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The present paper describes a new method of simulation program for plunge cut gear shaving. The developed program estimates the shaved form as follows. First is generation of tooth flanks of the work gear and the shaving cutter from gear data. Second is estimation of initial mismatches between tooth flanks of the work gear and the shaving cutter as depth of cut. Third is calculation of stock removal of work tooth flanks from the depth of cut. The program can simulate in consideration of an effect of preshaved form and the cutter tooth form modification. In addition, the program can simulate in consideration of an effect of cutter performance. The cutter performance has been evaluated from slide velocity between the tooth flanks of the work gear and the shaving cutter. The effect of accuracy of preshaved form and cutter performance on the shaved form was investigated using the developed program. As a result, requirement of accuracy of preshaved form and cutter performance are proposed.

The present paper describes a new method of simulation program for plunge cut gear shaving. The developed program estimates the shaved form as follows. First is generation of tooth flanks of the work gear and the shaving cutter from gear data. Second is estimation of initial mismatches between tooth flanks of the work gear and the shaving cutter as depth of cut. Third is calculation of stock removal of work tooth flanks from the depth of cut. The program can simulate in consideration of an effect of preshaved form and the cutter tooth form modification. In addition, the program can simulate in consideration of an effect of cutter performance. The cutter performance has been evaluated from slide velocity between the tooth flanks of the work gear and the shaving cutter. The effect of accuracy of preshaved form and cutter performance on the shaved form was investigated using the developed program. As a result, requirement of accuracy of preshaved form and cutter performance are proposed.

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IDETC/CIE 2007

September 4-7, 2007, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA

DETC2007-34032

SHAVING

Gear Cutting Tool Department Department of Mechanical and System Engineering

Mitsubishi Materials Kobe Tools. Co., Ltd. Kyoto Institute of Technology

179-1, Nishioike, Kanagasaki, Uozumi-cho, Matsugasaki, Sakyo-ku, 606-8585 Kyoto, JAPAN

674-0071 Akashi, JAPAN

The present paper describes a new method of simulation These programs enable a shaving process to be simulated well,

program for plunge cut gear shaving. The developed program in order to reduce and then get rid of the trial process.

estimates the shaved form as follows. First is generation of However, some parameters had been required for the

tooth flanks of the work gear and the shaving cutter from gear simulation programs. The present paper describes the latest

data. Second is estimation of initial mismatches between tooth version of the simulation program. The feature of the new

flanks of the work gear and the shaving cutter as depth of cut. version is a following point: a delay or lead of the work gear

Third is calculation of stock removal of work tooth flanks rotation and deflections of gear teeth in the shaving simulation.

from the depth of cut. The program can simulate in

consideration of an effect of preshaved form and the cutter

tooth form modification. In addition, the program can simulate 2 COMPUTER SIMULATION PROGRAM

in consideration of an effect of cutter performance. The cutter A process of the plunge cut shaving consists of a plunge

performance has been evaluated from slide velocity between process and a dwell process. In the plunge process, the

the tooth flanks of the work gear and the shaving cutter. The shaving cutter and the work gear are moved into slightly

effect of accuracy of preshaved form and cutter performance closer mesh. Then a center distance between axes of the

on the shaved form was investigated using the developed shaving cutter and the work gear is reduced by a plunge feed

program. As a result, requirement of accuracy of preshaved of the work gear. In the dwell process, the shaving cutter and

form and cutter performance are proposed. the work gear mesh in certain amount of center distance. Then

the center distance is not changed. The developed program

simulates these processes and calculates a shaved form as

1 INTRODUCTION

follows:

Gear shaving process is one of the important processes in gear

manufacturing of transmission for automobiles. In the shaving (1) Create flank film element on tooth flanks of the shaving

cutter and the work gear to be shaved. The flank film

process, a work gear to be shaved and a shaving cutter mesh

element is a new element for Finite Element Analysis

each other without backlash and under crossed axes. Then,

(FEA) of meshing gear tooth stress.

cutting edges on tooth flanks of the shaving cutter finally

(2) Set coordinate transformation matrix between the shaving

remove tens of micrometers of tooth flanks of the shaved gear.

cutter and the work gear. The matrix depends on a center

In order to improve the shaved gear tooth form, i.e. obtain a

required one, the shaving cutter tooth forms are appropriately distance and a shaft angle between the shaving cutter and

the work gear axes.

modified and transcribe into the shaved form. Because a

(3) Calculate initial mismatch between the shaving cutter and

cutting mechanism of the shaving processing is complex, the

the work gear tooth flanks. The initial mismatch means

relationship between an amount of the cutter tooth form

geometrical overlap of tooth flanks of the shaving cutter

modification and the shaved form improvement is nonlinear.

and the work gear.

Therefore, a few times of trial-and-error process is required to

(4) Calculate contact stress works on the tooth flanks and

determine the cutter tooth form modification. To reduce the

transmission torque from the initial mismatch and radii of

trial-and-error process, a computer simulation program has

been required instead of the process. curvature of the flanks.

(5) Compare transmission torque acts on driven side and (9) Simulate the dwell process after the end of plunge feed.

followed side of the work gear. Then, these torque are not Then repeat (2) to (7) until the shaved form has not been

balanced, modify rotational angle of the work gear. converged.

(6) Calculate stock removal of the work gear flank from the (10) At the end of the simulation, out put the shaved form.

initial mismatch as a depth of cut and update cumulative Figure 1 shows a flow chart of the developed simulation

removal as a shaved form. program.

(7) Then a target tooth of the work gear in mesh, increase

rotational angles of the shaving cutter and the work gear. If 3 EVALUATION OF STOCK REMOVAL

not so, copy each sides of shaved forms from target tooth In order to simulate the shaving process and calculate the

to other teeth simultaneously mesh with the target one. shaved form, it is necessary to evaluate the depth of cut of

(8) Reduce a center distance when a plunge feed has not cutting edges on the shaving cutter flank and calculate stock

finished and repeat (2) to (7). removal of the work gear tooth flank from the depth of cut. In

the developed simulation program, the depth of cut is

estimated from the initial mismatch. The initial mismatch is

geometrical overlap between the shaving cutter and the work

gear tooth flanks. Let us consider the relationship between the

depth of cut and the stock removal. If the depth of cut would

be less than a certain value, the cutting edge could only slide

on work tooth flank; i.e. the stock removal could not be

induced. Therefore, there should be a criterion of the depth of

cut for the stock removal. In addition, the criterion would not

have a definite value. It should depend on the some

conditions; e.g., microstructure of cutting edges and sub-

surface of a tooth flank, and film of cutting fluid. As a result,

it should change at random. Therefore, we should evaluate

stock removal through expected value. Furthermore, we could

determine only geometrical depth of cut, so that we must

estimate the actual depth of cut from the geometrical one.

Consequently, we evaluate the stock removal from

2

K R t1 1 t mt

R K Rt1 exp 2

dt (1)

2 t

2 t

consider physical meanings of these parameters. The

parameters mt and σt represent the cutter performance of

cutting edges. The parameter KR compensates the difference

between the initial mismatch and the actual depth of cut. How

to determine these parameters strongly affects calculated tooth

forms of shaved gears. Figure 2 shows the relationship

between depth of cut and stock removal following Eq.(1). As

shown in figure 2, evaluated stock removal increases with a

value of initial mismatch. As shown in figure 2 (a), evaluated

stock removal increases with a value of parameter KR. As

shown in figure 2 (b), evaluated stock removal decreases with

a value of parameter mt.

As shown in figure 3, in the shaving process, the shaving

cutter and the work gear mesh under a certain amount of

relative pressure on their tooth flanks. Usually, the shaving

cutter is drive gear and the work gear is driven gear in these

shaving processes, i.e. rotation of the work gear is not

controlled. Therefore, it can be considered that transmission

torque acts on each sides of the work gear flank statically

balances at all moment. The transmission torque acts on

driven side Td and followed side Tf is given by

Td rb Pd

Figure 1. Flow chart of simulation program. (2)

Tf rb Pf

(a) Stock removal changes in KR

initial mismatch.

followed side of the work gear flank. In the developed

program, the contact stress is calculated with the equation for

circular contact in Hertzian contact theory. In the Hertzian

contact theory for hemispheres is follows:

2 2

Figure 4. Relationship between transmission torque

9 w c 1 w 1 c and lead or delay of rotational angle of the work gear.

t

3

1 P 2

(3)

16 w c Ew Ec

Td Tf 0 (4)

is radius of curvature at the contact point of the flanks, E is

Young’s modulus and ν is Poisson’s ratio of materials of the

work gear or the shaving cutter. The subscript w is the work

gear and c is the shaving cutter.

Figure 4 shows example of relationship between transmission

torque acts on driven and followed side and lead or delay of

rotational angle of the work gear. Gear data is shown in table 1. Td Tf

FP d w (5)

As shown in figure 4, transmission torque acts on driven side Td Tf

decrease with lead of rotational angle of the work gear. On the

other hand, the transmission torque on followed side increase where, dθ w is lead or delay of the rotational angle of the work

with the lead of the work gear. Therefore, the transmission gear. Figure 5 shows relationship between parameter Fp and

torque depends on lead or delay of rotational angle of the work lead or delay of the rotational angle of the work gear. As

gear. In order to solve Eq.(4), a new parameter FP represents a shown in figure 5, FP is monotone increasing function with

balance of these transmission torques is calculated by lead or delay of the rotational angle of the work gear. Then

these transmission torques are in equilibrium position, Eq.(5)

is represented by

FP d w 0 (6)

The developed simulation program solve Eq.(6) and fix initial

mismatch at every moment of calculation of stock removal.

Figure 6 shows change of calculated of the lead or delay on

pitch circle of the work gear in mesh. As shown in figure 6,

the lead or delay has periodicity and its frequency in a rotation

is number of teeth of the work gear, i.e. 360/52 degree.

As shown in figure 7, in the shaving process, contact stress act

on each side of the shaving cutter and the work gear teeth.

Therefore, there are tooth deflection of the shaving cutter and

the work gear. A direction of the deflection depends on scalar Figure 6. Change of lead or delay of rotational angle.

of these contact stresses. The deflection can be calculated

from Finite Element Analysis (FEA). However, FEA requires

a lot of calculation time for each meshing condition. So, it is

very difficult for the shaving simulation to apply FEA in a

problem of calculation time. In order to evaluate tooth

deflection easily, the developed program introduced plate

model of the shaving cutter and work gear teeth. Figure 8 (a)

shows plate model of the work gear. Where, b w is facewidth,

hw is whole depth, sw is chordal tooth thickness on shaving

diameter. Figure 8 (b) shows plate model of the shaving cutter.

Where, b c is facewidth, hc is height from tip to drilled hole

pitch circle, sc is chordal tooth thickness on drilled hole pitch

circle. Then the deflections of these plates are calculated by

(a) Contact stress acts on driven side is greater than

M 2

h (7) followed side

D

where, M is resultant of moment and D is flexural rigidity of

these plates. The resultant moment is calculated by

M Ph (8)

Es 3

D 2

(9)

12 1

followed side

followed side

Figure 5. Relationship between balance torque and

lead or delay of the work gear. Figure 7. Tooth deflection.

However, the tooth deflection of the work gear or the shaving

cutter Δ is not same as δ. Due to fix error between Δ and δ, we

introduce a new parameter kw and kc as follows:

w kw w

(10)

c kc c

k mt (11)

where, κ is parameters due to fix the tooth deflection. In the

developed simulation program, parameter κ is determined as

follows:

w 0.05

(12)

c 0.01

deflection t1b is calculated from

t1b t1 wr wo cr co (13)

Where, t1 is the initial mismatch that is not considered tooth

deflection and subscript r is referred side of calculation, and o

is opposite side.

6 CUTTER PERFORMANCE

The parameter mt represents the cutter performance. In the

previous paper, mt calculated from direction of sliding

between tooth flanks of the work gear and the shaving cutter

(a) Work gear [4]. However, according to our experience, the cutter

performance depends on not only cutting action but also

cutting speed. Therefore, the cutter performance would be

evaluated from direction and scalar of sliding.

In order to consider the cutting speed, we introduce screw

parameter [5]. The screw parameter p shows motion of an

axode and it is calculated from

au cos

p u (14)

1 2u sin u2

where, u is gear ratio, a is center distance and Σ is shaft angle

between the work gear and the shaving cutter. Figure 9 shows

relationship between screw parameter, gear ratio and shaft

angle. As shown in figure 9, the screw parameter has peak

value in gear ratio equals to 1.0. Then slide velocity vs at pitch

point is determined as follows:

vs pω s (15)

Figure 9. Relationship between screw parameter, gear

Figure 8. Plate model. ratio and shaft angle. (a = 1.0)

Table 2. Gear data 2.

slide velocity increases with an amount of the screw parameter.

Therefore, in the latest version of developed simulation

program, a range of the parameter mt depends on the screw

parameter. The parameter m t is evaluated from

parameter mt and vm is new parameter due to evaluate cutter

performance from slide velocity. In the simulation program,

these parameters determined as follows:

mt min 0.003

mta 0.004 (17)

(b) Gear data 2 vm 66.0

TOOTH PROFILES WITH MEASURE ONE

Figure 10 shows the comparison between the shaved tooth

profiles calculated with the latest and the previous version of

the developed programs. Gear data of the work gear and the

shaving cutter are listed in table 1 - 3. As shown in figure 10

(a) and (b), although profile slope deviation of shaved tooth

profiles calculated by the previous version of the program are

different from measured one, they are improved by the latest

version of the program. As shown in figure 10 (c), slope

deviation of calculated tooth profiles by the previous and the

latest version of the program are good agreement with

measured one. On the other hand, position of convex /

concave of calculated profiles are good agreement with

measured ones. There are neither improved nor not improved

between the previous version and the latest version of the

simulation programs.

(c) Gear data 3

Therefore, we believe that the latest version of the developed

program for gear shaving simulation is more reliable than the

Figure 10. Simulation results

previous one.

8 PRESHAVED TOOTH FORM Figure 11 shows preshaved tooth forms of gear data 1, which

In the shaving process, the shaved gear tooth forms are are shown in table 1. Figure 12 shows the effect of accuracy of

depends on its preshaved form and cutter performance of the preshaved tooth form and cutter performance to the shave

shaving cutter. In order to find requirement of accuracy of tooth form in the developed simulation program. As shown in

preshaved form, the effect of accuracy preshaved tooth form figure 11 and 12, it requires less than 25μm of tooth form

and cutter performance to the shaved tooth form are deviation for preshaved tooth form to operate shaving process.

investigated using by the developed simulation program. The As shown in figure 12, the preshaved tooth forms are effect to

preshaved forms are generated by Box-Muller method and set the calculated shaved tooth forms in cutting performance is

to the work gear to be shaved. The cutter performance are deteriorated.

changed in average of the parameter mt in Eq.(1). Increase of

average of parameter mt means deterioration of cutting 9 CONCLUSIONS

performance because of tool wear. A new method for evaluating the depth of cut to calculate the

stock removal in a computer simulation program of plunge cut

shaving process is proposed. Using the latest version of the

simulation program, which includes the new method, the

usefulness of the method was discussed, and the following

results were obtained:

(1) Although the previous version required at least one trial

for determine the simulation parameters, the latest version

requires no optimization. In the latest version, depth of

cut is fixed by delay or lead of the work gear rotation and

tooth deflections of the work gear and the shaving cutter.

(2) Profile slope deviations of calculated shaved tooth forms

are improved than the previous one. In order to get the

calculated shaved forms, which are good agreements with

measured one, simulation parameters for tooth deflections

are optimized.

Figure 11. Preshaved tooth form

(3) An effect of preshaved tooth form and cutter performance

to the shaved tooth form is discussed. Both the tooth form

deviations of preshaved form and cutter performance

effects on the calculated shaved tooth form.

10 REFERENCES

[1] Moriwaki, I., and Fujita, M., 1994, “Effect of Cutter

Performance on Finished Tooth Form in Gear Shaving”,

Tran. ASME, Journal of Mechanical Design, 116, pp.

701-705.

[2] Moriwaki, I., 1993, “Numerical Analysis of Tooth Forms

of Shaved Gears (4th Report, Simplified Calculation

Method)”, Tran. JSME (in Japanese), C, 59-568,

pp.3888-3894.

[3] Moriwaki, I., 1993, “Numerical Analysis of Tooth Forms

of Shaved Gears (5th Report, Cutting Model in

Simplified Calculation Method)”, Tran. JSME (in

Japanese), C, 59-568, pp.3895-3901.

[4] Moriwaki, I., and Nakada, S., et.al. 2002, “A NEW

METHOD OF GEAR SHAVING SIMULATION”, Proc.

ESDA2002, ESDA2002/MAN001, CD-ROM.

[5] F.L.Litvin, 1994, “Gear Geometry and Applied Theory”，

PTR Prentice Hall, pp.57-62.

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