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fabric or foam. During the VSI measurement the very precise and is used to measure vertical scan. Veeco’s PSI mode is fast. but with a somewhat sample’s surface from which the shape moves at speeds of about 5 microns lower level of precision than is possible is then derived. Because the white light where measurement data drops into measure effectively. but samples with abrupt height measure because only a little light is be considered an array of best-focus discontinuities greater than about 150 reflected back into the system. phase shifting (see figure 3). such as measurement is completed in less than full height range of the sample while micromirrors. Figure 2. VSI is an extremely versatile nanometers on an otherwise smooth VSI mode is versatile enough to accept mode. paper. Fringes for a spherical surface in PSI mode (monochromatic illumination) are visible everywhere in the field of view. although the scanner generally range of surfaces. Only a few frames are and looks at the fringe contrast rather interferometry (PSI) and vertical collected by the solid-state camera than the shape of the fringes as in scanning interferometry (VSI). such as integrated source has a short coherence length. Veeco’s optical profilers have is calculated by measuring the shape traditionally utilized two complementary (position) of the fringes on the sample VSI typically uses a white light source modes of operation. VSI can measure a wider represent a topography map of the rate. VSI on the camera sees fringes only when surface topographies and can achieve allows for the measurement of rough the given point on the sample comes sub-nanometer vertical resolution surfaces or those with larger height into focus (see figure 4). During a VSI scan each pixel PSI is used to map optically smooth although less precise than PSI. per second. for it can measure the full range surface result in ambiguities that are the high levels of illumination required of most surfaces. discontinuities. Every measurement begins by PSI mode uses a nearly monochromatic surfaces while still providing good data evaluating the test sample and then light source to generate interference for those areas on the sample where the determining the best way to measure fringes. and the surface topography fringe signal is somewhat saturated. This mode can circuit boards. The position of better than any other optical method. fringes only appear around the best measure samples as tall as tens of Rough surfaces can be difficult to focus position. 100 microns-per-second with PSI. VSI mode works well maximum fringe contrast is then found Vertical resolution refers to the point for measuring samples that PSI cannot for each pixel. and solar 200 milliseconds. Figure 3. sensors. scans are possible with reduced vertical resolution. and the full-field objective moves vertically down the smooth. repeatable and highly accurate. The fringes generated collecting frames at the camera frame cell substrates. difficult for this method to resolve. it. plastic films. For this reason VSI can microns. continuous surfaces. PSI is during the approximately 1 micron PSI. The low noise of HDVSI mode allows for the finely detailed measurement of this 3 nm tall grating. the noise of the system. to obtain measurements on rough PaGE 2 Greater Measurement Detail with High-Definition Vertical Scanning Interferometry . However.

PSI mode could be used. Greater Measurement Detail with High-Definition Vertical Scanning Interferometry Page 3 . Figure 5. however. System height discontinuities less than 150 features such as Veeco’s reference nanometers. to the fringe data already contained in For these kinds of surfaces Veeco has the VSI measurement. which is well below PSI quadature-demodulation algorithm mode’s vertical resolution of 0. noise inherent In technical terms. The VSI data is then combined with Figure 4. PSI and VSI are complementary methods during a VSI scan. for a MEMS imparts sub-nanometer precision to device with a smooth surface and the measurement (see figure 5). the patent-pending in VSI limits the vertical resolution to HDVSI mode applies a unique PSI around 3nm. The middle and top of sample. while the PSI information PSI and VSI. For example. This procedure developed a measurement mode that allows the position of the fringes (phase) combines the accuracy of PSI with the to be calculated independently of the versatility of VSI. both the position of and which mode to use depends on maximum fringe contrast (VSI) and the the sample surface. HDVSI further resulting topography map merges the advances Veeco’s surface mapping sub-nanometer vertical resolution of PSI technologies in a number of significant with the large vertical scanning range of ways. A signal technology help overcome error similar surface with step heights larger sources such as scanner nonlinearity than 150 nanometers would require and mechanical vibration. although VSI could measure the step height. The VSI applications for optical profilers have data provides an approximate surface challenged the capabilities of both profile. the sharp features of these 90nm tall cross-hatch bars can be measured precisely and easily. the position of the fringes on the sample advancement of new technologies (PSI) are calculated concurrently and and the presence of a wider range of independently of each other. VSI mode. However. and rough surfaces. From a single set of data acquired VSI (see figure 6).1nm. Fringes for spherical surface in VSI and HDVSI mode (white light illumination) are visible The new HDVSI mode combines the the PSI data to avoid the ambiguities only very close to the best focus plane for three high vertical resolution of PSI with inherent in PSI-only measurements on different scan positions: close to the bottom. With HDVSI. position of maximum fringe contrast. VSI’s ability to measure discontinuous rough or discontinuous surfaces.