simplifying his fonts by reducing the number of ligatures. Because he bridged the gothic and humanistic traditions. Dürer would have surpassed them all. the decline of monumental formats in favor of cheaper and more manageable editions. and many others which followed.

chapter v * The Sixteenth Century 5 . Hans Holbein. The closing bracket will be provided by two lesser-known works of Jan Lievens. Tools and Preparation A woodcut is made on the plank. 14g S This little introduction to Dürer seeks chiefly to provide one bracket for a short exposition of the technique of woodcutting. fruitwoods have been favored. the wood has been 101 . and fellow pupil of Pieter Lastman. In Japan.7 Dürer. Hans Baldung Grien. Rembrandt’s friend. rather than on a cross section. I11 both the East and the West. that is. Lucas Cranach. and Ugo da Carpi for Raphael and others. The period encompassed by the Dürer Apocalypse of 1498 and the Lievens portrait woodcuts is close to a century and a half. a lengthwise section of the tree. Jost Amman. among others. It em­ braces the work of. Nicolô Boldrini for Titian. of Christopher Jegher for Peter Paul Rubens. Detail from the A p o c a l y p s e .

A Short History of the Printed Word 5. it is the orig­ inal means for making plates to print the text of books.9). held upright in the East and like a pencil in the West. the original was sacrificed in the cutting. not just the illustrations. and in Europe pear. The positions of the knife. cherry. but then. diagram o f cut line. just as with direct drawing on wood. A good transparent blue works well for this purpose. 102 . for clearing the spaces between and around the lines of the design. a light tint is usually rubbed over the block. After the design is satisfactorily prepared.8 Woodcutting: position o f knife. Auxiliary tools are gouges and chisels. It is worth remembering that while this technique is rarely used now for anything other than illustration or decoration. The chief tool has been the knife. can best be described in a simple diagram (figure 5. It was once common practice to paste the drawing onto the block. The drawing may be made directly on the block of wood or transferred from paper by nibbing the back of a tracing made in soft lead or any similar material. Freshly cut passages thus will show up dearly and to ad­ vantage. Oriental and Occidental.

a larger surface section can be removed. usually on a sand-filled leather pad. so the working hand need not be turned. If a curved line is to be cut. Obviously. Technique ofWoodcutting T he shape of the knife to he used is determined by the angle of cutting. After the block is revolved half a turn. T he wood remaining in the spaces between the lines is removed 103 . is made at an angle of 40° to 6o°. An inside curve de­ mands greater care in the cutting. The block is rotated. along the line. the minimum amount is more desirable. to remove wood adjacent to the line.9 Positions o f knives: O riental and Occidental. at a 20° to 30° angle off the vertical. A first incision is made. its outside rim can be done with rela­ tive ease.c h a p T e r v • The Sixteenth Century 5. a second incision. the governing factor being die amount of metal to be drawn through the block. because the back of the knife blade is constantly in danger of injuring the wood as it follows the edge of the design in the cutting. At this angle. The power and control of the woodcutter’s stroke are dius increased. 5. i o Gouge fo r woodcutting.

11 Two states ofa Rembrandt drawing cut on wood by Jan Li evens. 5 . A Short History of the Printed Word 5 . by Parmigianino. io4 . by Ugo da Carpi. Chiaroscuro woodcut.1 2 D io g e n e s .

thus be­ ing doubly strengthened. In Da Carpi’s approach. to me. and this he does by trimming and gluing in a fresh piece of wrood. There were chiaroscuro prints (prints in which the composition depends at least in part on the pat­ tern of light and shade). the key block becomes the accent of the design. Gouges work best when they are sharp­ ened so that the sides of the U or V form of the tool are in advance of its belly. as well as with. the height of die woodcutter’s craft. The sec­ ond block provided a tone for the whole. and into this block lights were cut to relieve and model the forms. Music of the period was often written so that no voice seemed to dominate the others. and enables the woodcutter to move easily against and across. Such sharpening makes possible an action similar to two knives at work. I also discover in these works a fundamental comment on the nature of art and craftsmanship: the fact that Lievens could cut a drawing by Rembrandt gave him invaluable objectivity in cutting works of his own design. this carried the design. The recutting of the mouth required reestablishment of that sur­ face area and represents. A more subtle method is shown in Ugo da Carpi’s Diogenes. one was marked by subtle clues. An example of a masterly job of repairing can he seen in the two states shown here of a small head by Rembrandt cut by Jan Lievens. The sixteenth century saw the introduction of many new tech­ niques in the printing of illustrations. the grain. 105 . but it is incomplete and would not stand alone. Repairing broken or rejected lines is an important capability of the woodcutter. cut after Parmigianino’s drawing. and many a palazzo was designed with no grand entrance. In a series of seemingly equal doors. The simple technique was to make a key block. then refinishing it. This patch may be so shaped that it is locked into the block. and multiple blocks were printed together to create grisaille illustrations (illustrations composed entirely of varying shades of gray) as well as other tonal effects.gh a p t e r v • The Sixteenth C entury with gouges and chisels.

Woodcut by Jan Lievens.were far more 106 .Michelangelo and Titian above all . The masters of the six­ teenth century . Domenico Ghirlandaio. Mantegna and others - took a passionate interest in letterforms. A Short History of the Printed Word 5 .1 3 T h e C a rd in a l. Filippo and Filippino Lippi.Fra Angelico. The Iconography ofLetterforms Fifteenth-century Italian painters .

1509).and on the nimble feat of reading. They cannot quite be still. 1529) are three such attempts to rational­ ize the proportions of letters and divine their master patterns.554. Palatino . 'K: N ot only artists but art critics in those years were interested in letterforms.Arrighi. 1. They focused on the writhing.The letterforms taught by sixteenth-century calligra­ phers . Luca Pacioli’s book Dr Divinia proportione (Venice.14 A page fr o m the w riting m am ial ofVespasiano Amphiareo. Albrecht D iirers Underweysung der Messung (Nürnberg. shifting mass and stormy surface . and most of them were looking for the geometric grail: a Platonic and eternal explication of the forms of roman letters. The perfect letter never lives . c h a pT e r v * The Sixteenth Century 5. Tagliente. interested in movement and contortion. But there are no such simple recipes.are imbued with the same excess of energy. not on the restful and legible form that is eternally wait­ ing to be read. 1525) and Geoffoy Tory’s Champfleury (Paris.

It is a live. by Giovanni Francesco Cresci. and elsewhere in the works of Michelangelo and Titian . of Dürer himself . alone. In the inscriptions that are painted on the Sistine Chapel ceiling. Blado produced work of great distinction and made a notable contribution in using single and compound typographic arabesques and florets (pieces of typemetal bearing floral designs). In 1556 be published ÎI Perfetto scrittore.15 Cresci. Roman upper and lower casefro m II Perfetto scrittore. The last typeface he produced came into the hands of Antonio Blado. who became the papal printer in 1545 and retained that post until. 108 .we see a masterful admission that all the theories failed. 1567.and in the work. that Arrighi died in Rome in 1:527. one of the classic books on letterforms. Thus Arrighfs influence survived him directly for forty7 years. but not certain. 1556. A Short Historv of the Printed Word 5. It is likely. organic trace that only glances off geometry.

typographer and what we now . & prseterea de diuerQs Icgi» bus Ronunorum. Claude Garamond.1 6 Simon de Colines.Fencftellæ de M A G I S T R A T I B V S . i $ î 9- ç . Title page. P A R U I I î Ex ofBcina Simonix Colin». Robert Granjon and Jean de Tournes are among the major figures of the sixteenth century so far as the shaping of books is concerned . ch a pTer v * The Sixteenth C e n tm y L. Paris. Robert Estienne. He was born about 1480. 7555». dotii'% RomanorurnUbdius #iampn«sum nirori fuo reftiruruî. S A C E R. Simon de Colines and the School ofParis After her meager contribution to the first half-century of print­ ing.1 7 Jean de Tournes. France became for some time home to the best typographers in Europe. 5 . Potnponîj larri iridein de magiftradbux êf facerdorijî. Simon de Colines.punchcutter. possibly in Champagne. Title page. Lyon .and in many respects Colines is the central of them all. He became in due course the senior employee . 1556.

1501. W hen Henri died in 1520. 5. animam vt hominis doccdam fufcipiat. O N S I D E R A N T I M I- hi &pmumcro. r y j y IIO . & qui- dem ipfius philofophix munuseRidquod homines no- runt difeendi cupidifltmi. atquc cliterarum co fuetudinc ferre poffem: Be verè feire aacnti quo pado poriflïmu meliorc hominis intenoru con- ditionc . Paris. Between 1520 and his own death in 1546. & vero nccdTario coaftam. ad dcum creatorc fuum rapiatur.aetate quoque flo- rcneilfima duxcratrucupidicas inedEEt adcundsr tandemde confided* philofophiar.atque illi congbcinatam. Guyonne took Colxnes as her third husband so that business could e ciently continue. Chapter opening.fic A. whiteletter type and typography evolved.ad eamquc mentis inte none vehetneter incûbcri. dida fun t.cx co laborc ftudiqq.18 Robert Estienne. DE T R A N S I T V Hcllenilmi ad Chrifti- aniunum.quafipcr carcerem quendam. pofthabcda. distinctively French. indeed distinc­ tively Parisian.primus.quàm fie­ ri poteft integerrima ab ipfius corporis focietatc. À Short History of the Printed Word might call the artistic director of the publishing and printing rm that Henri Estienne the elder and his wife Guyonne Viart founded in Paris in. In his hands. H er two sons.Fricifcc rex po- tcti{fimc. initial by Geofroy Tory. Philofophia ante finquit apod PJatoncni Socrates in Phxdone)morris eft meditario. Text by Guillaume Bud 0 type by Simon de Colines. Colines created and re­ peatedly revised a large array of types with which he printed books of many kinds. cfficcrc. Henri the younger and Robert.i.cui extenia & cor­ poris bona qua.quod- nam dignum operarpreem ex vfia philologist. vt anima corpori nunc cofociata* bine tandem fublimis abeat.corpornque contagioncde- funda morte factli. Lib.corpori ailigatam. thereby became appren­ tices and stepsons of Colines. cà demum ipfa fpedans. cu­ ius ilia fimilitudine abeodem ipfo praedifa cft.

p w f « - ÿfsur$pm mu# f* «**<ai»s#bbfa*fi” y jg Robert Estiennes Cicero.. MO. « ï f » JÔ rew f/îi-A jm ffts» l ■■*. mte******te«®br. italic and small capitals./ t> E S r. • p . he also cut his romans and italics in graduated sizes and learned to mix them on die page.S>..£ “T S “ 3|J4(iiSïiTfi. ne fitrïie ffit sw. This increas­ ingly complex High Renaissance typography came hand in hand with complicated texts. and cut his basic Greek.sr ftlif M *rW % « f fossrit pifrfpk'*. ^ i.V jemrt^kipim 5fW eif:pHAr^mmst«îi<- *f?c «*»&. «5/ê^r. f-â'wj« *w*f«.«üfï.CHAPTER V The Sixteenth Centtiry ==-*# CAï' O MÀï Ol. and Latin text fonts as a per­ fectly balanced pair.«S«ï « M *.. T « M .ï. rasijyêw.^«w»^*sau^fe^Mi4(<^Wfr»iw/:tef.5vr. (Figures 4.«rUrwé «"«»»«**»fMn*«ænS&tütcrmtbrtp. ïwû# «i<0»fflriiMwd*»jîp»Ssar«. «ra» ^.«r.'rWïWi: f*r £'-■«!'* . W here emphasis was needed principally for titles spaced capitals of text size were used.T*» |Wï.. DUtOC? f tSiC!.d» irfrA «>»«?».crs')*»»*•> *i*#r4inrf.■>•4statu. t.:4 s liiJür»t&YÎi&tftw-'lky. a single font means type of a single size. CATC\ U U 1Vs.4I 0 * .: ît..ir. ■<. ffs ^ « I J S S W . r ie i i f .fpie CA.v </f■s» ?" '*3«liM» ***ws-ïfKw ïfH!«=*tiisatfiifpi«flÉfvH' ^ 2 jC C $i&5w 5T(s^w xpS>mhmsé^&r. ■T. ÜJtt’tf S»f>r«4(t*fcï jiilr?..„■?prsaVir*^*»»fr$gi<0-SKSS»i^SO*-i* 40»»«*»>^»W"* F * i. hi Ï.| h æss*.'.) Colines created pages every bit as graceful as the nest Aldine page. The Aldine book was printed in one font (occasionally two) and with handmade type.i ï a-1?:-<w. iSïiîfs'ÆiifP'fSaïfï JtffsWifrf/ür *.Wj?«vis(»*. Over time.j*Sfisoufc^. He cut matched sets of roman. S.-ifffît»*ê':i*ffs»«PASW .arn ®ÎMæahtftesim*sémiS&.«.'îi IB. 1543 50.-. ciôn-.'3..«» 3 *jE*&wr /JriW!W'sails ’ W*.® K ( » w p r / J » ( Æ ( i / » « / a i r f n f i™ ?«***<»» «Jfli-Ws*fegJS!fixb C « s{ # f* f # f t « » »<♦»►’> .: 7E Ar<T.£!Kmi3-ifl’ ■U *' iiS •i-ij'•ii Balirmfi»'à0mvU.*OKPO-3ÎI V« AT> . . Cy-s. * «ts.(JT fjspjïfefï .-’-iss'-:.sfp*«»■«»?#.vif. C t ).otw^- ***%*** K'irtwr«i<*wjfàmpMffm. /r'i'/fü- . S£f=¥*».3t-sf m. with type by Simon de Colines.. r i .y J-nidi*m«<4^wjt* 3mwà<jk*.Soffsawat»» w w s / j f i » Of* î.& tJttc*0iaa w w » raü. :t ï Cv î. lïsær. iStrimitkmffa XïjJwji.* f<«.« „.1 are examples.*t SlîVUfï CI CZ**OST2 r.s <"ïtr3.23 and 5. /îfurfijp Aifeea.s :k« V«!-:ifiï»^WIiwfwwra!»»»CruiAiwrris^«*< Ésî *Si»«fr/fe.ÿj?-is&ce&mriff «•■•i-1 iSTS/itif sa-r. ‘ Of its*.ft&ss*i'S<1*3*/«• ». but with more variation in texture.W. Colines was a skilled editor as well as a 11 î . 'ï'. 5 C C. Paris.Wf/fil! Kif. * n w -«His ■■QmssBrjeffifaif.F** Aières*Æjwit?*'.#- '’S******.1^cUrW»?.&»•lêta$t»prdkpttpiKmsftHXtmgrdutHf s&sï«•*•»»-*•.

astronomy. A Short History of the Printed Word 5. In his most distinctive books. H orae.20 Geofroy Tory. Paris. 1525. philosophy and grammar were staples of his press. who loved Greek scholarship as much as he loved typography. he used 112 . typographer. and treatises on medicine. Robert Estienne learned to work in the same mode. also felt a great affinity for Aldus. But Robert.

who was born about 1500 and died in 1561. who attempted in their own way to turn lead into gold and language into immortality. Fear of religious . In die 1540s. Garamond cut the grecs du roi. proving once again what subtle art can be achieved with a single font in a single size. Another important Parisian figure of the period is Claude Gara- mond. 1546. a set of three cursive Greek types based on die hand of Angelos Vergikios. engraver and printer. His book Champfleury is a pro­ longed meditation on the structure. Paris. He was at various times a lecturer in phi­ losophy. a friend and col­ league of Colines. editor. including Leonardo da Vinci and Andrea del Sarto. He was bom about 1480 in Bourges.but in his case. r x 7iXeîovoç fMpoiç-<fjci 3 7^ Hç g t x ^ e l w 5. on commission from François I of France and with Robert Estienne acting as adviser. Tory was interested in alchemy . in central France. Colines. Like Colines. Geoff oy Tory is another who worked for a time in the shop of Henri Estienne. Like his contemporary Paracelsus.21 G aram ond’s grec du roi: the largest size (21 point). he cut distinguished roman and italic types in several sizes. bookseller. yet he handled it with Aldine spareness. and died in 1533. His italics are among the first to feature sloped roman capitals. He also lured to France some of Italy’s greatest living artists and craftsmen. He apprenticed with the printer Antoine Augereau. Fie was also an enthusiast of letters. the king’s Greek scribe. proportion and mystical sig­ nificance of letters. the sumptuous type of his stepfather. The king sup­ ported Robert Estienne’s ambitious plans for editions of the classics. typographer. and in later life established a small foundry close to the Sorbonne. or Garamont. N ot all his subjects were so liberal in dieir tastes. The enthusiasm of François I for the works of the Italian Re­ naissance gave great impetus to printing in France. it was the alphabetical alchemy practiced by printers and publishers.

5. vei cius orario a vulgari dicendi radone abhorreat. used by the H eirs o f Andreas Wechel.& tiufdem eft nominis .quz inipfîs reperieur.TributUî veio adhosmu- tuo ceIebtando$. ad hoc tamquatn du- 50 ces vis nequaquam nitznecamultis tentiïsfaûi. tam- quam vultus feu perfona quzdam (pîendida.quzcumq.ae ad obledfcationem arque folarium fpcâantiumconilituu. A s e g y r i s . ad id comnwdarum opulcnda. At vinun.fumes. ne przeedens orario fequenri maior euaderc vidca- nir.eft adîuiribus fuppeditatvdsrum quidem pecuniarum fùm- ptus.ad requiem maiorum rerum qua.rerumquc omnium opificem efTe: Sivero ApoUojmufices inuctorem ejcfUrifTe. Olytnpius lupicer : eius autem quod in Pythiis fiteertaminis. I T4 . fueritjUus dei nobis fît. Panegyrimathkœ corporumraborc or­ nant plurimum -. M Asto k io A htim acho ik t e r p r e t e . tique actri- 4° bounttir. conumerabw. & il- lorumedam fupetiores. in ornanda pa- negyri ira fêft getere oporter.neque 5. deorum regem. À Short History of the Printed Word Non erat formaei. Frankfurt.Siquidem ïupiter focrit. Prin- cipium igitarhuiufmodi orarionis.qui iniitrerarum & eioquenris ftudiis verfàtus fuerit. SoEemautem omnium omnibmbonorumauâorem.a prinripibus circa hoc omatjis ad magnifkentiam apparatus. tradita (Head quodam in loco inquit Plato) cunt dii humanum genus ad laborem natommiferari efîênt.inqua publicusconucntus ceiebratur. Coa&i autem focrunt a fi- picntUfimbhominibusconuemus.22 G aram onds gros canon roman type (42 point).&a ciuitadbus publiéecommuai décréta.ac vniueriùm vit* tempos in ch eonfUmplêrtt atq-. D I ON Y S H HALÎ CÂRNÂSSEI P RÆCEP T À DE O R A T I O N E P A N E G Y R I C A.«xplkemustibi eaqus olim a nomaris&pienriz parenribus nobis tradita acccpimus:iili veto. louis elfe filium: & ca quæ mortaüum vies przbuit.proutrès copiant fuppeditent. animos. ab iis que dco infîmt. Age igicu^o Echecrates.Pîztercafî Hercules «it. in (êrrnonh inino pofita arque conflimta. aMercurio & a Midis habuiffedixerunt : non (ècus cumhuii panegyrics aliquo modo prsfe. Dcinccps vrbis laudes.ve} afitu.contriuerit. Latidandi autem exordium. revisedc.&eundem eflè cum foie. eft inuencum & donum deorum.23 Garamond s type. Paris. (biennis (cilicet quinquennalium ludorumcelebritas fiuccouentus. ad reficiendos recrean- dofq. ApoUo. rerumq. ad- docendum erit. Olympiorum.Et locus ferme co- plebitut exijsquzquiiibet aut inucnerit. 1550.ac canto itmiri aroficio.& Miriàrum acApolÜnis aiTe&atores mufïca. vt. Verum nzebrembusnarraois-. 1586. advitam attincnt.aur hominibus tradiderit.

Drawings of the plants. In 1543. but others remained to continue the trad­ ition. he issued De Humant corporisfabrica. whose clerics kept a dose watch on the publishers and printers in the Latin Quarter.. an outstanding work on anatomy written by Andreas Vesalius. were cut in wood by Rudol“ Speckle. another Basel publisher. and a particularly ne italic in the Ahline style (i. by Fullmaurer and Meyer. And it is likely. instead of cutting it himself. Basel: The Circle of Johann Froben During the rst quarter of the sixteenth century. The printer Johann Froben had as his principal author and editorial advisor Erasmus. released the rst translation of the Koran (in Latin. Froben died in 1527. the style of Francesco G ri“o). Like Aldus.CHAPTER V The Sixteenth Century incorrectness hung thick at the Sorbonne. H 5 .e. The illustrations by Jan Stevenszoon van Calcar serve to this day as classic examples of anatomical draw­ ing and are often reproduced in manuals for artists. that the author of the best of Froben s type was the master punch- cutter Peter Sch “er the younger. In the same year. In 1542 the Basel publisher Michel Isingrin issued a hand­ some and detailed botanical work by Leonhart Fuchs: De Historia stirpium. Another important member of the group is less easy to identify. One of Froben s loveliest books is the Greek New Testament with Erasmus s Latin translation. defacto university of Paris. published in Basel in 1516. with a preface by Martin Luther). Johannes Oporinus. Froben bought his type. like Miscomini. and as his il­ lustrator the young Hans Holbein. Soncino and Robert Estienne. Froben s collection included good roman and Greek types. a distinguished collaboration developed in Basel. though not certain. Their every publication was a risk yet it was they as much as anyone who formed and kept alive the true. Ratdolt and Colines. Those of known Protestant sympathies including the Estiennes and Simon de Colines were watched with extra care.

A fine example of Tournes’s use of arabesques is the title page of Louise Labé’s Euvres ( Works. He is known also for his use of arabesque woodcut borders. then became his foreman. a German printer trained in Venice. jean de Tournes. who was born in 1504. The master punchcutter Robert Granjon of Paris married Bernard Salomon’s daughter Antoinette and translated some of 1 16 . cut for him by the artist Bernard Salomon. Over some two dozen years he gained a reputation for scholarship and excellence of design that placed him among the greatest of French printers. 1556: figure 5.25). with Salomon’s woodcut illustrations. 1543- Lyon and Antwerp Sebastian Gryphius. Basel. apprenticed with Gryphius. and left in 1540 to open a shop of his own.17) An­ other excellent example of his style is the Métamorphose d’Ovide figurée (1557: figure 5. A Short History of the Printed Word ■ î ï 5 .2 4 Vesalkis. settled in Lyon in the 1520s and distinguished himself there as the first printer of the works of Rabelais. D e H u m a n i c o r p o r is fa b ric a .

for Christophe Plantin in Antwerp. Granjon worked for Tournes in Lyon.) He also inaugurated a class of script types called civilités. A"(SeScifc. «£*■ Ortv«t*_. These types are based on French gothic cursive handwriting and were popular for a time for literature in French and Dutch. but 117 . for the Vatican Press and the Stamperia Orientale in Rome. CWViL.(Jinijfyicitt CSfnrfiftJommc ■35*t*fenyn*i8 • & 0\»n**efÉrmCK«_ ty ^ r t t n t o jeP‘. They are no more civil than other types. r c5t $*3 . Lyon. e* £. Title page using civilité. M étam orphose d ’O vide figurée.25 Jean de Tournes. «*>(1p*fV«*ÿ Ol'IUijIre* J ttnatty**. r j y 7. hi s father-in-law’s woodcut ornaments and borders into metal. 5. and for other major clients throughout Europe. 5. Lyon. (The italic used in Tournes’s Ovid is Granjon’s. 0£cciftis & <3 tm Sc6 .•^omtfan. éSwtnfot}. 1557. Î 5c .JCS»»i.26 Robert Granjon. His Arabics and Greeks are as masterful as his romans and italics.

A Short History of the Printed Word

REGNI NEAPOLITAN!
P 8 r n L E G I V M,

P H I L I P P VS DEI GRATIA REX
CASTELLÆ, ARAGONVM, V T R I V S Q J E
SiC IL IÆ jH lE R V S A L E M , V n C A R I X , D A L M j C T u e , E T G U O ATTÆ,&:c .

N Ton i y s Pcrrcnotus, S .R .C . tîe. SanfliPem ad Vincula Prefljjr-
rer, Cardinale de GranueIi;prçfetxRcgiz 8CCatholic* Maiefetis
à confiliis feras, 8c in hoc Regtio locum tcncns, S c Capita neusgc-
nerali$,&c. Mag"® viro Chtijlopjioro Plantino, ciui Antuetpten--
fi, & prxfatæ Catholic* Maieferis Ptototypographo fidrii Rc-
gio.dilefto.gratisni Regiam S c bonam voluntatem. Cùm ex prat*
cWorumviroruroiicerisceriiortsfitâi iîmus,opus BibÜorum quinquelînguïnim,
cum tribus Appatacuum tomis^eleberrxmnm.rciquc public; Chriftianz vcililïîmû,
ciuHem feram(lima: Maiefecis iuffu, ope arque aufpiciis, adpubiicam totius Chri-
ftiatiiorbiscommodiraEcm ornamentum, typis longe elegantifiimis, fie ptæfen-
rilfimi viriBenediéH Ariz Mdntani pracdpua cura 8c firudio. quàmcmcndatifïîmc
à ceexeufum eiTe.cïufdemcj-, exemplar ianâiffimo Domino noftro PP.Gregorio u n ,
oblatum, iwplhcuife,vtpi*fe*Matefetisfanûos conacus, Sc Regi Cathobcoin
pritnis conuenientes, furotnopeie taudarii, 2£arnplitîima ribi prmilegia ad hoc opus
tuendum Motu proprio concefTcriq Nosquoque cunf natural! genio impcllimiir ad
foucndumprzdata qUsque ingénia, qus infigni quôptam conaru ad pubtica com*
moda promouenda arque augends afpinmt; primùmquidem longé przdariftimum
hoc fus Maiefecis ftudium, vt verè Hçroicum Sc Ptolomçi, Eumenis, aliorumqtic
olimconatibtuinBtbliothecis ioftrncndis eopræfentius, quod non v.inatftimulo
gloriæ,vt siii/ed reâz Reltgioms:confeiuand*Sc propaganda: zelcf fufccptuir^mrii •
tofiifpiciencesj deinde eximiam operam doftiOlmi B. Aria: Mootam,acimmorraii
laudedignamadmirantes, reb us4ue cms.quetnadraod fi tuo notnioecxpetitur.pro-
fpicere cupidités, ne metitîs fraudais fruûibus tamæ opers.Sc impenfe.q uz fumma
folie! radine 8c induftria in ôpus adfiocm féliciter perd uccnd um à te criant infumpta
ef&,accept musjcum^ueceftb ton (tet,opns hocnunquamhaétcnushocinRegnoex-
ciffuin efTe, dighum^uc ipfo S.fédis Apoftolicæ ftjflVagio fit iudicarum vrdiuulgetur
ac priudegiis ornetut. Tuis igicut iuflilïtmis voris, vt deiibciatoconfilio, ica aïaeri 8C
exporreôa fronce lube citer annuemcSjtecorc prxfrntium ex gratia fpeciali, prxfâts
Maiefecis nomine, cum deliberations-êta£Sfencia Rcgij col lateralis confi iijvferai-
musÈt decreedmu s, ne quis intraviginti annos proximos.a die daciprxiéntiüm dein-
teps miroerandos, in hoc Regno diâum Bibîiortim opus, Cum Apparafmim' tonds
coniunÜis,yd Apparatus ipfos,anteorü partem-aliquam /coifum,titraipfius Chri-
ftophori,îutcaufam 8Ciusabiplb habc cuis,!icentiam imprimere,aucab ali is împref-
fa vendcrc,aut in fuis o (Seinis vclaîiàs centre polïic.' Vol entes.éc.décerneres exprefsc,
quod

5.2 7 Christophe Plantin. Polyglot Bible. Antw erp, i y j 2 .

they are called àvilit0 s because one of them was used to set La Civt-
Ut0 pu&nk, the French translation of a book that Erasmus wrote
originally in Latin.
Plantin was in many ways the antithesis of Tournes. While
Tournes was an artist with a dedicated sense of purpose, Plantin
was, in the main, a businessman with a keen sense of publishing. He
was born near Tours, in France, about 1520 and studied in Caen, b ut
he made his reputation in Antwerp, where the Plantin-Moretus
Museum remains as a monument to his legacy. Plantin established a

118

bindery in Antwerp in 1549, and six years later added printing and
publishing to his undertakings. After his death in 1589, the business
was continued by his widow and his son-in-law, Jan Moretus.
Plantin s talent seemed to lie in the size of editions, rather than
their typographic excellence, and he might be described as one of
the earliest practitioners of merchandising. He made books with a
look of opulence, profusely illustrated, but utilizing artists and de­
signers more for their names than for their understanding of the
basic nature of letterpress printing.
Between 1568 and 1572 the printing o ce of Plantin was en­
gaged in a large undertaking commissioned by Philip II of Spain; an
eight-volume publication whose title was Biblia regia. Printed in
ve languages Hebrew, Greek, Aramaic, Latin and Syriac it
came to be known as the polyglot Bible. The edition consisted of
thirteen sets on vellum for the king and 1,200 on paper for general
sale: a large undertaking indeed, considering the capacity of the
presses available.
Plantin was generous in his use of copper engravings. Even as
early as the polyglot Bible, some of the illustrations were engraved.
In 1559, the Plantin shop had done the letterpress text for a com­
memorative book marking the death of Charles V. The illustrations
for this were designed, and probably printed, by J 0 r me Cock,
Pieter Brueghel s father-in-law. Use of engraved or etched intaglio
prints necessitates an additional impression, made with a dUerent
kind of press. Despite the added cost of production, copper began
to supplant wood, and Plantin and his descendants led the way.
Antwerp was better supplied with engravers than most centers.
Cock was a leading gure in this eld and engraved a large body of
Brueghel s work. W hen Rubens s studio was in full operation, it
employed not only painters but a group of engravers especially
trained to translate his paintings into prints. Balthasar Morteus,
grandson of Plantin and friend of Rubens, brought the great Flem­
ish painter into several collaborations with the Plantin shop.

119

A Short History of the Printed Word

ôuitto afcwpan (%iu
étfê,ppicttfôc(îo mifn
peaatOHétftômtfjtcu
SpomtPifôPiePttôPite mec-
5.2 8 F raktur designed by Vincenz Rockner, containing schwabacher alternate
forms. ( There are, fo r example, two form s o f a in the opening words [O ratio ad
suum proprium ... ] and in the last word [Isaac]. In lines 2 -3 [... esto m ihi /
peccatori . .. ] there are m o fo rm s o f o.) Augsburg, 1514.

Blackktter and Roman in Germany and England
During the period when Colines and Garamond were rethink­
ing the form of roman and italic, changes were also taking place in
the German blackletter. Textura was supplanted by more cursive
and agitated forms: the sharply pointed fraktur and its more cursive
antecedent, the German form of bastarda, known as schwabacher.
One of the first and the most accomplished fraktur fonts was de­
signed by Vincenz Rockner, secretary to the Emperor Maximilian I,
and cut by Johann Schonsperger at Augsburg about 1512.
Despite the widespread use of fraktur in Germany, roman had
not vanished from the German scene. Garamond’s excellent roman
and Greek types were in the hands of Andreas Wechel and Konrad
Berner at Frankfurt and continued to be used there. Jacques Sabon,

120

a punchcutter from Lyon, also affected the course of German
typography. In 1571, he married the granddaughter of Christian
Egenolff and opened Germany’s first independent type foundry.
Among his collection of matrices were some that were struck from
Garamond’s punches.
In the 1510s Richard Pynson introduced roman type into Eng­
land, and in the 1520s Wynkyn de Worde, who had learned his skills
with Caxton, introduced italic. These events marked the beginning
of the end of black! etter type for the text of English books.

O f Maps and Books
The mixing of media - type and photographs and drawings, for
example - is quite routine in the modern domain. It was not so al­
ways. A foretaste of this freedom occurred in Ingolstadt in 1568,
when Philipp Bienewitz produced a map of Bavaria. The map was
cut on wood, which was then the common practice, but the place-
names for the map were cast in lead. The castings were cemented
into the woodblocks so that the whole could be printed at once.
In the following year, another map made a different land of his­
tory. Gerard Mercator’s world map for mariners was engraved on
24 large copper plates. W ith these, a working standard vision of the
finite globe was printed. Mercator’s world atlas followed in 1595
and remained for many years the geographic bible. In navigational
as well as mythological terms, the book had tried to hold the world,
and the world had begun to shape the book.
No new Estiennes or Tournes appeared in the last years of the
sixteenth century, but the master Robert Granjon continued cut­
ting type - romans, italics, civilité scripts, Greeks and Arabics -
until his death in 1590. France was setting standards for literature
and type alike. The year 1580, for example, saw the first publication,
in Bordeaux, of a great work of the French spirit: the Essais of
Michel de Montaigne. In England, there had not as yet been any

121

à Short History of the Printed Word

ess+sfs

DE M IC H EL
D E MONTAI-
G K E.

t fv seç o

'B O F R D E A F S.
Par S. Mil langes Imprimeur ordinaire du Roy.
t J M . D . L X X X.
a v e c r r if il e g e d v Ror,
5.2 9 Title page o f M ontaigne s Essais. Bordeaux, iy8 o .

typographical developments of more than local interest. But in
1593 and 1594 while the London theaters were closed on account
of the plague William Shakespeare published his rst works,
Venus and Adonis and The Rape of Lucrece. These are not the hand­
somest books ever produced but authors such as Shakespeare and
Montaigne are, after all, the reason why typography exists.

122

CHAPTER VI

The Seventeenth Century

o h n addressing Parliament in 1643, spoke out for
m i l t o n ,

J freedom of the press and against an ac^e^miring that ail books,
pamphlets and papers be licensed by anM^cia) censor before pub­
lication. The expanded text of this address was published in N o­
vember 1644. It was titled Areopagitica, after a speech delivered by
Isocrates to the Great Council of Athens, the Areopagus.

I deny not, but that it is of greatest concernment in the Church and Com­
monwealth to have a vigilant eye how books demean themselves, as well as
men; and thereafter to con ne, imprison, and do sharpestjustice on them
^T:‘oîÎjOX'>*■V
"•

as malefactors. For hooks are not absolutely dead things, but do contain a
potency of life in them to be as active as that soul whose progeny they are;
nay, they do preserve as in a vial the purest e cacy and extraction of that
living intellect that bred them. I know they are as lively, and as vigorously
productive, as thosefabulous dragon s teeth; and being sown tip and down,
;

may chance to spring up armed men. And yet, on the other hand, unless
wariness be wed, as good almost kill a man as kill a good book: who kills a
man kills a reasonable creature, Gods image; hut he who destroys a good
book, kills reason itself kills the image of God, as it were in the eye. Many
a man lives'a burden to the earth; but a good book is the precious lifeblood
of a masterspirit, embalmed and treasured up on purpose to a life beyond
life. Tis true, no age can restore a life, whereofperhaps there is no great
loss; and revolutions of ages do not oft recover the loss of a rejected truth,

ffi
123

the breath of reason itself slays an immortality rather than a life. A Short History of the Printed Word 6. what persecution we raise against the living labours of public men..i Th e King James Bible.. and if it extend to the whole impression. We should. whereof the execution ends not in the slaying of an elemental life.be wary. . for the want of which whole nations fire the worse.. therefore. but strikes at that ethereal andfifth essence. 1611. a kind of massacre. sometimes a martyrdom. haw toe spill that seasoned life of man preserved and stored up in books. silice we see a kind of homicide may be thus committed.

Censorship in England In 1637 the number of print shops and foundries in England had been limited by decree. ■■h*Wtejf■ Îfti?î!.2 Shakespeare. which made them inaccessible to all but a few scholars and churchmen.te X. 1623. . 4 k . printing was seen as a threat to established power. lit..■'' \':yCCZ.DÜ: S.- 1 il AG1.Ü th< -ï-. The content of manuscripts was seldom in question. A :Ldvîrs.. I25 . KASJçiîss. fT T :-:-T Omà hthm^S > ' v * :v H i d k f . ■ïV-jm^lfey. ■$ rXXXFF :-.'■ Eu. InVWCl ff>‘W' \ ■'' '‘VV : V^fresidwCHuçfîwJ^V1'!:'. R eader. But with the coming of the seven­ teenth century.vi\i5ÿa?f vv'iii y *>'■-.'yt"f! Oi-^iÿsV^îï'CC{ïjA. ■j#11-■ 6.. iot>R* a t e r la s b o o w . èÆh%wo-. In the cradle years of printing. opposition came chiefly from organized calligraphers and illuminators whose livelihood was threatened. :W \ ^ ^lî& lïg 'âM S K sï.c h a p i e r v ï % The Seventeenth C entury [S H 'A : ï t E S F E A & E s 1 :' ’"CbîâEDlES. most were classics or ecclesiastical writings and many were in Greek or Latin. First Folio. w «ftNfctfr.lïàtsfi.

126 . Indonesia in 1668. Imprinted at London by fykrt fiarfor. hut Parlia­ m ents Declaration of Rights in 1689. 1 <s j 7. Lebanon in 1610. Printer to the Kings mofl Excellent Maieftic : And by the A dignes o f bbn BiB. Miltons words did not bear immediate fruit. i 617* 4f. tbeelmentb day o jftfo hftpajl. In 1694 the Licensing Act expired. the not- yet-formed United States in 1639. Norway in 1643.3 S ta r Chamber decree. Guatemala in 1660. A DECREE OF Starre-Chamber. 6. It was introduced to the Philippines in 1602. CONCERNING P r i n t i n g . and censorship of the press ended. A Short History of the Printed Word both religious and political. As the debates over censorship continued. Title page. issued just before the proclamation of William and Mary as King and Queen. Iran in 1640. typographic printing continued its expansion. Finland in 1642. It was not renewed. The opposition took the form of cen­ sorship. Ecuador in 1626. foretold his triumph. 1637. Bolivia in 1612.

The genius of the country. but in great writing. 127 . the Civil War between the Royalists and the Parliamentar­ ians divided the country. the two most often printed books in the Eng­ lish language appeared: the Kingjames version of the Bible. In 1665 and 1666. however. and the First Folio of Shakespeare s plays. plague and re. there were great upheavals and natural disasters. In the rst quarter of the seventeenth century.c h a p T e R v i The S e v e n te e n th C e n tu r y In England. From 1642 to 1646. had never shown itself in ne printing and out­ standing presswork. the plague and the Great Fire struck London. It is possible that government restrictions on printers and foundries were more elective in limiting technical ad­ vances in England than were war. in addition to laws and decrees that threatened the press.

on printing. A third major literary event during the first quarter of the cen­ tury was the publication in Madrid in 1605 of El Ingenioso hidalgo Don Quixote de la Mancha. 128 . A Short History of the Printed Word 6.the same man who in 1637 printed A Decree of Starre-Chamber Concerning Printing. and lighter types .in 1604.or tried to place . The print­ ing press and printing type were chosen as the means for publi­ cizing the limits which the government had placed .5 Engraved illustration by Rubensfor Pompa introitus Ferdinand!. by Miguel de Cervantes. and the printer was Robert Barker . In Spain as in England by this time. die year after his coronation.had largely displaced the blackletter formerly used. Forty- seven translators were engaged in the task. 1641. The book appeared in 1611. The new translation of the Bible had been ordered by James I - himself an author . the comedy of life was as apparent as its tragedy.roman and italic .

Engravings after Rubens’s designs show both the virtues and shortcomings of the medium. Woodcut byJegber The House ofPlantin and the Elzevirs Christophe Plantin died in 1589. designed illustrations and dec­ orations for the Plantin house for a number of years. but the result was not an integral part of the ty­ pography of the book. engraving. as we have mentioned.c h Ap T e r v ï * The Seventeenth Century 6. His last such work was Pompa introitus Ferdinand^ issued in 1641. but his Antwerp firm contin­ ued. It provided great range and color for such a talent as his. the year follow­ ing his own death. Rubens. I believe the designs would have been better served if they had been cut on wood by Rubens’s woodcutter Christopher Jegher. however. was committed to the use of the newer medium.6 Rubens. 129 . who executed the Temptation of Christ The Plantin establishment.

there is an in­ dication from his friend Balthasar Moretus. Some of them came from the foundry of Jacques Vallet at Amsterdam. that the great painter demanded much time and money.) Louis Elzevir was bom about 1542. but they are dressed. as the Fell types. (Today. It was not until 1618 that the Elzevirs bought presses. These came to be known. The pocket classics that made them fa­ mous rst appeared in the 1620s. Oxford University Press was established in X667. 130 . like Plantin s grand editions. like all of G ri“o s and Colines s and most of Garamond s. W here this view prevails. in England. A Short History of die Printed Word As a kind of footnote on Rubens and the printers. Though they are cruder than Van Dijck s. and after his death. these fonts too are representative of Dutch Baroque design. Plantin s grandson. the Elzevirs of Leiden. by the same token. Bishop John Fell purchased Dutch punches and mats. Type for these books was cut by Christo“el van Dijck of Amsterdam. Rubens himself gave some clue to his evaluation of the importance of work he did for the Plantin rm by restricting it to Sundays. producing signatures of twelve leaves each) were a specialty of another publishing dynasty. This became the major formative in- uence on the English typographic tradition. twelves. Some of Van Dijck s types were also used by the presses of Oxford and Cambridge Universities. when Bonaventura Elzevir con­ trolled the rm. the pro­ duction budget is allocated accordingly. The business he founded in 1583 was engaged in publishing only. and for it. one of the greatest seventeenth-century punchcutters. as if it were a hobby. but the bulk of his superb work was eventually lost. because they could be printed twelve pages at a time. de­ signers of trade books are often told by publishers that the jacket is more important than the text. in 1672. his foundry was bought by the Amsterdam branch of the Elzevir family. with en­ graved title pages. These books are about 4'Tnches ( n cm) tall. Smaller books (known as duodecimos. The merchandising of big books and of little books was in this respect the same.

ïÔ2j. """"":" !“^ ' ' .•'. Leiden.:.•• .’ :!.:»''•" '•". -M M Æ .. H endrik Goltzius. Intaglio T h e popularity of intaglio illustrations had considerable e“ect on the economics of E uropean publishing and on the visual texture of the European book. It includes Rubens.. sive Status regni Poloniae. and some executed their own plates. Unfortunately.4"" '" “*'■■■*--***^*'■ fr 6. It foreshadowed in . •" . Rembrandt. •. Romeyn de Hooghe. CHAPTER Vï :0 tL^rfA^ f eu.?. Si ««mvî ^ Sî#«ïrt^ ■»fefciW^V.7 Respublica.^ 'Wit vitïftÿÿi»siiiy «<■. there are too few examples from the m ost gifted.. Anthony Van Dyck.. VÆclav Holar and Crispijn van de Passe. '.• V-.. b u t the list of artists is im ­ pressive.V. Elzevir.-. M any great seventeenth-century painters and draftsm en made designs for the engravers and etchers o f the tim e.:'=■'_■'■■■ ?y- **?&*&» f J: •• m- •■ ‘t**'*#»*«'^*££##5^ • «$*1**«*• te &w*9* Vmkd#»tt* W^ws ■’ttàtb Itofiâttttl'mfe' ■ . Jacques Cahot.■:'"$:. Poussin. T h e in uence of the intaglio method on printing goes far be­ yond its employment by etchers and engravers.

A Short H isto ry of the Printed Word ABCDEFGHIKLMNOPQJR.an and italic. and then the surface of the plate is wiped clean. The paper has to be driven into the lines to lift out the ink. Veniat regnum tuum :fiat voluntas tua. ita etiam in terra. areas below tire surface. E t remitte nobis de- 6. S T V U W X Y Z ABCDEFGHIK- Ater nofter qui es in cœlis. .8 Fell types. its original uses the eventual development of rotogravure. as used in the engraving sense. a print­ ing method that was to allow the use of a fine screen in the fast and Intaglio. Veniat regnum tuum : fiat voluntas tua. or tones.ficut in cœh.ficut in coelo. The press is so constructed that it delivers a rolling pressure similar to the action of a clothes wringer. Panem no- ftrum quotidianum da nobis hodie. ita etiam in terra. Ink is forced into the engraved lines. Fanemnoftrum quotidia­ numda nobis hodie. rom. ian- P étificetur nomen tuum. iA A B C D E F G H I J K L lM M NO T > §£ST P T T W X rZ ^£Æ ^T^Ater nofter qui es in cœlis. fanBifi* cetur nomentuum. describes any printmak­ ing process by which ink is transferred to paper from.

A beautiful example of an engraved plate. which allows the work to be turned into the stroke and provides sufficient friction to keep it from sliding. positioned between the upper roller and the paper and plate on the bed. worth con­ sidering each in turn. all affect the way the plate will hold the ink and deliver it to the paper. There are several methods of preparing intaglio plates. The depth and width of tire line. sharpened at the end and set into a handle that allows thrust to be given through the palm of the hand rather than through the fingers. forged and finished steel tool. In intaglio printing. acts as the makeready. or drypoint. translated from a T33 . and the shape and location of the bur that is raised in engraving the line. The Method (fEngraving An engraving. ink deposits can be of different depdrs in different parts of the printing surface. a self-adjusting overlay. A felt blanket.c H A P T e r v i * The S e v e n te e n th C e n tu ry The press consists of a bed that travels between two steel rollers. sand-filled pad. The engraver’s plate is held against a leather. consists of lines made with a shaped.

134 . published by the Imprimerie Royale in 1642.10 Title page by Poussin. drawing. and the plate engraved by the distinguished French por­ trait engraver Claude Mellan. A Short History of the Printed Word 6. Engraved by Claude Mettan. Paris. 1642. The drawing was made by Nicolas Poussin. is the title page of Horaces Opera.

an acid-resisting ground consisting of wax. The surface of the plate is then smoked with lampblack.6 . T he plate. mastic and asphaltum or amber a grounding roller. zinc or steel. using a wax taper. a scraper and burnisher to erase and polish the surface of the plate.i i Etched illustrations hy Rembrandt van Rijn. This provides a background against which the bright metal shows as the needle draws through the wax. 1655. and stopping- out varnish. must be evenly heated before the acid-resisting ground can he rolled on. I 35 . The Method of Etching The principal etching tools are a steel needle. which is of copper. pointed and pencil-like in size.

W hen the lightest lines have sufficient depth. can begin before the drawing is complete. The plate is put in the acid bath again. the darkest lines are drawn first and the lightest portions last. or etched. A Short History of the Printed Word 6. so that the latter are least exposed to the acid. There are several ways to etch a plate. the design can be drawn in its entirety. 136 . In this event. Now the next-to-the•'Ughtest lines determine the timing. by exposing it to acid. the plate is removed and the light sections painted over with stopping-out varnish. This is contin­ ued until the work is fully bitten. The biting of the plate. then the plate put in the acid bath for its initial biting. As an alternative.12 Etching by Rembrandt remade as a linecut.

are inher­ ently tonal. Two other intaglio methods . it can be worked back with burnishers and scrapers. the metal will hold ink and print in tones. the sections of the design that are to be light in tone are painted in.aquatint and mezzotint . a technique that involves working the plate with serrated metal rollers {roulettes) and tooth-studded rockers so that the surface metal is roughened. It is possible to combine an etched line with the use of aquatint. Thus treated. as in regular etching. which is then heated to cause die grains of resin to adhere. and to some extent on manipulation in the inking process. and the sec­ tions that are not so light are bitten. 1665). Ludwig von Siegen invented mezzotint. Aquatint and Mezzotint The tonal effects obtained in engraving and etching are depen­ dent on the proximity of the lines to one another. are among his few illustra­ tions specially made for books. Etching is the intaglio method used by Rembrandt. Aquatint is a form of etching in which resin is floated onto the plate by means of a solvent. In 1641. whose val­ ues are dependent on the closeness and the depth of these abra­ sions. and he car­ ried it to extraordinary heights. to restore 137 . This process is repeated. The plate is put in the acid bath. or is dusted onto the plate. This was Goya’s method. The etchings he made late in his life for La Piedra gloriosa. Their size and closeness depend on the length of time they have been etched. o De la estatua de Nebuchadnesar. until only the darkest portions are left for the final biting. Once the surface of the plate has been prepared to hold the ink. as slightly irregular but relatively uniform black dots. on the weight of die lines. W ith brush and stop­ ping-out varnish. by Samuel Manasseh ben Israel (Amsterdam. which appear on the final print. The resin ground allows die add to attack the plate in uni­ formly separated spots.

Mezzotint became a favored method for reproducing por~ traits. When both are involved in the same book. Joshua Reynolds. The fact that the entire plate acts as a bearing surface makes for a deli- 138 . steel was often used instead of copper for intaglio printing. To achieve longer printing runs. Intaglio printing is a wholly di“erent concept of impression from relief (letterpress) printing. for exam­ ple. is based on a painted portrait by Doughty s teacher. À Short History of the Printed Word 6. En­ graving requires sti“er inks and greater pressures than relief. any degree of smoothness and lightness desired. William Doughty s mezzotint of Samuel Johnson.13 A qu atin t by Francisco Goya. separate presses as well as press runs are required.

It was probably Callot who developed the hard varnish ground and instituted the practice of successive biting. But this virtue can be compromised by the di culty of transferring the ink completely and cleanly from the surface of the pla te.C H A P T E R VI The Seventeenth Century 6.14 M ezzo tin t by W illiam Doughty after Joshua Reynolds. Such a volume is his Lux claustri of I 39 . a French engraver and etcher who received his early training in Italy. Perhaps the most in uential as well as proli c of the seven­ teenth-century illustrators was Jacques Callot. While most of his prints were sold in­ dependently or as collections of etchings with engraved titles or captions. he did several books with illustrations in intaglio. the text being printed by letterpress. eacy of line that is the hallmark of engraving.

G if 6. ■m m I I I * pmdem lârdmier en emondam fort snteÿ ■. D û ietme infeneur rctïen Vhntnmr ardente*. Illustrationfor Lux ckustri. 1646. 1646.. as it sur­ vived. piimvïpns obsta vKfeÊk'. m j i i i ad tdta g a ti.Caliots simple and open style appears to return to the typographically inspired woodcut illustrations of the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries for its sources.. The tendency of most artists and craftsmen had been the opposite: woodcutting.'à'ii'mal à fôncomme:hfccmeiit. Paris.15 Jacques Callot. <pMlhy refehappe. had attempted to imitate engraving.ff| rameaüXjdr^Ie dvh Art ■. 140 . & * m tU yu ed g a ritu r.. ' D irig e du/& teneris m r m fd t frc rtd jfa s n& er.. À Short History of the Printed Word m.

was actually a translation of news bulletins issued in German and Dutch. News sheets in English and other languages were printed in the Netherlands as well. is older than movable type and existed in China long before it did in Europe. As the seventeenth century was a time of strict censorship in England. increased literacy. In 1656 the Weeckelycke Courante van Europa was begun. It continued as a weekly for forty'' years. English journalism thrived more in the Netherlands than at home. The Dutch had their own press from 1618. it is the oldest paper in the Netherlands. adherents of nonconformist churches. It ran for six issues in 1621 . like the printed book.c h . Renamed Haarlems Dagblad in 1883. It was appearing at regular intervals by the early Song Dynasty (late tenth century) and per­ sisted. the country also enjoyed unusual opportuni­ ties for gathering news from abroad. Because of its maritime position. the Thirty Years’ War caused an expansion of news sheets from single pages printed on both sides to issues as large as eight pages. Duytslandt started publication. published both at Augsburg and at Strasbourg in 1609. when the Courante uyt Italien. the first such effort in England. philosophers. and for journalists from all the nearby realms. Nathaniel Butter’s Corante. The Dibao or “Capital Gazette” began irregular publication in the late Tang Dynasty (ninth century a d ) . . with occasional changes of name. and a phe­ nomenal period of distinction in the arts and in scholarship were reflected in the growth of the Dutch press. prosperity. until 1912. The hrst European newspaper was Avisa Relation oder Zeitung. After 1620.earlier by two years than the First Folio edition of the plays of Shakespeare. Industrial. After successfully expelling the Spanish at the begin­ ning of the century.Ap T e r v i ® T h e S e v e n te e n th C e n tu r y The First Newspapers The printed newspaper. Holland became an independent state and a haven for merchants.

and a weekly. after a lifespan of five months.5. was begun. the Mercure de France. ^nalrft»3##*##v 6. and though a weekly was published in Frankfurt as early as 161. was superseded by tire Gazette. France had an annual news bulletin. !®&/@|>mmfGr7?it&cri3n$eStogdlanfot/$nw& / Cffemi#/ ©#resfetitikks/ SîiiîPin«fienpfetHf^vin£^:fôin& SefOtiïHWfff» 0 $ &«nshannon!an$îtc«tgfc. as early as 1605. The Gazette continued for more than 150 years as the official source of news and comment. The Nouvelles ordi­ naires. Though Germany was home to the first European newspaper of regular publication. In 1631. A Short History of the Printed Word Avfifa L Relation ^ a 6 f t i 0 c0 eectt» » t> |?ig$ragen got/ teQflafôifm tâfelfô’'. The Mercure was taken over by Cardinal Richelieu after he became advisor to Marie de Médicis. 1609. Nouvelles ordinaires de divers endroits. published by the Icing’s doctor under a special privilege granted by Richelieu.16 Avisa Relation oder Zeitung. Germany’s 142 . the Avisa Relation oder Zeitung.

. After the English Civil War and the execution of the king in ■1649. Charles II put a royalist cav- . 6... power-conscious rulers preferred to allow Dutch papers into their domains rather than permit a native free press..*frf :m ‘ s^ss^M ÿSÊ m m p B L .17 N athaniel B u tter s C orante o f 1621.:■im : m &iiifw <^tiw tM W '. .. " ...»«<«*fl»»*i><WMi«MiiiiitM . and.\^**t»'^i*K j&Wrt&s^yaoito#^ . repressive taxation.: :'....=.. censorship by law... u#e VMttMf ”y ^ W W f c |wï 11* ^ *a*i.**& *:-■:. not least. 1-V IV:. licensing both to restrict and to grant the right of publication.. ■ ^ A' ^ : ^ O h ^ iK ^ ÿ f : .l frffiftrfr‘y■■HH^ÜîTWtï^*faS«.:._ . «**■ b><-»nuèf» fe* »*»-■**...:r:-l& ?■}<:ï'-tT-'i:::-". W ith the restoration of the monarchy in 1660. I»n>. iâ^:& m & '. . ' :M #i*ÿft-5VV:*■*♦«*#***« wta&w«k-v**&**¥.'*t> tf *k>.royal decree.::3'W w«!aSi&&*^ •.. . In England in 1629..f r i >in-.:^ifi!^î^-^ . Charles I ex­ pressed his royal will by dissolving Parliament and suppressing all news sheets. .. A common pattern appears in the means of suppression . Oliver Cromwell promulgated press-control measures as re­ pressive as those of the monarchs who preceded him. $&._ .?£*£jfctttow&r W^#i^wi»çt* 'r&vfi ^'^4«éVivjF - • &&&*». ..

16zo.18 An English news sheet issued in the Netherlands. Roger L’Estrange. was kept from doing so by his rival. who was to have shared the right to print news. 6. die king’s licenser. It was printed on both sides and was called the Oxford Gazette. and the result was L’Estr anges own Publick Intelligencer of 1663. the Oxford Gazette went widi it. becoming and remaining the London Gazette.4tt. W hen the court returned to London. semiweekly paper. 144 . in charge of licensing. But the great London plague of 1665 forced the court to move to Oxford. A Short History of the Printed Word . airy officer. Henry Muddi- man. There the king himself felt the lack of printed news and so allowed Muddiman to publish a single sheet.

.. ..f'SfefSîï** .ÿ' w w»w>4w 1> 4*< ^.^V lÉ à^îjV f r ! S ^ .jVj t««y£«{s?*..ï®^ •?ÎSs**.^i.. ■ ’ ■**«(»'Sj !i s ... î.■•.-. this task was assumed by pro­ fessional letter-writers . ü k ^ Tft^*.*.....™.. In some instances..™:.. as wre call them now .in various world centers..... It was too easy to lose one’s equipment..hft'iîJ-P^^M«vî»V*.fh*' ..»4jïr-••^' tj= firt V-y^i. One means of news dissemi nation in the colonies was the corre­ spondence of merchants and leaders with their friends both abroad and in the colonies.4 a^i:>. for many to risk the displeasure of royal governors... %ÆtK/RTl£%»t-..süssîsw^ ^ ^ îs- i.:f*'=....i v*#? A * fw ! t ' ^'J s ‘^ i4. -A.ï'^ ^ A e^ A .•^.../W? r... The London Gazette »»**»•«*■**?r.... •*.^r«r >'ir"iJM ^{.....: £&&** »» -jst^ i k 'sk «5wr-* JjyjSMft5î^ •"- VSMjS'i MÏ*'»*(■*»> * ww *w«jïifr/ÿ- : WNf*■*&:&<$*«■* : ..éV*>***.g«M erAr..'% r'-*? «irfhi-iw '«*:® HiS *-...«.:■'.... X tvm * * <$&**'*>&.. * _ = .. Wl-i ^ KJr^s? -. rTfo... kxv«: «v0rW W’-...... A second means of communication I . Vvi^flew^Lt # ^.W '■ï..*• #wt? *•fe'ov S**« w..„ ... •***#*&<>!&? S ^rtTs^ ^ i ü i â| ^ S i ^ '%i«Kk-*&>!} >?«ifcJAÆ?:7riftüiy 6.™ s:i *?*>-Vfri . ** ï ÇÏaV &ïsfc?a5^ ..’?}/***( *w-ud >■wW r **■KV^ jiM **<s>** « .x* •y&K i Wid.'4r^' yj.. ■..:té:. !w.*S„. : v+tf'ia* eï feâto-...'s*a*•• rt*v...V' :.. -**ï. VSÈ i f a x f K ^ f t yifYê•^ fi>vsfcïiîw. 4k...... •.Pktàii■)(($:... 'fi* st fclîiî?i5t4kvV SfM Æ if*'itfS *jVl!•■*^i'fW. if W FWs'fystf! W**'< #**£*>^ s-^ i*‘»? sf***» ïVtrw fc*..**...foreign correspondents.... ...>^v.. H 4b ? # ^ l r î I I^ | lÉ rKwat**.... *. /*&ri*^rjJW «ft*î** t* #* r*«*s-^z. ** sêc . ... 4*$«jvfc.v ...WFgrç*-•?•*•■*«rnttw^-îte•$*** i âMrlfoitaM'.. 1665..sfes.' VA'?fc>iv?^ûtï#f4..«f...wis.. ' JttAVJfaiw..t 3 :ig:g.. •.......• «*. '•• ...«'» rïi-*b‘If^ ÎMks*8*.V'V/ t tito-tM-t.^ftv:ijj.ifoH:»..= . «« iiviîi^....ï|. let alone to incur a fine and a prison term.^%... Newspapers in the American Colonies T he dimate of censorship was little different in England’s American colonies than in the mother country.Wi tty x ? ..........19 The London Gazette.!..: ï^ïsîïîi™* ?î.

6 . 6 x 9V2 inches (15 x 24 cm) when folded. 1 6 9 0 . It was small in format. when Publick Occurrences Both Forreign and Domestick was published in Boston by Benjamin Harris. A Short History of the Printed Word p m tra its O C e U R E E N Ç Î I S : .X*r4M p* p-afutlst'k. W hen demand was sufficient. The first American newspaper was not attempted until Septem­ ber 1690. '■ W* VtwB^ . existed in the importation of packets of newspapers for the cus­ tomers of coffeehouses and taverns.*#C\ . The third page was left blank in case the purchaser wished to write 146 . ' i . long accepted as centers of news distribution and the informal conduct of business. The official London Gazette was especially favored for such American circula­ tion. issues of the Gazette vrere re­ printed in the colonies. *•* f **.2 0 H /z m W P u b lic k O c c u r re n c e s . and consisted of four pages.

ruled by 147 . and of Pascal and La Fontaine. near l i t die border with Luxembourg. The Imprimerie Royale or Typographia Regia was established in 1640 for Louis XIII at the suggestion of Cardinal Richelieu. a folio volume set in types by several hands. four days after its first issue. Racine.” The Imprimerie Royale and the Académie de Sedan The seventeenth century was a time of very substantial Euro­ pean predation abroad. Corneille. Jannon was born in 1580 to a family of LIuguenots . with a warning to Harris and all others that it was forbidden for “any per­ son or persons to set forth anything in Print without License first obtained. The books of the Imprimerie Royale are among the best examples. He established himself in Paris as an independent printer in 1608 and began to publish books in 1609. Milton and Dryden.a family. in other words. c h a p T e r vi * The Seventeenth C entury in a news bulletin before passing it on. Modest as it was. For the second publication. Its first publication was De Imitations Christy completed in 1642. including Garamond’s. it was nonetheless a period of considerable literary achievement: the time of Shakespeare and Donne. Harris’s pa­ per aroused the “high resentment” of the Governor and Council of Massachusetts. France. but in 1610 it was still an independent principality. and the type was Jean Jannon’s caractères de TUniversité. Sedan has been a part of '. he accepted an invitation to move to Sedan. Since 1642. Quevedo and Calderon. In the following year. the most luxurious editions of books were institu­ tional publications. of Molière. of Lope de Vega. At home. Amid this wealth of literary genius. It was suppressed. but issued with the au­ thority of church or state. as well as tight control over opinion and in­ formation. a work by the Cardinal himself was chosen. often textually barren. that openly professed the anti “authoritarian doctrines of the French Reformed Church and was therefore at odds with the Roman Catholic government.

Hæc ■If verba Chnfti. non d n$S\'o'dmbul. T he letters Jannon cut in defense of his own faith were then used by the Imprimerie Royale 148 . There. !% $$$$ dicic Dominus. His punches and his mat­ rices were seized and soon found their way to the Imprimerie Royale. a university where Huguenot views were freely taught. he printed and cut type. producing faces that embody with great vividness the spirit of the French Baroque. IMITATIONE CHRISTI LIBER PRIMVS. Jannon no doubt protested. Admomtiones ad fpkkqabra mats vxiles. over the next thirty years.at in tencbris . Jannon returned to Paris. Paris. a French-speaking Calvinist prince.. In 1640. C A PVT I De trnmmne Ckri$h& emtemft» omnium ntamtatum mundi I leqmtur me.qui' bus admonemur »quatenus vitam 6. and an invoice seems to show that payment for the type was then arranged. and in 1641 his establishment was raided by agents of the government.. Jannon became the planter to the Académie de Sedan.21 Thefirst publication of the Imprimerie Royale.. A Short History of the Printed Word 23 £ .

c a r - 6. the type remained in storage. Look up “Garamond” in a font catalog now and you will almost always find more type based on the work of Jean Jannon and Robert Gran] on than on the work of Garamond. ef- coute l’inftruétion de ton pere. Copies and parodies of Jannon’s work have been cavalierly sold under Garamond’s name ever since.. it was erroneously credited to Garamond. 149 . Nevertheless. Jannon’s letters are as different from Garamond’s as the poetry of Milton is from that of Michelangelo. C a r i l s f e r o n t g r a c e s e n f l e e s e n fe m b le à to n c h e f.22 Roman type cut at Sedan by Jean Jannon. ITALIQVE GROS CANON. Principaux points de la foi.c Ra pt er v i * The Seventeenth Century fols mefprifent fapiéce & c inftruâion. when Jan­ non’s type was revived in the early years of the twentieth century. For two and a half centuries there­ after. ne delaifFe point & c lenfeignemet de ta mere. Mon fils. to print Cardinal Richelieu’s restatement of essential Catholic doc­ trine.

A Short History of the Printed Word

The King's Roman

In 1692, a committee was struck by the French Academy of
Science to set standards for ail the crafts. The committee included
no skilled craftsmen and clearly saw its task in an academic light. It
elected to begin by setting standards for typography, as “the craft
that conserves all others.”
Among the members was Jacques Jaugeon, a maker of educa­
tional board games. By 1695 he had produced, in consultation with
his colleagues, a design for what he saw as the perfect typeface. Each
letter was constructed on a grid containing 2,304 small squares.
Trapezoidal grids were used for the sloped roman, which Jaugeon
proposed as an alternative to italic. These designs were understood
to have a value of their own, and an engraver, Louis Simonneau, was
commissioned to reproduce them. It was also then agreed that a
type should be cut from these designs for the Imprimerie Royale,
and Philippe Grandjean de Pouchy was commissioned to cut the
punches.
Jaugeon’s alphabet was, from its beginning, a rationalized, not
an organic, concept. It is drawn rather than written, and it exem­
plifies the influence engraving was exerting on typography and il­
lustration. The letters have a perfectly vertical axis with perfectly
horizontal, symmetrical serifs. They preserve no more than a faint
memory of the humanistic forms of Renaissance calligraphy or of
classical inscriptions. Grandjean, however, followed his own in­
stincts as well as the academicians’ patterns and designed from
scratch a new italic. The result was the first Neoclassical type,
known as the King’s Roman: the romain du roi Louis X IV It. first ap­
peared in an imposing publication, Médailles sur les événements du
règne de Louis-le-Grand> completed in 1702.
Most writing books of the time were also engraved. Jan van den
Velde’s Thresor literaire (Rotterdam, 1605) and Francesco Pisani’s
Tratteggiato dapenna (Genova, 1640) are examples. The penworkin

1 50

6.23 A plate by Simonneaufor the rom ain du roi.

both books is flamboyant and excessively embellished. It shows the
use of a pointed pen responding to pressures that will produce con­
trolled hairlines and abrupt swells, and it foreshadows the calligra­
phy of the coming century. More and more, writing imitated
printing, not the other way around.

151

A Short History of the Printed Word

6.24 Pagefrom Francesco PisanVs Tratteggiato da penna. 1640.

The State of the Craft in the Seventeenth Century
There was little development, meanwhile, in the mechanics of
printing. Presses continued to be made of wood. About 1620,
Willem Blaeu of Amsterdam improved the connection of the platen
and the screw by introducing a spring and suspending the platen,
and Joseph Moxon’s Mechanick Exercises (London, 1683) shows that
some presses of the time were equipped with crank-operated travel­
ing carriages.
Moxon’s book itself was as much of an advance as the machinery
it describes. The author was an instrument-maker and printer who
added typefounding to his enterprises in 1659. His type specimen
sheet was the first issued in England, and his was the first English
book on the crafts of printing and founding. It is a volume still
widely read and treasured by letterpress printers.

152

Literature and Printing in North America
Printing in Native American languages began in Mexico in 1614,
but the language thus honored -Tim ucua, then spoken in northern
Florida - has not been permitted to survive, and the text thus pre­
served is not a Native American text; it is a catechism translated into
Timucua by the missionary Francisco Pareja. Substantial works of
Native American oral literature were transcribed into manuscript
as early as 1550, but very little of this work was printed for another
three centuries. Early ventures in this direction include the eight
volumes of Daniel Brin ton’s Library of Aboriginal American Litera-

6.25 Handpress fro m M oxon’s M ech anick Exercises. 168y

153

A Short History of the Printed Word

ïô'e ë'Xat iir&'Xakj ’Errmoa, ôcô'kuil uyâ'Xa. Ëwft' që'xteë
There one their chief, & woman Me daughter* Tbcg Intending
was
2 aqêxEmElâ'luX.
they wanted to buy
Hakcfc
Hot
atso'tx,
he gave her
A 'lta
How
atcLuqoiV'na it
be put down
im dlak
etk
her, away.
3 Lia'ateam
its antlers;
: “ Ma'nix La'ksta tcj ex Lkn&'xO Lik i^E'tcam, Lgucg&'ma
*• When who break he will do it these antlers, be shall take her
4 Ogu'Xa.”
my daoghter."
A 'lta
Now
aqô'xôqfcc
they were invited
tê'ÏXEm,
the people,
tft'nëwatike
first
Oxôwâ'yôl.
the walkers.
Ka'nauwë aqë'xôqtc. Â'tElaxtiko ktgE'kal. Ka'oauwê 2 aqô'xôqtc
5 All they were ra- Ttwn they the fliers, All they were In­
vited. vited
6 ktgE'kal.
the fliers.
TakE aqft'lXam ôta lEmô'ëkXau. “ Mft'nôwa ta; ex
Then she was told the snail. “ Yon first break
7 LE'xa!” Nô'ya OtaÎEraë'nkXau. Që'xteë akLO'cgain. Këkcfc ta; Ex
d o itl" She went the snail. Intending ebo took it. Hot break

8 aLE'xax.
it did.
Aqiô'IXam ikjâ'ôtEüî ((Â'mElaxta te; ex u s'x a!”
He was told squirrel: “ Yon neat break do it!-’

9 A'lta te; ex atei'nax ik; â'ôtEn cka niEnK aLXElE'l. Aqiô'IXam
How break be did it squirrel and a little it moved. He was told
ënanft'muka : “Â'raEÎaxta te; ex LE'xa!” Â'yunx ênanâ'mafcs.
10 the otter; “ You n est break doit!*' He went to the the otter.
middle of the house

n NaxLô'lExa-it
She thought
kaX {Po'kuiî: “Â, qô iâ'xka te;Ex tclEtx P
that woman: "1, witt ho break he does i t / '
Q i«t
Love

6.26 Excerpt from C h in ook Texts. N ative American oral literature dictated
by Q llti; transcribed and translated by Franz Boas. Washington, D C , 1894.

ture, published at Philadelphia between 1882 and 1890, and Émile
Petitot’s Traditions indiennes du Canada nord-ouest, published at
Alençon, France, in 1888.
Book-length editions of Native American texts by single Native
American authors begin with the Chinook Texts of Q ’iltf (Charles
Cultee), transcribed and edited by Franz Boas, published by the
Bureau of American Ethnology, Washington, D C , in 1894, with
Boas’s English translation. The Bureau and several other entities,
such as die American Ethnological Society, published such texts for
more than sixty years, but because of the complexity of the writing
systems used at that time for Native American languages, these
books were usually sent to the Netherlands or France to be typeset
and printed. Though these books are products of the late nine­
teenth and early twentieth centuries, they represent literary cul­
tures that were healthier in the sixteenth and the seventeenth.

4

c h a p T' e R v i * The Seventeenth Century

I t w a s n o t f r o m l a c k o f p r i n t e r s , a n y m o r e t h a n la c k o f w o r k s t o
p r i n t , t h a t n o N a t iv e A m e r ic a n te x ts w e r e p u b l is h e d u n t i l la te in t h e
ï 8 o o s . L 1 1 6 3 8 , S t e p h e n D a y , w h o h a d j u s t a r r iv e d f r o m E n g la n d ,

s e t u p h is p r e s s a t C a m b r i d g e , M a s s a c h u s e tts . H i s Bay Psalm Book
w a s p u b lis h e d in 1 6 4 0 . I n 1639, h e p r i n t e d The Oath ofa Free Alan,
t h o u g h n o c o p y o f i t h a s s u rv iv e d . D a y ’s p r e s s c o n tin u e d u n t il n e a r
t h e c lo s e o f th e c e n tu r y . A f te r 1 6 4 9 i t w as o p e r a te d b y S a m u e l
G r e e n , w h o , w ith M a r m a d u k e J o h n s o n , p r in t e d th e f ir s t fo il tr a n s ­
la tio n o f th e B ib le i n to a N a tiv e A m e ric a n la n g u a g e , in 1663. T h e
la n g u a g e w as M a s s a c h u s e tt, f o r m e r ly s p o k e n in e a s te rn M a s s a c h u ­
s e tts a n d N e w H a m p s h ir e - b u t it, lik e T im u c u a , w as d riv e n all to o
q u ic k ly to e x tin c tio n .

MKr æ»
r «* (3 g M A At V S S E
i>®8
bo*
l4 j W H O L E W U N N E E T U P A N A T a MWE iHs>
r ^BOOKEOFPSALMBS
FiitbfuB} - ,r J
§| U P~B I B L U M G O D f
h ik TRANSLATED me ENGLISH rÀ f* • NAN'EESWE
xJHetre.
>* .
! NUKKONE TESTAM ENT g
J Whereunto ii prefixed* difeoarfede- - j l ;
i
'idârint* notoalv the Uwfullnes* but#lfo<?5k2 RAH W O N E
W U SK U TESTA M ENT-
God.

cw/. m. pxj
^ ^ Letiit**rdefG edbeetfU xtm flyi* Ne <^ao&kinaan>ui nafiipc Wnttioaeomob ££FRI$Y
nob ifwwdit
.■:>"’V-» **f <mf **ether»« P/Wwf/,ro**<l, *nd
« the Lerdmtb JO H N ELIOT-
e j t £rM*imj*'r%t*nu
eNi Idmet v , - j,;.,
rA>* ' **j heefpicted, let Urn fram ed if r j t l
« 7 hemerrj I» 1 CA MB R I DGE . -
C'“
Prioceuojp safbpe Summi Gran kith M*rmedtdtf fttmfn,
i <r s 5.

m m m r c fm m m m m m m m ttf
6.2 7 Bay P salm B ook. Ca?nbridge, Massachusetts, 1640.
6.28 First Bible in a N ative Am erican language {Massachusett) . 1663.

155

All governments regarded the press as a threat and feared popul ar involvement in affairs of state. and I hope we shall not have these three hundredyears. Sir William Berkeley: But I thank God we have notfree schools nor printing. The logic of the ruling point of view is lucidly expressed in the 1671 report of Virginia’s colonial governor. For lemming has brought disobedience and heresy and sects into the world. A more constructive and forward-looking form of state inter­ vention in publishing came in 1699. A Short History of th e Printed Word “And Printing Has Divulged Them ” In the second half of the seventeenth century. and in 1682 and 1685 printing was in­ troduced in Virginia and Pennsylvania by William Nuthead and William Bradford. In 1693. Restrictive English laws over printing are reflected in the mea­ ger number of these presses. ordered that two copies of each book printed within his principality be submitted free of charge for deposit in the state library. Some of the great English cities were also denied licenses. and it continued to be so even after the relaxed conditions that followed the Declaration of Rights and the subsequent lapsing of the iicens- in g laws. François I of France had issued a similar order in 1538. since Bradford had differences with the local authorities. 156 . he moved to New York and established the first press there. oth er print shops were established in the N orth American colonies. when Frederick III. T heir partnership was brief. Nuthead moved to Maryland in 1686. Elector of Brandenburg. To be a printer was a dangerous calling. Bradford continued in Philadelphia. and in 1690 he joined with Mennonite Bishop William Rittinghausen in establishing at nearby Roxbor- ough the first American paper mill. but it applied to Greek hooks only. John Foster set up a press in Boston in 1675. and printing has divulged them and libels against the government.

Clin PIERRE LF MONNtER.29 Title pages for Molière ( 2 6 7 / ) and Racine (:i6ÿi). Molière’s Bourgeois gentilhomme was printed in 1671 by Pierre le Monnier. rue faimJacques.Ttf U Porte tie I'Eghfc de U $a*me Chapelle. Tirée de l'Ecriture fatnte. *57 . AVEC PRIVILEGE D V ROT. Chez D e my s THi Ei ur . à ia vifie de Paris. M.& au f e « D iv in . DC. g t f i “v tn d f i » r f jtu tk e m r A PARI S» A P ARI S . Racine’s Athalie. P . c h a pT ER v i * The Seventeenth Century B O V R G EO IS L E ATHALIE GENTILHOMME. DC. Both were published in Paris. TRAGEDIE CO M E D J E . LXXt. p o u r îc D i v e r t i H e m e n c d u R o y » Par J B . As final examples of seventeenth-century printing. was produced by Denys Thierry.S A L E T . They both exemplify the French style of handling contemporary work and the literary genius flourishing at the time. M. M O L I E R E . 6.ii*fi. two title pages are shown. dated twenty years later.L o u tj . X C I- A r e c r u r i n e z &r %j>T. F. a l'Image S .vM-i. F A I T E ‘h C H A M B O IV T .

The new face met with admiration. After Grand] ean’s death in 1714. the work was continued by jean Alexandre and his son-in-law Louis-René Luce. this process of withdrawal has never entirely ceased. W hen printing types cut themselves adrift from the physical vigor of actual writing. CHAPTER VII The Eighteenth Century h ilip p e began cutting the King’s Roman. The full set of eighty-two fonts was not completed until 1745. It succeeds. in a gentle way. and has a strong horizontal and vertical reach. in the sixteenth century. in 1698. like 158 . the page changes as well. the g ra n d je a n P romain du roi. Printing formats also slip away from the age-old heritage of manuscripts. Typographic Rationalism T he folio volume of 1702 celebrating the medals of Louis XIV was intended to look monumental. The romain dît roi marks a significant new stage in the long process of typographic withdrawal from the heritage of calligraphy. but to ride this wave of popu­ larity. printers and founders had to skirt the laws decreeing heavy penalties for copying or selling the royal designs. mechanical perfection both in form and fitting. The letters themselves. This process began. and in spite of a vigorous return to calligraphic roots in the type designs of the early twentieth century. The page is full of clarity. accel­ erated slowly in the seventeenth.

The ser­ ifs are thin and abrupt.A Short History of the Printed Word 7. 1. This is the first type ever cut with bilateral serifs on top of the stems of lowercase b. j. the pages they compose. i. 7702. are addicted to symmetry. more evocative of drypoint engraving than of any kind of writing. and they cling to the vertical and horizontal lines of their imaginary grid. All previous T59 . h.1 Title page. d. M édailles. k.

T he rationalist axis and the level serif are two features typical of the many Neoclassical roman types designed and cut in Europe in the course of die eighteenth century. c. A Short H i s to r y of the Printed Word Enfin il marcha vers Condé. C O N D À T U M ET M a L B O D I U M CAPTA. q . 2j d’Aoufl. axis means the dark strokes run north-south. the axis of all roman types cut prior to this is predominantly humanist. these features can he found in letters written by engravers before this type was cut. are lightness of color and delicacy of touch. They were transferred from engraving to typography . g. il abandonna Ce Campagne. straight up and down. This is also the first type in which the eyes or bowls of all the low­ ercase letters . d. & cette entreprife n ayant efté faîte que pour ou pour les attirer à un combat.the round forms in h.have a verti­ cal axis. romans and italics have unilateral serifs in these locations. e. All. o. 160 . 1702. À rationalist.dirough the designs of Jacques Jaugeon.2 Romain du roi as rendered by Grand]can. il fit faire un logement fur la contrefcarpe mefme.conveyed from the realm of pictures to the realm of text . reflect­ ing how the hand normally moves when such letters are written. but the axis of this one is rationalist instead. p. 7. equally typical. 1 6 4 p . le Gouverneur fe rendit à la fe Comte demeura aux environs de cette Place jufq bre. & prit Maubeuge en revenant. M C a n d i à r d e M a u b cu g e. Two other features. on the natural angle of a pen held in die hand of a righthanded scribe. A humanist axis in a letterform means that the darker strokes rim northwest-southeast. To put it another way. & ayant pris d abord canid.

c h a p T e r v il * The Eighteenth Century 7 . the style 161 . Renaissance form s have a consistently h u m a n i s t axis. through Alcuin of York. the Nether­ lands. a lack of patronage. for two and a half cen­ turies after Gutenberg. Baroque form s a varying but still predominantly humanist axis. had shared in the development of the all-important Caroline script. Louis Luce. such a record is hard to account for. the last of the three punchcutters to work on the rom ain chi roi . Switzerland and France. though. Spain. English printing and founding lagged substantially behind their counterparts in Italy. Given that the English had pro­ duced fine manuscripts and. In the eighteenth century. Baroque. On the whole. Neoclassicalform s a r a t i o n a l i s t axis. and Romantic form s an exaggerated and dramatized rationalist axis. It was then the narrowest roman ever cut in France. however. In 1773. William Caslon There are handsome examples of English printing from the late sixteenth century. This explains the name he gave these fonts: Poétiques. the year -a of Luce’s death. Neoclassical and Romantic roman letterforms. Luce’s orna­ ments have seen much more use than his type. and Luce was proud not only of its delicacy and simplicity but of its practical advantages in setting the long (twelve-syllable) lines of French alexandrine verse. There. devoted the last thirty years of his life to cutting a Neoclassical face of his own. The climate of the seventeenth century pro­ vides some explanations: civil war.3 Renaissance. an abun­ dance of oppressive regulations. his type and ornaments were purchased by the crown for the Imprimerie Royale. in a full range of sizes.

nihil ur- bis vigiliæ. and it is no surprise that William Caslon. From fellow craftsmen at the James foundry in London he may also have learned at least the rudiments of punch- cutting and type founding. Fie would also have experience with gravers and files. chose Dutch models for his own romans and italics. 1734. including chasing silver and cutting binders’dies. A Short History of the Printed Word Quoufque tandem abutêre. the most successful and cele­ brated of English typefounders. Catilina. Caslon was born near Birmingham in 1692 and was apprenticed to a gun engraver in London. A decorator of gun locks and barrels would have invaluable knowledge of the working properties of steel. Catilina . The chief influence on English printing had been Dutch. and production of British presses and founders began to prosper once again. p a - tie n tia noftra ? quamdiu nos e tia m f u ­ ro r ifte tu u s elu d et ¥ quem a d fin em fe fe ejfren a ta ja S la b it a u d a cia ? nih ilne te noElurnum præfidium palatii . In 1716. he set up his own shop for decorative metalwork. pa~ tientia noftra ? qnamdiu nos etiam fu­ ror ifte tuus elndet ? quem ad finem fe- fe effirenata jaétabit audacia ? nihilne te noéturnum præfidium palatii. and in making small punches for 162 . nihil timor populi. nihil con-* A BCDEFGHIJKLM NOPQRS $ u o u fq ue tandem abutêre. n ih il u r - bis v ig iliæ ) n ih il tim o r populi) n ih il con- A B C D E F G H IJK L M NOP^Jt 7.4 Caslon’s Great Primer roman.

as well as several sizes of roman. It was based on forms 2. About 1745. Syriac. trained to think in ink . to the practice of earlier centuries than to the cop­ perplate aesthetic of his own time. Armenian. Saxon and Greek types. but where ro­ man and italic are concerned. Coptic. his son. while others wished to bury it and reconceive die world in terms of the latest fashion . Caslon was also.chapter vu * The Eighteenth Century striking names. By 1734. he is an artist with one style. It is possible that this unconventional background gave Caslon a rather old-fash­ ioned attitude toward typographic punchcutting: one more closely related. but it was probably the first sanserif type ever made. but Casions conservative tastes and antiquarian commissions led him into die future as well as the past. however. dates and decorations into lockplates. continued cutting type. John BaskerviUe John BaskerviUe was eight years younger than William Caslon and came from the same region in central England. he cut an unserifed Etruscan font. He was a Birmingham writing mas­ ter and designer of decorative headstones. scriptorial and inscriptional traditions. Caslon breathed new life into the spirit of the Baroque. the founder of a dynasty. This he completed in 1724. in fact. he had cut his first Hebrew.000 years old. italic and textura. William Caslon II.S. and the foundry remained in the hands of his descendants until 1874. like Bach. His training. All these types are heavily in­ debted to historical examples. was wholly different. Bach. He cut his first roman and italic in 1725.a fashion which in retro­ spect we know as Neoclassicism. for an Oxford palaeographer. Caslon’s types show their maker’s close attention to a range of typographic. W hen he died in 1766. Gaslon’s first type was an Arabic font commissioned for mission­ ary use by the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge. when he issued his second specimen. Like his eminent contemporaryJ.

peftem patrue nefarie molientem. he developed hot-pressed papers. Baskerville’s are thoroughly Neoclassical. At his home in Birmingham. the brilliance of the spe­ cially formulated ink. Ca­ r tilinam furentem audacia. T Catilinam furentem audacia. 7. like Caslon. vobis atque huic urbi ferru m flam m am que minitan - A B C D E F G H IJK L M N O P Q R . vobis atque huic urbi ferrum flam- A B G D E F G H I J K L M N O P . he established a foundry and print- shop . He used a dampened wove sheet. ~ made on a woven screen rather than a mold whose chain lines and laid lines give the fibers an inherent sense of direction . The silky finish of the Baskerville pages. undecorated typography won 16 4 . fcelus anhelantem . in two dimensions. A N D E M aliquando. He was forty-four years old when he decided to devote himself to printing and typography. Quirites î L.and sub­ jected it to pressure between hot copper plates after its impression. W here Caslon’s letters are thoroughly Baroque. and all of his experiments in printing and in page design were aimed at bringing out the spirit of eigh­ teenth-century rationalism inherent in his letters. He employed a craftsman named John Handy to cut die type that he designed. i j 6 z . a decent head for business and amassed a modest fortune through the manufacture of lacquerware. and the severe. fcelu s anhe­ lantem . To this end. not in three-dimensional steel.5 BaskervilleV G reat Prim er roman. He had. peftem patriae nefarie moli- cn tem .but Baskerville never cut a punch. A Short H i s to r y of the Printed Word A N D E M aliquando. Quirites I L .

7.c h aptes vu * The Eighteenth Century P U B L I 1 V Ï R G I L I I M A R O N I S BUCOLICA.5 are taken. the effect that Baskerville achieved with his plates was built into papers by calendering. In the early 1760s he issued a specimen sheet from which the examples in figure 7. BI R M I N G H A M I AE. and a strong dedication to finish. Elis presswork is especially notable and represents perhaps his greatest contribution. All these are indeed present in John Baskerville’s type and in his printing. an interest in letters and their general arrangement. MDCCLVU. Three characteristics that might be expected in a writing- :master-turned-tray. In time. high praise in Europe. or pressing be­ tween rollers before printing. e r AE N E I S. GEORGICA. Birmingham. 165 .and'-snuffbox-pain ter are neatness. Typis J O H A N N 1 S BASKERVitLB.6 Title page ofBaskerville’s quarto Virgil. 1757.

Luce was working on his condensed types.iv? B B S 7. the Poétiques. At the same time. ÏCifOM \r TOM£ f. «ssfeM*. <S>•*f««*<*i «tiff** fn Jifhaur* WWWfiA ■fti: . Members of both are remembered for their types. in the 1760s. the Fourniers and the Didots. Madame de Pompadour was engaged in printing Corneille with the help of a group of profes­ sional printers ordered in by the king from the Imprimerie Royale. The Fourniers In France. ife^œtptfAssirr. «*$>»• :A PA RIS.JrOTïK. Paris. 1764. tnt m: A03CCENSCEUTTaES. Two distinguished printing families were also at work in France. This included a detailed 166 . In 1764 Pierre Simon Fournier published two of the intended four volumes of his Manuel typographique.SJt«. S h o r t History of the Printed Word MANUEL TYPO G RAPHÏQUE.7 Fournier’s Manuel typographique. t«>l Jsajaft ïCècîSïS. «■/• R»rf Cki ft* * * <jb . A. and also for their efforts toward more orderly means of typographic measurement. their books.

however.fraternité of a quiet typographic revolution. In denegando modo quels pudor ejl pa C 7 . It was the first step toward a system in which type size. & qu’il ne faut pas moins que de fouvenir que vous me donnez. His romans too owe as much to craft tradition as they do to revolutionary thinking. like the grid of Jaugeon’s ro­ man. 2 7 4 7 . by conventional standards.” He had formulated the idea as early as 1737. an educated man. lines and points. genus ejl hominum pejjimum. . but he was trained in wood engraving and raised among type mat- L eft v ra i. line length. Fournier. used in the O e u v re s o f Jean-Baptiste Rousseau. was a practical typographer far more than a theoretician. Fournier was not.8 Fournier’s scale. divided into units he called inches. leading.9Type cut by Pierre Simon Fournier. but on Philippe Grand jean’s much more approachable. He based his own italic types not on jaugeon’s draw­ ings or Simonneau’s engravings. M onfieur. published by François D idot Paris. c h a P T ER v u * The Eighteenth Century ÉCHELLE FIXE de 144 points Typographiques. is a vision of geometrically perfect emptiness and order: the :liberté. and all the other elements of typographic space can be specified and har­ monized. visceral punchcutting. pour me d Id. when he was twenty-five. Underlying such a system. exposition of his “point system. iiSiiïditiiiiiîj i u i j I i i i iTTTTTTT 7 . égalité. Fournier created a scale. que le chagrin a p I chez m o i.

not always on friendly terms. another was learning all that could be known about the cutting and casting of type. printing and papermaking. He employed a master of the craft. often making outstanding contributions. One was cutting type in every size. Until his death in 1768. ladies’ man and priest Antoine François Prévost. and Renaissance documentation to go with it. and ran it in his turn. which then still owned substantial quantities of Renais­ sance material. jean Pierre Fournier. was a typog­ rapher and printer as well as publisher. and two of his grandsons. bought this foundry in 1731. François-Ambroise Didot. Michel François. the third was fame. the access he re­ quired to historical materials. S h o r t H i s to r y of the Printed Word rices and molds. to cut his types. Pierre l’aîné and Fir- min. François-Ambroise. François Didot’s eldest son. The middle brother. and received. and in 1742 issued a handsome specimen book. He numbered among his authors the best-selling novelist. when twenty-four- year-old François Didot set up shop as a bookseller and publisher. he pursued with equal vigor his three dreams. after his father’s death. Jacques-Louis Vafflard. As independent founders. took charge of his grandfather’s printing house in Auxerre. who was also a punchcutter. which he achieved in some degree through ceaseless self-advertisement The Didots The Didot dynasty begins in Paris in 1713. are those who most require a place in the story of eighteenth- century French printing. the eldest brother of Pierre Simon. opened a foundry of his own in Paris in 1739. A. His father was manager of the Le Bé type foundry in Paris. who was born in 1730. Pierre Simon. who w'as the youngest. and François- 168 . hut Pierre Simon demanded from his brother. The family was active for several generations in founding. Modèles des caractères de l’imprimerie et des autres choses nécessaires au dit an. the eldest and youngest Fournier brothers were competitors.

that had complicated life for the Estiennes. These types owe much to the example of Fournier but are more purely Neoclassical. Fournier and Baskerville. like Baskerville’s. for Colines. and he introduced to France smooth.religious. A PARIS. AMBR. similar to those that Baskerville had used. political or social . IMPRIMÉ PAR O R D R E D U R O I pour l'é d u c a tio n DE MONSEIGNEUR LE D A U P H I N . highly finished wove papers. 1783. D E F Ê N É L O N . ch a p t er vu * The Eighteenth Century LES AVENTURES DE T É L É M A Q U E . S S ffltf F I L S D' ULYSSE. Ambroise took an active part in their design. DIDOT L’A [NÉ.X 0 Title page designed by François-Ambroise Dîdot. M. Didot was well aware ofBaskerville’s achieve­ ments. In François-Ambroise’s time the power of the church in France had waned. P A R M. and François-Ambroise suffered none of the various handicaps . in form. 169 . Jannon. DE L'IMPRIMERIE DE FRÀNÇ. DCC L X X X I H 7 .

minion.-A. The public sought him out as well. when ambassador to France. pica and so on).-A. It is chiefly to Didot that we owe die rationalist habit of identifying type by body size (10 point. withstanding even the prestige of the metric system. each of which is further subdivided into six cicéros of 12 Didot points each. À Short H i s to r y of the Printed W o r d P R O S P E C T U S . which was established in France in 1799. arranged to have his grandson study with Vaffiard at the Didot foundry. D e u x illustres savants. parut p< Paris. consacrèrent les plus grands soins a l’e si intéressante.11 Type cut by Jacques-Louis Vafflardfor F. brevier. Fie saw a number of shortcomings in the Fournier system. The Didot point (which is larger than Fournier’s. and Benjamin Franklin. le G te. 170 . afin qu’elle répondît à la ci 7. the king’s foot. carried on the work of the printing plant and the type foundry. The two sons of François-Ambroise Didot. F. 12 point. Didot. 1781. etc) instead of by the older printers’ names (nonpareil. Pierre and Firmin. des Peintures antiques de P ietro -S ànte ms u n e seconde édition au p u b lic. This is divided into 12 French inches. Didot adopted as his reference the French pied du roi. long primer. Didot’s name is also linked with the European system by which printing type is measured. and larger than the standard Anglo-American point) has remained in general use in Europe. He served as printer by appointment to the brother of Lotus XV and was commissioned by die king to print a series of French clas­ sics. en 1 7 5 7 . one of which was the lack of an absolute standard.

and more commissions followed. used by his brother Pierre.c h a p T e r v i i * The Eighteenth Century ODE I. almost invariably means type in the manner of Firmin Didot. which be­ longed to the Duke of Parma. and there he printed and published his luxurious. he transformed them from Neoclas­ sical to Romantic.12 Type cut by F ir min Didot. W hen he was twenty-eight years old. Firmin. p r e c o r . obsessively. size after size. In the technical sense of the terms (explained on page 161). P a r c e . where he began experimenting with typecutting. His younger brother. Like Fournier. Pierre was offered the space in the Louvre that had formerly been used by the Imprimerie Royale. 1795}.” nowadays. not in the manner of François-x\mbroise and Vaffiard. and some of his early punches show how closely he had studied what he bought. AD VENEREM. cold éditions du Louvre. he cut font after font. as if . “D idot type. apprenticed with Vaffiard and then methodically recut the family fonts to give them greater contrast. I n t e r m ï s s a . ] N o n su m q u a lis eram b o n i 7. Giambattista Bodoni Giambattista Bodoni was born in Italy in 1740. he was invited to take charge of the Stamperia Reale. Bodoni bought his first types from Fournier. He was the son of a printer and served his apprenticeship in Rome. V e n u s . d iu ’sus b e lla m o v es. and this transformation stuck.

it were the type itself that mattered. meditations that the type might serve to print. nihil timorpopuli. not the stories. This 172 . patientiâ nostra? quamdio etiam furor iste tuus nos eludet? quem ad finem sese effrenata ja- ctabit audacia? nihilne te noctur- num præsidium Palatii. percep­ tions. As printer to Carlos HI of Spain and other patrons. Specimen.ni- hil concursus bonorum omnium. his later work is fervently Romantic. Bodoni en­ joyed a kind of fame that is rarely accorded to living printers. C IC E R O ORATOR ÀTQUE PHILOSOPHAS. A S h o r t History of the Printed W o r d Quousque tandem abutêre. nihil ur- bis ingilice. Cati­ lina.13 Bodoni. 7. poems. nihil hie munitissimus kahendi se- M ARCÜS T U L L . His early type is Neoclassical.

Byron.g h a p t e b v 11 * The Eighteenth Century 7.14 Bodoni. fame. 1818. was a product and a symptom of Romanticism itself. It was in its small way the kind of fame achieved. for better and for worse. Wagner. Shelley. The tendency had be­ gun with the artificial serifs in Grandjean’s romain du rot and came to full expression in the dramatic. rigid letterforms of Bodoni and Firmin Didot. These forms are marvelously still The type and 173 . of which Bodoni was an active. willing part.and sought in vain by countless others . Many of the most impressive works of the eighteenth century. represent real technical advances: better cast­ ing and fitting of the types. Parma.’s posthumous M anuale tipografico. by Goethe. from the Médailles of the Imprimerie Royale of 1702 to Bodoni’s Manuals tipografico. Liszt.in a time when artists seemed to shine their light on heroes only in order to take their place. Printing took on the appear­ ance of engraving to an astonishing degree. paper with more consistent printing surfaces and better ink and presswork. Chopin . however. Hugo.

Lors qu’ Aspafie étoit concubi­ ne d’Artaxerxès : On ne fauroit lui donner moins de vingt ans à la mort de Cyrus: elle avoit donc foixante . & il voioit que le parti de Pompée fe ruinoit de p lu s en plus par les continuelles viSoires de Jules ABCDEFGHIKLMNO 7. we either disengage and let them ow by on their own or we stop them in their tracks. where diey operated a printing plant. /73p.15 Fleischman s Text (17 point) roman and italic. actually contra­ dictory. PLTGA ABCDEFH IJK M NO Q SU V W X Y ZÆ ÆABCDEFGHIJKL MMNOPQRSTUVWYZ ÇÉÔ^Ç: 12 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 i o t ( [ J § " ji0 /ü m n de fermeté. To read we breadie.quinze ans lors qu’un nouveau R oi la demande comme une grace particulière. To look at things. acts. 174 . To look we hold our breath or (in the worst of cases) pant. A Short H i s to r y of th e Printed Word pages beg to be admired that is looked at which is well and good. Am sterdam . Fleischman and the Ensched0 s In 1743 the brothers Isaak and Johannes Ensched0 bought die holdings of an Amsterdam typefounder named Heinrich Wetstein and moved it to Haarlem. We are linked to what we read by rhythmic motion. except that looking and reading are quite di“erent.

thought him a very clever typecutter. Ams­ terdam and Edam. Rudolf Koch and Paul Renner admired him too. At the same time.C H A P T E R VIT The Eighteenth Century This plant one of the most reliable and durable in Europe con­ tinued its letterpress operations well into the twentieth century. but chie y he was aware of their common sculptural atti­ tudes toward punchcutting. in part because his type was not revived in any form until the very end of the twentieth century. Printing in Spain Works by Joaqu n Ibarra. maintaining in the process one of the largest collections of handcut punches and matrices in the world. italics. but he spent his working life in Frankfurt. blackletter. The type in Juan de Yriarte s Ohras sueltas. especially in those cities where the craft had long been practiced. thus about twice the size of a normal octavo). He cut romans. Francisco Manuel de Mena all of Madrid and Benito M ontfort of Valencia repre­ sent the best of eighteenth-century Spanish printing. Fleischman is an unfamiliar name compared to Caslon and Bodoni. The Ensched0 s most favored typecutter in the eighteenth century was Johann Michael Fleisch- man. the king encouraged printing in his own country. Fournier. The edition of Don Quixote that Ibarra printed for the Royal Spanish Academy in 1780 is a four-volume quarto (a book made from press-sheets of only four leaves or eight pages each. Inciden­ tal Works. Greeks and Arabics with extraordinary skill. Koch may have felt some kinship with Fleischman because both came from the N rnberg vicinity. Gabriel de Sancha. (1774) is an older letter. however. He was born in 1701 near N rnberg and learned his trade there. the Hague. cut two centuries earlier at . The in terest of Carlos III in printing was shown when he gave Bodoni his special patronage. Its straightforward text pages are set in a ne Neoclassical type cut and cast for the Biblioteca Real by G er ni mo Gil.

1774. His genius. A Short History of the Printed Word a Antwerp by the Belgian Hendrik van den Keere. sicne alto in gurgite fundus.16 Text type ofJuan de Y riarte’s Obras sueltas. he became cynical enough to hire his pen out to causes in which he had no emotional involvement. sura. In Spain in the eighteenth century. Ne cedente solo. however. opinion was expressed 011many current topics - as in the modern editorial. tacitâque repente ruina Tibia. In the shaping of The Review ( 1 7 0 4 ) . 7. Parvula ne scopulis pereac fallacibus Argo: Non aliter baculo caucus rimare sagaci Stagnanris vada cæca viæ . with most of the material written by Defoe. Renaissance and Baroque types continued to live in the finest editions. three new periodicals in Eng­ land introduced a significant dimension into journalism. Though The Review was called nonpartisan. Richard Steele and Joseph Addison. As early as 1703. Defoe. a pamphlet attacking ecclesiastical intolerance. It appeared as often as three times weekly. Defoe’s Review was originally called A Weekly Review of the Affairs of France. three archetypal English journalists emerged: Daniel. as vividly as older works of literature. overcame his cynicism in works such. genu tumulentur mersa barathro. Ne temerè instabili credas vestigia lim o. After a number of brushes with authority. Steele and Addison Early in the eighteenth century. as Robinson Crusoe (1719) and A Journal of the 176 . The Tatler ( 1 7 0 9 ) and The Spectator ( 1 7 1 1 ) . Defoe. M adrid. Defoe was fined and pil­ loried for The Shortest Way with the Dissenters. luteasque paludes Sedulus explora.

Steele’s Tatler appeared three times a week from 1709 until 1711. Errowftnd. 1704. n i Mr- >*>#»Whiwiaf wbrUerr Was&afesoiCmMtm'-a- A M -m7 Defoe’s Weekly Review.sri#» ■y ■■'' tsgwawî. '.Wimfeïti&k ëiksb- . borrowed from Isaac Bickerstaff. md'a îWoit&üdetif ■i»*a)ivw»îftc« Swrf«. Miftiïnà srèB»toriw of Orrai Viâasi®fetea wt. ■ .wny «ifitfibstc *9 ' («àtsjt tf« A&fes «rf &*t*b *Ctawr UgM. a 177 . An early col­ laborator in it was Joseph Addison. vttâKtë Wbi» AtnxHM. Among those imaginary contributors was one known as Bickerstaff. T he latter went a long way toward eradicating the boundaries between fiction and nonfiction.art iktira. breaking down the boundary between the periodical and the book. The Spectator This publication relied on a small group of fictional authors whose works were written for them by Addison and Steele. sfitiix. «ri» Dili} W Maate Aswe •. «d 4<Partial Rmfti. In 1711. London. Partiality of Nmf- Wttitif O' afi Site. %9 . wiitis. ■JfSxpfev.:■■■■..Tfa ■ÏHTStOtSKCtïOS. Steele and Addison jointly founded a new journal. ■ses of imt SïmfcSrtîikts. î VPâpt* h of a Vütt fliïf. Ï 704. «rf to pt*. T he former was the first novel in English to be published as a serial. wfcîrt lan tf Mft Tte Tftttmïe *1* poffrS rritN wto** N«da»î «f Ttet®*. Plague Year (1722). purporting to be written from various coffeehouses. 1 M Dt%r.t s*A»fe.c h APT e r v 11 * The Eighteenth Century [ i 3 Nawk i» A WeeklyReview T heof Adairs o f T R / i N C E : firtKiï the. lüif*d»«*»«** Cd»i«w.

*[ç Arti'asr: '.. A Short History of the Printed Word •tmiiivt ixï'vkt: Xtfï-ïmftfrj •tivflbff.ïi^a:§M:.**W .&•■'-««wto.18 T h e Spectator..w * V t% tn& àæ .iïr'i^îëêâit Èaç^-^fc -jSS-Açw çâitfci^. • ::*tf-**£*.:.. t&f vça -va */•&&■»?>..fcfc. ::^»i%icsf' <?<V «k tStlifer*:-..&V. ■iàfr-Ç :• itf:•&*•r. $ W I'] T&jr^'^A.- ••ifc.-j#iaîs.ftS. > < ?&(:&%&<*<: • :KiV-i FjI'v)"-:.•«Svv* yS***/..-ff.■ ••* . rst tn the form of circulating manuscript.-'■>.. •IjjXv:' :. w r& sœ .. 7.ë'y . S l i S : :1 :m m i-CvtàV: ••'.'#?£:'■•ïis:Aà% t ^ ^ ’ïv ^ - :• '«Mü**fej' .>•'•::. isfcM* ÏS. ••*?<*ïw<wk:fwjiPft'-^:wft't: ■. S S ^ I M ?<*«*( .vsét^/^nWï. Newspapers: America and England Americas rst continuing paper was John Campbells Boston News-Letter of 1704. 3fctf L ïthftü3*mC. .. but the issue of 178 .■**.:^ ^ « 'îV iîi 'Ô ÿstfi'ïï ç.- ::ÇiEÎ^^??#îttï [SîiW’.** :.W w^»--.»/*. ' .I:: :•!•. '.ilrtieK ::W*-*«i:«*it-r.-.^«'>ift<M-vT ^iyâït <:♦.:xv>V:■) ^. ry rr.•. London. - ifttfM 4osK -jujïft-iaïft •.••J'jjj-'«i*?-. ^ . •• •'. a r f ia â i t ë '^ ^ 4 't f i X V ^ i K . . Here again..•.:.htf«te»»•!aA$^*r ^ ..-.Ke'^ ' ^ j:. ' •A) .* . creation of Addison and Steele s friend and colleague Jonathan Swift.-..••.*•* *».* ÏÀJ« :?.??...- « V&t&ç'W*...-P-w-I'-jr«asns=r aw»*v .ÿÿA«>«!fi ï^îk *?/* «* #*&?*•. ./ isri-i:r>>^>.» Ss**•*:* £i& vàv S ü* stefc. -rf'. ••■■: ••'•-•Sw/v»•i?-]ife ÿaiV r*^**«:-% >. Vÿt&'â**...w':3*i« ^ '&*:&. :».aï^* ■■fnW'lnM.!w.ç'r-v&f.:«:• -'. i*uft>^fsc$!# *> ««?»&i/*»aysi:&<*>._ . ' 2*aN:.Qsf.&•. M-..*?.ï:. ^iwi.•is»!#ïfrï' & & & $ $ * !& •• <rt:^•.vgw-*■r*• . j»ïJj^4$UAAÿ-..?titfa &*w &£f••.. .Wiiirtc-''A »1.— •<•. üï ***** S#**»<■: •fy& k t..lfij<..<ft".♦■******-.. Campbell was a bookseller who became post­ master at Boston and used his position to gather news from ships captains and post riders..:> K-Î^v. •' P \> -fe4«i-.'.:..ïî#ip?fci ^ ... This news was then transcribed by his brother...0:Ÿi !..«-ft* #*j*Î*r«wî}«!*V-:-...'i'ijj-:i^ifi aâ' . .-- »»*$?.. the boundaries between ction and non ction were continually put to the test.

established the Boston Gazette. W ith further changes in editorship.C H A P T E R VI I The Eighteenth Century 7 . Boston printers. Bartholomew Green. he continued the News-Letter until 1723. when it passed into the hands of its printer. even after years of pub­ lication he could report a circulation of only 250 copies. Boston. 1 7 2 1 . and ve subsequent postmasters treated it die same. William Brooker. who turned it toward its eventual role as a 179 . Campbell s venture was not highly popular. 24 April 1704 employed the printing press rather than the pen. It naliy became the property of Benjamin Edes and John Gill. the paper lasted more than seventy years. Neverthe­ less.1 9 The N e w England C o u r a n t . He considered the paper part of the postmastering job. In 1719 Campbell s successor as postmaster.

Newspapers were also founded in Charleston. the New-England Courant. and even months old. represented a more creative approach to journalism. In 1725 he began publication of that colony’s first newspaper. the Franklins lost the job of printing the paper. which ran from 1729 until 1766. James Franklin took on the publication of another new paper. after the editor-to-be departed sud­ denly and joined a rival printer to issue The America??. who established the first press in Philadel­ phia in 1693. In 1741 he published the short-lived Gen­ eral Magazine. Unlike the Gazette. Georgia (1763). Virginia (1736). where again he worked in a printshop. he ran away from Boston and settled in Philadelphia. A Short History of the Printed Word leading patriot organ. The following year. It did not rely on news alone. weeks. later became the official royal printer in New York. Magazine. In 1721. The bilingual Quebec Gazette was founded in the city of Québec in 1764 and continued for over a century. It was planned as the first magazine in the colonies. South Carolina (1731): Williamsburg. Benjamin. Nova Scotia (1752). Freedom of the press was a major issue for these fledgling publi­ cations.the Courant. The first printer of the Gazette was James Franklin. of John Peter Zenger for “seditious libels” was a major event in American journalism. In 1722. in 1735.just to mention a few. and the trial. Benjamin Franklin contributed his “Do-Good Papers” to the Courant H e was then sixteen years old. which in those conditions was inevitably days. Con­ necticut (1760) .” In style. the Courant made no claim to be “published by authority. Flalifax. it owed a great deal to the example of Steele and Addison. It became instead the second. William Bradford. during his five-year term as apprentice to his brother Janies. Savannah. with its human interest es­ says. After a short pe­ riod in London. whose apprentice was his younger brother. Zenger had 180 . and Hartford. Despite a short life . Franklin re­ turned to Philadelphia and started the Pennsylvania Gazette.only five and a half years . W hen Brooker lost the postmastership. The New-York Gazette.

Eng­ land’s first daily paper. who !tf kept the Courant successful and in print for thirty years and earned a reputation for unusually high standards of journalistic integrity. the Morning Chronicle (founded in 1769) and the Morning Post (begun in 1772).. are remembered for . on 11 March 1702. Zenger’s acquittal was hailed by many in England as well as the colonies as a triumph... a fellow printer. The judge appointed to his case clearly sided with the government.Y. Hartford...«’■"#-!. Two other English papers. "J-------. y fa & ****#} . *• K itrtrf ‘. ÜJ * t' ? ^ fi JO. c h a p t e r v i: ï « T h e E ig h te e n th C e n tu r y The Conuedicut Courant. 2764.. but the jury refused to convict...v*■& e^rserrr/^^-^-’'11'"'-’---'. Financial problems led m her into partnership with Samuel Buckley. Elizabeth Mallet began publication of the Daily Courant. &K& 4? r «•»*4fc # ï *. attacked the policies of New York’s colonial governor.20 The Connecticut Courant. '"-ife- 7. K-O*» P.

their writers. 1702. He became something of a hero to colonial patriots. It was the North Briton. printing continued its penetration of the world.500 to help him pay his debts. and the South Carolina Assembly allocated £1. Samuel Taylor Coleridge and Charles Lamb. founded in 1762 by John Wilkes. Brazil in 1706. Cuba in 1707. At the same time. but lost his paper and his seat in Parliament in the process. A third paper of the same general period is representative of the crusading press. who led the ght to allow reporting of news about the government.21 The Daily Courant. A Short History o f the Printed W o r d 7. reaching Paraguay in 1704. 182 . The Chronicle employed William Hazlitt. He achieved some suc­ cess. Sri. Robert Southey and William Wordsworth wrote for the Post. London.

who was probably trained in Baskerville s foundry. William Bulmer. Exaggerated contrast between dark and light. or thick and thin. Chopin. is of fundamental importance. like William Martins. In 1800. the press as Gutenberg designed it was virtually unchanged. Wilhelm Haas of Basel built one in which all of the parts subject to heavy stress including. were the rst Romantic types produced in England. developed little by little beginning in the early eighteenth century. the platen and the bed were made of iron. is crucial to these letterforms. O ther implements of cultural importance were undergoing similar transformations at precisely the same time. Beginning late in the eighteenth cen­ tury. The piano. Charles. Pianos wi th a one-piece iron frame the musi­ cal equivalents of the Stanhope press were nally produced by Jonas Chickering in the 1840s and by the Steinway rm thereafter. Australia in 1796. Liszt and others to play music in which strong dynamic contrast. printers such as Bulmer used the iron handpress for very simi­ lar ends: to print Romantic types. with its highly complex action. Argentina in 1766. of course. These fonts. Chile in 1776. Venezuela in 1764. . leaping from soft (piano) to loud (forte) and back again. An All-Iron Press For at least three centuries. and the piano is to the harpsichord as the iron and steel handpress is to the older instrument made entirely of wood. Greenland in 1793. and the Union of South Africa in 1799. Firmin Didot s and Bodoni s. The harpsi­ chord is to the lute as the wooden handpress is to the pen. Earl of Stanhope. Greece in 1759. master printer for this press.chapter vn The Eighteenth Century Lanka in 1737. designed an all-iron press that was used at the Boydell & Nicol Shakespeare Printing O ce in London. The piano was used by Romantic composers Schumann. commissioned new types from the punchcutter William Martin. cut in the 1790s. Canada in 1752. In 1772.

- | WhÜ» rmwtM theatre*» uvs {badly prowl . Illustrationfor Somerville's The Chase. |VV'vÆ :-r:Vi\^I^î? V/ ‘- !:. ijç 6. Bewick made blocks for several books before he began his profes­ sional association with Buimer. 7.-:". hail thee with a sang. the father of European wood engraving. William Buhner and Thomas Bewick Buimer was horn in Newcasde. . rich wkh the exploit* : *' : . homds.22 Thomas Bewick. !:-Ty^ .01:'^sÿ.v-. but it was Buimer who provided 184 . where from an early age he had known Thomas Bewick.••■.r d 1 The prke <>( sttastto&d.i ï :. fy iyWhlW^ f à t e ï î â i -::'-: i • Rear the triumphal arch..T: T y«m..1 ! The ehsufç I ting. A Short History of the Printed Word t •-. unA iJidï varan» htm!.

The new practice of wood engraving became known as “white line. . the famous French woodcut­ ter and author of a manual of techniques. His early work was not in the field of print­ ing. Bewick was apprenticed. belittled stories he had heard of using a graver upon the endgrain of box. Instead of the plank. During his apprenticeship he had some opportunities to work on wood. Later.c h a pT es vïi « The Eighteenth Century the printing expertise required to show Bewick’s blocks to best advantage.” The phrase denotes a method of producing shapes and tints that is not unlike drawing on a blackboard with chalk rather than substituting graver for knife and working toward a facsimile of a drawing. a copperplate engraver. partly be­ cause of the low ebb to which most work in the medium had sunk. By 1790 his General History of Quadrupeds had established him and his method. Turkish boxwood has been the most satisfactory source of endgrain wood. Wood Engraving Wood engraving as practiced by Bewick represented a new tech­ nique. in 1795 and 1796. to Ralph Beilby. wood engraving requires a cross section of the tree. But as late as 1766. Papillon. at the age of fourteen. but in the rougher work of engraving doorplates and sword blades.Bewick was given the typography and the press work he needed and deserved. and it played an important role in every kind of illustration printed in letterpress from the end of the eighteenth century until the successful introduction of photoengraving nearly a century later. with his engravings for the Poems of Oliver Goldsmith and Thomas Parnell. Gravers for wood engraving are much like those used for metal. There was always the danger that the sec­ tions would open up. and his results were generally praised. and to obtain a block of any great size requires gluing sections together. and The Chase by William Somerville .both printed by Buimer .

7. with the thumb as guide and rest. the tool used on wood can have a more acute point than one intended for cutting copper or steel.23 Graverfor working on endgram wood. One of the hazards in working with gravers is the danger of leaning pressing on a delicate line with the belly of die tool. has less tendency to cause a graver to hang. rather than from the ngers. Sometimes the wood can be made to swell. the work is turned and the tool is so held that the thrust of a stroke is de­ livered from the pad of the palm. and restore itself by ap­ plying a touch of saliva. A Short History o f the Printed Word The curved shape of the tools facilitates the lifting of the point. In both instances. Putting the design on the block is no di“erent from preparing a woodcut. Since wood.24 The manner of holding a graver. a hole is drilled in the block and a plug of wood inserted and resurfaced. Bewick did his own engraving and therefore had complete free- 186 . 7. To make a repair or a correction. being softer than metal.

In France. He was also able to make use of some of the tricks of block printing. Such operations require much understanding and cooperation from the pressman. N ot until 1809 did they issue their rst type specimen the rst from any North American foundry. complained of nearly going blind as a result of trying to read the Boston papers that were sent to him. through the use of overlays. two Scots who emigrated to Philadelphia in 1796. The Amer­ ican Revolution ended colonial status and dependence on England. but e“orts to make type in America had been of little consequence. social and economic upheaval in Europe and its far ung colonies. in 1789. The equipment he had brought from France passed into the hands of Archibald Binney and James Ronaldson. The Industrial Revolution began in England around the middle of the eighteenth century and continued for one hundred years. The stock and condition of typefaces in Amer­ ica were such that Franklin. while in Europe. The work of both Fournier and Didot rep­ resented an industry in a high state of orderly development.CHAPTER Y II The Eighteenth Century dom to choose the way in which he created his various textures and tones. pressures at given points can he stressed and thus provide accents in the print. France by then had well over two centuries of experience in typographic leadership.. Benjamin Franklins attempts to set his grandson up as a founder were not successful. where sections are lowered to cause them to print with a grayer eaect. James Watt s invention of the steam engine in 1769 led to a series of major changes in the textile industry. Revolutions: Political and Industrial The last half of the century was a period of political. yet the storming of the Bastille. came only six years after D idots printing of Les Aventures de T 0 î0 maque. with a power loom appearing 187 . the revolution was violent. or.

A S h o r t History of the Printed Word . printing had continued to be a handicraft. q m .25 Aioreau. in 1783. J777. To undertake the composition of a work of any . Engravingfor Laborde’s Choix de chansons. Presses were still manually operated and in principle were little altered since the time of the incunabula.t m t 1m m««r. Paris. -^ J 7.À»*We * j ! -mûi w-ixë. Type was still set by hand and had to he printed from and redistributed on the basis of the supply in a printer’s cases. . Thus far.

Engraving f it.26 H oganh. even the largest houses set. 189 . London. As literacy increased. length. /760. Thus the pressures for mecha­ nized solutions were steadily increasing.c h a p T e r v 1.Sterne's Tristram Shandy. so did the number of printed works and the length of the runs. printed and redistributed the text in sections.1 * The Eighteenth Century 7.

He made illustrations for works by Shakespeare. Moreau s style can be seen in his illustrations for Jean- Benjamin de Laborde s Choix de chansons. Nicolas Cochin. 190 . but two well chosen : Samuel Butlers Hudibras and Lawrence Sternes Tristram Shandy. Alexander Pope and Samuel Johnson. by 1795. Jean Honor0 Fragonard s remarkable set of studies for Orlando Furioso never got as far as the engravers. Charles Eisen and Gravelot were busy doing rococo portraiture. Three of the great artists of the century. The Caprichos that he announced in 1797 represent one of the great graphic achievements of the century of intaglio. One of the most proli c illustrators of the century was Daniel Nikolas Chodowiecki. besides the likes of Addison and Steele. were not generally employed for books. Goethe. such contributors as Coleridge and Wordsworth. the designer of a light. Cer­ vantes. In Germany. yet each of them profoundly in uenced the craft of illustration. Sterne. This was also the century of Oliver Goldsmith. has ever produced. all widi outstanding capacities as illustrators. A Short H i s to r y o f th e Printed Word Artists: Literary and Graphic The literary artists who were creating the raw material for eigh­ teenth-century printers exhibited a strong a nity for journalism and pamphleteering. Thomas Paine and Voltaire are among the many familiar names. published in 1773. Periodicals and newspapers claimed. an artist-engraver who was born in Danzig in 1726. William Hogarth did only two books. Neoclassical form of fraktur. Jean-Michel Moreau. the latter printed by Johann Friedrich Unger. Voltaire and numerous other authors. theatrical designs and special publications for the court. Rousseau. French artists of the time Fran ois Boucher. The third graphic master was Francisco Goya. Goethe had published Faust and Wilhelm Meisters Lebtjahre. Swift. and closed it with as vivid a set of narrative prints as the medium.

His name was Aloys Senefelder. CHAPTER VIII The Nineteenth Century n t h e c lo sin g y earsof the eighteenth century. and when he was unable to get them published began a series of e“orts to become his own printer. that Senefelder s new. which he then inked and printed. W hen he had etched the stone with nitric acid. and in 1796 he succeeded in making an image on stone with an ink mixture that he had prepared as an etching base for his plate work. two- dimensional printing process emerged from the theater. The Lithographic Process Senefelder s rst attempts at printing were made with copper plates on a makeshift intaglio press. as we shall see. the son of a Munich actor. It is not inappropriate. Sene­ felder tried his hand at writing plays. The essence of the medium he had come upon was its chemical rather than me- . he produced the image on a slightly raised surface. It was perhaps the high cost of copper that led him to experiment with limestone. He was bom in 1771. His prob­ lem lay in the di cul ty of keeping ink 0“ the spaces around the im­ age. a young Bavarian writer stumbled on a printing process that was neither relief nor intaglio. Successive experiments led to Senefelder s discovery that it was not necessary for the printing surface to be raised. when Bewick I was perfecting his white-line style of engraving on endgrain wood blocks.

Lithographers print from a plane or level surface. who took the inventor to England in 1801. usually pencil-like in shape. a music publisher from Offenbach. is necessary. The principal materials of lithography. the press exerts a scraping pressure. Gutenberg printed from a relief or raised surface. depending on affinity and rejection. A Short History' of th e Printed Word chanical basis. and can be used with pen. Each method utilizes successively stiffer inks and greater printing pressures. In addition. Etchings and engravings are printed from a lowered surface. the old drawing being removed by a grinding process. Ail the essential elements of what after 1804 came to be called lithography were known to its inventor in the first decade after its discovery. For line work and washes a soluble form of greasy ink. By 1803 he succeeded in adapting his process to metal plates. In lith­ ography. Senefelder published his Vollstandiges Lehrbucb der Steindruckerei (Complete Manual of Stone Printing). touche. Senefelder also discovered the special prop­ erties of the Solnhofen stones from Bavaria. There a patent was issued. The pressure of a relief printing- press is direct contact. 192 . Lithography in consequence is also known as planographic printing. that of an intaglio press is a rolling and squeezing pressure. pul ling the ink from the incised lines. A book showing specimens of the process appeared as early as 1803. A lithographic stone may be reused many times. which has re­ mained the basic text on the subject. Early in his work he had the co­ operation of gifted artists in experimenting with possibilities of the medium. A greasy image surrounded by a water-attracting surface accepts greasy ink that the dampened parts reject. by means of suit­ able graining. are crayons that range from hard to soft and are made in pencil and stick form. with the image areas greasy and the blank areas moist. In 1818. there must be some kind of scraper. and by 1798 had de­ signed a workable press for printing from his stones. besides the plate of stone or zinc. One of his earliest patrons was Philipp André. brush and flannel.

The Power Press and Power Publishing We have mentioned already that printing presses changed very little from the middle of the fifteenth century to the middle of the eighteenth. once again. to artifi­ cial shapes with exaggerated contrast between the thicks and thins. that after the type or block is inked.i Pressure system fo r planographic printing. several models were developed with im­ proved delivery of the printing impression and stronger elements throughout. . presses had to be fundamentally redesigned. After that. This shift from an organic to an inorganic press was associ­ ated with a change in printed letterforms. Early attempts to add power to a letterpress machine on the platen principle were not successful. a heavy plate or platen is used to press the sheet against it. and it was not until the nineteenth century that the design problems involved were overcome.chapter vin * The Nineteenth Century 8 . from organic shapes that faithfully portray the natural motion of the writing hand. Before the Industrial Revolution. Handpresses are platen presses. These changes notwithstanding. the labor of printing remained in essence what it was. This means. made entirely of iron. could penetrate the area of printing. with new concepts of tools based on new sources of power. In due course came the Stanhope press.

Typography and printing have been greatly changed in the past two centuries by mutations of their most emphemeral branches. reading matter meant for human be­ ings has routinely been produced at greater-than-human speed. supplies pre­ fabricated likes and dislikes appetites and prejudices. the press created its own clientele and in doing so spread rapidly over the earth during the sixteenth and seventeenth cen­ turies. and output rose to i. The cylinder rotates. It also furnishes a 194 . Then it stops. Two years later he had built a double-cylinder press with an improved inking system. the form returns on its mov­ able bed. have been made over the years to the power-ope rated press. fears and expectations as well as information and ideas. As the tool of literacy.000 sheets per hour. the Times was printing 20. Newspapers and magazines have not only subsidized the devel­ opment of large presses. K nig s rst press of this kind had a capacity of Boo sheets an hour. His attempts to make a power-driven platen press were unsuccessful. In the fteenth century. large and small. Innumerable changes. the form (the locked-up type from which the sheet is printed) lies on a at bed moving back and forth beneath a cylinder. This press was used to print the Times of London on 29 November 1814. and have radically a“ected what we read and how we read it. like the ecclesiastical press. Beginning on that date. They have also functioned as a training ground (for better and for worse) for writers and photographers. pressing the sheet against the inked type.ioo sheets per hour. The result was the stop-cylinder press. and the pressman feeds another sheet of paper. By 1868. A Short History of the Printed Word One of the earliest power-operated presses was constructed in eastern Germany by Friedrich K nig. In this steam-driven machine. but the essential shift came very early in the nineteenth century and it began in a newspaper plant. and he then began to work on a di“erent principle. printing served scholarship and the church. The popular press. not in a plant that manufactured books. typesetting machines and techniques of photoreproduction.

more rarely. been converted to museums. Advertising has thoroughly re­ shaped and rede ned the newspaper and the magazine. and die handpress has retreated to the studio. For something over a full century. To do so is however to ignore important forces that have changed the face of type and the minds of those who read it. while publishers. advertisers have formed the primary market for new type designs. printers and distribution facilities fall increasingly under the wing of parent companies whose sole concerns are market share and pro t. the rst newspaper p rin ted on a power press.2 The T im e s (London). Among historians there is a longstanding tendency to equate printing with n e printing. venue for commercial competition. I 95 .CHAPTER VI O The Nineteenth Century 8. The old foundries have been closed or. 1814.

Each of the machine’s actions is comparable to a phase of the process of making paper by hand . called couch rolls. Henry and Sealy Foudrinier. Finally. In principle it is the basis for modern papermaking equipment. The forward motion is accompanied by a side-to-side vibration that crisscrosses the pulp fibers and strength­ ens the material. He was connected with a paper mill at Essonnes. and a reel. 19 6 . The resulting paper is wove. the brother of François-Ambroise. an Englishman. which is a kind of emboss­ ing cylinder. The formed substance is next run through felt-covered cylinders. After this compacting and drying. The pulp. the dry pulp travels on a felt belt to a series of hot cylin­ ders. then took an interest in it and subsidized its fur­ ther development by Bryan Donkin. This belt travels continuously away from the wet end. moving deckle straps keep the pulp from spilling over. that had been started by Pierre-François Didot. France. which in turn can be cut into sheets. On either side of the wet pulp. drying and calendering rollers. It has no pattern. A Short History of the Printed Word The Foudrinier Papermaking Machine Between 1798 and 1806. The larger roils of paper are finally slit into rolls of the desired widths. took a model of Robert’s machine to England. An English relative of the Didots. a mesh belt. the roll of paper is given a smooth finish. for whom the machine was later named. in the calender stack.but the final finishing is. or head box. Suction boxes then draw out the extra moisture. neither laid marks nor watermarks. flows from the vat. The Foudrinier machine consists of a vat for pulp. John Gamble. in an extremely wet state. if any such marks are desired they must be artificially created : im­ pressed on the damp pulp by a dandy roll. of course. where it was patented. in an even stream onto the Foudrinier wire belt. a suction box. Nicolas Louis Robert developed yet another transformative machine: one that could produce a continu- ous roll of paper. a development of Baskerville’s hot-pressing.

It wjas in 1830. Thus the stereotyping process joined forces with the papermaking machine and the powder-operated press. The earliest material used for the matrix was fiong . and eliminat­ ing the possibility of individual sorts (pieces of type) coming loose and “working up. It was Didot who gave the process its name: stereotype. As early as 1727. but in 1794. William Ged of Edinburgh discerned that an entire type form could be pressed into soft material. antimony and lead. half a century later his ideas took hold and were put into general use. H e was a good Greek scholar as well as a master punchcutter and founder. stereotypes provided a means of putting an entire book into type before printing. Stereotype metal.alternate layers of blotting paper and tissue. The word Homer uses here for “durable” or “tough” is crrspEÔs (stereos).c h a P T ER v i n $ The Nineteenth Century Stereotype and Electrotype During the eighteenth century.” as printers say. in Paris. which is used to make the casting. producing a large matrix. and that from this he could cast a one-piece replica of the form. He remembered a scene near the end of die Odyssey in which Telemakhos expresses his amaze­ ment at his mother’s sturdiness of heart. that the present papier mâché method was developed. In 1816 William. a means of casting whole pages from handset type and carved blocks was evolving. To Didot it had different connotations. Stanhope devised a more accurate method. is like typemetal : an alloy of tin. Ged’s invention was strongly opposed by the printers of his time. Firmin Didot became interested in die process and experi­ mented with it further. using plaster. In addition to saving the original type from wear. and now is used most often to refer to fixed ideas instead of fixed pages of text. In 1804. Nicholson made the first attempts to produce curved stereotypes that could be fitted to cylinders. 197 . and of saving the type conveniendy and reprinting it at will. The word has since been borrowed.

Finally. It tends to make the thin strokes thinner and it can make the thick strokes thicker. Another was the pointed quill. W hen the resulting mold is dusted with graphite and placed in a galvanic bath. M ost importantly per­ haps. a shell of copper is precipitated into the wax matrix. In the nine­ teenth century. electrotyping. which supplanted the broadpen al­ most everywhere in Europe. À Short H i s to r y o f th e P r in t e d W o r d in 1837. stylized and regularized. It radically trans­ forms the shapes of terminals (the forms with which the penstrokes end when the pen is lifted from the paper). in the evolution of printing types. new and sturdier materials were sought for ever sharper nibs. The pointed quill is not just sharper than a broadpen. it is thin­ ner and more sensitive to pressure. was the process of intaglio. the shell is backed with type metal and blocked to become type-high. Horn and tortoise shell were used. steel-pointed fountain pens were routine. By 1890. were in wide use by the middle of the nine­ teenth. just as a change in engraving tools and techniques altered the nature of illustrations. it changes the habitual direction of the thick versus the thin. shifting the axis of the letter from the axis of die forearm (which is normally oblique) to die axis of the pullstroke (which is usually di­ rectly toward the body). rst developed in France in die middle of the eighteenth century. sometimes rein­ forced with gold or other metal and tipped with a scrap of precious stone. All these changes are re ected. another method of duplicating printing forms. The Stroke ofthe Quill N ot all the technical innovations a“ectmg eighteenth. iq8 .and nine­ teenth-century printing were in the realm of heavy machinery. already mentioned. It can also change the rate of modulation between thick and thin. Steel nibs. was perfected. One enduring in uence. The original type or block is pressed into a waxy slab. A tiny change in nib shape brought about a general change in handwriting.

Only late in the twentieth century. spent three years making careful measure- . The shift begins in earnest with the romain du roi and continues in the work of Luce. The thickness o f its stroke depetids prim arily on pressure. It distinguishes more sharply between upbow and down- bow (pushstroke and pullstroke) and modulates more readily from one dynamic level to another. The rationalist axis o f the letters on the righ t suggests a exible. Such bows were standard throughout the nineteenth century. Tourtes bow is longer and di“erently shaped. Napoleonic Typography Books and letters in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries were also a“ected by new visions of the classical and the antique that were emerging in all the arts.C H A P T E R VI I I The N ineteenth Cmtury 8. for example. The humanist axis o f the letters on the left re ects the trace ofa broadnib pen. with the vogue of original instru­ ments. James Stuart and Nicholas Revett. in which the thickness o f the stroke depends on the orientation o f the nib. for playing older music as well as new. introduced in the 1790s. These visions were fed by excava­ tions at Pompeii and Herculaneum. Pointed quill. is part and parcel of the process by which letterforms mutated from Renaissance reserve to Baroque activity to Neoclassi­ cal restraint to Romantic conceit and dramatization. It. In the 1750s. and by archaeological work in Greece. Martin and the Didots. aligning w ith the forearm . with its center of gravity farther away from the hand. Fran ois Tourte s new violin bow.3 The spirit o f the broadnib and the spirit o f the pointed quill. two Englishmen. Bodoni. Baskerville. has there been some return to bows of the older style. did for music what the new pens did for script. Fleischman.

The dukes of Parma and Modena. 1819. The ever-fortunate Bodoni ~ who cared far more about how his pages looked than he did about the texts that they contained . the Pope. Paris. and these were published. The “Empire style” was built on the worship of Roman art. ments of the Athenian Acropolis. Then a medal was awarded ->nn . in a book called A?itiquities of Athens. A Short History of the Printed Word 8.4 Title page ofspecimen issued by thefoundry ofPiem Didot. and another from Napoleon himself. along with illustrations. H e received a pension from Eugène de Beauharnais.fared well at the hands of the invaders. Napoleon’s invasion of northern Italy in 1796 reinforced French in­ terest in Roman antiquity. and the king of Naples purchased truces not only with money but also with artworks. Napoleon’s viceroy in Italy.

patientia nostra ? quamdiu nos etiam furor iste tuus elu- defc? quem ad finem sese effrenata jactabit au- dacia? nibilne te nocturnum præsidium palatii ABCDEFGHIJKXMNOFQESTÜYWXYZ Æ Œ £1234567800 ÀBCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZÆŒ Quousque tandem abutere. 1824. It is a thick but almost textless book: a shrine to the purity of letters. escaped invasion by Napoleon. and the English Romantic style is more bucolic than imperial.him in Paris. After his death in 1813. which were cut under his direction by Joseph Vibert. Some of the types cut in England in the nineteenth century are as black as Newcastle coal. he began designing his own. Pierre used Firmin’s type for twenty years. London. In 1809. patientia nostra? quamdiu nos etiam furor iste tuus elu- det? quem ad finem sese effrenata jactabit au- dacia? nihilne te nocturnum præsidium p a la tii 8. a typically dark Romanticfacefrom William ThorowgooTs foundry. Some also have the hard mechanical rhythm of the English railroad rather than the gait of a thoughtful mind and hand. Catilina. Luigi Orsi. unlike Italy. Firmin Didot took control of his father’s foundry in 1785. and his elder brother Pierre took over the printing house.5 English n °2 . Margherita dair Aglio. Romanticism and Its Discontents England. completed several books he had begun. Yet it also savors more of heavy industry. In 1811. Firmin started a new series of Romantic types for the Imprimerie Impériale with body sizes based on the metric system. his widow. One of these was the final edition of his Manuale tipo- grafico. and his foreman. 2 OX . Catilina. Scottish printers and Quousque tandem abutere.

often adding the motto Aldi discip. founders were especially successful in this period. English disciple of Aldus. 1833.6 Scotch Roman fro m Alexander Wilson & Sons. Catilina. anglus. In the 1840s the Lyon printer Louis Perrin designed what he called caractlres Augustaux. being •. patientia nos­ tra? quamdiu nos etiam furor iste tuns eludet? quern ad finem sese effrenata jactabit audacia? nihilne te noctumum præsidium palatii. His rst publication 202 . and it was for the Glasgow foundry of Alexander Wilson & Sons that Richard Austin cut the rst Scotch Roman. Edinburgh. nihil timor populi. nihil timer populi. nihil consensus bonorum omnium» nihil hie munitissimus habendi senatus locus. There were also. In the same decade. Catilina. of course. to leave no doubt about his meaning. found inspiration in the work of sixteenth-century French printers. the excesses of Ro­ mantic types and typography. the London publisher William Pickering commissioned the Caslon foundry to recast William Casions original designs. though he chose to work with type that was closer to home. nihil horum ora vultusque moverunt? ABCDEFGHÏJKLMNOPQRSTUV ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ £ 0 1 2 3 4 . like Perrin. These were cut for him by Jean-Michel FugLre. nihil horum ora vultusque moverunt. Pickering. the dolphin and anchor. patientia nos­ tra? quamdiu nos etiam furor iste turn eludet ? quern ad finem sese effrenata jactabit audacia ? ni­ hilne te noctumum præsidium palatii. nihil ur- bis vigiliæ. nihil hie munitissimus habendi senatus locus. À Short H i s to r y of the Printed Word Quousque tandem abutere. reactions against.5 6 7 8 9 Quousque tandem abutere. patere A B CD E F GH I J KL M N OP QR S AltCDBFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZÆŒ 8. H e borrowed Aldus s device. English and Baroque. nihil consensus bo- norum omnium. nihil urbis vigiliæ. with the mod­ erate contrast and humanist axis of Renaissance forms.

Since m y little Fanny s lo n g S icknefte I have c o n tin u e d th e H a b it o f re m a in in g by h e r a t n ig h t. fh e h a d h e a rd S rt Erafmus de la Foun­ tain m u c h c o m m e n d th e d e lic ate P a te rn e : w h e re a t p o o re Margaret a tte m p te d to look u p u n c o n c e rn ’d . w h e re in is n o S o u n d h e a rd 8. on p e rc e iv in g th e E ffect fh e h a d p ro ­ d u c e d . Armjlrong w ill p e rc h a n c e g ain fom e T y d in g s a t Colchefier. Charles Whittingham II. r& fg in revived Casion was a ctional journal laid in the seventeenth cen­ tury and entitled The Diary of Lady Willoughby. fo m etim e a fte r fhe is in B ed : thefe are Seafons p e c u liarly fw eet a n d fo o th in g . London. . I w as d ifcreet. b u t w as ob lig ed to fm ile a t h e r Sifter’s 'P le a fa n try . T h e D ays pafte fm o o th ly . a n d a d d e d . W e h e a re no N e w s. a n d le d th e C o n v erfatio n b a c k to th e S p in n in g . 1 77 h e r C h e e k e b y fom e Q u e ry refpe£ting a p a rti­ 1641. Pickering often used woodcut decorations based on French and Italian Renaissance models. These were commissioned by his printer. L a d y W illoughby. c u la r P ie ce o f N e e d le -w o rk in h a n d . y e t T im e feem eth very lo n g fince m y d e a re Lord d e p a rte d o n his Jo u rn e y . th e re feem eth fo m e th in g ho ly in th e A ire o f th e d im ly lig h te d Chamber. W ith his English Baroque type. at the Chiswick Press. a n d I m u ft a w a it his R e tu rn w ith fu ch P a tie n c e I can.7 W illiam Pickering s revival ofCaslan s type.

Intaglio engraving continued to be popular. the role of illustration in hook publishing grew steadily in impor­ tance. Eugène Delacroix’s great lithographs for Faust (1828) and Honoré Daumier’s for the Paris 204 . who to­ gether developed the technique of etching and engraving on steel rather than copper. À Short History of the Printed Word Illustration If the books of the early nineteenth century were often barren typographically. Many artists mastered lithography. This greatly lengthened the life of the plate. they offer a rich harvest of outstanding graphic art in the form of illustrations. and it was made more practical in 1818 by Charles Heath and Jacob Perkins. From the early seventeenth century on.

metal engraving and lithography. The chief means of pictorial reproduction at mid-century were wood. 5 .only in the latter quarter of the century was it a factor in making reproduction plates for printing.both Daguerre and Talbot were at work as early as 1833 . metal or stone. it began to in­ fluence letterpress style. it attained popularity in large part by offering ■'new directness in dealing with pictorial material. As the medium spread. and in lesser hands. Although photography was developing . Most continued to rely on intermediary craftsmen. In some instances. and since the craftsmen who lettered on stone were seldom inspired calligraphers. When offset printing (a cheaper and faster outgrowth of lithogra- phy) had developed. It was in the nature of Senefelder’s process for doodling to be easy. In time. artists were able to translate their own drawings onto wood. the results were often pedestrian. not for the better.chapter vin * The Nineteenth Century press are notable examples.

forced him to find a means of making his own books. At an early age he was given lessons in drawing. Blake studied at the Royal Acad­ emy but was unhappy with the atmosphere he found there and left to set up as an engraver on his own. art and poetry. 2 0 6 . a year before he died. The first of his books was the Songs of Innocence. Wood engravings f o r VirgiVs E c l o g u e s . 1821. made in 1826.Ï0 Blake. and at fourteen was apprenticed to an engraver with whom he worked for seven years. 1789. 8 . He was horn in London in Ï75 7. Twin inspirations. His rough individualism and mysticism kept many potential patrons away. and his last completed work was a set of illustrations for the Book ofJob. and the solution was to draw the designs and write the words on copper with an acid-resisting liquid. and etch die light areas away with nitric acid. A Short History of the Printed Word Blake and Other Englishmen William Blake is a singular figure among the illustrators and bookmakers of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries.

He was bom in London just a year be- ' Tore Blake. the . and are much admired by some eminent painters.J chapter v m * The Nineteenth Century 8 . He was instead a combination of caricaturist and social 207 . Thomas Rowlandson was another of the graphic artists who bridged the two centuries. as they display less of art than genius. illustrator of Young's Night Thoughts and Blair's Grave.i t William Blake. 1826. who designed and engraved them hi?nself. Blake’s relief-etched books may be considered as updated block books. but he was in no sense a visionary like his great content- . The B ook o fJob. This is mentioned. porary. published in x82x: The illustrations of this English Pastoral are by the famous Blake. A measure of the contemporary taste is shown in an explanatory note to Blake’s wood engravings for Thornton’s Eclogues of Virgil. So little were they understood and valued at the time that he would have died in utter poverty had not an admirer commissioned him to do the Book o f Job.

Rowlandson’s medium was aquatint. and his etchings on steel for Oliver Twist and other works by Dickens. who was bom in 1792. reporter . A quatint illustration fo r T h e V ic a r o f W a k e fie ld . A Short History of the Printed Word 8 . 208 . frequendy by children. Among his characteristic illustrations are those for Oliver Goldsmith’s The Vicar of Wakefield. His productive career embraced seven decades.and as such. but a large portion of it. The prints were handcolored. a forerunner of the English school of illus­ trators associated especially with the development of the London magazine Punch. Between 1824 and 1826. especially the more familiar illus­ trations. for which he did the outline drawings and left the tones to be laid in by special­ ists. London. These.1 2 7homas Rowlandson. Some of his work was engraved on wood. he made designs for German Popular Stories by the Grimm brothers. i8iq. from 1809 to 1877. was etched. A third influential English illustrator of the time was George Cruikshank.

1 3 George Cruiksbank. and was issued later in book form. Oliver Twist appeared initially in parts in the periodical Bentley VMiscellany. writers and texts. and it testifies to a fundamental shift in the interrelation­ ships of readers. . Etched illustration fo r O liv e r T w is t. Serial publication became the routine practice of many Victorian novelists. c Ha f t e r v i n * The Nineteenth Century 8 . General literacy was increasing. and authors were eager to find ways of enlarging their paying audience. 2 0 9 . g aristocratic patronage was declining. 1838. remain his greatest legacy.

he met Charles Philipon.1 4 Daumier. Baudelaire said of Daumier that “he drew because he had to . 1842. despite the artists disappointment with some of the engrav­ ings of his work. and. 1848. T he artist known as Gavarni (pseudonym of Guillaume Sulpice Chevalier) lacked the genius of Daumier. Among the books to which he contributed is Les français peints par eux-mêmes. A Short History of the Printed Word Illustration in France and Germany The giant of French illustration in the nineteenth century was Honoré Daumier. a vignette from Physiologie du Robert Macaire. Daumier did a number of vignettes that appeared in books. In 1831. bom in Marseilles in 1808 and taken to Paris in 1814. 210 . and they began a lifetime of collab­ oration. Wood engraved illustration fo r R o b e r t M a c a ire .it was his ineluctable vo­ cation” Below. the liberal publisher of La Caricature and Le Charivari. hut he was an illustrator of note and an outstanding lithographer. Paris. likely engraved by Birouste. Gavarni wras sufficiently admired in his own time to become the subject of an extensive biography by the Concourt brothers. 8 . many of the blocks produced in the 18405 remain classics among illustrations made on wood. 1842.

drolatiques. Menzel illustrated Franz Kugler’s Geschichte Friedrichs des Groszen as well as a number of 2î I . 1855. Paris.1 5 M enzel Wood-engraved illustration for F r i e d r i c h d e r G ro sz e . In the beginning. and in fact the two were friends toward the end of the Englishman’s life. 1. but success led him to seek die collaboration of some of the best wood engravers of his day. Doré made his own blocks. During die 1840s.chapter vin • The Nineteenth Century 8 . Paul Gustave Doré might be called the French Cruikshank. Adolph Menzel also had a group of engravers who were as able as any of their period. Among his best-loved works are his illustrations for Balzac’s Contes .840.

Curved plates for rotary printing from stereotypes made the system practical. New Presses: Letterpress and Lithography Nineteenth-century mechanics experimented with rotary mo­ tion for presses. two of the most brilliant crafts­ men who ever worked with woodblocks. As the new machinery was made. though the earliest print­ ers were English colonists. for example. printing in Maori was underway a full five years before printing in English. invented by Ottmar Mergen- 212 . and in Thailand around 1836. These were the Linotype machine. Offset lithography on paper was not achieved until the early years of the twentieth century. in Uruguay in 1807. Printing arrived. A rotary press fed by a continuous roll of paper . Typesetting: Linotype and Monotype Two revolutionary devices for setting type mechanically made their appearance in the last quarter of the nineteenth century. A. Richard Hoe patented a sheet­ fed rotary press. old machinery was exported to other lands. Eduard Kretzschmar.G. À Short History of the Printed Word works by the Emperor Friedrich himself.was demonstrated in 1865. In New Zealand. Among those who en­ graved the Menzel blocks were Friedrich Ludwig Unzelmann and his student. signboards and tobacco tins. Burma in t8i6.a web press . Eickhoff. Costa Rica in 1827.a process not useful for books but important for nineteenth-century packaging. New Zealand in 1830. It was used to put place advertisements on cookie boxes. In 1851 a mechanical press for lithography was built in Vienna by George Sigh It was adapted in 1875 for offset printing on tin . In New York in 1846. Ten years later a four-cylinder perfecting press (a press that prints simultaneously on both sides of the paper) was built hyJ. instead of the back-and-forth action of Konig’s cylinder press.

onotype\ inven ted by Tolbert Lmston and fundamentally revised by John Seilers Bancroft in the 18pos. C H A P T $ U V th aler in th e iS 8 os. M a n y a ttem p ts were made to develop other mechanical aids for c o m p o sito rs and founders. Chiefly these were sorting or assem- 213 . B o th o f these m achines set running copy but the Linotype casts ty p e lin e b y line in slugs. the M onotype casts individual letters and assem bles th e m in lines. and the M. but M o n o ty p e reduces the cost o f subsequent corrections. A Linotype gives cheaper first proofs.

By 1862. But as early as 1830. A Short History of the Printed Word 8 . It has a composing mechanism with a keyboard resembling that of a type­ writer. He built his first mechanical typesetting 214 . pattern. In response to the opei'ator’s keystrokes. T he inventor of this machine was born in Stuttgart in 1854 and moved to the US in 1872.1 7 Linotype pattern drawing.and then casts it in one piece. bling devices. The Linotype machine requires only a single operator. A distributing mech­ anism then returns the matrices to the magazine for reuse. mats and punch.adds the necessary spacing between words . The casting mechanism justifies the line . there were devices for casting type in bulk for hand composition. typecasting machines could produce completely finished sorts (individual pieces of type) that were ready for the printer’s cases. it assembles indiv­ idual matrices from the magazines in which they are stored.

Wherever such letters share a matrix they must have a common width. consists of two units . So much could not be gained without significant losses. . of art instead of commerce. On the Linotype. This is fed into the caster. but less stringently.usually the same letter in roman and in italic. Both these machines were made for cheap commercial work and were adapted only later to the making of fine hooks. It also gave the printer the equivalent of an inexhaustible type case. The price paid was that of flexibility in type design. the Monotype machine. The letters are cooled and as­ sembled in a channel until a line is completed. The importance of such a typesetting device went far beyond its contribution to speeding up composition. The Monotype too restricts the type designer’s freedom. The machine cast type as well as setting it.each requiring an operator. W ith the Linotype. and the fact that it cast a line at a time made com­ position easier to handle and kept individual letters from working up. but the first production model was that used in 1886 by the New York Tribune. where it is read by means of jets of compressed air. Mergenthaler achieved a reliable device for setting text. new type. type became disposable. and this makes the design restrictions all the more apparent. and letters such asf which often kern (overlap) against their neighbors.a keyboard and a caster . and every job the printer set was made of fresh. the Linotype system imposes various restrictions on the possible shapes of letters. machine in 1884. The competing device. one by one. Like its cousin the typewriter. They both re- main in use for making books today . As the tape is read. are no problem to the Monotype machine.though they are now the tools :. unused. such kerning is all but impossible. The basic principle of operation is the preparation of a perforated tape on the keyboard. Most Linotype mats carry two letters rather than one . matrices are se­ lected and letters are cast. W ith the Simplex Linotype of 1890. Roman and italic can have independent widths. unworn.

Copper was preferred to zinc for halftones ~ images in which gradations of dark and light are achieved with photographic screens . The etching of a line block is done in stages. W o rd 8 .because of copper’s slower and more controllable etching qualities. or cuts on zinc. Zinc was used for simple linecuts as early as 1840. f In making a photoengraving. the technique of making line blocks . The Development ofPhotoengraving Firmin Gillot was a pioneer in developing etched metal relief plates for letterpress printing. In his early experiments (as in those of his precursors) designs were put on metal by transfer methods similar to lithography. using photography. 18 Monotype keyboard and caster. A Short History of th e Printed. By 1870. the original is photographed and ■ the photographic negative is used to make an acid-resisting positive on metal. was well advanced. and by 1880 the process of breaking up tones into dots by photographing the original through wire or glass screens had been invented. between each 216 .

217 . Talbot. Discoveries by W H. Maddox. and the work of Niepce. Glass used to be used as the base for the gelatin film. At die heart of photomechanical reproduction is photography itself. This involves making a gelatin printing surface that re- I quires no screen and can therefore be used for finely detailed repro­ H ductions. Pretsch and others led to concurrent progress in photogravure. is inked or treated to preserve its acid- £ resisting qualities. Fox Talbot led also to the collotype 1 process. . T V C of which the image. * The Nineteenth Century 8 . . c h a p T e R v r i t. the dominant form of planographic 1/ printing.1 9 Monotype mats and punch. in- ^ taglio and photolithography. in reli ef.

a draftsman and wood-engraver. His son. Matthew Arnold and Eliza­ beth Gaskell among its contributors. A Short History of the Printed Word The Periodical Press in Britain In 1785. among the writers. attained his own degree of fame by a similar means. Though Walter was admired for the quality of his reporting. Ernest Shepard. the | Edinburgh Review had made a name for itself chiefly as a journal of literary criticism rather than fiction.000 copies . Thomas | Carlyle. the paper’s circu­ lation had reached 30. T he Yellow | 218 . many magazines of literary value lived brief lives. who served the magazine in the same capacity. who made his fame with his illustrations for Alice in Wonderland. In 1841.000 cartoons for Punch during his years as chief political cartoonist. or the London Charivari was founded by Ebenezer Landells. drew more than 2. A. but then as now.a number unattainable without the power-operated press. John Walter II. Landells had worked with Bewick. became publisher of the paper in 1803. John Ruskin. Three years later it became the Times. and John Leech and John Tenniel. Kate Greenaway and Whiter Crane. John Walter launched the Daily Universal Register. he faced continuous finan­ cial difficulties and began collecting bribes from those who feared exposure. Early contributors to Punch included Thomas Hood and W il­ liam Makepeace Thackeray. Walter Hazlitt. among the artists. Fifty-odd years later. In its pages Arnold. Thomas Babington Macaulay and Walter Scott appeared. through his illustrations for A. in London. Punch. the engraver and printer of those famous color illustrations made for children by Randolph Caldecott. The Edinburgh Review survived until 1929. a monthly founded in i860 with Thackeray as its editor and Anthony Trollope. Tenniel. Advertising revenue replaced the bribes. and it responded to his moral and economic ministrations. Another notable Victorian literary periodical included Comhill \ Magazine. Earlier in the century. By 1841. Milne’s Winnie the Pooh. and had in turn taught Edmund Evans.

still existed then upon the earth. . before had literary works been delivered in this way. 5 Velum* I April ÎS94. included Aubrey Beardsley.until 1897. produced and regularly scheduled packages. . but most of them were oral. in mass­ if. Never fif. Henryjames and Edmund Gosse. ifc■-:->C■ f . Many other vibrant literary cultures had existed long before and §y. an illustrated quarterly. Cover design hy Aubrey Beardsley. Max Beerbohm. however. to readers who were fm ass-p ro d u ced themselves by way of state and private schooling ..2 0 The Y e l l o w B ook. Book. was founded in 1894 and lasted only s. 3£^t*«v Bkwton. Its contributors. CejfwUwd é? Duf 8 .

Back in the US. Henry Jarvis Raymond. which ran from 1864 to 1922. Mark Twain and Owen Wister. published in Montreal in the 1820s. ^ie Century Illustrated Monthly (1880) and Scribner’s Magazine (1887). (Another. In its early years. Literacy itself became the new religion. was not content to undergo this evolution on its own. Herman Melville. all across the world.) T he original DiaVs editors and principal contributors were Margaret Fuller. Harper’s first editor. But for four years. Emerson himself complained that it was timid in design. There were other ventures to the north: the short-lived Cana­ dian Magazine and Canadian Review. Harper’s de­ pended largely on British authors. The power-operated press did for reading what the railroad did for travel. and that the prose in the first issue was inadequate even “to scare the tenderest bantling of Conformity. Europe. however.” All too true. A Short History of the Printed Word focused heavily on literacy skills. a quarterly published in Boston and Concord from 1840 to 1844. 2 2 0 . and the much longer-lived and livelier Revue canadienne.B. Winslow Homer and Howard Pyle. Among those who produced its illustrations were Edwin Abbey. could only give the magazine a portion of his day because in 1851 he joined two other men to found the New York Times. preached at home and fervently exported. A. Frost. Henry David Thoreau and Ralph Waldo Emerson. Later. The Periodical Press in North America Important nineteenth-century N orth American periodicals in­ clude the Dial. four monthly maga­ zines of high repute were launched beginning at mid-century: Harper’s Monthly Magazine (1850). the Atlantic Monthly (185 7). it published Henry James. with Christianity. that the type was too small. longer-lasting magazine of the same name was founded in New York in 1880. the Dial was the only place to read the increasingly plain-spoken and in­ creasingly important work of Thoreau.

in the . Theodore Low De Vinne. It was the first type specifically designed for a periodical. Scribner VMagazine was started by the younger Charles Scribner after his father had sold the earlier Scribner’s Monthly. Stephen Crane and George Washington Cable. had a remarkable list of authors. All these magazines had something else in common. The first of the Century' types were cut by Linn Boyd Benton in 1894. William Cullen Bryant joined the paper and in 1829 became its ed- 221 . whose Autocrat of the Breakfast-Table ap­ peared in its pages in serial form. which was backed by Alexander Hamilton and |Wâs intended to present the Federalist point of view. among them Robert Louis Stevenson. James Russell Lowell was its first editor. It. These unlovely but legible and unpretentious types served their sponsor well. Emerson.ch ap T Er v n j • The N i n e t e e n t h C e n tu r y T he Atlantic owes its name as well as its early reputation to Oliver Wendell Holmes. that while one in thirty-six bought newspapers in England. one in four bought them in Pennsylvania. and their digital descendants are in widespread use today. and it grew to encompass a large family. The American press was not handicapped by restrictive special taxation in the nineteenth century and was more free to develop than was the press in England. distin­ guished himself by commissioning a typeface for this purpose. They were owned and operated by book publishers. kept newspapers in the United States from indulging in a type of An early entry in the nineteenth century was the New York SBveningPost (1801). Rudyard Kipling. However. 1830s. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow and James Green- leaf W hittier were among its other earliest contributors. neither their freedom nor their relatively great numbers and wide circulation . In 1826. often used for books as well. who printed the Century. Morris Fuller Benton. Bret Harte. Many variants were added in due course by his son. too. Bulwer-Lytton pointed out. William and Henry James.

It was a Napier. Henry Raymond. Its capacity was 2. the 222 . the New York Tribune (1841). His tolerance of new ideas helped to make him a constructive crusader. By 1830. A Short History of t h e Printed Word itor. fie turned to Richard Harding Davis and Mark Twain for contributions. the Post as editor was Edwin Lawrence Godkin. an improved version of the Kônig press used by the London Times. the first editor of Harper's Monthly. however. the New York Advertiser became the first American newspaper to use a steam- driven press. was Charles A. Such advances in the mechanics of production help to account for the fact that the five most important New York dailies were begun between 1833 and 1866: the New York Sun (1833). His aim. after Day. only the Times has survived. the New York Herald (183 5). Benjamin Day started the Sun. In 1825. Foudrinier machines were being used in American paper mills. he said. was also associated with Horace Greeley on the New York Tribune before joining with George Jones and Edward Wesley to found the New York Times. later founder of The Nation. Bryant moved the Post into a position of supportingjacksonian democracy. But of all these. The Tribune was founded and edited by Horace Greeley.000 copies per hour. who was called the greatest journalistic influence in the United States. whose most noted editor. in addition to conceiving such circulation-building features as Henry M. Dana. The World was begun as a religious newspaper. but attained neither character nor strength until its purchase in 1883 by Joseph Pulitzer. In 1924 the paper was merged with the Tribune under the ownership of Ogden Reid. was to publish a paper known and re­ spected for accurate reportage. The Herald was founded by James G or­ don Bennett and was continued by his son. The younger Bennett also launched the Paris Herald. just prior to Bryant’s arrival in New York. For the most part. and type foundries had replaced their handcasting molds with machine casters. Stanley’s expedition to find David Livingstone. the New York Times (1851) and the New York World (1866). Among those associated with.

which is divided into 12 parts called points.the price of accurate reportage. so does its dependence on advertis­ ing revenue. not the reader. established a committee to study and formulate a point system for American founders comparable to the Didot system in Europe. they necessitate large sales. later to be known as “point-set.is a com­ panion diet of biased. Machine-set type and power-driven presses make large runs and fast production possible. led the way in what he called “self-spacing” type. inaccurate claims. if that can be attained . The newspaper’s function is twofold : to deliver news to the reader. 83 picas is roughly 35 cm. Yet news-sheets supported by their readership alone have not been seen in public since the eighteenth century.” His purpose was to assure even lines. pay the wages of the editors and journalists and die publisher’s considerable bills. and one point is roughly 0. . intended to enable typefaces of different families and sizes to be aligned more easily. This system remains in use wherever. The American Point and Other Standard Systems The United States Founders Association. Under these conditions. and to achieve this it was necessary to distort the individual letterforms. Caught up in the general zeal for standardization. in 1884 Linn Boyd Benton. inventor of the pantographic punchcutting machine.35 mm. the price of Raymond’s dream . metal type is used. They. The shop convenience and economic ad­ vantage of these “improvements” were bought at high cost to indi­ vidual letterforms and the effect of the type on the page. An addi­ tional regularizing was the introduction of the Standard Lining -System. At the same time. in Britain and N orth America. The Ameri­ can point system employs a pica unit. In general. and to deliver the reader to advertisers. In metric terms. as the frequency of a publication rises. in 1886.newspaper business in America has involved the manufacture of news as well as its reportage.

first for the church. but was unhappy with an art focused more on the museum than on living a good life. William. stained glass. M oms Among those who disliked the steady conquest of craftsmanship by the machines was the Englishman 'William Morris. He was bom in 1834 and educated at Oxford. i S<j 6 . The Kehnscott Chaucer. A Short H i s to r y of t h e Printed Word 8 . Before he set up his own press. a shop affiliated with Pickering and so with the Caslon revival. wallpaper. Morris’s socialism and romantic ideas of the nobility of labor were practiced at a safe distance from any knowledge of financial hardship. then for a ca­ reer in architecture.as applied to illumination. It was named for 224 . London . Morris also wrote both poetry and prose throughout his life. he had one book printed by the Chiswick Press. He turned then to design .2 1 Morris. rugs and furniture. Morris established the KelmscottPress in 1891. He took up painting. He had sufficient means to al­ low him to satisfy his reasonable desires.

This was Morris’s home from 1878 until his death in 1896. devised by Richard Cope in 1823. London. [ L L ta m c m js e i/ "CR6R praise nor blame. such as choose to seek it : it is neither prison. . nor any unblind. Chaucer and Troy . nor palace. in Hammersmith. the Albion. The printing was done on a handpress. but it was located at another Kelmscott House. This gives a clearer tactile sense of the mo­ tion of the platen and makes possible more sensitive adjustments of impression.Kelmscott Manor House.that Morris designed. an English engraver and printer who was one of the most versatile de­ signers. Troy type. which he had shared with Dante Gabriel Rosetti twenty years before. so do n ot X. ever to work in England. cut the three types .Golden. buta decent home. Such a press lowers the platen by a toggle ac­ tion rather than a screw. His advisor and associate in the press was Emery Walker. Edward Prince. but say that so itis: som e people praise th is homeli­ n ess overmuch. as if the land were the ■very axle/tree o f the world . a punchcutter chosen by Walker.2 2 W illiam Morris .• ed by pride in them selvesandall that belongs to them : others therearewbo scorn it and the tam eness o f it: not I any the more: though it would in­ deed be bard if there were nothing 8 . and one of the best typographic scholars. It also lessens wear and tear on the pressman. in Oxfordshire.

he could hardly have imagined that the influence of his ideas would be so great. When Morris died. paper. he taught those who were interested to learn the value of reexamining tire past and to profit by it. just five years after setting up the Kelmscott Press. illustrated by his Oxford friend. ink. imposition and impression must he con­ sidered together. Edward Burne- Jones. Along with his con­ temporaries. Above all. 226 . Morris called attention to the inherent qualities of all typography and to the basic nature of letter- press printing in particular. Cob den-Sanderson with the Doves Press and Charles Ricketts with the Vale Press.J. is one of his most highly prized books. À Short H i s to r y of the Printed Word Morris preached a doctrine of interdependent factors in book­ making: type. it is the harmony between the two. He regarded two facing pages as the unit. T. It is not the amount of ornament that enhances and gives variety to a page of type. Even artists and designers repelled by the diickness of the undergrowth in Morris’s designs have been touched by his devotion to the marriage of art and craft. His edition of Chaucer. but he needs consistency. H e demonstrated that a typographer does not need endless sizes of type.

meaning Renaissance or Baroque “ and “modern” . type such as Bodoni’s and Firmin Di­ dot’s. H. established the Doves Press. He remained what art historians call a Pre-Raphaelite. It is used to mean “Romantic” . This outdated terminology is based on a somewhat simplistic y division of type into “old style” . in older books about typog­ raphy. T. it draws its inspiration chiefly from the ro­ man of Nicolas Jenson. in the same sense that the paintings of Paul Cézanne (who died in 1906) are modern paintings. the term “modern” is often used in another sense. It is a mod­ em type. like its model. In the nineteenth century. but the Doves Roman possesses. . (Here it is necessary to explain that. among them C. Emery Walker. All of these presses had special types designed for them. a deep simplicity which Morris’s type does not. In 1900. The Doves Press type differs markedly from the others.i. Morris. Like Morris’s Golden type. sev­ press W eral other private presses of note were founded in England. both in 1894. Rossetti. C H A P T E R IX The Early Twentieth Century: 1900-1940 ’h i l e t h e k e lm s c o t t was still in operation.J. remained to the end of his life something other than a modern.G. and in each case tire punches were cut by Edward Prince of London. like his friend D. only a few steps from the old Kelm- scott premises. St John Hornby’s Ashendene Press and Lucien Pissarro’s Eragny Press. Cobden- Sanderson and William Morris’s former associate.e.. who had also cut the Kelmscott faces.meaning Romantic.

18y 6. . Clari Giganteo triumpbo.2 Pissarro. Regum tunendorum in proprios grege R eges in ipsos imperium est lovts..y .: 8 f s » . :&fer. Est ut viro vir (atius ordinet Arbusta sulcis. Eragny Press B o o k o f R u th a n d E s th e r. V .'".y-. v .Of’ . A Short History of the Printed Word / ~ \ D I profanum vulgus Si arceo . y ^ y y . «a0Wfe^gè. .::^ât ./ Favete linguis : carmina non prius Audita Musarum sacerdos V irginibus puerisqj canto. btc generosior Descendat in Campum peator. y .•■. .••■. l ê W i » â h ïîte iys-Æti is f tt^ * . ' titm t ih a ï th e y ph»U myt 'T h e ::iâ & tk ï h m / m & y r h v à ftoofctut ■' ifeft ÎR«Â'.v..âfed:êhÿ:’.n:vy:«iiiâ& - 9 . ■jm.. y : .^ssëit^ . 9-i Askendene Press typey based on the first type ofSweynheym & Parmartz. Cuncta supercilto movenns.

such monumental pro­ duction. or otherwise . Great thoughts deserve &demand a great setting. such terminology made a kind of *»• sense. the whole fieldof literature remains open to select from.3 T. Doves Press Bible. whether in build­ ing. sculpture. It makes much more sense now to speak about typography in the same terms used for all the other arts. Doves Roman. ceremonial.J.\$0:- when Romantic type was new. Cobdm-Sanderson.To-day v there is an immense reproduction in an admirable cheap form. is a legiti­ mate ambition and a public duty.J. expressive of man’s admiration. as a first essay. And this ÿ q Emery Walker & T.) 9 . 190$. & the great works of literature have again and again to be set forth in forms suitable to their magnitude. ([These Books printed. of all Books which in any language have stood the test of time. & whether by The Doves Press or some other press or presses. But such reproduction is not a substitute for the more monumental production of the same works. 229 . Cobden-Sanderson.

His two great achievements were the operation of press as a commercial establishment with impeccable standard. At noon ire tofik paftHgo in the Stetunbaii.’' Ï take tin'.. The Wedding Journey of Charles and Martha Amory.Preble'* wwiipany. stopped at. In *fst« of my 9. one of America’s most distinguished and able printers. Newport. /h m ry 's Letters i. who very kindly atlendtal ijk to N. my -stems? Moths. who mceived us with even more than t t e f usual kimlnefs.'holv tide.':. a designer asso. anti our te si -sdi«i at Dedham : that fisrling scero I shall l«sg n ‘m w ttbw --w . wait much sa ilsvetted to M‘ Ameory by M‘ E. 230 . wifi n»m<ssi~ bar the left Brookline with you. however.« cjtprràtww.!1. *n «amtrt afSMwtl of my *>£#- rep»*. Before leaving Providence we . Forms and Use. however. f e î ot>- portsmivy to (w »m «iw f after lihmiaan ïï-ïvm w«. ptrjimmi y m .■tun. we «oqgniased M" tc M" N. Merrymount was established in 1893 Daniel Berkeley Updike. which. haw. where among «tilers of our acquamtanca». and r o mnined there with u* till the eve* before we «ailed. Rogers and Goudy I Prince also cut three types for H erbert Horne. who. and his book entitled PrmtingTypes: Their History. A Short History of the Printed Word Mrs. «(tec « mebrst. printed by the Merry- mount Press in Boston. You. 1922. Montailegro had its initial use in Condivi’s Life of Michelagnolo Buonarotti.5 Updike. Vm'fc.i » long vtoh to our Blends the Arnolds. Amory. I #m .• elated with Morris.>•>. 1 The United States : Updike.h îïiDiiioîiï-ï at* not easily obliterated from the memory? We reached Provafcnee to (deep. O f the three.

»few i m s tummy* Weftem po&. j o u r n a l o f M a d a m K n ig h t. ifijf IS ! 9 . 1 X\ b«g«ft infJnuaty fem Bofton îoNcw-Hwchi bring about ram iHun* <tocdMile. Rabat Luife. The Early Twentieth Century: 1900-1940 ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ I I H ü iiM . A^fc?]*. OS&'r.MfKinsman.fs&mt.V':. CTTyCM i ^M t M CTC ABOUT th<*e o'dock aftaraooft. waked! on men» Hat as Dc41»am.7 Rogers. . Mmiay. Cap. 1920.

where the darkness is most dense. and in Eng­ land he worked with Emery Walker. . uj 15. Massachusetts. ? Like t h e river in y o n d e r v alley . Later. Rogers worked for many publishers. it transforms its fifteenth-century model into a new and modern type.w h o se first drops S o w f ro m so m e cliff that w eeps in a j deep grotto. In 1935 he designed his Oxford Lectern Bible. and in the innermost recesses of the wildest of them all. À Short H is to r y o f th e Printed Word tW a s b o m in a c a v e rn o f th e s e m o u n ta in s . and like the Doves Roman. draw near their term. Montaigne (1901) and Centaur (1914). who for a time was an associate of Updike’s. He designed two typefaces. nor vexed its silence. uncomplaining. (In doing so. they retire to th e c a v / erns. It is based. Mifflin. he was actually reenacting a Renaissance form. T he most important American typographer of the early twenti ­ 1 eth century was undoubtedly Bruce Rogers. like the Doves Roman. Their s tr e n g tf v g m n g m ilk enables us to endure with/ out weakness or dubious struggles the first difficulties of life. on the work of Nicolas Jenson. a subsidiary of the publishing firm of Houghton. As our mothers . Rogers was also associated for a number of years with the admirable Print­ ing House of William Rudge. the first moments o f my life . yets 9 .) I11 his three-score years of book designing. In 1896 he became director of the Riverside Press in Cambridge. including the university presses of Cambridge and Oxford.8 Rogers. offspring as silent as! themselves. Centaur type. New York. at M t Vernon. however. sped amidst t h e sh a d o w s of a secluded re/ treat. Francesco Griffo and Robert Granjon had worked on the same pattern. they bring forth. he became the very prototype of the modern freelance typographer. The latter is his masterpiece.

his mature work is fluent. for speech existed long before it was dis­ covered th at the human voice could be represented by symbols— thus C9 } 9 . perhaps. A n ornamental form once found is repeated. indicating a single sound o r combination o f sounds. set up the Village Press at Park Ridge. it becomes established by use. a Midwestern accountant turned letterer and type designer. with a definite shape i? significance. y Goudy captured the imagination of American printers as no . and his name became familiar in print­ -shops all across the country. as an organised system. they have a long history and manifold associations.letters w ere adaptations o f natural forms employed in picture-writing. they are classics. Goudy became one of the most prolific type designers in printing history. Just so. was o f necessity slow in devel­ oping. through grouping. the next steps. until finally its origin and meaning are. historically well-grounded. Illinois. In 1903. were equally lingering. b u t by a process o f evolution. Goudy. [actually degradation. it may be associated w ith fundamental ideas o f life and nature and is handed on and on. other type designer has. and should not be tampered w ith. the eye grows accustomed to it and expects its recurrence. He came into the field at a time when 233 . Language itself.} they have become arbitrary signB w ith little resemblance to the symbols from w hich they are derived. and providing a means. In addition to his types. yet quite patently his own.9Frederic Gaudy. Though he started late. the picto­ rial significance o f individual letters is so deeply buried in oblivion that special study and research w ould be necessary to resurrect their original form or meaning— an undertaking no t essential here. teurish. except w ithin limits th a t just discretion may allow. Originally . lost. o f thoughts. Frederic W. th e approaches tow ard a more or less phonetic al­ phabet. for the visible ex­ pression o f words— that is. These arbitrary shapes have passed through their periods o f uncertainty and change. His earliest work is ama- . he produced two books on letters: The Alphabet and Elements ofLettering. Kennerley type with a handlettered title. Opening page o / T h e A lp h a b e t. chapter ix • The E a r ly T w e n tie th C e n tu r y : ig o 0-194 0 e r p ftp lp b e t Chapter L W fmt Letters Are LETTER is a symbol.

a calligrapher and teacher of note. Once. too briefly and inadequately. À Short His tow of the Printed Word pantographic engraving machines were beginning to replace the ancient process of cutting punches by hand. ‘one who does things himself. Published in 1906. For instance.not the most often seen . His last 'message to the Society ofScribes ï and Illuminators was this: ^Study your dictionaries. who published Goudy’s books on letter design. it has been reprinted countless times. To most of us now. I have asked him to provide a glimpse of his friend : I recall Edward Johnston as a serious and courteous man.are Deepdene and Kennerley. look up I the word aùôévTtjs (authéntes). an English calligrapher who managed to com­ bine a productive life in ornamental lettering with a remarkable career in teaching. and in his later years Goudy used such a machine to make his own mats. Close to him in his last years was Alfred Fairbank. but with a startling and delightful clarity o f mind.\ fectionist. more often than not. and Lettering. weary from ill : health. I said to him that I did not \ believe in perfection. It is not likely to be unknown to anyone who has seriously at­ tempted to learn calligraphy or to learn the craft of making letters during the last sixty years. He was a per. William Graily Hewitt and Anna Simons. show traces of overstatement in design. Johnston’s pupils included Eric Gill.first hand. Johnston is the author of Writing and Illuminating. The results. Among his finest types . Edward Johnston and His Friends It seems to me that the one in all drat Morris ambi ence who con­ tributed most to the twentieth-century renaissance in letters was Edward Johnston. T he latter is named for Mitchell Kennerley. the outstanding book in the field. and this has tended to reduce the effectiveness of his faces for setting any large amount of text. His immediate response was: “1 believe in the Book o f Kells/ ”Always he was in search ofthe Truth and his integrity often caused \ him to confess defects in his work. \ 234 .

although based upon the lettera rotunda script of the lyth century and the italic type used in G. Title with Maillol woodcut. reallyproceed- 'I' ingfrom its reputed source or author.:•' c h a p t e r i x ® The Early Twentieth Century : 1900-194 o ' opposite to copied. and his design ofscripts and in- / ■ scriptions was an expression of his genius. ” As a calligrapher he was unequalled. Cranach Press Virgil. opposite topretend.A. 192d 235 . His other type designs. His work was mainly based cm Ms belief that the pen with a broad nib is essentially the letter-making tool.In 1916 he designed the sans serif ofLondon’s Underground railway and ' thus led attention awayfrom the current Victorian debased desigtiers. ï o H arry Kessler. made for Count Kessler. . real.: 9 . (DIE ECLOGEN YERGILS IN DER URSPRACHE UND DEUTSCH ÜBERSETZTVON RUDOLF ALEXANDER SCHROEDER : MIT ILLUSTRATÏONEN GEZEICHNET UND GESCHNITTEN VON ARISTIDE MAILLOL . actualgenuine.

11 Maillol. then commissioned Emery Walker to oversee it. The Count Kessler referred to by Fairbank was Harry Kessler. by George Friend. Work - resumed in 1925. also de. Its first publi­ cation was a set of three bilingual editions of'Vi r gifs Eclogues (Latin . founder of the Cranach Press of Weimar. when Prince died. signed the typographic format and created calligraphic title pages i 236 . These three English artists. Johnston and Gill. Walker. A S h o r t H i s t o r y o f th e P r in t e d W o r d Tagliente ’s writing :manual. Woodcut illustration for Virgil. was received with great enthusiasm in Germany. The English arts and crafts movement. English and French) illustrated by Aristide Maillol Kessler planned the work. . especially as represented by Morris and Johnston. 9. were given new life byJohnston’s calligraphic knowledge and skill and the cutting ofthe punches by Edward Prince and. but World War I forced an interruption. and the book was finished the following year. with German. using initials and title lettering by Johnston and G ill Work began in 1912.

They continued to produce hooks by hand with that imprint •until 1923.it?. la fimé da pmtm Prmfa done. . Poeschel played a role in Germany not unlike that played by Updike in America. An extremely able printer. Tiemann. ear « jeune adepte av.am. an illustrator and typographer. 1947* for a series of classics printed early in the century by Carl Ernst Poeschel for the Ins el Verlag. ü a dbfts (m tsearcefle la' râniçon:de deÿx-rois! "• .12 Picasso. In 1907 he joined Walter Tiemann. who illustrated for the Insel Verlag and de­ signed a number of typefaces for the Klingspor type foundry in Offenbach.Tou* trois. Illustration fo r Balzac's Le Chef-d’œuvre inconnu.jusqu'à une belle ammn 9. was also the director of the Leipzig Academy. chapter i x * The Early Twentieth Century: 1900-1940 usecunmmmm acnwi irdltflir ft rougir de bcmm. to form the Janus- : Presse. Leipzig. ifc desceft&ftni de 1atelier et chetm- (K-rentcit devisant: fur ies.

238 . Tristes Os. donc on vantait te bonne humeur.1 3 Rouault Wood-engraved illustrations. France: Livres de Peintres In France. La sic est amère et ce peuple. Le Préfet affirme que tour homme de progrès devra s'y habituer . m 9 . printed letterpress by die Imprimerie Nationale. mm pats. Picasso. After the work. admettons- te. C ir q u e d e P é to ile fila n te . Dufy. including Bonnard. faut (te bruits incongrus que te Fréter d'Athènes a prohibés hier sur ben» papier blanc cote noos a coûté quelques deniers. Et vois mfin ce qu’ite ont fait De cette humaine. A Short History of the Printed Word Entende done. vaillants humoristes. d’autres assurant mettre au point des disques parfaits. His artists make an extraordinary list. qui lui rendrez la (oie avec vos petits craquetons. generous size of Jean Jannon’s italic. Rouault and Dunoyer de Segonzac. His first book. si amusants qulls soient. was illustrated with large marginal lithographs by Bonnard against which the poetry was set in a. Verlaine’s Parallèlem ent . films m>p sonores peuMire bien. à condition que ce soit ma colombe qui roucoule sur mon «sur en mineur et non les aboveurs de ia Bourse de Paris par hauMiurtear. si belle. The publisher and art dealer Ambroise Vollard was of singular importance in this regard. et ces bruits renaissent pire discordants encore. semble triste à crever : ce n'est pas vous. 1938. the printing revival was directed toward die develop­ ment of illustrated books.

1875. the directorate of the Imprimerie took ex­ ception to the text and recalled the edition. Bringing the works of painters into poets’ books was not a new idea.c h a p t e r ix * The Early Twentieth Century: 1900-1940 9 . was completed in 1900. Paris. Edouard Manet and Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec had both led the way in lithographic illustration. Voliard’s exacting and detailed attention to his books often delayed their completion. save for a few copies that had been distributed.1 4 Manet. But not all pub- . a score of books were in production and in some instances a quarter of a century had elapsed between commissioning and completion. At his death in 1939. M anet’s illustrations for Poe’s Raven point up the misfortune that he did so few. Lithographic illustration fo r Poe's T h e R aven.

and those which came in as commissions from private patrons. an eminent French printer- publisher. he had earned the respect and admiration of most of the graphic artists of Europe and of some in the United States. Gustav Eichenauer maintained a shop for engraving and punchcutting. The Twenties: The Offenbacher Werkstatt Among the European ateliers that began and flourished after World War I. Former associ­ ates. In addition to these personal connections. and a second large workroom devoted to the making of tapestries. yet it enjoyed the closest possible relationship with an out­ standing type foundry and with an excellent arts and crafts school. In 1967 Henri Jonquières. silversmithing and calligraphy. publishers and 240 . A Short His ton' of the Printed Word lishers of livres de peintres v t s t t as insistent as Vollard on getting the very best from craftsmen and materials . In a nearby building. Koch gave some of Ger­ many’s finest printers their knowledge of the forms and arrange­ ment of letters. As instructor of calligraphy at the school. chiefly by Koch. The projects undertaken by the Werkstatt were divided be­ tween those initiated in the studio. where his types Koch An tiqua (Eve) and Neuland were introduced in the 1920s. both woven and embroidered. The Werkstatt consisted of the studio where Koch and his chief assistants worked on the projects that were graphic in nature. It had the character of a private studio. in other towns. Rudolf Koch's Offenbacher Werkstatt was one of the most professional and influential. were available for special assignments in mural painting. told me that the buy ers of deluxe limited editions were increasingly concerned with the value of illustrated books as invest­ ments radier than as works of art and were moved more by the name of the artist than by the quality of his prints and the text and typog­ raphy that went with diem.and the market for limited editions did not demand the quality Vollard was determined to provide.

to sharpen the etched lines of bsVï finished plates with a graver. he eventually put some of that training and experience into -. The master of the studio. in 1931 and 193 2. and. A third regular helper was Richard Bender. like Guten­ ( T berg. He was not a strong man. but the manner in which ideas were carried out was much closer to the functioning of a Renaissance than of a Victorian studio. all of whom had been his pupils. Bom in Nürnberg in 1876. whose job it was to clean up drawings for re­ production and. by a subtle force of personality. either in fact or ap­ pearance. the son of a sculptor. Koch’s chief assis­ tant and coworker was the woodcutter Fritz Kredel. 1955. He guided his assistants. 241 . When I was with the group.1 5 Eichenauer. The example of Morris is obvious here. was not an administrator. in some instances. ch a pt er ix • The E arly Tw entieth C a n a ry : ip 0 0 -1 9 4 0 ijklmnopqrst fuvwxyz i llif |cj. . Koch chose to become a goldsmith. His principal aid in calligraphy was Berthold Wolpe. he was a student at the Munich Academy when his father’s death forced him to seek a trade. Proof o f roman type designed by Warren Chappell and cut in dead by Gustav Eichenauer. Koch. ecclesiastical sources.i23456789ol2j345:67:89:0| 9 .

7 / ' ■ tk. .7 . Neuland and Marathon.mtft fwdhead 'ÏKô> <**!»*£. T he three types which Koch designed directly on metal were his Jessen. -1 ' gknmer. Â Short History of the Printed Word cutting type.: III 9MÊÊÈÈÊÏËÈÊBÏt t S Î É ^ liliS i 9.: ‘7 odbàrb)?ckw<Md»$^ «W* . -7 7. It was financed from the beginning by Koch. 242 .ked istg vi&ta éf . 1925. ctarn?^ sfmcï kf. It was completed in October of 1930. a book of 250 wildflowers which Koch drew and Fritz Kredel cut on pearwood.a$ W â fine' ^jmiajfa'ïtesïïs. v ■ whereas ' 'if . <8* «*k . . in Leipzig.16 Jan van Krimpen's Lutetia type. Several years were required to execute the cuts. and was a hilly realized production when it was turned over to the Insel Verlag for distribution./"-' west jo%. N o project undertaken in the Werkstatt better exemplifies the Koch approach than the making of D as B lum enbuch . . After that. sî' ïlifehH /-fe ftîWSîcôï . ihi: m pm -vr. the printing was done by Friedrich Wilhelm Kleukens’s Mainzer Press and the book handcolored by Emile Woellner. i m \ wai nsssdy gïaïgf '.

those who had learned their craft under the influence of die Morris revival. taken from Day Three f of the D ecam eron . Paul Helmuth Radisch. ' time and time again. called Wallau. alas. An early use of it was Jésus C hrist en Flandre . Eric Gill.idl. W hen I was studying with Koch and : could watch his method of working. I was always aware that his atti- t : tude toward the process of designing was creative rather than eclec- tlc.er are all outstanding examples. the 1920s. with whom he had worked for thirty years. Van Krimpen quoted Gill : “Letters are things. Enschedé en Zonen in the Netherlands. Rudolf Koch. At war's end. His rotunda. not pictures of if things. Walter Tiemann. The book included woodcut illustrations by Fritz 243 . and had rediscovered calligraphy through the teaching of Edward Johnston. a type designer who came to prominence was Jan van Krimpen. Emil Rudolf Weiss. the year before his death. Koch had an almost equally long association with his own • punchcutter. more and more polished. World War I was more than an inter- ■mption. Paul Renner and Ernst Schne. In this period. Eichenauer.” It is exactly that distinction that has been so sorely tried. became leaders in the printing arts. for it seemed to me he must have recognized that his own tight style of working allowed little opportunity for a punchcutter to make his particular contribu- v tion. was used in 1931-32 to print a If German transl ation of a story by Boccaccio. privately printed in New York at the Strawberry Hill Press in 1928. Late in 1957. was cut and cast in 1924-25 and imported into North America shortly afterward. Van Krimpen and I ex­ changed views on punchcutting. “has grown.” I regretted that our postal colloquy could not have continued.1 9 4 0 T y p e D e s ig n in th e 1 9 2 0 s For printing in general. Lutetia. it marked the end of an era. c h a p t e r ix * T h e E a r ly T w e n tie th C e n tu r y : 1 9 0 0 . with wood engravings by Allen Lewis. He wrote that his own engraver. His first type. and in a number of cases became teachers themselves. chief designer for Joh.

who worked for the Klingspor foundry. now owned by the i Staatsbibliothek (State Library) in Berlin .like the woodcuts in the H y p n e iv- tom achia Poliphili of Aldus ~ to answer to the color of the type. cut die types designed by Emil Rudolf Weiss. 1 7 Comparison o f a rotunda type designed by William Morris and one cut by R udolf Koch. J In addition to Eichenauer. 7\ls er aber ben grôBtm Tell berfelben auf bie nâmUche Wetfe an einem Punk* te gefehortn fab. As if happens. above. the type is very similar in flavor to the hand in which Boc­ caccio wrote his own fair copy of the D ecameron . already mentioned. no unspeakable beauties. no ter­ rors. present. cut by Edward Prince. Koch’s Wallau. A Short Hi s t o r y of the Printed W o r d Kredel. and in­ stead only imitate the models on which they were based. carefully planned . Here Koch’s Wallau.hut the handwriting in i that manuscript had not yet been identified as Boccaccio’s when Koch set and printed his edition of the story. past. no wonders. & 9 . worked at the Enschedé foundry in Haarlem. M orris’s Troy. at the Bauer foundry in Frankfurt. fonts for Willi Wiegand of the Bremer 244 . He also cut. and Morris’s Troy type. where he cut most of the types designed by Jan van Krimpen. PaulHelmuth Radisch. rounberte er rich unb fpradi bei fich felbft: «Derjenlg^ben fch It seems to me that the call igraphic forms of the Troy font fail to ' achieve the naturally organic characteristics of a rotunda. cut by Eichenauer. below. on private commission. Louis Hoell. are compared. Yet when we tbink wbat a sm all part o f tbe world’s history. there were other able punchcutters during the 1920s ami early thirties. else in tbc world.

’.§ ÿ . he engraved Zapf’s Î! calligraphic panels published in 1950 under the title Feder u n d Stichel: one of the century’s major works of calligraphic art. including the original foundry . typecutter for the Stempel foundry. Boccaccio. : j \ Chapt er i x • T h e E a r ly T w e n tie th C e n t u r y : i ÿ o o —i y f .o i:SM$MtCéâîtmu * jjg f^ G pS C g fg ft felifBm titfelhe . fflS:Pg tt'rrbob fflfbdn toe Zimmer Orr . Work­ ing as an independent craftsman. ‘ ■ I iïés' § 1: §g|f§|§§|^ : .' \ ' ' ' y T CCÀ 9 . . 1 9 5 2 . Frederic }Warde and Giovanni Mardersteig. Çput the early types of Hermann Zapf. . In addition. Malin also worked for other ty- : pographers of importance. K o n ig A g iiu lf ... Charles Malin of Paris cut for Eric I Gill the first sizes of his Perpétua. including Stanley Morison...k d î^ ^ gteg. Presse and for Joseph Blumenthal of the Spiral Press.1 8 Rudolf Koch’s Wallau type. versions of Palatino and of Optima.. August yRosenberger. also in Frankfurt. ■■:" • m ûÊn$$m .■ '■■CTç.• ". : V .

never himself a member of the Bauhaus . Stempel and Enschedé come readily to mind. Paul Renner . It was cut by the Bauer type foundry and given the name Futura. Wassily Kandinsky. And many of these specimens. intelligible to all. Lyonel Feininger. Marcel Breuer. and it was adapted early on for ma­ chine composition. At the other end of the spectrum. presumably. embodied well-edited. Laszlo Moholy-Nagy and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. are quality of editing and quality'' of text 246 . Even ameliorated by Renner. but its use overall has been chiefly for display.whose first concerns. Klingspor. Books and Publishers Four things are required in a fine book: excellence of writing. Some of the finest typog­ raphy and printing of the early twentieth century is found in speci­ mens published by the type foundries. Bauer. Even so. design and physical production. il il À Short H is to r y of the P r in t e d Word il The Bauhaus and the Geometric Letter Founded in 1919 in Weimar for the integral teaching of art and craft. the functionalism preached by the Bauhaus fell noticeably short of its great claims.de­ signed such a face in 1925. editing. Josef Albers. as stated by Gropius. Futura is indeed the most legible (and in subtle ways also the most calligraphic) of the geometric sanserif types. Paul Klee. This appeared for a long time to be the most successful of the sanserif types. Its original staff included Walter Gropius. well-written texts. unlike Bodoni’s.” In type this was expressed by rationally constructed alphabets. The j Bauhaus ideal. free of serifs and contrasts. the university presses . The Belgian designer Henry Van de Velde used it for literary texts from the moment it appeared. the Bauhaus exerted a large influence on typography in Eu­ rope in the 1920s. it lacks the legibility of many good workaday romans that owe everything to experience and nothing much to theory. was “a restriction to typical J basic form and color.

and it is only in fortunate conditions that the market knows or cares what quality is. Gaston Gallimard in France. ~~have sometimes done exemplary design and printing work as well. books in which design and pro­ duction are held to the highest standard have come almost entirely 247 . Bremer-Presse D iv in a C o m m e d ia . Trade presses are. and Yale University Press.9U 9 W illi Wiegand. under the direction of Carl Purlington Rollins. imitation and rapid change for change’s sake. under Horace Hart. 1921. Samuel Fischer in Germany. at the mercy of the market. Unusual individuals with the courage of their convictions have made fine books in the world of the trade press even so ~ and by giving these books the widest possible circu­ lation. The forces of mass production. though rare. set loose by the Industrial Revolution. by definition. Early in the century. make it difficult for any standard of value (even monetary curren­ cies) to stabilize and mature. Such publishers. issued books of lasting importance. Alfred Knopf in the USA. In the age of mass production. Amoldo Mondadori in Italy. and Georg Svensson in Sweden are examples. could be found in many countries in the early twentieth century. Oxford University’s Clarendon Press. have contributed in no small measure to the health of their societies.

. O m y father. even unto death. AND SAITH U N TO THE DISCIPLES. Simons also designed the large and spare initials. and w atch w ith me. Sophocles. if it be possible. which in most Bremer Presse books were die only decoration allowed. saving. SIT YE HERE. Augustine. A Short History of the Printed Word COMETH J ESUS W ITH THEM UNTO A PLACE CALLED G'ETHSEMANE. A N D LIE TOOK W IT H HIM Peter and the tw o sons o f Zebedee.among them the Austrian poet Hugo von Hofmannsthal. Golden Cockerel Press. O m v 69 9 . nevertheless not as 1 will. Other presses of the day which adhered to similar ideals include 248 . It was founded in Bremen in 1911 by Willi Wiegand and several associates . So were all its types. Then saith he un to them. W H ILE I GO AMD PRAY YONDER. The press’s authors included Homer. H e w ent away again the second tim e. And he w ent a little farther. Luther and Goethe. saying. and fel! on his lace. could ye n o t w atch w ith m e one hour? W atch & pray. from the private press. Dante.2 0 Eric Gill. tarry ye here. Its paper was specially made. who had studied with Edward Johnston. b u t th e flesh is weak. W hat. Tacitus. and findeth them asleep. let this cup pass from me. arid began to be sorrow- foi and very heavy. and prayed. t hat ye e n ter not in to tem pta­ tion: th e spirit indeed is willing. b u t as thou wilt. and prayed. A nd he som eth un to the disciples. Mv sou] Is exceeding sorrowful. T h e F o u r G o s p e is . An example is the Bremer Presse. designed under Wiegand’s direction by the callig­ rapher Anna Simons. and saith unto Peter.

the Golden Cockerel Press in Berkshire. and an Irish face for setting Irish Gaelic. Both accordingly commis­ sioned new designs and historical revivals. Both firms were interested initially only in low-grade advertising and text faces. England. founded in 1922 by Giovanni Mardersteig. Lanston Monotype (the American firm) meanwhile bought de­ signs and historical revivals from its own typographical advisor. Stanley Morison and the Typographic Revival The Monotype machine was an American invention. and much of its accomplishment was due to the type historian Stanley Morison. In this venture. It produced two good Greek faces (Porson and New Hellenic) for setting classical texts. chiefly for newspaper use. the Grabhorn Press in San Francisco. So did the Linotype company through its offices in Frankfurt. but two separate entities . Bell and Fournier). Jean-François van Royehs Zilver Distel Press in the Hague. and in Verona the Officina Bodoni. Frederic Goudy.were estab­ lished to manufacture and sell it. It commissioned new de­ signs from Eric Gill and bought existing new designs by artists such as Bruce Rogers. Under Morison’s direction. perhaps grudgingly.. Jan van Krimpen and Giovanni Mardersteig. Monotype methodically worked its way through the legacy left by the punchcutters and printers of the past. It made machine adaptations of Renaissance faces (Poliphilus and Bembo). And Linotype commissioned new designs from William Addison Dwiggins and Rudolph Ruzicka. to recognize the value of better types for setting books. who was the corporation’s typo­ graphical advisor from 1923 until his death in 1967. .one in the USA and one in England . but both in time began. and historical revivals from the English master printer George Jones. . Manchester and New York. Baroque faces (Caslon and Van Dijck) and Neoclas­ sical faces (Baskerville. the Monotype Corporation (“English Mono­ type”) took the lead. c h a p t e r i x * The Early Tw entieth C entury: 1900-1940 .

a typog­ rapher and type designer whose sense of language was as great as his design sense. whose Limited Editions Club. like Knopf. and the range of printers was wide. in editions of 1. most printing during the early part of this century became more com­ monplace rather than more conscientious. he turned to Bruce Rogers and Elmer Adler. W ith their help. America’s Vollard was George Macy. was able to survive and flourish. who introduced him to others.500 copies that were sold by annual subscription. although founded on the very eve of the depression. As an example of a Macy edition I have chosen Theodore Dreiser’s S ister C arrie . Nowhere was this more obvious than in the trade books of American publishers. It is a highly personal choice. Unlike Vollard. A Short History of the Printed Word The United States: Trade Books and Special Editions Despite the riches afforded by this typographic revival. the printer (Joseph 250 . Yet there were. Bennett Cerf and many other important figures in American publishing. The chief architect of the Knopf typographic style was William Addison Dwiggins. Macy was a man of sensitive literary taste. made on the basis of ad­ miration for the illustrator (Reginald Marsh). issuing twelve books a year. For typographic ad­ vice. some exceptions. The development of photomechanical reproduction for color as well as for black-and- white encouraged a school of illustrators that lacked any natural sympathy or understanding for printing as a medium. His choice of artists was catholic. He was an alumnus of Columbia.Pie was sufficiently concerned with the quality of his books to seek out the finest professional designers and editors. Alfred Knopf organized his own firm in New York in 1915. Macy published on a sched­ ule. he achieved a recognizable house style that served the firm like a trademark. as we have mentioned. For both artists and printers the Limited Editions Club’s commis­ sions provided an opportunity to make books of a kind that the eco­ nomics of mass production were driving from the marketplace.

(f-i !«!■« . « < ■ ' « ■ ' . is ï sssfcé.K him bb* »«■ c. r»! i-VCI*: ." .?.-W («e "il*. printed by Joseph Blumenthal with illustrations by Reginald Marsh.-.ij'ùI fi. In 1904. The offset principle had been used for printing from stone onto tin. 1!-1.h ‘ U:Ai. . Ai !Æ. ï k r--V eu. iï! a.....- O ï o eA îi'i'i't-: s MO B îtrtSiî..-lKi -<K&«■. if . -./ri lin lütwrf -IWU ■■»*■«' M.-...H iï-i« fi!s«riaw^-ovtJ»f»feit•«■«.HÎ'i.® ia î'-sev Ml--. l'A rW't*.'f' '-i'f. VÆr w.c h Ap T e r i x * T h e E a r ly T w e n tie th Century : 1 9 o 0 . Offset Lithography The pace of mechanical improvements did not slow with the coming of a new century. As :î v. 1939.-...l<iJoFe.Sv-..-A'.f ' W. Blumenthal) and the typeface (Miklos Kis’s type. a printer named Ira Rubel developed an offset press for planographic printing on paper.if.wïfc-'iniiig. M innie’» [-i. ' !. N ew York.(ni-! l-îsst iW fK - (i-.-'(li..ii.-'j i :.V. .■>! I* -■■T-r.llillf ...Vr . .llVj.».ad .il [. « k '. ■'W-.-W./üKJfim-f eu' i.r.-■r.i. ' !.UW.U'i HW1» .ig V'J'..V.c ■■.' Ilift’ -.â« V-w fs-»*1»* «i.f iV-AasK!-».V.fSlî’-f «BKtjS H(l'":>■* >»S'1ÏÏI«UI. ia.i:. fc * 'J v -r h » g a t k k ft.! T„ü <.'i? . c i'irîV iwirti1111 si-î .-.«li .Min-d >. which by now should be familiar to readers of this book).Elt a. f il tiw Jim' jiKKÎsjf ("-a-.vii. in New York.P'f ili liif. Dreiser’s S i s t e r C a r r i e ..-.f-x1W»Sliwodl« Sise P'. w tn îs s n .-Bii* :>f v-â v-f*'» rôtti « i i Iiiv-c.'!kw iWlit'W!.. Wiit-fÇ.-hn.U'.l'fv-Æî lîf (ÏÂ-Igjl-HKK 1 cm. 1*1-1 ni f»nCC? fiïlHijiig P-PuP ■«■■s •Mj. g w O n if («-il IHWl".-K ï ' >. K'4 -a “WA!'-'fKm» il' * k * <»»- K*«y!Mrfyrfw».■■•-.. ÏHfilSÏ-.. s-î Hf-’ ps-iWSfi 1 ira * ' .-iï.LI. «-.'. « n i’f W«« Vm ïWmi & f«: èsfeiisiïcsï bÿ Jtaiflœ- „ ( i--.1 '-‘«t »Y.i 't i t ’« A : . K*f: rr.-Bit f.:>■ wj-iii «ü'/.">t =>f ta-tinm. 9 2jLim ited Editions Club.■ f f-riff-iL-.il ifMïf fA)i.1 9 4 o h a i<ï ï a If '*>■si a c ri'.. -î.:a iriyi.'-f' i--"A j. g-j..«-San.Uni*.» M ît ‘■Vt'j Sf.

flexible metal plates are used. rubber- covered cylinder (the blanket). On the eve of World War II. This was also a time of sudden. where he taught calligraphy and typography at Johnston’s old school. It was by this means that printing in the tw entieth century lost its sculptural qual­ ity. where he continued his woodcutting and illustrating career. printing lost its tactile sense of scale. T he image is offset or transferred from the printing plate to the blanket and from there transferred to paper. and did design work for the publisher Faber & Faber. not entirely unlike that occasioned by the sack of Mainz. and became quintessentially flat. on behalf of the appearance and quality of books. George Salter. the Royal Col­ lege of Art. In 1935. These are wrapped around a cylinder which runs against a second. Berthold Wolpe went to England. forced migration. The Decade Before World War II The aesthetic price of increasing mechanization in the printing industry was hardly noticed in the 1930s. where they had been professors. but fascism and communism were creating an atmosphere of physical threats to match the eco­ nomic ones. became the first director of the School of Graphic Arts at the Pratt Institu te in Brooklyn. Rudolph Koch’s two principal coworkers were among them. A Short H i s to r y of the Printed Word but for printing on paper. The printed image lies upon the surface of the paper instead of being driven into the paper as it is with a letterpress. At the same time. Hans Alexander Mueller and Hugo Steiner-Prag left the Leipzig Academy. Offset printing plates are created through a photographic process that shrinks and enlarges type and other images at will. its three-dimensionality. taught a 252 . N ot only w'as the world caught up in a crippling depression. many European graphic artists and typographers fled the Continent. Fritz Kredel moved to the USA. Steiner-Prag’s student. Fritz Eichenberg. Moreover. a book designer from Berlin. by organizations and individuals. much was being done. And in 1938.

Macy and Sir Francis Meynell (founder of the Nonesuch Press) proved how great were the continuing fertility and civility of printing. McCormick. represented a similar concept of news coverage. founded in 1923. Colonel Robert R. launched the Illus­ trated D aily N e w s in New York on 26 June 1919. platemaking and presswork. The real changes were an increased use of pictures and a concise and lively style of reporting. Patterson followed this advice.c h a p t e r i x * T h e E a r ly T w en tie th C en t u r y : 1 9 0 0 . it began . y In the foil of 1915. Its success tempted a number of other publishers to produce papers of small size. the N e w York Tim es started its M id -W e e k Picto­ rial. while the publishers of the Chicago T ribune were both serving in France. which provided outstanding pic­ ture coverage during the remaining years of World War 1. Lord Northcliffe.1 9 4 0 remarkably successful class in calligraphy at the Cooper Union in New York. Patterson. while its sister publication estab­ lished new standards for pictorial reporting. As early as 1913. in 1936. a supplement in tabloid size. the Tim es had bought rotogravure presses. The captain was advised by NorthclifFe to start a tabloid paper in America. one of them.1 recall it as being a cross between the continental illustrated news magazines of that time. and the future picture magazine L ife. and with his cousin. Captain Joseph M. At the time of the invasion of Poland. and Life. There was more to the con- cept than m erely cutting the size of an eight-column journal in half. met the British newspaper publisher Alfred Harms- worth. Like the newspapers. the books of Vollard. the news magazines hastened a number of mechanical develop­ ments in type composition. a school that became the training ground for many post­ war leaders of American typography and book design. and by 1940 almost fifty were in circulation. In April of 1914. Printing the News in the Twentieth Century During World War I. The former influenced the departmen­ talized journalism of the thirties. Tim e.

also served for years as advisor to the T im es of London. 1865. Monotype’s typographical advisor. The consolidation of newspaper empires is just as indicative of the rising costs in plant and operation as it is witness to the aggressiveness of owners. when power was first applied to the press. but the nature of news­ paper publication restricted the scope of his contributions. printed and circulated daily. when the Linotype machine was put into production. when rotary printing from curved plates was perfected. Thereby they continued to distance themselves from the enduring craft tradition. Stanley Morison. only ten were printed on equipment owned independently by their publishers. 2 54 . The difficulties of operating the equipment can be stagger­ ing even for those who can afford ownership. set. The chief contribution of newspapers to the graphic arts has instead been in spurring the development of some of the major tools of production. eighty newspapers had ro­ togravure sections. The problem of independent ownership of the means of pro­ duction has affected the nature of publishing to an ever-increasing degree. Most revealing is the fact that of the sixty-five which remained in 1940. and 1890. Each of these events changed some aspect of the nature of printing. In this connection. A Short H i s to r y »> of the Printed Word printing Sunday supplements. Newspapers were transformed from four. In the twentieth century newspapers continued to seek increased mechanization and speed in printing.and eight-page publications issued casually when there was sufficient news to warrant a printing. By 1930. into editions consisting of several sec­ tions. but some of these were eliminated during the depression of the ensuing decade. three dates stand out: 1814. Subtle typography and elegant presswork cannot be expected of the daily press.

in America. except for use in titling and advertising. each volume illustrated by a different artist At the end of the half millennium of European printing. a num­ ber of notable changes were also taking place in printing shops. CHAPTER X The Second World War and After: 1940-1975 n 1940. t h e c o l l a p s e o f F r a n c e obscured any general I celebration of the 500th anniversary of Gutenberg’s achieve­ ments with movable type. Most types were being made by pantographic engraving machines from large pattern drawings. The vigor of European bookmaking was re­ vealed by the Vollard editions exhibited in the French Pavilion at the New York W orld’s Fair in 1939. and for machine setting only. George Macy began issuing his Limited Editions Club Shake­ speare. The handcutting of steel punches re­ mained a ratified but active craft in Paris. This 255 . In a very subtle way. and the average printer became reconciled to buying his composition from specialty houses. but there were books of many kinds to mark the occasion. any letters cut by hand were cut in lead. Frankfurt. but at the few remaining foundries in Britain and North America. Matrices were created in turn by electrolytic deposit. In the same year. Haarlem and Ahmadabad. the economies of production divorced the compositor and the pressman. Hand composition was becoming increasingly rare. in thirty-seven volumes designed by Bruce Rogers.

In 1935. On the other hand. The most prescient. The War Years and Their Legacy World War II acted at first as a brake on technical innovation in the printing trades. A Short History of the Printed Word meant that he ordered his type like yardgoods and no longer had the opportunity for immediate adjustments to the type in the compos­ ing stick. bus shelters. well-written. As Ruari McLean remembers. in the war years. buses. An example is the multivolume Pelican H istory o f A r t.000th title: a compact paperback edition of James Joyce’s Ulysses. they fit conveniently in gas-mask bags. affordable books came from an Englishman by the name of Allen Lane. jeeps and limousines. Penguin books were read in stately homes. In the interval had come not only thousands of well-designed. and it was a rare publisher who did not foresee an ever-increasing market for his products. most principled and most successful re­ sponse to the increasing demand for good. the demand for books was great. W hen he retired as its managing director in 1969. ration-coupon queues. well-set and inexpensive literary classics from all around the world and from all across the span of human history. but that metal lives in the stick. but also many well-researched. Foundry type is made of hard metal. “and often the gas-mask was left out to accommodate more Penguins. he founded a company known as Penguin Books. and in lorries. however. well-designed and emi­ nently portable works of reference.” 256 . The endless adjustability and im provability of a handset page is part of the ambience of hand composition. when he was thirty-two years old. After Pearl Harbor. and they were to affect publishers’ optimism in ways then unimaginable. Penguin had just published its 3. American printers began to feel the pinch of paper rationing and other restrictions that affected th e supply and quality of materials. Seeds of change were being planted. in tenements. in air­ raid shelters.

The technological lurch that began in the early 1940s. perhaps fatuously called . It was the immediate demand for boohs which chiefly influenced production. and partly on a social revolu­ tion which has all too quickly passed. when Lane hired a refugee from Leipzig named Jan Tschichold to take charge of all typography and design. and is still in progress. The four-page set of “Penguin Composition Rules” that he prepared on his arrival has been plagiarized and borrowed. as it is fondly. the appetite for mindless entertainment. did not make itself felt in the general area of communi­ cations for a number of years after the war. Tschichold bore this burden only for two years. if it did not quite surpass. They brought 257 . Penguin took a great leap forward in 1947. be borrowed by many more. but in that time he upgraded and transformed the books of Lane and his successors. In the second half of the twen­ tieth century. During the war. was usually first on the list of priorities. by typographers and publishers at many other firms and in many other countries - and could. But other revolutions were also underway. partly upon human ingenuity. T he Industrial Revolution had consisted above all in the application of power to tools. The legacy of war research.or the In­ formation Revolution. There was a moment when the appetite for literature equalled. Replacement of plants and equipment that had been destroyed. Printed food then outsold printed drugs. it was instead the Electronic Revolution . The success of Penguin Books rests partly upon technical re­ sources. led to the sophisticated machinery that dominated print­ ing in the 1960s. Books brought news of other times and other modes of life on which the papers could not report. Restrictions on materials and equip­ ment were naturally greater in England and France than in the United States. or had simply worn out. nevertheless the appetite for books was great in all three countries. evidently once and for ail. to good effect. however. with good effect. television and computers were mere promises for the future.that most affected what was done and how.

The edition of Georges Buffon’s H istoire naturelle . T he artist’s sugar aqua­ tints are outstanding examples of intaglio. with engravings by Matisse. Aquatint illustration for B u ff on's Histoire naturelle. is an example. some publishers and printers who had reserves of good paper continued to maintain high standards in their books and to print them by traditional craft means. published in Paris in 1942 by Fabiani. illustrated by Picasso. the promise of knowledge. by Henry de Montherlant. the promise of hope. In France as in England. In 1944. Such special editions provided a sharp contrast in quality to wartime trade books. choice of i materials came to an end with rationing. and also of re­ prieve from the cares of every day. and both publisher and purchaser learned to accept what was available. 1942. the same pub­ lisher issued Pasiphaé.i Picasso. British publishers 258 . A Short History of the Printed Word ro. In France.

2 Sem H artz. The result was a set of punches for a 12-point roman font. Early sketch fo r Juliana. and by Peter Beilenson’s Peter Pauper Press. ' 1 0 . and the excess profits tax encouraged more liberal expenditures on design and plates. Juliana. The huge demand for books during the war led to the publica­ tion not only of paperbacks but also of illustrated classics. was forced to go underground. This was partly a result of the success enjoyed by the special editions pub­ lished by Macy’s Limited Editions Club and Heritage Club. but type design continued even so. is a livelier and more mature design but lacks its own designer’s final touch. and the type. Paper rationing did not end in England until 1949. issued in 1948 by Enschedé. The production of new types effectively ceased. Sem Hartz.His second type. T he constant attrition of plant equipment and a shortage of labor made their task more difficult still. Hartz supplied the draw­ ings. It was commissioned by Linotype in 1951 and released in 1958. which he completed just as the war ended. During the German occupation of the Nether­ lands. an artist whose principal work had been engrav­ ing postage stamps for the Haarlem firm of Enschedé. but Linotype produced the patterns and the matrices. He used that period to make a study of type de­ sign. and printers were governed at this time by a set of self-imposed rules which established size of type and the proportion of the page to be occupied by text. . 1951. the wartime price controls protected manufacturing costs. In addition. Hartz added an italic. was christened Emergo (“I emerge").

handpress printing and print­ making. but much of it was simply scrapped. As a result of such exposure to what Updike called the “broad and humanizing” work of typography. and some to the Smithsonian Institution and Columbia University. became a corporate orphan. typography. The foundry division. Hermann Zapf.a large firm in Elizabeth. A Short History of the Printed Word The demand for illustrators and typographers that was created by these projects helped to bring more students into the graphic arts. the federal law providing financial help to ex-servicemen for training in fields of their choice was an added stimulus as soon as 1 the war was over. •. and Harry Duncan at the University of Iowa./ some of it to private hands. the company divested itself of its printing inter­ ests. typesetting. an out- 260 . Yet some of those which did so never effectively resumed their operations. the ranks of private press owners increased. Tire enthusiasm of the period was caught up and i carried forward in classes such as those initiated by George Salter at Cooper Union. New Jersey. once a powerful f force in American typography. Before the end of the century. the Frankfurt foundry which had for many years made matrices for Linotype as well as cutting and casting type for hand composition. The man­ agement of American Type Founders . §§ Its success on both these fronts after the war was due in large part to its young and very able resident designer. Making Type in the Postwar Years The chief accomplishment of the foundries during the war was merely to keep their facilities more or less intact. all its typographic material was scattered . Ray Nash at Dartmouth. assembled over the years through a series of corporate mergers ~ ended the war looking for other fields in which to invest. In several moves. In the USA. Perhaps the most striking recovery was that of Stempel. in favor of electronics. Leonard Baskin at Smith College. This gave impetus to programs and departments devoted to calligraphy. Such departments were established at many institutions.

ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQ RSTUVWXYZAÜÜ abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz fkhckfïfiflft&âôü 1234567890 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 10. designed by Jan Tschichold. who was still at Enschedé. (Palatino. the print­ ing office that he founded in 1922. and the face has since then been adapted to every newer means of setting type. whose work was issued by Stempel.types of all time. standing calligrapher and letterer. Stempel cut a typeface known as Sabon. and Giovanni Mardersteig.a face now resident in nearly every laser printer and computer ~ was designed by Zapf for the Stempel foundry in 1948. who has produced some of the finest .beginning with Nicolas Jenson - to cut and cast a face with Roman inscriptional roots for relief print- 261 . Sabon roman. who was still designing type for his own Officina Bodoni. for example . Sabon was perhaps the last major effort to produce a letterpress face on a grand scale.and some of the most popular .) Other type designers of importance working at this period in­ clude Georg Trump. and thus the inadvertent culmi­ nation of 500 years of attempts .3 J a n Tschicbokl. Linotype matrices came next. The first versions of the face were cut by hand in steel by August Rosenberger. Jan van Krimpen. In 1964-67.

A Short H i s to r y of the Printed Word

ing on paper. Its design is in no way original. It is openly based on
tine existing tradition of types connected with Claude Garamond -
and it is named for a punchcutter and founder, Jacques Sabon,
whose duties included completing and casting an unfinished Gara­
mond font for use by Christophe Plan tin.
The Sabon type was produced concurrently by Stempel for
hand composition and the Linotype machine, and by the Monotype
Corporation in England for the Monotype machine, all in theoret­
ically identical and interchangeable forms. The lettershapes answer
the requirements of two competing systems for mechanical compo­
sition at the same time that they echo the forms of the French
Renaissance. They also represent the experience of a twentieth-
century designer who fled Nazi Germany for Switzerland in 1933 -
and who for thirty years thereafter had thought about the role such
letterforms can play in sustaining human culture.
Despite such credentials, Sabon was not immediately purchased
by typesetters and printers in Europe and North America. In part,
this was due to intim ations of change in the very nature of printing.
Photocopying machines were becoming commonplace. There was
already a question whether the concept of impression would entirely
give way to other methods of duplication.
And impressive though it was, the Stempel foundry’s resurgence
proved a temporary reprieve. The plant closed in 1986, and its ty­
pographic holdings were transferred to a museum in the nearby
town of Darmstadt. Enschedé too, the great Dutch printing plant
and foundry, was converted to a museum - one whose doors, in
1999, are always closed.

Postwar Printing
Because the design and manufacture of new machinery was re­
tarded by the war, small, individually owned shops, when they sur­
vived, were as a rule little changed from the preceding decade.

262

Joseph Blumenthars Spiral Press, Peter Beilenson’s Walpole Print­
ing Office, and Fred Anthoensen’s Southworth Anthoensen Press
are examples. Such shops are usually projections of the personali­
ties who operate them. Perhaps no printing office of this kind has
survived so long, or kept its commitment to fine printing as consis­
tently, as Mardersteig’s Officina Bodoni - still active in Verona, and
still in Mardersteig family hands.
The specimen-printing department of the Stempel foundry was

Euripides
Lafi erst mich doch r.u t'ndc sagt-n den ganzen Vers 1

>Oineus in der Seheunc sammelnd der ïîrn tt rcichc Frucht,

Erstlingc opfernd* —

Aiscbyks Stimmt die altc Leier an!.
Dionysos
inmitten des Opfers? pfilf-man ihm auch das alte Lied?
Euripides
Freund, laft ihn nur; versuchen soit ers mai mit denv.
>Zeus, wie es die Walirheit selbcr uns bcrichter hat< -
Dionysos
Du verlierst! denn er sagt gicich
•Stimmt die altc Lcier an!<
Wie cine Fcigenwar/.e sim am Augenlid,

107

1 0 . 4 TrajanusPresse. Aristophanes, D i e F r ô s c h e [ B â T p a y o i , T h e F ro g s],
‘w ith wood engravings by Imre Reiner. Frankfurt, 1962.

A Short History of the Printed Word

not comparable to the usual small commercial establishments, |
except for the nature of its equipment. It was able, however, to fulfill
a similar function with its Trajanus Presse. Under the direction 3
of Gotthard de Beauclaire, Trajanus Presse published a series of
handset, handprinted books. Among these was Aristophanes’ D ie
Frosche , illustrated with, wood engravings by Imre Reiner. The
blocks carry on a tradition going back at least a century. To demon- $
strate the continuity, details are shown here from three engravings:
Daumier engraved by Etienne de Neufville (1869), Rouault en­
graved by Aubert (1939), and Reiner engraved by himself (1945).
Reiner is a good example of an artist so familiar with the work of the
past that he does not have to reinvent or imitate it. He is also an ex­
ample of an artist happy working at the meeting ground of several ;
different media. He studied with the calligrapher Ernst Schneidler.
His work was primarily in the illustration of books, but he also
wrote about typography and designed several types (Matura, for \
example) in which his love of wood engraving is every bit as visible
as his calligraphic skill. j
By 1950, rising costs and the prospect of bigger and faster ;
presses had made plain the basic problems that small independent '
printers could expect to face. Such economic factors, and the nature
of the designer-training programs operating just before, during and \
after the war, led to an increase in the number of studio-oriented s
typographers, and a decrease in the number of those who had t
served a shop apprenticeship. Some of the studio typographers .
proved themselves instinctive printers; more often, they proved to |
be arrangers rather than designers. This distinction between the '
talented and the adequate has always existed. But in the postwar |
years, when production methods tended to increase the gap be- |
tween design and execution, control became harder to achieve, and f
the demands on the typographer were correspondingly greater.
An industrial development of interest in these years was the mi- f
croprinting of reference books. Like many industrial techniques, |

264

chapter x * T h e S ec o n d W o r ld W a r a n d A f t e r : 1 9 4 .0 -1 9 n

1 0 .5 Daumier, Detail, wood engraving in L e M o n d e i l l u s t r é . 1869.
1 0 .6 Rouault. Detail, wood engraving, fo r C i r q u e d e l ’é t o i l e f i l a n t e . 1939.
1 0 .7 Reiner. Detail, wood engraving fo r D i e F r ô s c h e . 1943; published 1962.

this one has its roots in nineteenth-century experiments, though its
.practical applications came much later. In the 1960s, the technique
was used to print the British Museum catalog, and in 1971 to reduce
the bulk of the O xford E nglish D ictionary from twelve volumes to
two. The result is a text in 3-point type, hard to read without a mag­
nifying glass, but unabridged and portable.

Postwar Design
One factor of importance in the postwar years was a continued
T interest in calligraphy. Type design both before and after World
.'.War II was fundamentally revitalized by the physical and intellec­
tual pleasure that comes from the study and the practice of, in the

265

A Short History of the Printed Word

literal sense, w r itin g in its finest form. A large number of fine text
faces were designed and produced around the middle of the twenti­
eth century, and the practice of calligraphy is cruci a.l to all but a few.
Spectrum, designed in the Netherlands by Jan van Krimpen; j
Palatino and Aldus, designed in Germany by Hermann Zapf, and
Diotima, designed by Gudrun Zapf-Von Hesse; Figurai, designed
in Czechoslovakia by Oldfich Menhart; Dante, designed in Italy by i
Giovanni Mardersteig; Méridien, designed in France by Adrian
Frutiger; and Berling, designed in Sweden by Karl-Erik Forsberg
are all products of die 1940 s and 1950s. Each of these type families
is made for book work and includes both a roman and an italic. N ot
one of the italics could have been designed without direct practice
in writing a Renaissance italic hand. And not one of the romans :
could have been designed without close study of Renaissance ro­
mans, which likewise owe their form to direct and daily experience
writing with a broadpen.
W ith one or two exceptions, all these types were cut by hand in ;
metal first and only afterward adapted for setting by machine. N ot
one of them, however, was cut by its designer. Type design, at this
stage in its history, had largely reverted to calligraphy, while the
handcutting of punches - always a rare skill - had become much
rarer than it was. Artists such as Sem Hartz, able to design a good
text type and also cut it, were as rare in 1950 as astronauts in 1961.
Trade and academic publishing of a superior kind also spread
and persevered in the postwar years. The years 1950-75 were the \
heyday of such houses as Einaudi in Milan, Gallimard in Paris,
Suhrkamp in Frankfurt, McClelland & Stewart in Toronto and its •;
then-eminent neighbor the University of Toron to Press, and also of ;
the Bollingen Foundation, whose books after 1967 were published
under the imprint of Princeton University Press. From his studio in
Tuscany Alley, San Francisco, Adrian Wilson was designing fine )
books for publishers across N orth America, and at the same time >j
training a new generation of typographers. David Brower, in die

2 6 6

'chapter x * T h e S e c o n d W o r ld W a r m id A f t e r : 1940-19 75

same years, was creating a new breed of illustrated books for the
Sierra Club, of wdiich he was then the executive director.

Photocomposing Machines
For some years after the popularization of the offset press, it re-
>mained a common practice to set the text of books in metal - often
:r with the Linotype machine - and then to pull a set of reproduction
7 proofs, which were pasted up and photographed. This procedure
; kept metal type alive, yet rendered it a marginal technology. Offset
: printing is based on the technology of photography, and so the fu­
ture seemed to lie in setting text by photographic means. In fact,
phototypesetting machines were built before the end of the nine­
teenth century, though they did not come into general use until af­
ter World War IL
The scale of foundry type is tactile as well as optical. Each letter
y is cut by hand in its one and only actual size. If multiple sizes are cut,
y' each size is inevitably weighted and finished differently. This basic
craft practice was greatly compromised late in the nineteenth cen-
h fury by the employment of pantographic engraving machines,
which use large standard patterns to produce mechanically reduced
punches or mats. W ith photocomposition, the compromise goes
v farther. A single master alphabet in film form is made from oversize
drawings. The master film is placed in a machine and used to gener-
§.. ate letters of all sizes, from footnote size to headlines. Under these
fe conditions, Eric Gill’s principle is put to a hard test. Letters are
ftth in g s, not pictures of things - but the things that phototypesetting
produces arc pictures of letters.
^ Letters are not the only things simulated and distorted in this
|fway. In his i960 Reith lectures for the BBC, the art historian Edgar
fyWind focused on the ways in which “our vision of art has been
^transformed by reproduction” and on André Malraux’s enthusiastic
lynotion of a “museum without walls.”

267

showed advances in web presses capable of producing multicolor printing of accept­ able quality from continuous roils of paper. there were also advances in the means of controlling register and color.11 2 6 8 . Printing. Offset lithography which had im­ proved steadily over the preceding twenty years. preferably in a?i illustrated catalogue raisonné. and not infrequently were printed on paper of high acidity made from low-grade woodpulp. So it is tlv.a paper-w orld o f a r t in w hich the epic oratory o f M a lr a u x proclaims. A Short History of the Printed Word O u r eyes have been sharpened to those aspects o f p a in tin g a n d sculpture \ th a t are brought o u t effectively by a camera. The introduction of bimetallic plates promised greatly increased durability. In the field of gravure. w ould be to . which had finally taken hold in the United States through the use of an expanded system of distribution akin to that of newspapers and magazines. Such books.w c them diffused in comprehensive picturebooks. U. W h a t has optim istically been called the “m u seu m \ w ith o u t w alls ” is in fa c t a m u seu m on p a p er . a p a rt fr o m h a v in g his w orks placed in a m u seu m . th a t a gouache can equal a fresco. in the \ artist's own vision we can observe the g row th o f a pictorial a n d sculptural im agination th a t is positively a ttu n e d to photography . as i f the u ltim a te hope o f a p a in te r or sculptor 1 today . producing works \ photogenic to such a degree th a t they seem to f i n d a vicarious fu lfillm e n t in \ m echanized after-im ages. th a t a ll a r t is composed in a single key. however. The new press equipment did help to reduce the cost and improve the general appearance of paperback books. th a t huge m o n u m en ts a n d sm a ll coins have the sam e plastic eloquence i f transferred to the scale o f the p rin te d page. w ith the voice o fa crier in the m arketplace.rh a t is m ore decisive . Paper and Binding A review of printing equipment in 1950 could he summed up in this general way: the new machines for letterpress stressed higher speeds and multicolor printing. None of these changes was startling. were bound with glue instead of thread.

and can also be expected to last another thousand years. G roundw oodpaper (as paper made from woodpulp is called) came into use in the nineteenth century. on good rag paper with sewn bindings. and it took a hundred years for paper manufacturers to learn how to make it acid-free and flexible enough to be of any value as a cultural preservative.8 M odem production offset press printing fiv e colors consecutively on both sides o f continuous rolls.but they were made from short and brittle fibers mixed with particles of clay. while books only four or five years old are crumbling to pieces. can still be read with pleasure. After 269 . books printed four and five hundred years ago. Papers of high acidity can yellow within weeks and may turn brown within a year.ü f: f§X IA W:ÿ.1 9 yy x o .'. Late nineteenth-century groundwood papers were often vigor­ ously bleached and remain pale in color even now . iÿ c h a p t e r x • T h e S e c o n d W o r ld W a r a n d A f t e r : 1 9 4 0 .

- but if they do survive. there was pressure in some quarters to reduce books to this form. to the library of any large North American university and look for a book of acknowledged importance. There are thousands of books now on the library shelves that . poorly printed little books are not.and Penguins more often than not have been reprints of the classics: cheap but reliable copies of books that could be found in other. Some of them are cased (hardcover) i books. not only in the case of popular reprints but also in the case of first editions. Big. 270 . for instance. then the essence of the form. wishful thinking works its charm. of course. Such books now teach us a sad lesson : not to judge the book the author wrote by the book we feel and see. But once it was made clear how cheap a book could be. A S h o r t H i s t o r y o f th e P r in t e d W o r d a hundred years on the shelves. shielded from bombs during World W ar II. for Erwin Panofsky’s Meaning in the VisualArts. only exist in adhesive bindings. Some of them. others are basic cultural documents. W hen the only form in which a book exists is a form that cannot last. Go. so they can- not be effectively rebound. when books are understood to be disposable. they will be loose in an archivist’s box. boohs and journals printed on such papers are as fragile as dry crackers. more durable forms on the library shelves. when you can. It is a hard lesson to learn. Adhesive binding. and in the mean­ time. at great cost. Look. Many such books were. have no more claim to permanent worth titan a weather report or a tour guide’s : bill of sale. If the paper is acid-free. but the pages in the cases have been glued instead of sewn. is all very well. of course. but nothing shields them now from self-destruction. has been betrayed. well-printed books are taken for important. Books that are carried into war zones or stuffed into rucksacks for vacations in the mountains have to be disposable . which was part of the enormously successful recipe for Penguin Books. Panofi* . the thing that makes a book a book. the pages may survive for several centuries. Their J bindings cannot last. and there is nothing there to sew.

I. and the margins were on average 6 mm (a quarter of an inch). quence. the rising cost of paper. soon to become a : world of instant news and nonstop entertainment. like Jan Tschichold. The odds are good. One end of every line. Students by y the thousands were assigned to read the book. in conse- . 271 . Larger-format paper­ backs appeared in 1970 from Penguin and in 1982 from the Univer­ sity of Chicago Press. trimmed and cased. is buried by the stitching. and competition from cheap paperbacks. and the librarians who bought it often sent it to the bindery. but the Doubleday edition was for fifteen years the only one around. and he spent nearly the whole of the rest of his life at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton. It was at Princeton in the early 1950s that Panofsky wrote his book on meaning.1 9 75 sky. Panofsky did not attain the fame of his neighbor Albert Einstein. The Anchor Paperback edition of this book was meant as a disposable : edition. that more than half the copies you will find will be unreadable. c h a p T e r x • The S e c o n d W o r ld W a r a n d A f t e r : 1 9 4 0 . He was welcomed in the world to which he came. As an art historian in a country with too little faith in art and too much faith in science. This is the edition you will find most often now on North American university library shelves. The middle of each line can still be read. The Purpose ofPrinting The wartime vision of unlimited demand for all kinds of books was greatly altered by the advent of television. but those who knew them both have described them both as persons of equal genius.5 x 18 cm (a little over 4" x 7 "). left Germany early in the 1930s. It was published first in 1955 by Doubleday in New York as a ninety-five-cent paperback. not sturdy enough to borrow but cheap enough to buy without a thought. There the books were J flatstitched. Concurrently. the other end has gone to the binder’s knife. It was 10. however. It was part of a marvelously portable and 7 inexpensive series called (in honor of Aldus Manutius) Anchor Pa- * perbacks.

both at the same time. So were his predecessors in China. stable. his purpose was to compete with the copyists of his time. They are invisible and useless without the intervention of an exceedingly complex. It is possible that printed books as repositories of human experi­ ence and creativity may in time be overshadowed or even replaced by digital replicas. now as it was in the fifteenth century. however.and were doing so in a world where reading had become. a passive. cerebral act. for most. engaged in a simultane­ ously innovative and imitative act. like Gutenberg.to the physical skill of making shapely and powerful let­ ters with a pen. and the power it conveyed. by cutting the cost of produc­ tion. A tangible. the practitioners of photocomposition and offset printing were. 272 . they were imitating printing . uncon­ nected with any physical sense of the making of letters. such replicas are very quickly copied and easily stored in a small space . Such a scheme may look good to accountants and to marketers. it seemed . Once made. so were his early successors in Venice and Rome. surrounded by good calligraphic models. and uncon­ nected with any sense of the intellectual urgency of publishing. Rising costs also helped to put an end to many magazines and newspapers that had domi­ nated the publishing scene earlier in the century.but they cannot be read without a prosthesis. Literacy in the days of the early printers was a power and a skill possessed by relatively few7. like speaking. of reading. well-made page is just as desirable. and just as useful. In the 1970s and 1980s. Printing could not be passive either in such a world. were also then cemented . But for au­ thors and for readers. there can he no substitute for a well-designed. He was. well-bound book that one can see and feel as well as read. wras for real. Reading was not passive.indissolubly. When Gutenberg set out to make books. A Short History of the Printed Word took their toil upon the quality of hardbound books and altered the practicability of publishing small editions. Writing. But they were not imitating writ­ ing. The skill. His approach was innovative and imitative. electrically powered machine. well-printed.

Until it loses either its mental or physical balance. To those concerned with a long reach in time and space. like seeds. To Horace. To those who deal person-to-person. A story or a statement or a song can plant ideas with the potency of seeds and with the force and durability of physical impressions. Speech. it is only then that writing and printing cease. It is only then that they cease to evoke what they are about. if firmly made and clearly meant. a phrase can land a blow. The phrase does not appear in any of his works. Script and print can do so too . in fact. can be striking. writing was preparatory to speaking.and printed words. a voice set loose doesn’t know its way home. the printed word can also share that power and physical presence.” is frequently attributed to Horace. “You can cut what you haven’t said aloud . A sentence. he says. To a person truly initiated to printing. a written letter is as physical as a handshake . Delere licebit [ quod non edideris. is just as difficult to forget. and printing had become more and more just a form of mass production. not increased. it links the two like a bridge. can lie at rest for generations before they finally sprout. as we say. which properly belongs to Pontius Pilate. script and printing are alike in that their power drains away when they become mere simulacra. But to a person who is trained in the scribal tradition. Assimilating Mechanization T he phrase littera scripta manety “the written word remains.and.” Speaking and hearing can combine the intellectual and physical in an unforgettable way. writing and printing may seem more powerful than speech. nescit vox missa revend. Neither does the sentiment. then modernity has lessened. Lan­ guage is part of the mind and part of the body. to speak.chap T ER x * The Second World War and After: 194o~ig 75 Reading had become more and more a passive act. the spoken word and the facial expressions and gestures that frame it remain the fundamental reference. If all modernity can do is produce more printing more rapidly. 273 .

It is not a picture of a page of type. type designing becomes a search for the obvious and universal. which he compared with “the work of those writing masters who. and the resilience of stiff ink. still set standards for the power of printed words. These are among the reasons why modern presswork should constantly be measured against the earliest printing. A machine or a technique that offers too little resistance encour­ ages slickness. The key to the comparison should rest in the answer to the question : “Does the page look like an original ?” A good page of letterpress printing is an original. As far as type is concerned it is helpful to realize that the letters of the alphabet. not for what is branded as original but Is really improvisational. À S h o r t History of the Printed Word ) the power of print in the realm of mind and spirit . It yields what Baudelaire described as chic. being symbols and abstract in themselves. and it is not a simulation.even while mul­ tiplying its power as a bureaucratic or administrative force. W ith such a realization. are most successful when their forms come closest to being free from idio­ syncrasy. The dwell of the handpress. can shut : their eyes and boldly trace Christ’s head or Napoleon’s hat in the form of a flourish. made from the type itself. it is a typographic print. with an el­ egant hand and a pen shaped for italic or running script.” Yet the new techniques are here to stay and will ' certainly find their masters just as the earlier methods did. In this simple fact lies the integrity and permanent importance of letterpress. 274 . when the metal rests momentarily deep in the paper.

Printing now is an art to some. one could judge a book by its cover . Such a world does indeed exist. a craft to some. their wheels within wheels driving an incessant race of paper through labyrinthine flumesfaster than the eye couldfollow. the rotary. seemed as majestic a monument to the powers of human invention as the Great Pyramid of Egypt. In an ideal world. and to some a booming industry. folding. where .or by I its type and binding and paper. fall-color. where the body and the spirit of a thing are often far apart. perfecting. powerful yet meaningless except for making money. reflected. surely the ma­ kers and vendors of things. binding Goss presses half-a-block long. who devoted most of his life to printing lit­ erature on a handpress. but it is embedded in other worlds. such as physical books. during a lecture in 1980. collating. their computer lights flashing. a musty old technology to some. Harry Duncan. . would obey the inner promptings of the spirit. electronic. and forming judgments (not a task we can forego) is a risky and difficult business. C H A P T E R XI The D igital Revolution and the Close of the Twentieth Century n an ideal w orld. a cultural foun­ dation stone to some. on a visit he had paid to a printshop different from his own:I I remember the awe 1felt. “What a piece of work! how noble in reason! how in­ finite infaculty! infirrm and moving how express and admirable! in action how like an angel!”Then I got around to the rear of the leviathan.

in the realm of print. however. T he first of these tools was the typewriter. and whose conquest of that world appeared to be secure a decade later. differ­ ent persons than they were. crimping it. The third was the felt-tip pen. W r itin g Tools The twentieth century was for some a time of rediscovery. A Short History of the Printed Word next month's issue of Better Homes and Gardens was dropping out like rabbit turds. W hen so many words are printed. like the . More words are now being printed every second than were printed per year during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. This was so in the realm of politics. making a permanent change in its shape that suggests a permanent change in its meaning. which has competed with the ballpoint since the 1960s. led to scripts markedly different from those of the Renaissance. W ith it they discovered the form. The result is that the world is in many ways different than it was. for others it was a time of degra­ dation and alienation. and in the realm of script as well. though not always. the discipline and the sensuous pleasure of Renaissance letters. whose effects upon the world of the printed word had barely begun in 1975. The second was the ballpoint pen. The printer and the reader are also very often. Fourth was the personal computer. the logic. invented in Argentina by Laszlo Biro in 1937 and popular worldwide within a decade. Each of these devices. it is no surprise they float upon the surface of the paper like breath on the windowpane rather than entering into the paper. These discoveries affected the forms of many twentieth- century printing types. The most popular writing tools. emancipation and self-fulfillment. several genera­ tions of twentieth-century designers rediscovered the Renaissance writing tool. Largely under the tutelage of Edward Johnston. the hroadpen.

the character of the tool. like its ancestor the typewriter. A typescript page is. Some of these designers are also skilled calligraphers. and the keyboard. in comparison. with each touch of any finger. The typewriter. A page prepared on a com- . a prefabricated form. such as electronic mail. A calligrapher chooses a broadpen (or a pencil) over a ballpoint because of its shape and because of its traction. in which the z. readers and even typographers who have no manual connection whatsoever to the shapes of letters. Other developments. and the nature of the substance on which the tool works. delivers. A handwritten page reveals the spirit of its maker as fully as the small. The early twentieth century harbored the first generation of type designers in 200 years who were able to use a broadpen with sufficient skill to understand the structure and historical anatomy of Latin letters. encouraged generations of writers and readers to accept the distortions of monospaced alphabets. the electronic mouse skates freely in any direction. the keyboard is the only significant writing tool. and for whom these shapes are therefore entirely arbitrary and artificial. The close of the same century harbored the first gen­ eration of type designers ever for whom machine-made letters are the norm. But like the ballpoint pen from which it is derived. promise a new generation of writers. It is more than a bad pun to say that this is where the digital mentality begins in earnest. It also encouraged millions of writers and readers to think of writing as something done by tapping keys instead of making their own shapely and expressive marks. has powerfully affected the design of twentieth-century printing types. always poker-faced. expressive movements of the lips and eyes. The form of the let­ ter comes from the conjunction of the anatomy of the writing hand. of course. the comma and the W are all of equal width. and manual writing of any kind is a marginal experience.c h a p t e r xi • The D ig ita l Revolution broadpen. The right amount of resistance gives the maximum definition and satisfaction. the e. For others.

but it is usually something else: a prefabricated visage. so that the trade names and the bulk of the digital inven­ tories survive. millions of people have found themselves transformed into simula­ tions of typesetters. The spread of the computer has made millions of people far more conscious of type and typography than they would have been otherwise. The oldest and largest of these is Adobe Systems in San Jose. More typefaces have therefore been designed since 1975 than were designed in the entire preceding millennium. and digital replicas of earlier machine-set faces reigned supreme. Among the other tilings the computer readily simulates are the pattern-making and tracing machines that were formerly used in mass-producing matrices. California. Type Design and Manufacture As Gerald Lange has wisely observed. W ith the spread of the personal computer. One of the things it simulates readily is a typesetting machine. Initially. new digital designs were rather scarce. a sel f-portrait off the shelf. converting from the medium of three-dimensional metal to zero-dimensional infor­ mation. hut not the older craft connection. a storebought mask. Monotype and Linotype. but it has done much to advance a purely visual sensi­ tivity to letters. whether or not they wished to be so. it is a simulator of tools. But some of the finest digital foundries are cottage indus­ tries. It has not revived the kinaesthetic or body-centered consciousness of letters that prevailed during the Renaissance. were active in the field. the two primary manufacturers of typesetting equipment. New digital foundries have appeared in considerable numbers. producing only the work of one or a few designers. the computer is not a tool. Until the 1990s. A Short History of the Printed Word pu ter can be either. In this respect at least. The digital foundries established by these firms have now been sold. type design and manufacture can now quite legiti- . Others of note are die Dutch Type Library in The Hague and FontShop in Berlin.

Sumner Stone in San Francisco. Caslon and Fleischman. Type designers such as Jean-François Porchez in Paris. of the continuous and the dis- : continuous. clay page. now the only institution in the world that keeps punchcut­ ters on salary. then tilts and drags the stylus. John Hudson and William Ross Mills at Tiro Typeworks in Vancouver are living Frederic Goudy’s dream. Massachusetts.: is inherent not only in letterforms themselves but in making almost any kind of mark. is a permanent condition. reminiscent of the t tracks of lizards. two-dimensional written forms were dominant over three-dimensional carved ones. This group includes the first recorded woman punch- cutter. A small crew of punchcutters also survives . It f. returning to a level of independence fam­ iliar to Garamond and Granjon. the sculpted and the drawn. The result is a stroke that ÿ combines the glyphic and the graphic. in Asia and Europe alike. and Adrian Frutiger in Paris. Nelly Gable.doing maintenance and replacement work for the most part . Others who grew up in the era of phototype have revived the art of cutting type in steel. Several designers who began in the era of foundry type have continued into the digital era and done some of their most impres­ sive work in the new medium. The oldest decorated pottery is marked with a £ combination of flowing lines and imprinted dots. who drag their tails but lift and plant their feet. Matthew Carter in Cambridge. c h a pt e r xi * The Digital Revolution mately claim to be a postindustrial craft. Fred Sineijers in T he Hague and Dan Carr in Ashuelot. the flowing and the abrupt. . New Hampshire. have both created digital types on the computer and cut new types in the ancient way by hand.at the Imprimerie Nationale in Paris. who joined the Imprimerie in 1987. Life in Flathnd j The ambivalence. In the manuscript era. A i scribe writing cuneiform presses a triangular-tipped stylus into the . Examples are Hermann Zapf and Gudrun Zapf-Von Hesse in Darmstadt. in letterforms.

Type designers and typographers might have taken as their models all the best surviving Medieval and Renaissance manuscripts. with inscriptional roots. et quaedam. Gutenberg imitated the scribes whom he intended to displace. Then it was further reinforced by the two-dimensionality of computer screens. W ith the popularization of the computer and the laser printer. But as Marshall McLuhan observed. three-dimensional forms. the primary content of any new medium is usually aform made familiar by the medium that imme­ diately precedes. The hand always moves in three dimensions. and even in three-dimensional inscriptions. the rise of offset printing might have provoked an immediate abandonment of letterpress tradition. haec amat obscurum. M ountain View. it is always present. Short History of the Printed Word In the age of print. 1993* 280 . which pro­ hibits pages and texts from flowing through space as they do in sewn books. Though the third dimension is subtle in letterpress printing. the habitual distinction between printing and Ut picture poesis: ertt quae si proplus stes te capiat magis. it is always absent. Adobe Systems. But neither medium is pure. based on the script o f Bartolomeo Smivito. by and large. As the two-dimensionality of offset became routine. À. volet haec sub luce viderl. haec placuLt semel haec deciens repetita placebit T i n Smivito . California . In offset printing. even when leaving a two-dimensional trace. iudicis argutum quae non forrmdat acumen. became increasingly important. si Longius abstes. one dimension is weaker than the rest. and offset printers. it was rein­ forced by the two-dimensionality of adhesive bindi ng. If type design were less conservative than it is. a digital type designed by Robert Slimbach . have imitated the work of their contemporaries and predecessors in letterpress.

infulllight. designed by Robert Slmibach based on the script o f M a x Caflisch. who was born near Zürich in 1916. Robert Slimbach’s Sanvito is one example. of themselves to the real tiling now have that option. ■ Wkai:a. 1993- . All printing types are in some degree imitations of'writing. will create a digital type from the hand of anyone who asks. It is a digital type inspired by the hand (or by some of the many han ds) of the scribe Bartolomeo San­ vito. ifOnewillonlycharigoyonottce) anothertentimes over. -. Adobe Systems. It includes types based on the lettering of : architects and on the script of children and adolescents. and the printed work was then more likely to be a letter or a memo meant for only a few recipients instead of a public document such as a magazine or book. Printing came to be something done by individuals sitting at desks.1 Caflisch.mil caidvyotr % )whenyonstandclose) that ottowhenyonbarkarmy. and in some degree they are substitutes for writing. But types that gesture strongly toward hand- written forms are generally known as script types. %On&prefeerstheshade$anotherhankerstobe*Lookedat \ . 11.Another example is the same designer’s Caflisch. T he repertoire. All this created an atmosphere in which the scribal page and the pre- typograpliic letter became increasingly potent models. In the age of the personal computer. . Those who prefer computer simulations . for a fee. based on the hand of the Swiss type historian Max Caflisch. is much wider. who was born in Padova in 1435. and in part to an aesthetic that is based on the machine.poemisIThisonnhere. California. They answer in part to the memory of the writing hand. M ountain View.fearlessofethe*oritbo’ spenetratinggano. these have flourished as never before. There are also now designers who.painting a. however. chapter xi * The Digital Revolution writing was further decreased.

Unserifed Types in the Digital Age The history of the English word serif remains unclear.though it pales to insi gnificance when placed be. Transitive. actually replicates a living human’s hand. f which sooner or later is seen. Intransitive serifs. | side Veljovic’s own calligraphy. William Caslon cut an unserifed Etruscan type for Oxford University Press about 1745. Unserifed letters .often called sanserifs or simply sans . A serif can also do the opposite : deemphasize a stroke end by tracing the entiy or exit of the pen. but it is almost certainly connected with the German word Scbrifi. A serif is a subsidiary stroke. cut unser- ifed roman capitals for the advertising trade perhaps as early as 1812. f however. Unserifed roman fonts with both an upper and a lower case were . meaning script. and then accepted and admired. and unilateral or bilateral. They are found in Etruscan and Greek inscrip­ tions from as early as the seventh century b c . Jovica Veljovic s Ex Ponto. unilateral ser­ ifs are the most common form in italic. A Short History of the Printed Word i Many of these types are handsome pieces of design. U n­ serifed printing types. by enlarging it or i capping it off. for | what it is. | ble. William Caslon IV. to take another example. At the base of the letter A. They do instead f what able type designs have always done. Serifs (as explained on pages 27 and 28) can be transitive or intransitive. are more often found in roman. common by the middle of the nineteendi century. and the Dutch word schreef meaning stroke or line. 1 T hat is what it is .are an ancient tradition. both bilateral and unilateral. there are ser­ ifs that quite literally underline the stroke ends. however. They create an illusion. pleasant to look at and technically successful. medals and inscriptions of die fifteenth century a d . from which it is derived. were a late development. It can emphasize a stroke end. and his great-grandson. None of them. highly legi. is | widely regarded as one of the most beautiful script types ever made. for example. and in N orth Italian paintings. but they were 282 .

Others owe their basic structure to the Dutch Baroque. skilled typographers . (W ithout text figures and small caps. One of these families was designed by jean-François Porchez for the lead- 283 . however. and Syntax. Gill Sans was die first sanserif type designed on a humanist model. Hermann Zapf’s Optima and Hans-Eduard Meier’s Syntax {below). 11. were issued without the usual accoutrements . seldom used them for setting books. Important steps along the way include Eric Gill’s Gill Sans (1927). Even • these types.) In the 1990s. c h a p te r xi * The Digital Revolution afgep afgep afgep afgep . however. Adrian Frutiger’s Univers (1957). Paul Renner’s Futura (1927). such things as dates and times stand out like prices in an adver­ tisement rather than blending into the text. was the second. For that reason alone. and a slow-blooming one at that. Sanserif types for setting text are a twentieth-century phenomenon. In each of them. forty-two years later. several digital foundries issued large type families f which include matching serifed and unserifed forms with a full typographic palette. Some of diese families of type are essentially humanist in form. only used in advertising work. Hermann Zapf’s Optima (1958) and Hans-Eduard Meier’s Syntax {1969). of humanist text faces.3 Four unserifed types: Eric Gill’s Gill Sans and Paid Renner’s Futura \ (above). They had no text figures (123 instead of 123) and no small capitals. the design has been successfully translated across the boundary between serif and sanserif.

A. Le Monde. which are chiefly lists of names. even in a world of two dimensions. Short H isto ry of the Printed Word ing French newspaper. though meant for other uses. designed by Martin Majoor. But in the world of digital type and offset printing. Sanserif letters were revived for inscriptional use in Europe late in the eighteenth century. issued by Font-Shop. unserifed forms have another im­ portant function. Berlin. a% P afgep afgep afgep 11. and bears the paper’s name. Amputating the serifs can sharpen and fix a two- dimensional form. we come a little closer to spelling everything out. however. 1991-94. These types do not exist in any material form. serifs are helpful. is always set primarily in ser- ifed types. and Quadraat. they are purely digi­ tal . T hat is why the news. designed by Martin Majoor. W hen the serifs are left off. That indeed is the rationale behind sanserif highway signs. Two families of type with a similar range. but of all the types created for newspaper use in the past century. 284 .4 Scala Serif and Scala Sam. these may be the best. where rapid reading is essential. are Scala. In continuous text. Roman serifs tie the letters to the line that ties the letters to each other. designed by Fred Smeijers. The most familiar sanserif letters in N orth America are probably the ones now used for highway signs. They have been linked since then with public and commercial signage. Humanist sanserifs are a way of reasserting the inscriptional tradi tion.

Far more than 50. but the best type available covers a large range.000 books are published every year. One reason is that many of these documents are set in a few bland faces (Times Roman and Helvetica. designed by Fred Smeijers. again. 285 . y To those who learn to use it. Berlin. are most common). the books and other documents that pour from the world’s laser printers and presses look astonishingly bland. The vice president of marketing could worry there is not enough new type to go around. This is a dumbfounding number by incunabular standards. close to 50. ïn spite of this variety. in skillful hands. They lack the dawmark of meanings which the y letterpress. the computer gives considerable control over type and its placement on the page. such as Arial and Geneva. that all these . so readily provides. 5 Quadrant Serif and Quadraat Sans. Shoddy workmanship and plagia­ rism are rampant. c h a p t e r xï ♦ T h e D ig i t a l R evo lu tio n Computerized Design As the twentieth centuiy ends. It gives no control at all over paper and presswork. and only the illusion of control over afgep afgep I afgep afgep y n . issued by g FontShop.000 different type fonts are available in the marketplace. documents are flat. Another reason is. together with their many imitations. though in the terms of modem commerce it is modest. ujgi-yb. in type design as elsewhere.

jet planes.must buy or make a digital simulation of the real thing. buses. there are those who love to walk. The computer is a simulator of tools and can simulate much else. not accept a simulation of a simulation.6 True andfake small capitals. through) arefakes produced by typesetting software. italic. the others {stricken. It cannot. Yet these factors lie at the heart of the book. escalators. a substantial number of masterpieces have come from the son ofAriston & Periktione f. 4 2 8 > e U * f . they must turn this offer down. modem and worldwide web. The Persistence of the Hand In spite of elevators. but it cannot. Good typographers know that when the computer offers to simulate a bold weight. and the handpress has survived and even flourished in the era of the laser printer. The software is incapable of doing everything it claims. at present. The small caps on the right are digital but real. for in­ stance. or small caps. 28 6 . 3 4 7 BCE 11. That is a task not for a tool but for the mind and eye and hand of a designer. and there are those who love to learn what they can only learn by traveling on foot. do a decent job of turning one type design into another. A Short History of the Printed Word ink and color. along with type and text. The paint- brush has survived and even flourished in the era of the camera. cars and roads. The typographer who wants text figures and italic and small caps - as nearly every text typographer will . simulate everything well. In N orth America and Europe.

Ver­ mont. 1983.7 Paul Blackburn^ T h e O m itted Journals. completed in Santa Cruz in 1976. Each is at the same time a master of austere and pure typography. both Hamady and Van Vliet have made the printed book more colorful. published in San Francisco in 1975. By making their own papers and mixing their inks with painterly skill. like the artists among the writers. Though they are practicing a craft that is centuries old. Wisconsin. Each of these printers has a playful side. continue to uncover new perspectives. W alter Hamady. more varied. British Columbia. new ideas. the artists among the printers. Barbarian Press in Mission. Two eminent examples are Jack Stauffacher’s edition of Plato's Phaedrus. and the press of Peter Koch in Berkeley. new possibilities of form. Carolee Campbell’s Ninja Press in Los Angeles. Some of my own favorites among the private presses active in more recent years are Walter Hamady’s Perishable Press in M t Horeb. Claire Van Vliet’s Janus Press near West Burke. musi­ cians and painters. Wisconsin. yet more 287 . and William Everson’s edition of Robinson Jef­ fers’s Granite and Cypress.11. private presses in the past quarter century. Perishable Presi\ M tH o reb .

Berkeley. an unusual shape for a book in North America and Europe but quite familiar in the Tibetan Buddhist tradition. ip yo . Campbell and Koch have provoked many readers to see afresh what it means to read. Koch’s edition of the fragments ofHerakleitos looks as simple as a slab of wood and opens as abruptly as a door. V. the 602 lines of text flow like the river that flows through the poem. Manuel Cordova is fÆ x i f A inches (9 x 34 cm). S. integral than it had ever been before. yet it has all the sub­ stance of a book and the grace of an archaic Greek inscription. À Short History of the Printed Word 11. Closed.8 The Fragments ofHerakleitos. Peter Koch. Book {left) and prospectus {right). By rethinking the ways in which books are assembled and bound. Greek text with an English translation by Guy D avenport. in which Merwin has been trained. In Campbell’s edition of W. 288 . Merwin’s Real World of Manuel Cordova.

The title of the play is French Fries. T h e Real World o f M anuel C ordova. The tradition of typo­ graphic theater to which French Fries belongs is at least a century 289 . foil of action. full of drama.9 W . N inja Press. Los Angeles. Fully opened. In the early 1980s. and every bit as garish as the setting may deserve.5 m). 11. M etsvin. Cardee Campbell. Warren Lehrer designed and set the text of a play he had cowritten with Dennis Bernstein. the fifty-six accordion-fold pages extend more than 15 feet (4. of course. |y N ot all private press books are produced by letterpress.S. working with photosetting equipment •and a process camera at the Visual Studies Workshop in Rochester. The printed text is less a script than a typographic performance. and its setting a fast-food joint. New York.

ro Warren Lehrer i f De?mis Bernstein. F o rty years later. R o b ert M assin created ty p o ­ graphic performances o f two plays by E ugèn e Ionesco. and probably m uch older. M any turned to M o n o ty p e and L in o ty p e. W orn type prints p o o rly I t n eed s to b e melted and recast. b u t these alternatives were dw indling as w e ll K n ow ing th ey co u ld n o t replace their type made m any prin ters nervous a b o u t u sin g w h a t they had. th e R ussian p rin te r and playwright Ilya Zdanevich painstakingly p ro d u c e d a ty p o ­ graphic perform ance o f his play IJdantyu faram . As the foundries closed. À Short History o f the Printed Wbi d ir. M any also observed w ith som e envy th e in creasin g a rray 290 . m etal type wears as it is used. N o m atter how short the ru n and how careful th e p rin ter. 1984. New York. Visual Studies Workshop. French Fries. In Paris in 1923. old. th e supply o f g e n u in e foundry type available to letterpress p rin ters th ro u g h o u t th e w o rld dwindled severely. Rochester. for the Paris publisher G allim ard.

printed by Carolee Campbell. The only solid substances involved are rubber. The polymer block as it comes from the manufacturer is water soluble and photosensitive. the river that runs beside the poem and gives the text its shape is printed from photopolymer blocks. If the blank block is covered with a photo­ graphic negative and exposed to a strong light. In Merwins Manuel Cordova. with illustrations that were cut bvv hand . These areas lose their solu­ bility. After drying and curing. The starting point can be anything photographable . Los Angeles and Colorado Springs began ex­ periments with other ends in mind. T he unexposed areas can then be washed away. A photopolymer printing plate is a photoengraving made instead / from a photosensitive resin. the only fluids are printing ink and water. usually zinc. the block is ready to be inked and printed. rather like a slab of solid nylon. 291 . Blocks are usually mounted in the press with a rubber or magnetic steel backing.I c h a p t e r xi « The Digital Revolution of good digital text types.in wood or linoleum. leaving a pre­ cise three-dimensional mirror image of whatever was on the film.or anything produced by any means in photonegative form. In the late 1980s. Early photoengravings were made from metal.7or in blocks of synthetic resin. and the photopolymer itself. Some other books of interest have been built the other way around: the text set on a computer and printed from photopolymer side by side a*. puter seemed in order. artist print­ ers in San Francisco. t The advantage of photopolymer over metal photoengraving is that the machinery required is modest and no toxic chemicals are used. steel. Photopolymers provided it. the character of the polymer in die exposed areas changes. The technology involved was developed in the 1950s and is regularly used to print commercial packaging.a hand­ written text or a drawing. That is precisely the form in which digital type is usually generated for high-grade printing. but the text is handset metal. A link between the handpress and com- V. for instance .

11. of course. T hat means most readers have never encountered a book made to be read with the whole sensorium.and often for an inatten­ tive eye that looks no further than the jacket. The subsidiary texts comment on the main texts. on many other texts as well). rendered in four dif­ ferent types. Trade books that are designed with care and imagination are prone to overdo the visual element. because when books are manufactured by an automated process from machine-made paper. in Paris. The books of trade and academic publishers are as a rule now designed for the eye alone . but each has a subsidiary voice which frequently intrudes. 292 . This prosaic hall of mirrors has no marked entrances or exits. In 1974. alas. Jacques Derrida’s book Glas was issued by a small French publisher.11 Jacqiie Derrida . G l a s . This accounts for a curious paradox: some of the best-designed trade and acad­ emic books of recent years are also some of the worst designed. English translation hyJ. Glas (meaning Knell) is an essay written in four simultaneous voices. i<)86. There are two parallel texts. have never touched nor even seen a book made by hand from handmade materials. while the main texts comment on each other (and. Lincoln.R heavy J r & Richard Rand. University o f Nebraska Press. both main texts start and stop in the middle of a sentence. as if the footnotes had revolted. chopped into pages and bound with a strip of glue. the visual is the only element left. Editions Galilée. À Short History o f the Printed Word The Trade and Academic Press Most readers nowadays.

including acad- jj. which likewise mate complex and sometimes lively typography with dense and of- " " ten turgid academic prose. emies. Derrida’s self-indulgence is r immense. f. chapter x i * The Digital Revolution ÿv ÏÏ. fm g In 198 6. Electric Speech. the University of Nebraska Press issued an English ver- %> sion of Glasy recreating with great care the design of the original. University ofNebraska Press. W hat is new in the twentieth century is the way in which these yearnings have m: come forward in their published works. but its visual manifestations have been relatively subtle. |K There is nothing new and unusual in writers. Lincoln. mating academic prose with the typography of advertisement. :: Other works have followed. especially y. Schizophrenia. But Derrida’s book owes its typographic " form (and its textual turgidity) to the Medieval manuscript tradi- . have been more bla- tant. iç8ÿ.Ï2 Avital Ronell. Other books in the same vein. in which texts are frequently encrusted with a commentary g and learned annotations. This is not the case with Avital Ronell’s Telephone Book. those produced in the English-speaking world. a study of 293 . having outsized egos and an appetite for fame. tion. in English as in French. The Telephone Book: Technology.

Im agologies: M edia P hilosophy. The Telephone Book belongs to a tradi­ tion that begins in 1499. Routledge. one in Finland. That harsh edge suits the author’s posture to a tee. is an effort to philosophize about and within the world of electronic media and 294 . one in Massachusetts. It has a far more abrasive typographic edge than the Hypnerotomachia. designed by Marjaana Virta in Helsinki and published by Routl edge in London in 1994. Mark Taylor and Esa Saarinen’s Imagologies: Media Philosophy is visually much louder than The Telephone Book. brilliantly designed by Richard Eckersley. but it is in this respect both honest with the reader and faithful to the text. Taylor & Esa Saarinen. London. Taylor and Saarinen team-taught a philosophy seminar. The resulting publication. In the fall of 1992. Derrida and Heidegger in which the disembodied connectivity provided by the telephone becomes a basic metaphor. Typographically. This book was published by Nebraska in 1989.13 M ark C. A Short H i s to r y of the Printed Word 11. with Aldus’s Hypnerotmmchia Poliphili. Video links and electronic mail enabled both professors and their students to remain at their respective universities.

into the hands of any author who desires it. As larger pub- 295 . in many countries. publishing becomes another enterprise and needs another name. but there is am­ ple proof that publishing. maximum market share. as a rale. and by those for whom the beating of the heart and the singing of ideas are sweeter than the sweetest purr of money. To publish has traditionally meant . Yet in the English-speaking world.to make public. to contribute to the culture by publishing good books. software engineering has placed typesetting capability . A man­ ager’s goals. almost absolute. The Ecology ofthe Printed Word In recent years. To publish is not to preach. though both those things may also be involved. nor even to publicize. these are not firms for whom books and publishing as such are primary interests. Great books still come from the largest houses. But when its public spirit is withdrawn. Freedom to publish is also now. The companies most prominent in publishing are owned by other companies and man­ aged as a consequence by persons whose profession is not publish­ ing but managing. A publisher’s goals are. Oddly. as a rule. the printing. That is all the immortality culture can provide. publishing and marketing of books is largely in the hands of a few gigantic firms. and maximum profit. like writing. on the simple understanding that what is openly known and valued has its own life and its own chance for a future.and even typ ^founding capability . and to make a little money in the process. is done best by those for whom a book is something more than just a marketable product. through their interaction. are maximum market penetration. heftable emblem of self-worth (and the eternal tool of academic advancement) known as a book. but they are different enough that. fr c h a p t e r xi * The Digital Revolution ■ 1still produce the tangible. These aims are not quite dia­ metrically opposed. the face of publishing has changed. to enjoy the many pleasures of a literary life.and to most publishers still means .

They are tactics for survival. with David Bullen as designer. The firm of David Godine.and typography can hold them in position. Speech separates and joins ideas in space and time. are something more than luxuries. the pollution of the air.is the part of any species’ propagation con­ ducted by nongenetic means. founded in a barn in Brookline. N orth Point Press. smaller publishers have grown substantially in cultural importance. Washington. Massachusetts. It is one more way of reaping profits now and leaving nothing to the people of the future.something common to all mammals and all birds . W hy so much emphasis here on the physical quality of books? Durability and beauty. Writers. begun in a Toronto alley by Stan Bevington in 1965. joined these ranks bela­ tedly in 1980 and expired prematurely in 1991. and the written word an out­ growth of the spoken. Speech and Mind The roots of literature are oral rather than scribal. Another is Coach House Press. in 1969. and culture is part of propagation. is one eminent ex­ ample. The printed word is an outgrowth of the written. typographers. The Typography ofBody. A S h o r t H i s to r y o f t h e P r in t e d W o r d lishers have lost dieir independence. printers and publishers make their books to last (if they know what a book is) for the same reason that they feed and clothe their children. Books are part of culture. 296 . Many of the finest trade books issued in N orth America in the past quarter century have come from very modest operations. Culture . founded by Sam Hamill and Tree Swenson in a Denver tenement in 1972 and transplanted in 1974 to subsidized quarters in Port Townsend. like intelligence. and memory rearranges them. W riting joins and separates them too . the pollution of die water. A third is Copper Canyon Press. All made books ex­ emplary in physical and literary terms. The degra­ dation of the book goes hand in hand with the destruction of the forests. founded in San Francisco by Jack Shoemaker.

has done the same. Jan Zwicky (in Lyric Philosophy.tells us how.. One of the most thoroughgoing studies of the literary value of typographic space is Ezra Pound’s long poem The Cantos. published in instalments from 1925 to 1969 and in whole form in 1970. .•c h a p t e r x i # The Digital Revolution The arrangement of words on the page can be purely visual and formal. The poem is to be spoken. chem­ ists and other scientists. poets have explored the re­ sources of typography more fully than ever before . it is also to be thought. linguists. At least one philosopher of consequence. Typography. Its appearance - sketched by Pound with a manual typewriter . playwrights. musicians. like speech. But it can also be highly expressive or analytical.and ideas are placed on the page like notes on a musical score. In the twentieth century. Words . It often consists in making pleasing shapes without regard to what is said. published in 1992 by the University ofToronto Press). can be expository or narrative. lyrical or dramatic. mathematicians.but so have novelists.

as always in the past . movement. Everything happens throughforeshort­ ening. or in whatever way it will. like a surrounding hush. The ver­ sification required them. It is usually the same with a short lyric or apoemjust afew measures long. I only spread it out. closer to or farther away from the invisible connecting thread.i f I may say so .will tell whether intonation rises orfalls. whenever they appear. upward or downward over the page .literary advantage of this reiterated distance. delays. The use of differentfontsfor dominant and secondary and supplemental themes reveals the weight appropriate to each in speaking the poem. The . wherever seems most true. His poem Un Coup de des. It flows around thefragmentary rests in one uppercase sentence that starts with the title and goesfrom there. insistently at first. and the tack the text takes . It is not a matter . the same way a stanza or a self-sufficient line would be in other writing. now to retard. quickly. which on the average occupies about a third ofa page. Here and there. narrative is eschewed. but rather of prismatic subdivisions of the Idea. I donH departfrom that proportion. hypothetically. Mallarmé’s preface to the poem reveals quite a bit about what he and his successors have been doing. The fiction wells up and ebbs away. The paper intervenes whenever an image halts or recedes of its cram accordletting others take their turn.. is this: it appears now to accelerate.of regulated elements of sound (that is. it produces a musical scorefor anyone wishing to read it aloud. This is apprehended as a unity. in this or that specific spiritual setting. Moreover. seemed in its time the most visually daring work of literature ever published. published in Paris in 1897. when thought can operate naked in this way. 298 . The white spaces do indeed assert themselves. andfor as long as their conjunction lasts. The poem is scanned and transmitted in terms of a simultane­ ous vision of the Page.across.jumps. ofverse). with retreats. the text sets itself. mentally separating word-clusters or wordsfrom one another. À S h o r t H i s to r y o f t h e P r in t e d W o r d A charter of sorts for all this creative and inquisitive use of typo­ graphic space was provided at the end of the last century by the poet Stéphane Mallarmé. keepingpace with the mutability ofthe writing.

15 D e// Hymes.Hymes began in the late 1950s to uncover the complex verbal and visionary patterns of Native . Working mostly with older texts . Some of the most exciting and potentially far-reaching develop­ ments in typography since i960 have involved giving typographic form and identity to languages and literatures formerly unwritten. Practical alphabets have been devised in recent years for hundreds of Native American lan­ guages.including the Chinook and Kathlamet texts dictated by Q ’ilti and published by Franz Boas at the end of the nineteenth century . but very few (all in Mesoamerica) had a script of any kind.II. University o f California Press. edited by Brian Swann. and much work has been done in establishing typographic forms appropriate to Native American oral literatures. Berkeley. Each one had a thriving oral literature. “Victoria Howard's ‘Gitskux and H is O lder Brother’” in S m ooth in g the G round. some 500 lan­ guages were spoken between the Arctic Ocean and the Isthmus of Panama. Typography by Charles Bigelow. When Europeans first arrived in North America. The chief pioneer in this field is a linguist named Dell Hymes. ipS y.

It is pre~typographic language. As it does so. There is good reason to believe it is an older literary medium than either verse or prose. It is another state of literary language. A Short History of the . The language of these narratives. which Hymes calls “measured verse/’ is in conventional terms neither verse nor prose. 300 . still ignored by many linguists and literary critics. it enlarges and enriches the world of the printed word.es and others in the field of oral narrative has proven that this language is abundant worldwide. only now developing a typographic form. Much the same is happening with letterforms themselves. Many of the letterforms imported to the typographic realm by twentieth- century designers are pre-typographic form s : old forms that are the history of language and the future of the word. Yet the research ofHym.Printed Word American narrative.

INDEX .

128 Berner. Hans (Hans Grien) 101 Bienewitz. 283 advertising 195. King James 124. The 180 Bauhaus 246 American Type Founders 260 Bay Psalm Book (Day) 155 Anchor Paperbacks 271 Beardsley. vertical 231. A 31. Adobe Systems 278 203. Linn Boyd 221.161. 223.199. iq i Native American 155. 52 bed 31.123-24 Bender. classical 31. Aubrey 2x9 annealing 50. 84 Austin. Stan 296 Augereau. Philipp X2i ballpoint 276 binding 268-71.161 Baskerville. Joseph. Great Primer 164. 263 Antwerp 1. Antoine 113 Bewick. 249. Peter 259. Oxford Lectern axis 160—61. 218 Augsburg 75 Bi Shêng 5. Gutenberg 6. 232 69. John Sellers 213 Addison.163. John 163-65 Aldine Press 90—92 Baskerville type. Bentley s Miscellany 209 108 Benton. Jean 158 bastarda types 43. 283 Basel 1x5 Alenin of York 33. 250 Baroque type 130.no degli 98. Richard 241 Arrighi. 246 American Magazine. Ludovico Vieenti.133 Antiquities of Athens (Revett) 200 Beilenson.150 Biblia regia (Plantin) 118.176. 212. The (Goudy) 233 bâtarde types: sec bastarda alphabets 21. 83. 71.18-19 Belgium. Les (Fénelon) 187 65-67 .119.12 7-2 8. 119 Biblioteca Real 775 Baldung. 280 302 . Dennis 289-90 Atlantic Monthly 220. Leonard 260 Alexandre. T20 Alphabet. see etching Bembo (type) 249 Areopagitka (Milton) 3.118-19. 275.198. Konrad 120 Athalie (Racine) 157 Bernstein. 22-38 Bauer type foundry 244. 176-78 Barbarian Press 287 Adler. 223 art nouveau 21 Benton. Morris Fuller 221 Arte subtilissi?na (Yciar) 80 Berling (type) 266 Ashendene Press 227. 99. Avisa Relation oder Zeitung 141. Elmer 87. Richard 202 Bibles: Biblia regia 118. Aventures de Télémaque. 282 Bancroft. Thomas 184-87. 87.199.148. 227. Aldus (type) 266 Baskin. printing in 81-82. 101 Bell (type) 249 aquatint.129 Apocalypse (Dürer) 8ç. 221 Bevington.

Das (Koch) 242 cancellaresca: see chancery script Blumenthal. Miguel de 127-28 . John 178 Blaeu. Franz 154. freedom of Brinton. in the Bremer Presse 245. 27. square 27-29. in France 113-15. 40.174 147-49. cameras 21 lettre deforme. 31. Daniel 153 Centaur (type) 232 broadpen 27.147. Chaucer (type) 225 198-99. 23. type by 241 :Burckhardt. Giovanni 17.184-85 Chappell.- Bodoni. in Bradford. in Germany 142-43. 291 Blado. Geoffrey (Kelmscott Press calendering 165. 201 caractères A ugustaux 202 Bollmgen Foundation 266 caractères de l’Université 147 Book o f Hours: see Horae Cardinal. The (Pound) 297 -Boas. round 69. 40-42. see also alphabets Burne-Jones. The (Somerville) JS4 Caflisch (type) 281 chasing tools: see punches Gài Lun 14 Chaucer. foundry of 161-63 Bourgeois gentilhomme (Molière) 157 Caslon (types) 162. Benedetto 90 Carr. David 296 chancery' script 38-39. Dan 279 Boston Gazette 179-80 Carter. 52. 99 fiulmer. 265-66. Warren. The (Lievens) 106 Book of Job (Blake) 206.140 Blackburn. David 266-67 Century Illustrated Monthly 220. Carolee 287-89.26. Max 281 Chase. Le 210 Butter. see also Chef-d’œuvre inconnu. Matthew 279 Boston News-Letter 178-79 Caslon. scripts Chicago Tribune 253 . 222 bowls 35. 35. rotunda. 72.5^. Antonio 108 Campbell. Giambattista 171-74. 299 capitals: roman 22. 226 calligraphy 27-39.207 Caricature. 36. Joseph 245.57. Boccaccio. Jacob 41-42 character set 8.170 press. 214-15. 74. Le (Picasso) 237 alphabets. 57.113 Bullen. •Bktney.120-21.180 Europe 113-15. 63 Caflisch.277 Century' (type) 221 Brower.160 Catholicon (Balbus) 71 Boydeil & Nicol Shakespeare Printing Caxton. 87 rustic 28. scribes. the 3 2-34 Bordon. 53-56. 249> 282 bdustrophedon 23 casting 8. 248 United States 145-47. 52. 35. 220 . see also fraktur. Edward 226 Charivari. Archibald 187 Callot.Buffon. William.Blake. William 183. George Louis 258 Champfleury (Tory) 107. La 210 Book o f Ruth and Esther (Pissarro) 228 Caroline minuscules. Paul 2#7 Cambridge University Press 232 : falackletter 35. 29. William 7.198-99.143 Charlemagne 32-33 chase 61.170. 221 Buckley. 263 Cantos.196 edition) 224. Willem 152 Canada. printing in 180. 250-51. 95. textura Campbell. 87. 202-3. 247. Samuel 181 Cervantes. 200-201 Trajan 22.9 S’.106-7. William 156. Jacques 131. Nathaniel 141. 234.139. 206-7 Canadian Magazine 220 block printing: see woodblock printing Canadian Review 220 Bluntenbucb.183. see also small caps Bodoni types 772 Capricbos (Goya) 190 body 48. 54.143. William 82-84 Office 183 censorship: in England 123-26. see also brevier 57. breathing 25.

196. l’aîné 168-71. Paul Gustave 211 Cresd. Deepdene (type) 234 specialty houses for 255-56 Defoe. A Short History of the Printed Word China 5. Oliver 143 Doughty. 117-18 drypoint 133 Duncan. 26$ Cicero 74. see van Speyer. 224 (London) Chodowiecki.102 Daily Universal Register 218: see also Times Chiswick Press 203.10 x Don Quixote (Cervantes) 227. 2IOj 264. Albrecht 24. 68 77» 7'^ composing stick 60 De Vinne. color 26-27.104. 214. 281-84 counterpunching stake 47 Dijck: see Van Dijck counters 26.175 Cranach Press 235.49-51 digital type 10. 8.187.48.197 Cornhdl Magazine 218 Didot. Charles 154 Doves type 227. 229 De Humant corporisfiabrica (Vesalius) ri5. Stephen 155 Cirque de l’étoilefilante (Rouault) 25#. 35. T J. Un 298 Diotima (type) 266 Courante uyt Italien. Duytslandt Ï41 D mna Conrmedia (Dante) 247 Cranach. 200 coiinter-counterpunch 49 Didot family 168-71. 245 machine 2x3-15. Giovanni Francesco 108 Doubleday Books 2 72 Cromwell.9. 99. 75 civilité types 1x7-18 De Chris mulieribus (Boccaccio) 72 Clarendon Press 247 De Divinia proportione (PacioH) 107 Coach House Press 296 De Historia stirpium (Fuchs) 115 Cobden-Sanderson. William 138. 26z. da Carpi. Lucas. by Decameron (Boccaccio) 243-44.i o x . George 208-9 Doves Press 226. 139 Cruikshank. Eugène 204 Connecticut Courant 181 diacritics 23 Contes drolatiques 211 Dih'ao 141 Cope. Daniel Nikolas 190 dandy roll 196 Choix de chansons (Laborde) 18$. 57. 89-90. Johann Chinook Texts (Q ’ilti) 154 Daily Courant 181. La (Erasmus) 118 De Civkate Dei (Augustine) 74. 280-81 Delacroix. 84 Corante 14T. 190 Dante (type) 266 Cbronik der Sachsen 70 Daumier. 229 cuneiform 279 dressing stick 54-55 cursive fonts 95. Simon de 109-12 147 Colloquies (Erasmus) 20 De Oratore (Cicero) 74 collotype 217 De Praeparatione evangelica (Eusebius) 76. H arry 260. Honoré 204-5. 276-79. Cock. 267 De Aetna 92 Civilité Puérile. Richard 225 Dictes and Sayings of the Philosophers Copper Canyon Press 296 (Caxton) 8y. 25. 10. the elder 94. 69 Diogenes (Parmigianino/da Carpi) 104. 14 da Spira. Theodore Low 221 composition: by hand 59-61. Giovanni. 285-86. (Estienne) i n Day. Ugo 101. 29. Jérôme 119 u6 codex 39 De Imitatione Christi (Thomas à Kempis) Colines.49. 226. 257.128.105 Coup de des.275-76 D 31 Dürer. François-Ambroise 168-70 Cotyriana (PaDadius) 9 8 Didot. Pierre. 9#. 227 Cultee. 278-79.182 chisels 28.105 107 3 °4 . 145 Didot. 236 Doré. i o o . 201 counterpunches 47-48. 255. 75. Firmin 168-71. Daniel 176-78 computers 21.

mezzotint 137-39 Fust. 2T2 jHong 197 Einaudi.” 185.29. 50 éditions du Louvre (Racine) 157 First Folio (Shakespeare) 125. 50. I ■.115 Frosche.228 Froben.A. 112-15 Fugère. 80 Electronic Revolution. 266.. 132 Eclogues (Virgil) 160. 208. Henri 1x0 Frutiger. 83-84. 208. Johann Michael 174. Erasmus. type of 113.G. copper 119.. 47. Epistolae adfamiliares (Cicero) 75 French Fries (Lehrer ir Bernstein) 289-90 epistolary scripts: see italics ffisket 64 Eragny Press 227. 238-40 > aquatint 137-38.133-34. n o . Adrian 57. 258. 284 Everson.Jean-Michel 202 etching 135-37. printing in 40. France. Dutch Type Library 278 Fairbank. Emerson. Ex Ponto (type) 282 galleys 61 f T eyes 160 Gallimard. tp2.175 Eickhoff. William 287 )|y . printing in 8 p -8 8 .Estienne. also Monotype Fournier’s scale 56. Richard 294 Fell types 130. 262 Franklin.) pantographic machines 234. aquatint furniture 63 iS? I37“ 3^.149. 204. William Addison 249. 86-87.290 Garamond. i n Elements (Euclid) 84 FontShop 278 Elements of Lettering (Gaudy) 233 form 194 Elzevir family Ï30. 241. 51 italic 113 gauges 46 305 . Benjamin 170.. François 1 1x3. 259. 243-44 Fischer. 250 Fall of the Princes (Boccaccio) 87 Faust (Goethe) 190. 47. 283 fs)'. Gaston 247.187 7:.187 .266. The (Gill) 248 161-63 Fournier (type) 249 .139. 207. Claude 109. 204.192.116-18. 204 ' E 27» 31 Feder tend Stichel (Zapf ) 245 Eckersley. Samuel 247 Eichenberg. printing in.Faber & Faber 252 !> face 46. Robert 109. Les (Gavarni) \\ “white line. ' Euvres (Labé) 116 Fust i f Schoffer Psalter: see Mainz Psalter Evans. Desiderius 20.127 Eichenauer. Giulio. 91. 255. 122 frotton printing 12 Estienne. English Monotype Corporation 249. Ralph Waldo 220 Foudrinier papermaking machine 196. Enschede. Fritz 25 2 Fleischman. z65 Essais (Montaigne) 121. 264. Isaak Johannes 174-75 Franklin. Gustav 240. Edmund 218 Future (type) 246. Karl-Erik 266 Emerge (type) 259 42-line Bible: see Gutenberg Bible . 222 ?■ England. 190 engraving ï.167 /-'•. 'VV Fabiani 258 canon size type 114. 244. Four Gospels. . 279. Die (Aristophanes) 263. grecs du roi 113. François peints par eux-mêmes. xpi Forsberg. editore 266 Florence.180. James 180 -. 267. 120. in . T he 257 floret 108 electrotyping 198 font 57-60.Johan 115 ?. Enschedé en Zonen 243. j. Johann 67-70 |y. Alfred 234 Dwiggins. 275-76 Figurai (type) 266 Edelstein (Pfister) 72 figures 283 Edinburgh Review 218 files 45. see Fournier family x66-68.156 '■/. English n" 2 type 201 fraktur type 43. wood 185-87 210 .

34.279 Hogarth. woodcuts Gryphius. 74. Firrnin 216 Hoe. Horace 222 illumination 72. 87 Green. A Short History of the Printed Word Gavarni (Guillaume Sulpice Chevalier) H 31. choice of letterforms by 59.101. 262 movable type of 59.115 Goethe. William 197 Hamady. 87.121 Hymes. 65-67 Imprimerie Royale 134. see also etching. Johann 5. 243. Sam 296 General Magazine 180 hardening 47. 190 Godine.192. 238-40. 8. Johann Wolfgang von 190 Holland. Louis 244 glyphic 8. 280.167 humanistic script: see scrittura umanistica Granite and Cypress (Jeffers) 287 humanistic type 283.49-50.143 Golden Cockerel Press 248.19 Golden type 225. Frederic W. 94. ï 6 i Gutenberg Museum 4. Imprimerie Impériale 201 workshop 62 Imprimerie Nationale 238-39.49-50 2ÏO Haarlems Dagblad 142 Gazette 142 Haas. Ulrich 87 Harper’s Monthly Magazine 220. 243.185-86 grecs du roi (types) 113 Ibarra. 83.279 Gutenberg Bible 6. Eric 234.94. Joaquin 175 Greely. 233-34. 249 Hortus sanitatis 70-71 gouges 105 Hudibras (Flogarth) 190 Goya y Lucientes. printing in 81. Richard 2x2 Glas (Derrida) 292 Hoeil. Dell 299-300 graphic 8. Charles 204 Gil. Heritage Club 259 283 Histoire naturelle (Buffon) iy 8 Gill Sans (type) 283 Historia naturalis (Pliny) 75 Gillot. 284 Granjon. 204-5. Francesco 91-92. 294 gravers 45. printing in.117-18. 245. 222 Germany. round Horae (Tory) 112 87 Horne. intaglio. The (Blair) 207 90-92. 266 2n Heath. 75 Harris. H erbert 230 Goudy. 46. Hans 75. press of 61. Geronimo 175 Herakleitos (Koch) 288 Gill. Sebastian 1x6 Imagologies (Taylor & Saarinen) 294-95 Gutenberg. Wilhelm 183 Gazette (London) 144. Hans illustration 105. Walter 2<¥7 General History of Quadrupeds (Bewick) 185 Hamill. in France 87. 249.150. Samuel 155 Illustrated Daily News 253 Grien. 77.100. 65. 273 gothic script 8.190 Hudson. Philippe 150. tn England Griffo. 61.1x7 Florae 87 gothic type 43.147-49. 95 206-9.227 Horace 3. David 296 Holbein. 236-37. 248. 35-36. 65-67.158. Francisco 137. impression 6-7. 249 Homer 18. grisaille 105 in Germany 210-12. 21. 62 incunabula 65-92 306 . Benjamin 146-47 Geschichte Friedrichs des Groszm (Kugler) Hartz. 245. Robert 109. 279 Hypnerotomaehia Poliphili (Colonna) Grave. Hans: see Baldung.11. Sem 259. William 1:8ÿ. 47.116-18.52 Gering. imposing scheme 63 272. 2x0-11. John 279 Grabhorn Press 249 humanism 18—20 Grandjean.146 half uncials: see semiunctals Ged. 138. ground 135 engraving.119.

Eduard 212 Italy. capitals 99-100. Frite 241. 212-15. offset 205. the 277 Koch. Warren 2 89-90 Jésus Christ m Flandre (Jan van Krimpen) Leipzig 237. Alfred 247. Nicolas 72. 21. Rudolf 43.127-28 limestone 191-92 King’s Roman (romain du roi) 150-52.138. 105. 2x2. 49. Gerald 278 Janus Press (Van Viiet) 287 Lanston.242 Konig.139.' see also blackletter. 254. Friedrich Wilhelm 242 Linotype “Janson” type 57-58 Klmgspor foundry 237. 95-100.131-40. printing in 72. Peter Rutledge 287-88 initials 68. 7. lowercase 98 Kretzchmar. 255. 242. Tolbert 213 Janus-Presse (Poeschel er Tiemann) 237 Laughlin. Jacques 150 lead 49.190. Anton 90.119.73-74 Krimpen: see Van Krimpen j 22 Labe. 99 King James Bible 124. Louise 116 James foundry' 162 Lactantius 75.100 Information Revolution. 300 jonquières. 204. 274.227 Life 253 Kennerley (type) 235 Life of Michdagnvlo Buonarroti (Condivi) kerning 215 230 Kessler. 243 Leipzig Academy 237 lets 54 Le Monde (type) 283-84 Johnson. Edward 234-36 letterforms 22. 268 307 .tee also Kfinig Agilulf(Boccaccio) 245 engraving Koran 1x5 Ionesco.161. Knopf. 69. Miklos Totfalusi 57-58. 243 inking 64.193. 240-42. Guillaume 168 Jessen (type) 242 Lehrer.175. 74 Jannon. 104. Michel 115 Kranz 80.106-8. Christopher 129 leading 167 Jenson. 248 Koch.192 Koch Anti qua (type) 43. 247 Koberger.193.Industrial Revolution. Roger 144 Johnston.94. 278 Kleuken. Harry 236 ligatures 59. 280 Journal of Madam Knight (Rogers) 2 51 Lettersnider.132. Jan 301. Anton 57 Lane. 279. Jones. 7. 240 InselVerlag 237.227 Le Bé.1Sl 213. Eugène 290 Korea 5. Ebenezer 218 janson. 87 italics 38. 249.133. 212.106 Kelmseott Press 19.224-26. 259. 257 242. 251 Linotype 57. George 249 262. 259 Kis. A (Defoe) lettre déformé 35. Marmaduke 155 U Estrange. . 244 lithography 191-93. 61. 8 Isingrin. 158 Limited Editions Club 250-51. 85 Lidantyu farami (Zdanevich) 290 Keerer see Van den Keere Li evens. Henric 82 Journal of the Plague Year. 204.Jean 147-49. 250 251-52. Allen 243 Library of Aboriginal American Literature K 22 (Brinton) 153-54 Kulmdarius 84. 176-77 texmra Juliana (type) 259 Lewis.76-79. Allen 256-57 “Janson” {type) 57-58 Lange. Kredel. Henri 240 letterpress 6. 24-38. 2 43-44. the 19. 52 Jegher. Friedrich 194 intaglio 6. James 297 Jaugeon.238 Landells.

23 6 Mid-Week Pictorial 253 Mainz 65.161 Meditationes de vita Christi 75 Lutetia (type) 242. 43. 5. see also Caroline Majoor.10. Colard 83 Monde illustré. Robert 290 Moxon. 36 60. too Moretus. Stanley 245. 95. 153 loupe 49 Médailles sur les événements du règne de lowercase letters 31. 31 Mercure de France 142 McClelland & Stewart 266 Mergenthaler. Hans-Eduard 283 Lux claustfi 139. 261. 60. 259. 249.115 Malin. jean-Michel 188.Mills. William 19. 255 Merwin. William Ross 279 Mainz Psalter 68-70 M ilton. Balthasar 119. Le 87 makeready 64. Morning Post 181-82 266 M om s. Antonio 80. io6 Monotype 213-15. Ottmar 212-15 McLean.John 3. 249. Andrea 100. Abui-Wafâ’ 84 53. Henry 144 Matura (type) 264 Mueller.130 Maori 212 More tu s. Joseph 152. Aleynell. striking 52-53 Muddiman. 71-73 . Le 265 Mantegna. 254 Marathon (type) 242 Morning Chronicle 181-82 Mardersteig.133 Miscomini. Claude 154 Lyon 87. Louis-René 158.155 matrices 44-46. 288-89. Elizabeth 181 molds 44. 263. 217. justifying Mubashshir ibn Fâtik. Marshal 280 Merrymount Press 230 Macy. 190 Manutius. 243 Meier. see also capitals Miroiter de la rédemption. 33. Francis 253 253 mezzotints: see etching Maillol.291 magazines. Jan 119 mapmaking 121 Morison. Oldrich 266 Menzel.116 Mena. 224-26 Marsh. in the United States 220-23. Hans Alexander 252 308 . 253. lowercase letters majuscules 33. 20. printing of: in England Mêtamarph ose d'Ovide figurée 116. 79 Mallarmé.197. Michel de 121-22 Manuel Typographique (Fournier) Montaigne (type) 232 166-67 Montfort. 201 Montaigne. 173 Luce. George 250-51.123-24 Maimer Press 242 minuscule 33. Charles 245 mise en page 74. 88 Meaning in the Visual Arts (Panofsky ) livres de peintres (Voîkrd) 238-40 270-71 lo c k -u p 67 Mechankk Exercises (Moxon) 152. Benito 175 manuscripts: see calligraphy Moreau. Ruari 256 Méridien (type) 266 McLuhan. 278 Manuale tipografico (Bodoni) 175. Le 284 Mansion. Reginald 250. Aristide 255. 8. handcasting 53-55 Manet. n y 218-20. Adolph 211-12 M 27. Stéphane 298 Modèles des caractères (Fournier) 168 Mallet. Arnoldo 247 Mannerism 100 Monde. 255. Martin 284 minuscules. Aldus 90-92. 44-61 Massin. 2p movable type 3. W.160 Louis-le-Grand 150. A Short H i s to r y of the Printed Word Livre d'heures 86. 216. 52-53. Francisco Manuel de 175 Lyric Philosophy (Zwicky) 297 Menhart. 36.S.140 Mellan. 249. Giovanni 245. Edouard 239 Molière 157 manière criblée 88 Mondadori.

216-17.142-43. II (Cresci) 108 North Briton 182 Perishable Press 287 N orth Point Press 296 Perkins.143-44. 176 Philipon. Albrecht 72 Oath of a Free Man.164. 205.14-17. 260 Opera (Horace) 134 Nation. 29. Pareja. 283 Native American literature 153-55 ornaments 69. 278-81. The 155 Phaednis (Plato) 287 Ohms sueltas ÇÏriarte) 175. 261. 247. 251—52. 253 Panofsky. invention o f 39-40 New York Evening Post 221-22 Palatino (type) 245. 234.169. Oporinus. 280 photography 205.181-82.183.164-65. 272 Offieina Bodoni 249. 232. The (Blackburn) 2Sy photolithography 217 3°9 . 255. in England 141.2 Palatino.198-99. 216-17 Oliver Twist (Dickens) 208-9 photogravure 217 Omitted Journals. 222. in Germany parchment 5 141.175 phonograms 22 Offenbacher Werkstatt 240-42 photocomposition 267-69. 263 photoengraving 185.232 Neuîand (type) 240. Giovanni Battista 98 New York Sun 222 Pannartz. in France 142.133. 276. Charles 210 octavo 40. 254.107 New York Advertiser 222 page.242 Oxford University Press 130.187 Neoclassical type 150. Arnold 72. in China Papillon 185 141.170 Perfetto scrittore. 222 pantographic machines 223.161. Joseph M. William 197 Pasiphaé (Montherlant) 258 nick 48 Patterson.196. The 222 Opera (Virgil) 94 Native American languages 22.Nash. 226 n e o Caroline letters 36-39 overlays 64. 73-74 New York Times 220. 277 Nonesuch Press 253 Pennsylvania Gazette 180 nonpareil 57. Emile 154 O 26 Pfister.160. Ray. William 156 Peter Pauper Press 259 Petitot. Luca 24. Francisco 153 253-54 Paris 72. 212. 87. 253 niello 88 Pelican History ofA rt 256 Night Thoughts (Young) 207 Penguin Books 256-57 Ninja Press 287 pens 27. Johannes 115 299-300 Optima (type) 245.153-55. Parallèlement (Verlaine) 238 2ï 8. Erwin 270-71 New York Tribune 215. New York World 222 267 New-York Gazette 180 paper 5. Jacob 204 Nouvelles ordinaires de divers endroits 142 Perpétua (type) 245 Nürnberg 17 Perrin. New Directions 297 282. 180 New Testament (Froben) 115 Padoli. 269 New Zealand 212 paperbacks 269-71. New England Courant 179.109-12 Nicholson. in the Parmigianino 104. Louis 202 Nuthead.105 United States 145-47. Oxford Gazette 144 ty2>l75> l99> H 9 Oxford Lectern Bible 231. 266 New York Herald 22. 292 newspapers. in Canada 180. 29z offset printing 7. 220-23. 261. in Holland 141.

modern 275-76. Ezra 297 Publkk Intelligencer 144 Poussin. Lucien 227. 35-92. 7.13. À Short History of the Printed Word photomechanical reproduction 217. offset printing. 8-10. or the London Charivari 208. Linotype Pynson Printers 87 212-15. 2l2'i stereotype 197.193. 105. 93> I2<F pin 47. X37 journalism and pamphleteering in r8th Plato 287 century 176-82. Philippe 86.129 century 93-122. 228 block printing planer 49. invention of 5-9. 224 268. offset 205. digital 170. 269. devotional Pompa introitus Ferdinandi (Plantin) 128 ii—12. 192. 51 printing. type design in 1920s 243-45.192. 254. 299 254. 272. 286.193 123-57. etching. 272. intaglio. Quadraat (type) 284. web 212 Quebec Gazette 180 Prince. 134 Publick Occurrences Both Forreign and press. 264. Pablo 257. tools 45-47 194. ir. in 16th Plantin. 223 electrotype 198. Forms and Use Poliphilus (type) 249 (Updike) xi. in 14th century 13-14. Pickering. 230 polyglot Bible.183. in 19th century playing cards n . planographic printing 6. 221. 64.175 cylinder T94. 133. 40-42. 227. 0 de la estatua do 271-74. Domestkk 146-47 see also censorship Pulitzer. in *8th century 158-90. Edward 225. Francesco 150. in see also lithography 15th century 8. Carl Ernst 237 240-42. Poétiques (type) 161 Bauhaus in 1920s 246. cylinder 194. 267.135-36.170. photopolymer 10.285 253-54. 1940 to 1975 point system: American 56. 223. wood­ Pissarro. see also Pisani.193. multiple-block 105. see Biblia regia prints: chiaroscuro 104. typographic revival of 1890s Poems (Goldsmith & Parnell. 121. 218 continuous 2 68. ï 80-81. z6p.123-24. stop. power 193-95. 50 1:82-83. after *975 275-300. hand 61-64. Richard 87. before 1940 227-54. defined 6-7. costs of piano 183 254. pica 56-57. 251 . 118. Jean-François 279. multicolor 68. printing: color 268. 48. 293. 283 engraving. steam-driven 222. see also Porchez. 268. 244 quills 198-99 3 ÎO . 250 Princeton University Press 266 photopolymer printing 10. 254. 255 225. 290-91 Principaux points de lafoi (Richelieu) 149 Physiologie du Robert Macaire (Daumier) n o printing: benchmarks of 20-21. 13. Joseph 222 presses.15 2 lithography. iron 183-84. m 61-64. z)3>18 8-89. European 255-74. 86-87. 274. invention of Pynson. pied du rot 170 pre-typographic 11-T4. rotary 212. freedom of 3. Picasso. Christophe 117. Punch. Nicolas 131. 75 191-26.167 type 278—84 point-set 223 Printing Types: Tbeir History. Q 31 perfecting 212. punches 46-52. woodcuts Pound. rotogravure 132. La (ben Israel) 137 h . Fournier system 56-57. 75. resistance to Nebucbadnesar. plates 61. 258 61-64. 224-26. 286. quarto 39-40. purpose of Piedra gloriosa. in 17th century platen 61.190. 223> Q ’iltf 154. relief 138. 260. William 202-3. lithographic 212. double punchcutting 46-52. 88 the world 80-82. 290-91.125. illustrated 19-20. 238. by Bewick) 185 Offenbaeher Werkstatt in 1920s Poeschel. spread around Pigouchet. laser 280. history of: before 14th century 5.

227. 79. 171.172-73. 43. 248 Rudge. 282-85 Reiner. 129. type 42. 43 Senefelder. Bartolomeo 280. 176.159-60. Bruce 19. iz8.131. 260 Reatyell o f the Historyes ofTroye (Caxton / Sancha. Georges 238. Henry Jam s 230. Simonneau. William 122. Peter Paul tox. 222 Saint Christopher. 227-28 ShënKuô 5 Rome 72 Shepard.183.149. 255 scrittura umanistica 36-38. August 245. Joshua 138 scribes 36. Ira 251-52 signature 39-40 Rubens. 31 roman letters 24-29. Nicolas Louis 196 scriptorium 4 Robinson Crusoe (Defoe) 176 scripts 30-39. 28. Thomas 207-8 Sigl. Bernard xx6 Recueil des histoires de Troyes (Le Eèvre) 82 Salter. iyi G1 Simons. 80. 91-92. 231-32.317. H. 281 Rembrandt ï o i .115 Respublica (Elzevir) 131 Schônsperger. Schneidler. 278 Schôffer. 29* Salomon. Anna 234. 22Ï Riverside Press 232 Scribner's Monthly 221 Robert. Imre 269. 125 Romantic type ï6i. James 187 Shoemaker.199. Sedan. see also calligraphy Ricketts. 282. Konrad 61 Renaissance xo. 1x9.115 S 27 rationalism 158-61. C. The 176-77 schwabacher 43. George 212 Ruhei. Aloys 191—92 roman type 76. Paul 243. i6ï. 264.135. 244 Rûzicka. 104. Gabriel de 175 LeFèvre) 82-83 sanserif types 163. Peter.160 semiuncials 30. Scala (type) 284 99-100.Jack 296 Rosenberger.164 Sabon.176. Paul Helmuth 243. 250. quoins 63 Rue Transonian (Daumier) 205 Racine {éditions du Louvre) 157 Ruppd. 71. Jacques 262 Raven.136. 36. 249. 246. the elder 67-71. 279. 40-42. Berthold 75 Radisch. Peter. 26y Sanvito. 265. l 6 z 7 202 Shakespeare. 79. the xx. 284 I5 O -5 Ï. Johann 120 Review. 74 romain du roi Louis X I V (type) 150-52. 253-54 (Defoe) 176 rotunda 35. 114. 280 Rockner. 130. the younger 71. The (Poe) 279 Sabon (type) 261 :Raymond.199. m -14. 93 Renner. 261 Shortest Way with the Dissenters. 12 reading vs looking 174 Saint Christopher c'a Horseback 88 Real World o f Manuel Cordova (Merwin) St John Hornby. Sierra Club Books 267 Rowlandson. Louis 150. Antonio 80 3ïî . Rudolph 249 Raphael 95.281 Rembolt. 283 Schoffer. 81 Siegen. Académie de 148 158. 264 249. William 232 Sinibaidi.137 Saspoch. The rotogravure 132. Charles 226 Scribner's Magazine 220. 96-97 Ratdok. 87. 246. 40. 18-20. serifs 27. Erhard 84 -85. Vincenz 120 script types 281-82 Rogers. Ernest 218 Ronaldson.120 Revue canadienne 220 Scotch Roman type 202 Reynolds. 227 288-89. Berthold 87 Sanvito (type) 280. shank: see body 200-201. 264. Ernst 243. Ludwig von 137 Rouault. 201.150. George 252-53.

ry2 Srauffadier. 24. 52 sculptural aspects of 21. 175-76 Time 253 Speckle. 31 Syntax (type) 28$ uncials 29. The 176-78 T iro Typeworks 279 Spectrum (type) 266 title pages 75. foundry names. 164. see also paperbacks Standard Lining System 223 Traditions indiennes du Canada nard-ouest Stanhope. A Short History of the Printed.H . 'The 176-77 United States Founders Association 223 Telephone Book (Rond I) 293-94 Univers (type) 283 television 257. printing in 8o-8i. John Addington 18-19 U 22. 95 Smoothing the Ground (Hymes) 299-300 Thierry. Lord 183.10 Somhworth Anthoensen Press 263 Tiemann. 202. metal 53.li. François 199 Stamperia Reale 171 trade press 292. u j . Swenson. Robert 280. 187-89. 251 Tenniel. 74 224-26. 266. 200. 254 Spectator. original Strawberry Hill Press 243 method of manufacture 43-56. 49. 260-62 Tschichold. 283.159 tympan 63-64 Stephanus: see Estienne type: arrangement of at.152. Suhiaco 73-74 specimen sheets 85. 150. Word Sister Carrie (Dreiser) 250.197 T ibet 8. Geofroy 24. 112. top. W .244 Steiner-Prag. Suhrkamp Verlag 266 172. no. 128 Tratteggiato da penna (Pisani) 150. Denys 157 Soncino. Konrad 72. John 218 Siimbadh. 126. 68-69. 271 University of Nebraska Press 292-94 Temptation of Christ ( Jegher / Rubens) 129 University of Toronto Press 266 312 . &2>163 Smeijers. foundries Stone.193 Trajanus Presse 263-64 Star Chamber decree 126. jean de 109. 243 Spain. 28 s. type of typography 23. 243-46. 107 Talbot. 286 textura 34. 286. texture 69. 159. Waiter 237.197 (Petitot) 154 Stanhope press 183. stereotyping 197 171-72. George 261 Stemp el foundry 245. Johann Friedrich 190 Taller. 246. 292-94 Switzerland. 281 terminals 198 small caps in . printing in 75 Symonds. 217 Unger. 243-46.107. Fred 279. 267. 284. 30-31 underlays 64 Tagliente.113 squares 46 touche 192 stake 50 Tournes. see also casting. Jack 287 Tristam Shandy (Hogarth) 18% 190 Steele. Rudolff Ï15 Times (London) 194. Georg 247 type names. 51-52. Sumner 279 121. Gershom 100 Thorowgood. cutting 48-56. n o . 223. Fox 205. Hugo 252 Trump. 276-77 Sweynheym. 195. Jan 257. 222. 50. 261-62 stems 33. William. 161-75. 263 Tory. 201 Songs of Innocence (Blake) 206 Thresor literaire (van den Velde) 150 sorts 59.165. Strasbourg 72 260-62. striking 46. 215. 73-74. Charles.169 Spiral Press 245. 218. Richard 176-78 Troy (type) 225.116-17 Stamperia Orientale 117 Tourte. Giovanantonio 98 Undenveysung der Messung (Dürer) 25. Tree 296 typewriter 214. :tj7.199-203. 162. and individual Svensson. 267. etc.

Guyonne n o Vibert.16% 206. Van Vliet. Johann & Wendelin 72. John 218 Zenger.41 World War I 236. Juan de 175. Andreas 114. 266. Edgar 267-69 van den Keere. 243 Veljovic. and Lettering versais 70 (Johnston) 234 Vesalius. 279 Wallau (type) 243. Jan 242. 206-7. 279. 236. 225. 243-44 Vasari 100 Worde.: unserifed types: see sanserif types Weekly Review of the Affairs of France: see Unzclmann. Wynkyn de 121 Vatican Library 18. Johann 72-73 W 22. Gudrun 266. Adrian 266 van Calcar. The (Goldsmith) 20H Yale University Press 247 Village Press 233 Yeiar. 242 van Speyer. 248 Vale Press 226 Wilkes. Marjaana 294-95 Visual Studies Workshop 289-90 Z 22 Vollard. 72. 255 Zainer. 227. Claire 287 140. Fiorentino 42. Daniel Berkeley xi. Etoile 242 van Dijck (type) 249 Wolpe. #9. 244. Henry 246 Wind. 270 vellum 5. Ambroise 238-40.196 Venice. 75. Hendrik vj6 Winnie the Pooh (Shepard) 218 van Dijck. Gimther 75 Zainer. Ilya 290 Walpole Printing Office 263 Zell.169. 244 Wesley. 99. Angelos . 235 Yriarte. 260-62. 29 wove paper 164-65.15. 266 9#. Juan de 8o-8t violin bows 199 Yellow Book 218-19 Virgil 9 4 .196 Zwicky. John Peter 180-81 Warde. 84. Joseph 201 Y 22 Vicar of Wakefield. Berdiold 241. Emery 19. 244. 207. too—5. jovica 282 World War II 252. 75-76. 203. 245 Zdanevich. The 230 Weeckelycke Courante van Europa 141 . woodblock printing 8. 277 Zapf.Jan 297 Wechel. 243. 261. Christoffel 130 Woellner. 84 writing: see calligraphy Vergikios. Andreas 115. 75-76 woodcuts 14. Walker.276 Virta. 247. 245. 283 236-37 Zapf-Von Hesse. 116 Vespasiano Amphiareo. 253. Hermann 57. frate 107 x-b eight 36 Vespasiano da Bisticci. 67 xylographie books 14 Viart. Stevenszoon 115 Wilson. 68. 70. 232. 230 Weiss. 240.14.10. Edward 222 (§422 whiteietter types 36-39. 170 Wiegand. Alexander. Emil Rudolf 243. n o Vâffiard.11. John 182 Vallet. Frederic 245 Zilver Distel Press 249 watermarks 16. 256. 249. 17. Ulrich 83 Walter.113 Writing and Illuminating. Friedrich Ludwig 212 Review Updike. & Sons 202 van de Velde. 252 van Krimpen. Jacques 130 Wilson. 87. printing in 11. i n . Jan. 229. Jacques-Louis 168.120 WeddingJourney of Charles' and Martha Ammy. Willi 244. 1 2 . 255.

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A p r o g r a m o f re se a rc h th a t h e b e g a n in 1 9 8 8 as a fe llo w o f th e G u g g e n h e im F o u n d a tio n fin a lly b o r e f r u it in 1 9 9 9 . H e w as c lo s e ly in v o lv e d w ith th e n o w . firs t p u b lis h e d in 1 9 92. m a in ta in in g a s tu d io in N e w Y o rk C ity f o r fifte e n y e a r s a n d in n e a r b y N o r w a lk . Ro b e r t b r i n g h u r st w a s b o r n in L o s A n g e le s in 1 9 4 6 a n d r a is e d in A lb e r ta . C h a p p e ll p u b lis h e d th e firs t e d itio n o f A Short History o f the Printed Word i n 1 9 7 0 . a n d w ith B o a rd m a n R o b in s o n in C o lo r a d o S p rin g s . C o n n e c tic u t. I n 1 9 7 8 h e m o v e d t o C h a r l o t t e s v i l l e a s t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f V i r g i n i a ’s a r t i s t . Beauty o f the Weapons ( 1 9 8 2 ) and The Calling: Selected Poems / p 7 0 -/9 9 5 .le g e n d a ry S a n F r a n c is c o m a g a z in e Fine Print: A Review fo r the A tts o f the Book a n d is a l i f e l o n g s t u ­ d e n t o f b o th th e o r a l a n d th e v is u a l fa c e s o f lite r a tu r e . I n a d d itio n . They Say Stories (i9 6 0 ) a n d The Living Alphabet (1 9 7 5 ). f o r a n o th e r tw e n ty -fiv e y e a rs . H e is th e a u t h o r o f m o r e th a n a d o z e n b o o k s o f p o e try . H e d ie d in C h a r lo tte s v ille in 1991.w arren chappell w as b o r n in R ic h m o n d . . firs t a t d ie A r t S tu d e n ts L e a g u e in N e w Y o rk C ity . a t d ie B a u e r fo u n d ry in F ra n k fu rt. in 1 9 0 4 . M o n ta n a . H is o d ie r b o o k s in c lu d e The Anatomy of Lettering (1 9 3 5 ). H e g r a d u a te d f r o m th e U n iv e r s ity o f V irg in ia . U ta h a n d W y o m in g . T h e r e a f te r . th e n w ith R u d o lf K o c h in O ffe n b a c h . h e d e s ig n e d tw o fa m ilie s o f p r in tin g ty p e s : L y d ia n ( n a m e d f o r h is w ife L y d ia ) a n d T r a ja n u s . H is b o o k The Elements ofTypographic Style . V irg in ia . a p p e a re d in a re v is e d a n d e x p a n d e d e d itio n in 1 9 9 5 . in c lu d in g The.i n - re s id e n c e . w ith th e p u b lic a tio n o f h is m o n u m e n ta l s tu d y o f N a tiv e A m e ric a n o ra l lite ra tu re . I t h a s n o w b e e n tr a n s ­ la t e d i n t o s e v e r a l l a n g u a g e s a n d is u s e d a r o u n d t h e w o r l d a s t h e s ta n d a rd re fe re n c e in its fie ld . A Story as Sharp as a Knife: The Classical Haida Mythtellers and Their World. h e d e v o te d h im s e lf to th e d e s ig n a n d illu s tra tio n o f b o o k s . i n 1 9 2 6 a n d f o r th e n e x t te n y e a rs c o n tin u e d h is s tu d ie s .