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Ohm's law

Lab report

By 1101 Group 2
Pathitta Kittimongkolsuk
Wanwarisa Krittiyasrisumet
Pannacha Lertlarpnont

Accelerated Physics 1101


Ms. Susana Alulod
Mahidol University International Demonstration School
Semester 2 Academic Year 2017-2018
Introduction

Georg Simon Ohm, a German physicist,


discovered this relationship between current,
potential difference, and resistance. The law
was named after him. Ohm’s law is the
relationship between the current (I) flowing
through the resistance (R) and the potential
drop across it (V). It is stated that the
potential difference, which is voltage, across
an ideal conductor is proportional to the
current through it. So does the resistance; as
it is also proportional to the voltage, meaning
that if the voltage goes up, resistance also
goes up. These relationships are expressed
through the equation in which Ohm came up,
which is  V = IR. 
Introduction

Voltage or potential difference is the


measurement of the energy difference per
unit charge between two points in a circuit.
The unit for this electrical quantity is ‘volt (V)’.
We can connect voltmeter to the circuit to
measure the amount of voltage in the circuit.
Current is the measure of the flow of charges
in a circuit, and it is measure in the unit of
‘ampere (A)’. Ammeter is the instrument used
to measure the amount of current flow in the
circuit. Lastly, the resistance is the measure
of how difficult it is for current to flow in a
circuit. It is measure in ‘Ohm (Ω). 
objective

Determine the mathematical relationship


between current, potential difference, and
resistance in a simple circuit.  Also, to test
that the resulting current through the resistor
is proportional to the applied voltage.

materials

2 multimeters
Lab quest
Wire with clips
2 resistors of different resistance
Power amplifier
accessories
set up
procedure

1. With the power amplifier turned off, connect


the circuit as shown in figure. Then set current
range and voltage range as instructed in the
table below. Note: Attach the red connectors
electrically closer to the positive side of the
power supply.
2. Have Lab Tech/TA check the arrangement of
the wires before proceeding.
3. Turn on the switch. Adjust / increase the
output voltage of the power amplifier from 2.0
V to 10.0 V in steps of 2.0 V as indicated in
Table 1. Record the corresponding reading of
the voltmeter and ammeter on 2nd and 3rd
column respectively.
procedure
4. Repeat the process until you finish all of the
5 runs.
5. Compute for the value of the resistance by
dividing the voltmeter reading to the ammeter
reading.
6. Compare this computed value of the
resistance with the true value of the resistor
used in the circuit.
7. Turn the power amplifier off then replace
the first resistor with the second resistor.
8. Ask Lab Tech / TA to recheck your circuit
connection before proceed.
9. Turn on the power amplifier again and repeat
steps 1-6 using the second resistor. Caution:
Change the ammeter’s current range
accordingly.
result

Table 1: The 1st resistor; 100 Ω


   Checklist to be completed before turn on
the power supply
    - Circuit connected properly
    - Set ammeter’s current range to 200 mA
DCA
    - Set voltmeter’s voltage range to 20 V DCV
result

Table 2: The 2nd resistor; 1000Ω


   Checklist to be completed before turn on
the power supply
    - Circuit connected properly
    - Set ammeter’s current range to 20 mA
DCA
    - Set voltmeter’s voltage range to 20 V DCV
calculation
Data 1:
calculation

Data 2:
analysis
analysis
analysis

These are the results that we have expected,


although there were some small errors. According
to Ohm’s Law, the relationship between the amount
of voltage and current are proportional to each
other. Our graphs demonstrate this relationship of
current and voltage by showing that as the voltage
increases, current increases as well.

Error in our experiment might be possibly caused by


the uncertain reading of voltage and current.
Because the readings showed on the display screen
are unstable, and they kept changing really fast, we
are unable to read the exact number of voltage and
current. Therefore, the number might loss a little
accuracy as we can’t make the number stay stable
for us to read.
questions

1. Differentiate the devices in each group by


giving their specific uses in an electric circuit.

a)
  - Ammeter: used to measure the current in
electric circuit.
  - Galvanometer: used to detect and measure
electric current, but it is commonly used as
analog measuring instrument, or called
ammeter, which is used to measure the direct
current through electric circuit.
  - Voltmeter: used to measure electrical
potential difference between 2 points in an
electric circuit.
questions
b)
  - Rheostat: adjustable resistor that is used to
control the electrical resistance of a circuit
without interrupting the flow of current.
  - Resistor: used to reduce current flow, adjust
signal levels, to divide voltages, bias active
elements, and terminate transmission lines, etc.
  - Switch: used to interrupt the flow of
electric current in the circuit
c)
  - Cell: an energy source with 2 ends, which
the current flows from positive to negative.
  - Battery: two or more cells connected end-
to-end to create a higher energy (voltage)
questions

2. A 14Ω coffee maker and a 16Ω frying fan are


connected in series across a 120V source of
voltage. A 23Ω bread toaster is also connected
across the 120V source and is in parallel with
the series combination.

a)
 
questions

b) Find the total current applied by the source


of voltage.
 
conclusion

 In conclusion, the current value is proportional to the


applied voltage. Because as the voltage increases, the
current also increases which prove Ohm’s Law, V = IR.

recommendation

 In the next experiment, our group suggested that we


should read the number carefully. It is because the
number that come up on the voltmeter and ammeter
screen are not stable and change very fast which
causes the errors. Therefore, to make it better, we
should take time and use the most stable number or
the average amount of number that come up the most.
We should also connect the circuit correctly, so there
wouldn’t be any mistake in our experiment.
references

Electronic Components - Rheostats. (n.d.).


Retrieved from
https://www.tedss.com/rheostat 
Electric circuits. (n.d.). Retrieved from
http://resources.schoolscience.co.uk/British
Energy/11-14/circh1pg2.html 
work log

Pathitta: 
Experiment, Set Up, Calculation, Conclusion,
Recommendation, Decoration

Wanwarisa:
Experiment, Objective, Calculation, Analysis,
Question, References

Pannacha:
Experiment, Introduction, Calculation,
Materials, Procedure