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Entered words that we have reason to

believe constitute trademarks have been
designated as such. However, neither the
presence nor absence of such desig:nation
should be regarded as affecting the legal
status of any trademark.
Foreword for language teachers vii
I ntroduction for students viii
Glossary of grammar terms x
Nouns I
Using nouns
Making nouns plural 7

Articles to
Two types of article
The definite article l1

The indefinite article 17

Adjectives 20
Using adjectives 20
How to make adjectives agree 21

Comparing people or things ZD

Demonstrative adjectives 3o
I nterrogative adjectives 32
Adjectives used in exclamations 33
Possessive adjectives 34
Indefinite adjectives 37

Pronouns 40
Different types of pronoun 40
Subject pronouns 4'l
Object pronouns 44
Possessive Dronouns 52
ne and ci 54
Indeflnite pronouns 57
Relative pronouns 6o
I nterrogative pronou ns 63
Demonstrative Dronouns o5

Verbs 66
Overview ofverbs 66
The present tenses 68
The present simple tense 69
essere and stare 79
The present continuous tense 8t
The imperative 8z
Reflexiv€ verbs 8t
The future tense 93
The conditional 98
The imperfecttense r04
The oerfect tense ro8
The past historic 1-t4
The pluperfect or past perfect tense rr6 FOREWORD FOR LANGUAGE TEACHERS
The passive n9
. Thegerund r'3
lmpersonalverbs 127 The Easy Learning ltolian Crammor is designedto be used with both young and adult
The subjunctive 'r3o learners, as a group reference book to complement your course book during classes,
The infinitive 138 or as a recommended text for self-study and homework /cou rsework.
Prepositions after verbs r43
The text specifically targets learners from beginners to intermediate or CCSE level,
Verbal idioms 146
.rnd therefore its structural content and vocabularv have been matched to the
Negatives 149 relevant specifications up to and includ ing H igher CCSE.
Questions 152
Ihe approach aims to develop knowledge and understanding of grammar and your
Different types of questions 152
learners'ability to apply it by:
Question words 155

'r6o o defining parts of speech at the start of each major section with examples
i n Engl ish to clarify concepts
How adverbs are used r60
How to form adverbs i6o o minimizing the use of grammar term inology and providing clear
explanations of terms both within the text and in the Glossary
Making comparisons using adverbs toJ
Some common adverbs toD . illustrating all pointswith examples (and theirtranslations) based on
Where to put adverbs lV topics and contexts which are relevant to beginner and intermed iate
course content
Prepositions 172
Using prepositions 172
I he text helps you develop positive attitudes to grammar learn ing in your classes by:
a, di, da, in, su and per 174
Some other common prepositions r83
o g iving clear, easy-to-follow explanations
Conjunctions 187
. prioritizing content according to relevant specifications forthe levels
e, ma, anche, o, perch€, che and se 187 . sequencing points to reflect course content, e.g. verb tenses
Some other common conjunctions t8g
r highlighting usefulTips to dealwith common difliculties
Split conjunctions
. summarizing Key points atthe end ofsectionsto consolidate learning
Spelling r9l
lrr addition to fostering success and building a thorough foundation in ltalian
Stress 196
Which syllable to stress 196
{lrammac the optionalGrammar Extra sections will encourage and challenge your
Ir,arners to further their stud ies to hiqher and advanced levels.
Numbers r99
Time and date 203

Main index 206

Verb tables 1-91

Verb index 92-96

Note on trademarks
Entered words which we have reason to believe constitute trademarks have been designated
as such. However, neitherthe presence northe absence ofsuch designation should be regarded
as affecting the legal status ofany trademark.
Whether you are starting to learn ltalian for the very fi rst time, brushing up on When you translate an Eng lish sentence wh ich starts with a noun,
top ics you have stud ied i n class, or revisi ng for you r GCS E exams, the Eosy Learning don't forget to use the defi nite article in ltalian.
Italian Crammar is here to help. Th is easy-to-use gu ide takes you through all the Le mdcchine costano caro. Cars cost a lot.
basics you will need to speak and understand modern everyday ltalian. La frutta fa bene. Fruit is good foryou
Learners sometimes struggle with the technical terms they come across when they
start to explore the g ram mar of a new language. The Easy Learning ttalian Crammar
explains how to get to grips with all the parts of speech you will need to know, Key points sum up all the important facts about a particular area of grammar, to
using simple language and cutting out jargon. save you time when you are revising and help you focus on the main grammatical
Doi nts.
The text is divided into sections, each dealing with a particulararea of grammar.
Each section can be studied individuallv as numerous cross-references in the text
poi nt you to relevant points i n other sections ofthe book for fu rther i nformation. Key points
Every major section beg ins with an explanation of the area of grammar covered
y' r,lostltalian adjectives go after the noun.
on the following pages. For quicl< reference, these definitions are also collecteo y' rnemeaning of someadjectives changes depending on whether
togetheron pagesviii-xii in a glossaryof essential grammatical terms. they come beore or after the noun.

lf you think you would like to continue with your ltalian studies to a higher level,
What is a verb?
look at the Grammar Extra sections. These are i ntended for advanced students
A verb is a word which describes what somebody or something does,
who are interested in knowinq a little more about the structures thev will come
what they are, or what happens to them, for example, ploy, be, disappear
across bevond GcsE.

Each grammar point in the text is followed by simple examples of real ltalian, Grammar bfira!
complete with English translations, to help you understand the rules. Underlining
To say that someth i ng is getting better ond better,worse and worse, slower and slower, and so
has been used in examplesthroughoutthetextto highlightthegrammatical point on, use sempre with the comparative adverb.
being explained.
Le cosevanno semDre meglio. Things are going betterand better.
Mio nonno sta sempre peggio. My grandfather's getting worse and worse
) To say fhe one in ltalian use quello to referto masculine nouns or quella to
pii lento. walking slower and slower.
Cammina sempre He's
refertofeminine nouns.The relative oronoun is che.
E quello che non firnziona. That's the one wh ich isn't workino
E quello che preferisco. That's the one I Drefer.
E quella che parla di pii. She's the one who talks most. Finally, the supplement at the end of the bool< contains Verb Tables, where
90 important ltalian verbs (both regularand irregular) are declined in full.
Examples show you how to use these verbs in your own work. lf you are unsure
In ltalian, as with any foreign language, there are certain pitfalls which have to be
of how a verb declines in ltalian, you can look up the Verb Index on pages 92-97
avoided. Tips and tnformation notes throughout the text are useful reminders of
to fi nd either the conj ugation ofthe verb itsell or a cross-reference to a model
the th i ngs that often tri p learners u p.
verb, which will show vou the patterns that verb follows.
sometimes a vowel, as in any. In ltalian i EXCLAMATION a sound, word orsentence
G LOSSARY OF G RAM MAR TERMS sometimes has a vowel sound (ee) and that is spoken suddenly by somebody who
sometimes the consonant sound ofy in is surprised, excited or angry, for example
ABSTRACT NOUN a word used to referto CARDINAL NUMBERa number used in year, for example, italiano (eetalyano). Oh!; Look who's coming!; How dare you!
a qual ity, idea, feel ing or experience, rather counting, for example, one, seven, ninet1. ComDarewith vowel. FEMININE a noun, pronoun, article or
than a physical object, forexample,size, reason, Compare with ordinal number.
CONTINUOUS TENSE a verb form made form ofadjective used to refer to a ivi ng I

happiness. Compare with concrete noun. CLAUSE a group of words containing a verb. u p of to be and the -ing form, for example, being, thing or idea that is not classed as
ACTIVE a form of the verb that is used when I'm thinking;TheV were quarrelling. ltalian masculine. For example, una (feminine
COMPARATIVE an adjective or adverb
the subject ofthe sentence does the action, continuous tenses are made with stare indeflnite article) bella (adjectivewith a
with -er on the end of it or more or less in
for example, A dog bit him (subiect: a dog: and the gerund. feminine ending) casa (feminine noun).
front of it that is used to compare things
active verb: bit).Compare with passive.
or people, for example, faster, more DEFINITE ARTICLE the word the. Compare FUTURE a tense used to talk about
ADJECTIVE a'describing'word that tells you m portont, less nteresting.
i i with indefinite article. somethi ng that will happen, or be true
something abouta person orthing, for i n the future, for exam ple He'll be here soon;
COMPOUND NOUN a word fora living DEMONSTRATIVE ADJ ECTIVE a word used
example, a blue shirt, a bjgcar, a aoodidea. I'll give you o coll; It will be sunny tomorrow.
being, thing or idea which is made up of to poi nt out a particu lar th i ng or person.
ADVERB a word used with verbs to give two or more words, for example, prime There are fou r demonstrative adjectives GENDER whetner a noun, pronoun or
information on where, when or how an minister, mobile phone, home truth. i n En g ish: this, these, that and those.
I adjective is masculi ne orfemi ni ne.
action tal<es place, for exam ple, here, todoy,
CONCRETE NOUN a word that refers to DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN A WOTd cERUND in English, a verb form ending in
4uickly. An adverb can also addinformation
a physical object rather than a quality or used instead ofa noun to point out people -ing, fo r exa m p le, eating, sleepi ng. I n ltal ian
to adjectives and other adverbs, for
i dea, for exam ple, ball, school, apples. or things, for example, Thdts my brother. th e g eru nd ends i n -ando or -endo "
example, extremelv quick, verv quickly.
Compare with abstract noun. In English the demonstrative pronouns
IMPERATIVE a form of the verb used to
AGREEMENTthe matching of words or are this, thot, these and those.
CONDITIONALa verb Form used to talk give orders and i nstructions, for example,
word end i ngs to the person or th ing they
about things thatwould happen orwould be DIRECT OBJECT a noun or pronoun used Sit down!;Don't go!;Let's start!
refer to. For example, the verb to be has
true under certain cond itions, for example, to showwho orwhat is affected bythe
d ifferent forms for l, you and he: I am, you IMPERFECTa tense used to saywhatwas
I would help you if I is also used in verb. Forexample, in the sentence He senr
are, he is. I n ltal ian Vou use verbs i n the form happening, what used to happen and what
req uests and offers, for exam ple, Could you flowers, the subject ofthe verb is He (the things were lil(e in the past, for example;
appropriate to the person doi ng the action,
person who did the sending) and the
and articles and adjectives have masculine, lend me some money?; I could give you a lift. It was sunny otthe weekend;Thev weren't
d i rect object of the verb is flowers (what
feminine and plural forms to match (or CONJ UGATE (to) to g ive a verb d ifferent listening;TheV used to live in Spain.
he sent). Compare with indirect object.
aqree with) the noun they go with. endings depending on whether its subject IMPERSONALVERB A VETb With thC
APOSTROPHE s an ending ('s) added to is I, you, fie and so on, and depend ing on subject it, where'it'does not referto any
me, him, us and them used instead of a noun
a noun to show ownership, for example, whether you are referri ng to the present, specific thing;for example, It's going to rain;
past or futu re, for exarhple, I hove, she has, to showwho orwhat is affected bVtheaction
Pete(s car, the companV's headquarters. It's nine o'clock.
of the verb, for example His friends helped
ARTfCLE aword such as the, a, and an
thE listened. INDEFINITE ADJECTIVE one of a small
him. Compare indirect object pronoun.
which goes with nouns: the sun, o happ\ CONTUCATION a group ofverbs that has group ofadjectives used to give an idea
ENDING something added to the end of
boy, an oronge. See also definite article, a particular pattern ofendings. of amounts and numbers, forexample,
a word. In English nouns have plural
indefinite article. several, all, every.
CONTUNCTf ON a word such as and, but ol endings, for example boy + boy5, child -
AUXILfARY VERB a verb such asbe. hove becdusethat links two words or Dhrases. ch i ldren and verbs have the end i ngs -s, -ed
INDEFINITE ARTICLE the word d or 4n.

and do that is used with a main verb to or two parts of a sentence, for example, and -ing, for example wdlk + walks, walked,
Compare with definite article.
form tenses, negatives and questions. Diane and I hove been friends for years. wolking.In ltalian there are plural endings INDEFINITE PRONOUN a word lil<e
BASE FORM the form ofthe verb that has CONSONANTa sound made by letters for nouns, verb endings, and masculine, everything, nobody ond something which is
no end ing added to it, for exam ple,walk, such as b, g, m, s and t. In English y is femini ne and plural endings for adjectives used to refer to people or th i ngs i n a non-
have, be, go. Comparewith infinitive. someti mes a consonant, as in Vear, and and Dronouns. specific way.
INDIRECTOBJECTa noun or pronoun used INTERROGATIVE PRONOUN one of the oBJECT PRONOUN one of the following: PLURAL the Form of a word which is used
to show who benefits or suffers from an following: who, which, whose, whom and tne, Vou, him, her,it, us, them. They are used to referto morethan one person orthing.
action. For example, i n the sentence He whdt.These words are used without a I rrstead of nouns after prepositions, for In ltalian, nouns, adjectives, articles,
sent Cloire 'flowers, the d irect o bj ect (what noun, when asking questions, for t'xample, flor me, with us and as the object pronouns and verbs can be plural.
was sent) isflowers and the indirect object example, What do Vou wont? of verbs, forexample,The complny sacked him; POSITIVE a Dositive sentence does not
is Cloire (the person the flowers were sent You'll enjoy it. Compare subject pronoun. contain a negative word such as not.
INTRANSITIVE VERB a verb used without
to). An indirect object often has to in rront ()RDINAL NUMBERan adjective used Compare with negative.
a d irect object, for example, The shop is
of it: He told lies to everyone; He told everyone l{) showwhere something comes in
closing; Nothing grows here. Compare with POSSESSIVE ADJ ECTIVE a word such as
lies. In both these sentences the direct merical order, for exam ple, frrst, seventh,
transitive verb. rr
that is used with
mV, your, his a noun to
object is lies and the indirect object is ninetieth. Compare with cardinal number.
INVARIABLE the term used to describe an show who it belongs to.
everyone. Compa re wi th di rect object. OF SPEECH a word with a particular
adjective wh ich does not change its form ''ART POSSESSIVE PRONOUN a word such as
INDIRECT OBJECT PRONOUN a pronoun (Jrammatical function, for example, noun,
forthefeminineorthe plural, ora noun which mine,yours, histhat is used instead ofa
such as to me (or me),to you (or you) and tdjective, verb, preposition, pronoun.
does not change its end i ng i n the plural. possessive adjective followed by a noun.
to her (ot her). n the sentence He gove the
I t'AsslVE a verb form that is used when the
IRREGULAR VERB In ltalian, a verb whose For example, instead of MV bog is the blue
chocolates to me ond the flowers to her, the \ubject oftheverb is the person orthing
forms do not follow one of the three main one,You can sayMines the blue one.
d rect objects arethe chocolates andthe
i the action is done to, for example, Shaun
Datterns. pREPOSITION a word such as ot, for, with,
flowers (what he gave), and the ind irect wIs bitten by o dog.Shaun is the subject of
obiect pronouns are to me and to her (who MASCULINE a noun, pronoun, article or into orfrom, ora phrasesuchasinfrontof or
I he sentence, but he did not do the action.

he gave them to). I n the sentence He gave form ofadjective used to refer to a ivi ng I ( ompare with active. near to. Prepositions are usual ly followed

me the chocolates ond her the being, thing or idea that is not classed as bya noun ora pronoun and show how
flowers,the I)AST PARTICIPLE a verb form usually
feminine. For example, il (masculine people and things relate to the rest ofthe
i nd i rect object pronou ns are /n e and her. r'nding -ed, forexample lived, worked. Some
definite article) primo (adjective with a sentence, for example, Shes at home; It'sfu
INDIRECT QUESTION a more roundabout l)ast participles are irregular, for example,
masculine ending) treno (masculine noun). Vou;You'll get into trouble; lt's in front of you .

way of asking a question, for example, qone, slt, broken. Past participles are used to
instead ofWhere are you going?you can say NEGATIVE a question or statement rnal(e the perfect, pluperfect and passive, PRESENT a verb form used to talk about

Tell me where you are going, or l'd |ike to know wh ich contains a word such as not, never f or example Thev've qone;Thet/ hadn't noticed what is true at the moment, what generally

where you are going. othothing: IsIt he here?; I never eat meat; nrc ; Nobodv wos hurt Past participles are also happens and what is happening now;
She's doing nothina obout it. Lrsed as adjectives, for example , a boiled egg. for example, I'm a student; I trovel to college
INDIRECT SPEECH the words Vou use to
by train;The phone's ringing.
report what someone has said when you NOUN a naming word fora living being, [,AST PERFECT see pluperfect.
thing or idea, for example, woman,Andrew, PRESENT PARTICIPLE a verb form ending
aren't usi ng thei r actual words, for example, PERFECTa tense used in English to talk
i n -ing, for exam ple, eating, sleeping.
He soid thot he was going out. Also called desk, happiness. ,r bout what has or hasn't happened, for

reported speech. 0xample We've won,l haven'ttouched it. Compare with gerund.
NUMBER in grammar a verb agrees in
(.ompare simple past. PRONOUN a word you use instead of a
INFINITIVE the base form of the verb, numberwith its subject by being singular
for example, walk, see, hear.ltis used after with a singular subject and pluralwith a PERSON in grammar one of the following: noun, when you do not need orwantto
otherverbs such as should, must and can. plural subject, for example, I om o teocher; t he first person (1, we), the second person name someone or something d irectly,
The infinitive is often used with to: theY ore teochers. (you) or the th i rd person (he, she, it, they). for example, it, Vou, somebodv.

to speok, to e!t, to live. Compare with PERSONAL PRONOUN a word such as l, PROPER NOUN the name ofa person, place
OBJ ECT a nou n or pronou n that, i n
base form. English, usually comes after the verb and you, he, she, us,them, wh ich make it clear or organization. Proper nouns are always
INTERROCATIVE ADJECTIVE a question shows who orwhat is affected bV it, for who you are tal ki ng about or tal ki ng to. written with a capital letter, for example,

word such aswhich. what or how much example, I (subject) want (verb) a new cor PLUPERFECTa tense used to talkabout Kate, NewYork, the Forestry Commission.
that is used when asking abouta noun, (object), They (subject) phoned (verb) him what had happened or had been true at a QUESTION WORD a word such as why,
for example, Which colour?;Whot. size?; (object). Compare direct object, indirect point in the past, for example, l'd forgotten where, who, which or howthat is used to ask
How much sugor? object and subject. to send her a card. Also called past perfect. a ouestion.

xtl xill
REFLEXIVE PRONOUN a word ending in SUBJECT a noun or pronoun that refers to
-self or -selves, such as nyselfa nd ourselves, the person orthing doing the action or NOUNS
that is used as the object ofa verb, for being in the state described by theverb,
example I surprised musqlf;We're going to for example Pdt likes climbing;The bus is late.
treot ourselves. Compare with object. What is a noun?
A noun is a nam ing word for a living being, a thing, or an idea, for example,
REFLEXIVE VERB a verb where the subject SUBTECT PRONOUN a word such as l, he,
w o mon, Andrew, desk, h appi ness.
and object are the same, and which uses sheand they used forthe person orthing
reflexive pronouns such as myself, Vourself carrying out the action described by the
and themselves,for exam ple l've hurt myself; verb. Pronouns reDlace nouns when it is
Look ofter yourselfl ; They' re enjoying themselves. clearwho is being talked about, forexample,
Using nouns
REGULAR VERB in ltalian, a verb whose My brothels not here atthe moment. He'll be ,llThebasics
forms follow one of the three main Datterns. back in an hour.
D Inltalian,allnouns,whetherreferringtolivingbeingsortothingsandideas,
Compare with irregular verb. SUBJUNCTIVE a verb form often used in are either masculine orfeminine.This is theiraender.
RELATIVE PRONOUN one of the following: Italian to express wishes, thoughts and
who, which, that and whom.TheV are used suppositions. In English the subjunctive is Masculine Feminine
to specify exactly who or what is being only used occasionally, for example, lf l were olio oil acqua water
talked about, for example,The mon who hos you. . .;So be it;He asked that they be removed. uomo man donna woman
iust come in is Annl's boyfriend;The vose that 5U PERLATIVE an adjective or adverb with delfino dolphin tigre tiger
vou broke cost a lot of money. -est on the end ofit or most or ledst in front concetto concept idea idea
REPORTED SPEECH see indirect speech. of it that is used to compare th ings or armadio wardrobe sedia chair
SENTENCE a group of words which usually people, for example, fdstest, most important,
Ieast interesting. > Theletteranounendswithisoftenareliableguidetoitsgender.Forinstance,
writi ng, a sentence
has a subject and a verb. ln
words ending in -o will nearly always be masculine,
begins with a capital and ends with a full SYLLABLE a unit containing a vowel sound.
stop, question markorexclamation mark. Aword can have one or more svllables, for D When you use an ltalian noun you need to know if it is masculine orfeminine
SIMPLE TENSE a verb form made up of example, l, o-pen, ca-the-drat. so that you can make other words that go with it masculine or fem in ine too:
one word, for example,She lives here; particularform oftheverb. ltshows
Te llSE a . how you translate the words for'the' or'a' depends on the noun's gender.
They arrived lote. Comparewith whether you are referri ng to the present, For instance, with mascul ine nouns Vou use il and un, and with fem inine
Continuous Tense and Perfect Tense. past orfuture. nouns you use la and una.
SIMPLE PAST a tense used in English to say TRANSITIVE VERB a verb used with a direct
Masculine Feminine
when exactly something happened, for obj ect, fo r exa m ple, ose the doo r! ; They
example, We met last summer; I ate it lost wheat. Compare

with i ntransitive verb.

g row.
il giorno the day la notte the night

night; lt roined a lotyesterday. In ltalian the un gelato an icecream una mela an apple
UNSTRESSED PRONOUN an object pronoun
perfect tense is used in this ki nd ofsentence. used in ltalian when you don'twantto put o adjectives describing a noun are masculine orfeminine in form
SINGULAR the form of a word used to refer any special emphasis on thewordfor me, him,
Masculine Feminine
to one person orthing. Comparewith plural. them and so on. Comparestressed pronoun.
STEM what is left of an ltalian verb when VERB a word thatdescribes what somebodv
un abito carq - an expensive suit una macchina cara - an expensive car

you take away the -are, -ere or -ire end ing

lAntice Testamento - the old Testament I'antica Roma - ancient Rome
or something does, what they are, orwhat
ofthe inflnitive. happens to them, for example , play, be, . wordsthat replace nouns-called Dronouns- mustalso be masculineor
STRESSED PRONOUN an object pronoun disoppear. fem in ine. The translation fo r Do Vou want it? is "Lo vuoi?" if you're offering
used in ltalian after prepositions and when VOWEL one of the sounds made bv the un gefato (dn ice cream),and" La vuoi?" ifyou're referring to una mela(on opple).
you wantto stressthe word for me, him, them
and so on- Compare unstressed pronoun.
letters d, e, i, o u, and sometimes y.
t) For more information on Aftictes, Adjectives or Pronouns, see p^ges p, 20 Ind 40.
Compare with consonant.
2 NOUN5 NouHs 3

> Just like English nouns, ltalian nouns can be singular or plural. Most English
nouns add -s in the plural, for exam ple doys, apples. Most ltalian nouns change [} trtotethatafewverycommon nouns ending in-o arefeminine.
theirfinal letterfrom one vowel to another: la mano the hand
una foto a photo
Singular Plural
la radio the radio
giorno day giorni days
una moto a motorbil<e
mela apple mele apples
rivoluzione revolution rivoluzioni revolutions > Thefollowing are typical feminine nouns ending in -a:
la casa the house
la macchina the car
una donna a woman
When in doubt, you can find out a noun's gender by looking it up in a una regola a rure
d ictionary. When you come across a new word it's a good idea to memorize una gatta a (she) cat
the article that goes with it, to help you remember its gender. un'italiana an ltalian (woman)

[f ruote that some very common words ending in -a are masculine.

Key points ilproblema the problem
y' All nouns in ltalian are either masculine orfem inine.
il programma the programme
y' this affects thewords you use with them.
il sistema the system
il clima the climate
y ,n ,.n"r.."r", ,, oorr,o *;;*;r;;r; ;oun's senderrrom its endins.
'i M ost words for professions and jobs end i ng i n -ta are mascu I i ne or fem i n i ne,
according to whethera male orfemale is meant.

ll How to recoqnize what oender a noun is qn giornalista a (male) journalist

) There are some simple rules that will enable you to worl( out the gender of una giornalista a (female) journalist
a very large number of ltal ian nouns from thei r last letter in the singular: u3 dentista a (male) dentist
o nearly allwords ending in -o are masculine. una dentista a (female) dentist
o nearly all words ending in -a are feminine. > f he following are typical feminine nouns ending in *i, -sione, and -zione:
o nearlyall wordsending in -i, -sioneand -zionearefeminine. Ending Example Meaning
o nearlyall wordsending with a consonantare masculine. una difficoltri adifficulty
A Note that words endi ng in -e are masculine in some cases and feminine in la realtti the reality
others. sione la versione the version
) The following are typical masculine nouns ending in -o: un'occasione an opportunity
il treno the train zione una lezione a tesson
il supermercato the supermarket una conversazione a conversation
l'aeroporto the airport
N ouns ending in a consonant are nearly always masculine.
il toro the bull
un topo a mouse
un film a film
un gatto (tom) cat
un bar a bar
un comPuter a computer
un italiano an ltalian (man)
Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv. unajeep r ipen
4 NouNs Nouns 5

D Nouns ending in -e can be masculine in some cases and feminine in others. In most cases, though, a noun referring to a male can be made to refer to a
un mese a month female by changing the ending:
il mare the sea o Manyltalian nounsending in-ocan bemadefeminine bychangingthe
la gente the people ending to -a.
la mente the mind un cuoco a (male) cook

il mese di giugno una cuoca a (female) cook

the month ofjune
una mente logica a logical mind un ragazzo a Doy
una ragazza a girl
a Note that the names of languages are always masculine, whether thev end in
-e or in -o.
un fotografo a (male) photographer
una fotografa a (female) photographer
ll giapponese € molto difficile. Japanese is very difficult. un italiano an ltalian (man)
L'italiano 6 bellissimo. ttalian is beautiful. un'italiana an ltalian (woman)
un gatto a (tom) cat
una gatta a (she) cat

Grammar Extm! o lf a noun describi ng a male ends in -tore, the feminine form ends i n -trice.
un attore a (male) actor
some words have d ifferent mean ings depending on whether thev are masculine or fem in ine
un'atuile a (female) actor
Masculine Meaning Feminine Meaning un pittore a (male) painter
il fine the objective la fine the end una pitffle a (female) painter
un posto a place la posta the mail uno scrittore a (male) writer
un modo a way la moda the fashion una scrittrice a (female) writer
ilcapitale capital (money) una capitale a capital city . Certain nouns describing males ending in -e have fem inine forms ending
un bel posto a nice place la posta elettronica email In -essa.
il professore the (male) teacher
la professorg55a the (female) teacher
uno studente a (male) student
una studentessa a (female) student
lE Nouns for males and females
un leone a lion
F lnltalian,justasinEnglish,therearesometimesverydifferentwordsformate
and female people and animals. una leonessa a lioness

un uomo a man > Many nouns end ing in -a can refer either to males or to females, so there is no
una donna a woman change ofend ing for the fem in ine.
un fratello a brother un turista a (male) tourist
una sorella a sister una turista a (female) tourist
un toro a bull un collega a (male) colleague
una mucca a cow una collega a (female) colleague

il mio dentista my dentist (if it's a man)

la mia dentista my dentist (if it's a woman)

Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv.

6 Nourus Nourus 7

D Many nouns ending in -e can refer either to males or to females, so there is no Making nouns plural
change of ending for the feminine,
un nipote a granoson > Therearetwo mainwaysof making nouns plural in ltalian.In mostcasesyou
change the end ing, but i n a few cases the same form as the singular is used.
una nipote a granddaughter
There are also some plurals which are irregular.
un cantante a (male) singer
una cantante a (female) singer Nouns which you make plural bv changing the endino
) |n English you usually make nouns plural by adding -s. I n ltal ian you usually do
it by changing the ending from one vowel to another:
. Change the -o, -a or -e ending of mascul ine nouns to -i. Nearly all mascul ine
Grammar E><tra! plurals end in -i.
A few nouns that are fem in ine refer both to men and women
-o un anno one year
una guida a guide (male orfemale) due anni two years
una persona a person (male or female)
una spia a spy (male or female) un ragazzo one boy
una star a star (male or female) dueragazz! two boys
Sean Connery E ancora una star. Sean Connery's still a star. un ciclista a (male) cyclist
due ciclisti two cyclists
un problema a problem
molti problemi lots of problems
Key points
un mese one month
y' Vostnouns referring to males can be made to refertofemales by due mesi two months
changing the ending.
un francese a Frenchman
y' Some nounsarethe samewhetherthey referto males ortofemales, due francesi two Frenchmen
but the words used with them change.
y' In a few cases the nouns used for male and female are completely
o Changethe-a ending offeminine nounsto-e.
una settimana one weeK
d ifferent"
due settimane two weeks
una ragazza one girl
due ragazze two girls
. Changethe-eending offeminine nounsto-i.
un'inglese an Englishwoman
due ingles! two Englishwomen
la vite the vi ne
le viti the vi nes

ll Nouns vou do not change in the plural

o You do notchangefeminine nouns ending in -i.You showthattheyare
plural by using the plural word for the, adjectives in the plural, and so on
lacittti the city
lecittri the cities
Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv. grandicittti great cities
8 NouHs NouHs 9
la loro universitri their university
le loro universitri their universities
E Note thatthere are many exceptions:the plurals ofamico (meaningfriend)
and psicof ogo (mea n i n g psychologist) are a m i ci and psicol og i.
Q For more information on Articles and Adjeaives, see poges rc and zo.
o For more information on ltalian spelling rules, see page :9l.
o You do not change words ending in a consonant, which are often words
borrowed from English and other languages.
+ I Plural or singular?
ilfilm the film
ifilm the films
L Bearin mind thatsomewordsare plural in ltalian butsincular in English.

il manager i miei capelli my hair

the manager
qli affari busi ness
! manager the managers
le notizie the news
il computer the computer
consigli advice
! computer the computers
I mobili the fu rn itu re
la jeep thejeep
sciocchezze nonsenSe
le jeep the jeeps
E) N ote that you use the si n g u lar of some of these words to refer to o piece of
p Nouns with irregular plurals something.
un mobile a piece offurniture
) Asmall numberofcommon masculine nounstal(etheending -a in the plural. un consiglio a piece ofadvice
il dito the finger
una notizia a piece of news
le dira the fingers
un uovo an egg
le uova the eggs
il lenzuolo the sheet An importantwordthatissingularin ltalian butDlural in English is
le lenzuola the sheets a gente (mean ing people). Remember to use a singular verb with la gente.

@ ruotethatthe plural ofuomo (meaning man) isuomini.The plural of la mano E gente molto simpdtica. They're very nice people.
(meaning hand) is le mani.

) All nouns ending i n -ca and -ga add an h before the plural end ing.
Singular Plural
Grammar Ertra!
amica (female) friend amiche (female) friends
buca hole buche holes When nouns are made by combin ing two words, such as pescespada (meaning swordfish),
capof avoro (mean ing masterpiece), or apriscatola (mean ing tin opener) the plu ral is often not
riga line righe lines
formed accord i ng to the usual rules. You can check by looking in a dictionary.
casalinga housewife casalinghe housewives
> Some nouns ending in *co and -go also add an h before the plural ending.
Singular Plural
gioco game giochi Key points
fuoco fi re fuochi fires
y' Youcan make most ltalian nouns plural by changing their ending from
luogo place luoghi places one vowel to another.

borgo d istrict borghi d istricts Y Some nouns are the s,ame in the Dlural as in the sinqular.
y' Some nouns which are singular in English are plural in ltalian.
Forfurtherexplanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv.
Anrrcles tt

ARTICLES The definite article

il the basics
D There are three questions you need to ask yourself to decide which definite
What is an article?
articleto use in ltalian:
In English, an articleis one of the words the, a and on which go with nouns:
the sun, Shappy boy, an orange. o ls the noun masculine orfeminine? (This is known as its gender)
o ls itsingularorplural?
the child ilbambino (SINCULAR)
Two types of article the children ibambini (PLURAL)

L There are two types of article: the definite article and the indefinite article. o Does the following word begin with a vowel (4, e, i,0, u)otwith another letter?
o The defi nite article is the. You use it to refer to a specified thing or person. * For more informotion on Nouns,see pagel.
l'm going to the supermarket.
That's the woman lwas talking to. zl which definite article do vou usel
o The indefi nite article is 0 or dn. You use it if you are not referring to any D The definite article to use for masculine sinqular nouns is:
particular thing or person.
o ilwith most nouns starting with a consonant.
ls there a supermarket near here?
il ragazzo the boy
She was talking to a little girl.
il cellulare the mobile phone
o lowith nouns starting with z, ors+anotherconsonant. gn, Pn-ps-xory.
lo zio the uncle
lo studente the student
lo pneumatico the tyre
lo psichiatra the psychiatrist
lo yogurt the yoghurt

o I'with all nouns starting with a vowel.

I'ospedale the hospital
I'albergo the hotel

> The definite article to use for masculine Dlural nouns is:
o iwith most nouns startino with a consonant.
ifratelli the brothers
icellulari the mobile phones
o gli with nouns starting with_Z-s + another consonant, qn. pnlps. xory.
gli studenti the students
glizii the uncles
gli gnocchi the gnocchi
gli pneumatici the tyres
Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv. gli yogurt the yoghurts
12 ARTICLES Anrrcles t3

. gli with all nouns starting with a vowel.

Ie ] combinino the definite article with other words
gliamici the friends D In ltal ian, when Vou say at the cinrima, in the cinemo, and so on, the word for at
gli orari the timetables and in combines with the article. How this works fora (meaning dt or to) is
shown below:
D The defin ite article to use for femin ine sinqular nouns is
a+il =al al cinema at orto the cinema
o la with all nouns startinq with a consonant. a+ l'= all' all'albergo at or to the hotel
laragazza the girl a+lo=allo allo stodio at orto the stadium
la mocchina the car a+la=alla alla stazione at orto the station
a+i=ai ai concerti at or to the concerts
o I'with all nouns startinq with a vowel.
1+ gli agli aeroporti atorto the airports
= agli
I'amica the (girl)friend a+le=alle alle partite at or to the matches
I'aroncia the orange
) The otherwords which combine in the same wav are: da, di, in and su:
The deflnite article to use for feminine plural nouns is: da (meaning from)
o le with all nouns,whetherthevstartwith a consonantoravowel. da+il =dal dal cinema from the cinema
le ragazze the girls da + l'= delll dall'albergo from the hotel
le amiche the (girl)friends da+lo=dallo dallo stodio from the stadium
da+la=dalla dalla stazione from the station
da+i=dai dai concerti from the concerts
63+gli ;dagli dagli aeroporti from the airports
When you're learning vocabulary, remember to learn the article that da+le=dalle dalle partite from the matches
goes with each noun.
di (meaning ofl)
di +il =del del cinema of the cinema
di +l'= dell' dell'albergo ofthe hotel
E Note that the article you choose depends on the fl rst or fi rst two letters ofthe
di +lo=dello dello stodio ofthe stadium
following word, which can be an adjective ora noun.
di +la=della della stazione ofthe station
!'amico the friend di+i=dei dei concerti ofthe concerts
BUT di +gli =degli degli aeroporti ofthe airports
il migliore amico the best friend di +le=delle delle partite ofthe matches
lo studente the student in (meaning in)
in+il =nel nel cinema in the cinema
il migliore studente the best student
in + l'= nell' nell'albergo in the hotel
gLi studenti the students in+lo=nello nello stodio inthestadium
BUT in+la=nella nella stazione in the station
! migliori studenti the best students in+i=nei nei concerti in the concerts
i6+gli =neoli negli aeroporti in the airports
Q For more informotion on Adjeaives,see plge 2c.. in+le=nelle nelle partite in the matches

Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv.

14 ARflcLEs Amclrs r5
o su (meaning on)
su+il =sul sul pavimento on the floor
nn tha arlna
su + l'= sull' sull'orlo When you translate an English sentence wh ich starts with a noun,
su+lo=sullo sullo scoglio on the rock don't forget to use the defi n ite article i n ltal ian.
su+la=sulla sulla spiaggia on the beach Le macchine costano caro. Cars cost a lot.
su+i=sui sui monti on the mountains
La frutta fa bene. Fruit is good foryou.
su+gli =suqli sugli scaffali on the bool<shelves
su+le=sulle sulle strade on the roads

} ln Eng lish, you can use some with sing ular and plural nou ns: some sugar, some In the following cases, the article is used rather differently in ltalian from
students. One way of expressing the idea of some in ltalian is to use the word in English:
di together with the defin ite article. o When you're tall<i ng about parts of the body and bodilv actions, use the
I del burro some butter definite article. The English adjectives my, your, his and so on are not
dell'olio some oil translated.
della carta some paper Dammi la mano. Cive me your hand.
dei fiammiferi some matches Mifa male il piede. My foot is hurting.
delle uova some e9gs Soffiati il naso! Blow your nose!
Hanno rotto dei bicchieri. They broke some glasses. o Usethedefinite articlewhen talkinq aboutclothes.
Ci vuole del sale. lt needs some salt. Si E tolto il cappotto. He took off his coat.
Aggiungi della farina. Add some flour. Mettiti le scarpe. Put your shoes on.

p o Use the definite article with the time, dates and years.
when do vou use the definite article?
all'una at one o'clocl<
> ltal ian uses the defi nite article much more than English does. As a rule of alle due at two o'clock
thu mb, ltalian sentences rarelv start with a nou n that has no article.
Era l'una. It was one o'clock.
! bambini soffrono. Children are suffering. Sono le due. two o'clocl<.
Mi piacciono q!! animali. llikeanimals. Sono nata il primo maggiorggo. lwas born on Mayt 1990.
Le cose vanno meglio. Things are going better. Verranno nel zoo7. They're coming inzooT.
llnuotodilmiosportpreferito. Swimmingismyfavouritesport.
Non mi piace il riso, I don't like rice.
. Usethedefinite articlewithwords such as my,your,and his.

Lo zucchero non fa bene. Sugar isn't good foryou. la mia casa my house
povertri d un grande problema. Poverty is a big problem. le suefiglie her daughters
ivostri amici your friends
lAustrolia C molto grande. Australia isvery big.
La Calabria d bella. Calabria is beautiful. t ) For more information on Possessive adje*ives, see page 34.

[f trtote that if the name of a country comes after the ltalian word in, which o When you tall< about how much something costs per Dound, per l<ilo, and
means to or in, the article is not used.
so on; about rates, speeds, and about how often somethi ng happens, use
Vado in Frdncia a giugno. l'm going to France inJune the word a and the definite article.
Lavorano in Germania. Theywork in Germany. Costano 3 euro al chilo. They cost3 euro a l<ilo.
7o km all'ora 7o km an hour dollari al mese 50,ooo dollars per month
Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv.
due volte alla settimana twice a weel(
t5 Anrrcles Anrrclrs r7
. You use the definite article when you are referring to people by using their The indefinite article
titles, but NOTwhen you are speaking to them directly.
La signora Rossi E qui. Mrs. Rossi is here.
r I The basics
ll dottor centile Doctor Centile D In Engl ish the indefi nite article is either a -a boy - or an - on apple.

BUT > In ltaliantherearefourindeflnitearticles: un, uno, unaand un'.

Scusi, signora Rossi. Excuse me, Mrs. Rossi.
> Which one you need to choose depends on the gender of the noun it goes with,
and the letterthe noun startswith.
Key points t ) For more information on Nouns, see plge 1.
y' Definite articles are used much more in ltalian than in English.
y' ltalian sentences rarely start with a noun that has no article.
y' Someti mes the defi n ite article is used very d ifferently from Eng I ish.
z ] Which indefinite article do you use?
For instance, you use it with parts of the body and the time.
D The indefinite article to use for masculine nouns is:
o un with nouns starting with most consonants and allvowels.
un cellulare a molrile phone
un uomo a man

o uno with nouns starting with z, s+ another consonant, z, on, pn, ps, xand y
uno studente a student
uno zio an uncte
uno psichiatra a psychiatrist

D The indefinitearticleto useforfeminine nouns is:

o una with nouns startino with a consonant.

una ragazza a girl
una mela an appre

o un'with nouns starting with avowel.

un'ora an hour
un'amica a (girl)friend

E Note that the article you choose depends on the fi rst or fi rst two letters ofthe
following word, which can be an adjective ora noun.
un albergo a hotel
uno splendido albergo a magnificent hotel
uno scultore a sculptor
un bravo scultore a good sculptor

Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv.

18 ARTICLES Anrrcles tg

the indefinite article in lists

[9_l Using
Civogliono patate, cipolle You need potatoes, onions and
ecarote. carrots.
Era con un'amica. She was with
friend. a
Vendono giornali, riviste e They sell newspapers, magazines
Vuoi un gelato? Do Vou want an ice cream) cartoline. and postcards.
D There are some cases where the article is used in English, but not in ltalian: when you are not giving details
. withthewordscento and mille Abbiamo visitato castelli e musei. We visited castles and museums.
cento volte a hundred times Ci sono cose da vedere. There are things to see.
mille sterline a thousand pounds Hanno problemi. They've got problems.

o when you translate d few or o lot

qualche parola a few words Key points

molti soldi
in exclamations with che
a lotof money
l/lt/ You generally use
the indefinite article in a very similarway to English.
itwith the numbers centoand mille, and in exclamations
Che sorpresa!
What a surprise!
y' meindefi nitearticle is not used when saying whatsomeone'sjob is.
Che peccato! What a pityl

@ trtote that to say what someone's job is you either leave out the article:
E medico. He's a doctor.
Sono professori. They're teachers.

Or you use the verbfare with the definite article:

FaccioI'ingegnere. I'm an engineer.
Fa I'awocato. She's a lawver.

E Plural nouns used without the article

) There are some cases where you use plural nouns without any article:
o in negative sentences
Non ha amici. He hasn't got any friends.
Non ci sono posti liberi. There aren't any emptv seats.
o in questions where any is used in English
Hai fratelli? Have you got any brothers or sisters?
Ci sono problemi? Are there any problems?

* For more information on Negatives lnd Questions, see pages 14g ana E2

Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv.

Aojecrrves zt

ADJECTIVES How to make adjectives agree

r I The basics
D when you look up an adjective in a dictionaryyou find the masculine sinoular
What is an adjective?
An adjective is a 'describing'word that tells you more about a person or thing,
for example, blue, big, good. > lf you want to use an adjective to describe a feminine noun you often have to
change the ending.
> lf you want to use an adjective to descri be a plural noun you nearly alwavs have
Using adjectives to change the ending.

D You use adjectives like nice, expensive and good to say someth i ng about nou ns 2 How to make adjectives feminine
(living beings, things or ideas). You can also use them with words such as you,
he and they.You can use them immediately in front of a noun, or afterverbs like
> lfthe masculine adjectiveends in-o, change-oto-a.
be, look and feel. un ragazzo simp4tico a nice lroy

girl una ragazza simpatica a nice girl

a nice
un film italiano an ltalian film
an exDensive coat
a qood idea una squadra italiana an ltalian team

He's nice. You don't change the ending for the feminine:
They look expensive. o if the masculine adjective ends in -e
4 For more information on Nouns, see plge 1 .
un libro inglese an English lrook
una famiglia inglese an English family
D In Engl ish, adjectives don't change according to the noun they go with. un treno veloce a fast trai n
a nice boy una macchina veloce a fast car
nice g irls ote that adj ectives such as italiano, ing lese, francese do not start with
fl trt

> In ltalianyou havetoask: a caoital letter in ltalian.

. lsthe noun masculineorfeminine? o in the case of some colours
. ls it singular or plural? un calzino rosa a pink sock
una maglietta rosa a pinkT-shirt
> You then choose the adjective end ing accord ing ly. Th is is called making the
adjective agree. un tappeto blu a blue rug
una mocchina blu a blue car
un ragazzo alto a tall boy
un vestito beige a beige suit
una ragazza alta a tall g irl
una gonna beige a beige skirt
ragazzi alti tall boys
ragazze alte tallgirls [J Note that these adjectives don't change in the plural either.

)> In English you put adjectives I N FRONT OF the noun you're describing, but i n o if the adjective ends with a consonant
Italian you usually put them AFTER it. un 9ruppo pop a pop group
una casa bianca a white house la musica pop pop music
un tipo snob a posn guy
4 For more information onWord orderwith adjectives, see page 24.
una persona snob a posh person

For further explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv.

[J ruote that these adjectives don't change in the plural either.
22 ADJEcTtvES Aojecnvss z3

rw rtp
lf you are female, make sure you always use a feminine adjective when Remember that spaghetti, ravioli, lasagne and so on are plural nouns
talki ng about yourself: in ltalian, so you must use plural adjectives with them.
Sono stanca. l'm tired. Sono buoni gli spaghetti? lsthespaghetti nice?
Sono pronta. l'm readv. Le lasagne sono finite. The lasagne is all gone

p_l How to make adjectives plural trtote thatwhen you're describing a couple consisting ofa man and a woman
> lf the masculine singular adjective ends in -o, change -o to -i. or a group of people, use a masculine plural adjective unless the grouP consists
entirelv of females.
un fiore rosso a red flower
dei fiori rossi red flowers
Paolo e Loredana sono Paolo and Loredana are ready.

un computer nuovo- a newcomputer

I bambini sono stanch!. The children aretired.
dei computer nuovi Le ragazze sono stanche. The g irls are tired.
new computers

> lf the feminine singular adjective ends in -a, change -a to -e.

a lrreoular adjectives
una strada pericolosa a dangerous road
delle strade pericolose
> Therearethreeverycommonadjectiveswhicharedifferentfromotheradjectives
dangeroui roads
- bello, buono and grande.
una gonna nera a black s kirt
delle gonne nere black sl<irts
D When the adj ective bello (mean i n g beautiful) i s used i n front of a mascu I i ne
noun it has different forms depend ing on which letter follows it, j ust like the
> lftheadjectiveendsin-e,change-eto-iforbothmasculineandfeminineplural definite article.
un esercizio difficile a difficult exercise Masculine Feminine Masculine Feminine
degli esercizi difficili difficult exercises bello Singular Singular Plural Plural
un sito interessante an interesting site used before a bel bella bei belle
dei siti interessanti interesting sites noun

una storia triste used after a verb bello bella belli belle
a sad story
or a noun
delle storie tristi sad stories
una valigia pesante a heavy case bel tempo beautiful weather
delle valigie pesanti neavy cases bei nomi beautiful names
lltempo era bello. The weather was beautiful.
) Some adjectives do not change in the plural.
| fiori sono belli. The flowers are beautiful.
un paio di guanti rosa a pairof pinkgloves
delle tende blu blue curtains > bell' is used before vowels i n the masculi ne and fem ini ne singular forms.
dei gruppi pop pop groups un bell'albero a beautiful tree

) Adjectives that do not change for the fem in ine or plu ral are called invariable, L belloisusedinfrontofzands"anotherconsonantinthemasculinesingularform.
which is abbreviated to inv in some dictionaries. un bello strumento a beautiful instrument

begli is used in front ofvowels, z and s+ another consonant in the masculine

begli alberi beautiful trees
Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv. begli strumenti beautiful instruments
24 ADJECIVES AoJecrtves z5

) The adjective buono (mean ing good) is usually shortened to buon when it una casa vecchia an old house BUT
comes before a masculine sinqular noun. un mio vecchio amico an old (mean i ng long-standing) friend
Buon vioggiol Have a goodjourney! of mine
un buon uomo a goo0 man una borsa cara an expensive handbag BUT

D un caro amico a dearfriend

The shortened form ofbuono is not used in front ofnouns thatstartwith z ors
+ another consonant.
[J trtote that if you add molto (meaningvery)to an adjective, the adjective always
un buono studente a good student goes after the noun.
The adjective grande (meani ng big, large or great) is often shortened to gran una bella casa a nice house
when it comes before a singular noun starting with a consonant. una casa molto bella a very nice house
la Gran Bretagna Creat Britain
> Some types of adjectives always go in front of the noun:
un gran numero di mocchine a large number of cars
. adjectives that are used to point things out, such as questo (meaning this)
and quello (meaning that)
Key points Quqsto cellulare E di mio fratello. This mobile phone is my brother's.
y' tn ltallan adjectives agreewith the person orthing theyare describing. Quello studente E un mio amico. That student is a friend of mine.
y' Adjectives ending in -o in the masculine have different endings in the t) ror more information on Demonstrative odje*ives, see poge 30 '
feminine and plural forms.
y' Some adjectives don't have a d ifferent fem i n ine or pl u ral form. o possessive adjectives such as mio (meaning my), tuo (meaning your) and
su o (mea n ing his or her)

mio padre my father

tuo fratello your brother
@ where do vou put the adiective?
5qo marito her husband
> You put most adjectives AFTER the nou n.
ogni (meaning each, every), qualche (meaning some) and nessuno (meaning
un gestospont4neo a spontaneous gesture
una partita importante an important match
oqnr 9rorno every day
capelli biondi blonde hair
qualqhe volta sometimes
@ Note that ifyou have two adjectives you link them with e (meaning dnd). Non c'E nessun bisogno di andare. There's no neecl to go'
ragazze antiDdtichg e nasty rude girls
t ) For more information on ,ndetinite adjedives, see page 37 '

D The mean ing of some adjectives changes depending on whether theV come o ouestion wordS
after or before the noun. Quali programmi hai? What plans have you got?
gente povera Quanto pane hai comPrato? How much bread did Vou buy?
poor people BUT
Povera Anna! Poo r (m ea n i n g u nfortu nate) Annal t ) For more information on Questions, see pqge E2
un uomo grande a big man BUT
una grande sorpresa d.^1r
d- gr -,,-^-i-^
rdL >ur Pr t)tr KeY Points
una macchina nuova a new car BUT
y' l,ttostltalian adjectives 9o afterthe noun.
fa sua nuova ragazza is new (mea ng I atest) rlfri end
h n i
9 i
y' tnemeaning ofsome adjectives changes depending on whetherthey
come before orafterthe noun'
Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv.
26 ADJEcnvEs Aojecrvrs z7

Comparing people or things 4 Superlative adiectives

f comparative adiectives
What is a superlative adjective?
What is a comparative adjective? In English a superlative adjective is one with -est on the end, or most or ledst in
ln English a comparative adjective is one wlth -eron the end ,or moreor lessin front of it, for example fostest, most impoftant, leost interesting.The definite article is
front of it, for exam ple foster, more impofta nt, less nt eresti ng. These adj ectives a re used with su perlative adjectives: the flstest, the most import\nt, the least interesting

used when you are comparing people orthings.

s Howto make a superlative adiective in ltalian

ll_l How to make a comparative adjective in ltalian D Making a superlative adjective isveryeasy: you simply puta defi nite article
> To say that someth ing is faster, bigger, more important in front of the comparative adjective.
and so on use pii in front
ofthe adjective. il pii alto the tallest
una mocchina pirl grande il meno interessante the least interesting
a bigger car
un film pii interessante a more interesting film > The defi nite article mustagreewith the person orthing you're describing.
Queste scarpe sono pirl comode. These shoes are more comfortable. Matteo d il pii alto. Matteo is the tallest.
> To say that something is less expensive, less interesting and so on use meno in Lidia E la piir alta. Lidia is the tallest.
front ofthe adjective. Queste scarpe sono le Piit These shoes are the most
un computer meno caro comode. comfortable.
a less expensive computer
un viaggio meno faticoso a less tiring journey Gianni A il meno ambizioso. Cianni is the least ambitious

> lfthere is a defi nite article in front of the noun, do not put a second definite
article in front of piir or meno.
fll_l How to compare one person or thing with another
ilragazzo pi0 alto the tallest boy
> Put either piD or meno i n front of the adjective and use di to translate thdn
la banca pii vicina the nearest bank
Sono pii alto dite. I'm taller than you. the most i ntelligent student
lo studente piir intelligente
Milano € piri grande di Genova. Milan is biggerthan Cenoa. the cheapestflights
ivoli pit) economici
Carlo E pii ambizioso di Luca.
Carlo is more ambitious than Luca. isuoi film meno interessanti his least interesting films
llverde E meno caro del nero. The green one is less expensive than
the black one. t) For more informotion on the Dqinite afticte, see page r.
La mia borsa d meno pesante My bag is less heavy than yours.
della tua.

@ trtote thatdi coml:ines with the article to make one word: di + il = del, di + ta =
della, and so on. ln ph rases like the most. fomous in the world, and the biggest in ltoly'
use di to translate in.
* For more information on di, see prepositions poge y4.
lo stadio piir grande d'ltalia the biggest stadium in ltaly
il ristorante piir caro della citte the most expensive restaurant
in the town

For further explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv,

28 ADJEcTVEs AoJEcrtves zg

f oI trregular comparatives and superlatives > You can mal(e these sentences negative by adding non.

D lnEnglishthecomparativesofgoodandbadareirregular: better,best,worseano Pietro non 6 alto come Michele. Pietro is not as tall as Michele
worsr. In ltalian there are regularforms of buono and cattivo. N!n sono stanca quanto te. l'm not as tired as vou are.

Questo d piO buono. This one's better.

I pii buoni.
rossi sono i The red ones are the best.
Grammar Ertra!
Quello d ancora pii cattivo. That one's even worse.
) There are also irreg u lar forms of buono and cattivo, as there are of grande. I ltalian, using molto, veramente and terribilmente.
piccolo, alto and basso: Luid molto ricco. He's very rich.

lfiori sono veramente belli. The flowers are really lovelY

Adjective Meaning comparative Meaning Superlative Meaning
Sono terribilmente stanca. l'm terriblV ti red.
buono 9ooo migliore better il migliore the best
cattivo bad peggiore worSe il peggiore the worst
grande big maggiore bi9get/ il maggiore the biggest,/ > Another way of adding emphasis to ltalian adjectives is to replace the -o or -e
oloer oldest
ending with -issimo.
piccolo small mtnore smaller/ il minore the smallest/
younger bello beautifu I
you n9est
alto high supenore bellissimo very beautiful
higher il superiore the highest
basso tow inferiore lower l'inferiore elegante smarr
the Iowest
elegantissimo verV smart
@ ruote that these irregular comparatives and superlatives are adjectives
fl trtotethatthese-issimoadjectiveschangetheirendinqsforthefeminineand
ending in-e, sotheirplural ending is-i. the olural.
il modo migliore the best way lltempo era bellissimo. Theweatherwas really beautiful'
il miofratello minore my younger brother
Anna 6 sempre elegantissima. Anna is always terribly smart'
le mie sorelle maqqiori my older sisters
il labbro inferiore
Sono educatissimi. They're extremely polite'
the lower lip
ll libro d mioliore del film. The book is better than the film.
Giorgia 6la peoqiore della classe. Ciorgia is the worst in the ctass. Kev ooints
y' voumake comparative adjectives in ltalian by using piir and meno,

fl as... as...
and translate thon by di.
vouadd the aelnite articf e to the comparative adjective to make a
> Sometimes you want to say that people or things are similar or the same:
superlative adj ective.
I'm as tallas Vou.
) In ltalian you usecome, orquanto to make this l<ind of comparison.
Pietro C alto come Michele. Pietro is as tall as M ichele.
La mia macchina E grande come My car is as big as yours.
la tua.
Sono stanca quanto te. l'm just as tired as you are.

Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv,

30 ADJEclvEs Aorrcnvrs 3t

Demonstrative adjectives use quelle before allfeminine plural nouns

quelle macchine those cars
What is a demonstrative adjective?
Ademonstrative adjective is used to point out a particular thing or person.
Therearefourdemonstrativeadjectives in English: this,these,thlt andthose.

When Vou want to say this one, don't translate one. Use questo if what
you're referring to is masculine, and questa if it's feminine. The same goes
!!-l Using demonstrative adjectives
when you want to say thTt one'. use quello, or quel la.
) As in Eng lish, ltalian demonstrative adjectives go B EFoRE the nou n. Like other
Which house? -This one.
adjectives in ltalian, they have to change for the fem in ine and plural forms. Quale casa? - Questa.
Quale zaino? - Quello. Which rucl<sack? -That one.
> To say this, use questo, wh ich has fou r forms, like any other adjective end ing
in -o.

Masculine Feminine Meaning

Key points
Singular questo questa lh is
Plural questi queste these
y' Use questo or questa for this, and questi or queste for these.
y' use quello for thot:quello behaves I i ke the defl nite article, il.
Questa gonna E troppo stretta. This sl<irt is too tight"
Questi pantaloni mi piocciono. I like these trousers.
Queste scarpe sono comode. These shoes are comfortable.
To say thdt, use quello, which has several different forms, like the definite article:
o use quel with a masculine noun startinq with a consonant
guel ragazzo that boy
o use quello with a masculine noun starting with z ors+ anotherconsonant
quello zaino that rucksack
quello studente that student
o use quell'with nouns starting with a vowel
quell'albero that tree
quell'amica that friend
o use quella with a feminine noun starting with a consonant
quella ragazza that g i rl
o usequei with a masculine plural noun starting with a consonant
quei cani those dogs
o use quegliwith a masculine plural noun startinq with a vowel. with z or
with s + another consonant
quegli uomini those men
quegli studenti those students

For further explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv.

32 ADJEcrvEs Aojecrves 33

I nterrogative adjectives Adjectives used in exclamations

What is an interrogative adjective? D I n ltalian che...l is often used with a noun where we would say What a ...!

An interrogative adjective is a question word such aswhich, what or how mucn in English.
that is used when asl<ing about a noun, for exam ple;Which colour?;What size?; Che peccato! What a pity!
How much suaar? Che disordine! What a mess!
Che bellagiornata! What a lovely day!
che brutto tempo! What awfulweather!
) In ltalian the interrogative adjectives are che, quale and quanto
> che can also be used with an adjective when you're commenting on somebody
} che and quale are used to ask which or what'. or something.
. Use che orquale with singular nouns. Che carino! lsn't he sweetl
Chq giorno E oggi? What day is it today? bruttil TheV're horrible!
A che ora ti alzi? What time do you get up at?
You can also use an ltalian adjective by itself when you are commenting on
Ouale tipo vuoi? What kind do you want?
someone's behaviour.
Per quale squadra tifi? Which team do you supportl
Furbol Cunning devil!
o Use che or qualiwith Dlural nouns. Brava! Cood girl!
Chegusti preferisci? Which flavours do you lil<e best? Bravi! Welldone!
Quali programmi hai? What plans have you got?
As in English, you can use an ltalian adjective alone when you are commenting
. Usequantowith masculine nounsand quantawith feminine nounstoasr on something you see ortaste.
how much.
Bello! Lovely!
Quanto pane hai comprato? How much bread did you buy?
Buono! N icel
Ouanta minestra vuoi? How much soup do you want?
. Use quanti with masculine nouns and quante with feminine nouns to asl<
how monv. rtp
Quanti bicchieri ci How many glasses are there? Remember to make the adjective agree with the person or th ing you're
Quante uova vuoi? How many eggs do you want? commenting on.
c) For more rnformation on Questions, see page .52.

> You can use q uanto, quanta, quanti and quante when you are exclai m i ng

Key points about a large amount or number.

y' Usechewith any noun to mean which or what. Quanto tempo sPrecato! What a waste of timel
y' Quanta gente! What a lot of peoplel
quale has the pluralform quali.
Quanti soldi! Whata lotof moneY!
y' quanto has feminine and plural forms.
Quante storie! What a fuss!

For further explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv.

34 ADrEclvEs Aorecrvps 35
Possessive adjectives Dove sono le mie chiavi? Where are my keys?
Luca ha perso il suo portafoglio. Luca has lost his wallet.
What is a possessive adjective?
Ecco i nostri passaporti. Here are our passports.
In English a possessive adjective is a word such as my, your, his that is used with
Qual E la vostra carnera? Which isyourroom?
a noun to show who it belonos to.
lltuo amico ti aspetta. Your friend is waiting for you.

How to use possessive adjectives

p rne uasics rw
Possessive adjectives ag ree with the nou n they go with, NoT with the
D UnlikeEnglishyouusuallyputthedefinitearticle(il,la,i,le)infrontofthe person who is the owner.
possessive adjective.
Anna ha perso il suo cellulare. Anna has lost her mobile ohone.
> As with all adjectives ending in -o, change the ending to:
Marco ha trovato la sua agenda. Marco's found his d iarv.
. -a forthefeminine singular Le ragazze hanno i loro biglietti. The girls have got thei r tickets.
o -i forthe masculine plural
o -e forthefeminine olural
il mio indirizzo my address
m Note that possessive adjectives aren't normally used with Parts of the body.
la mia scuola my school
You usually useil,la, and so on (the definite article) instead.
imiei amici my friends
le mie speranze my nopes
Mi sono fatto male alla gamba. I've hurt my leg.
Sista lavando ! capelli. 5he's washing her hair.
* For more information on the Defrnite orticle, see page n.

) You can also use the i ndefi n ite article i n front ofthe possessive adjective i n
t ) For more information on the Dqinite article, see poge t .

examples like:
una mia amica afriend of mine KeY Points
un suo studente one ofher students y' ltalian possessive adjectives agree with the nou ns they descri be.
D You usual ly put possessive adjectives i n front ofthe nou n they descri be y' ttalian possessive adjectivesare usually preceded byan article.
L The following table shows all the possessive adjectives: y' Possessive adjectives are not usually used with parts ofthe body.

Singular Plural Meaning

Masculine Feminine Masculine Feminine
il mio la mia mtet
I Howto use possessive adjectives when talking about relatives
I le mie my z
iltuo la tua i tuoi le tue your (belonging to someone
you call tu) > Tosaymymother,yourfother,herhusband,hiswifeandsoon,usethepossessive
il suo la sua I suol le sue his; her; its; your (belonging
adjective without the defi nite article.
to someone you call lei) mia madre my mother
il nostro la nostra i nostri le nostre our tuo padre your father
il vostro la vostra i vostri le vostre your (belonging to people suo marito her husband
you callvoi)
sua moglie his wife
il loro la loro i loro le loro their
mia sorella my sister
Q For more information on Ways of saying'you' in ttalian, see page 42 tuo fratello your brother

Forfurtherexplanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv.

Aolrcrves 37
36 ADJEcflvEs

) This applies to all fami ly members in the si noular, except for the words mamma lndefinite adjectives
(meaning mum) and babbo and papd (both meaning dad).
la mia mamma my mum What is an indefinite adjective?
An indefinite adjective is one of a small group of adjectives used to give an idea
Maria e il suo babbo Maria and her dad
of amou nts and num bers, for exam ple, several, all, every.
a Note that if you describe a family member with an adjective, for example my
deor wife, her vounoer sister, you DO use the definite article with the possessive
The indefinite adjectives ogni (meaning each), qualche (meaning some) and
il mio caro marito my dear husband
qualsiasi (meaning any) are invariable, that is they do not change their form for
il suo fratello maggiore his older brother
the feminine or plural.
You DO use the definite article with the possessive adjective when you're ogni giorno every day
referring tofamily members in the plural. ogni volta every time
Sandroeisuoifratelli Sandro and his brothers fra qualche mese in a few months
Laura e le sue cognate Laura and her sisters-in-law qualche volta sometimes
in qualsiasi momento at any time
. Key points qualsiasi cosa anythi ng
y' use the possessive adjective withoutthe definite article when talking l The followi ng indefinite adjectives end in -o, and change their endi ngs i n the
about family members in the singular. normarway.
y' Use the possessive adjective with the deflnite article when talking altro otner
aboutfamily memlrers in the plural. tutto all
molto mucn
parecchio alot of
poco a I ittle
tanto so mucn
troppo too much
> Putthe indefinite ordefinitearticle lN FRONTOFaltro.
un altro giorno another day
un'altra volta another ti me
g[ altri studenti the other students

D Put the defi nite article AFTER tutto, even when there is no article i n Enql ish.
tutta la giornata allday
tutte fe ragazze all the girls

> Use molto (masculine) and molta (feminine) to talk about large amounts.
Non abbiamo molto tempo. We haven't much time.
C'd molta roba. There's a lot of stuff.

Use molti (masculine plural) and molte (feminine plural) to talk about Iarge
Abbiamo molti problemi. We've got a lot of problems

Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv. Uho fatto molte volte. I've done it manV times.
AoJrcrrves 39
38 ADJEcflvEs
D You can also use parecchio and parecchia to talk aboutq u ite large amou nts, llefore a fem in ine nou n sta rtino with a conso nant use ciascu na and nessuna.
and parecchi and parecchie to talk about quite large numbers. ctascuna ragazza each girl
Non lo vedo da parecchio I haven't seen him for quite some nessuna ragrone no reason
tempo. time. llefore a fem inine noun bec inn ino with a vowel use ciascun'and nessun'
C'era parecchia neve in There was quite a lot of snow on the ciascun'amica each friend (female)
montagne. h ills. nessu n'alternativa no alternative
Ho avuto parecchi guai. I had quite a few problems.
Ha parecchie amiche inglesi. 5he has several English friends.

@ ruote that the masculine si ngular end ing of parecchio changes to a si ngle -i
in the plural. Key poitrts
y' ogni,qualche and qualsiasi always have the same form.
l Usepocoand pocatotalkaboutsmall amountsand pochi and pocheto
talk about small numbers. ( altro,tutto, molto, poco, parecchio, troppo and tanto change their
end ings in the feminine and plural.
C'd poco tempo. There's not much time.
Ha pochi amici. He hasfewfriends.

[J trtote that the singular endings -co and -ca change to -chi and -che in the

* For more information on Spelling, see page :91.

> Use troppo and troppa to say too much, and troppi and troppe to s ay too mTny.
Questa minestra € troppa per me. This is too much soup for me.
Ho troDpe cose da fare. I've got too many thlngs to do.

> Use tanto and tanta to tal k about very large amou nts, and tanti and tante
to talk about very large numbers.
Ho mangiato tanta pasta! | ate so much pastal
Abbiamo avuto tanti problemi. We've had a whole lot of problems.

Grammar Extra!
ciascuno (meaning each) and nessuno (meaning no) have no plural and behave like the
indefinite article uno.
Before a masculine noun startinq with a vowel, or most consonants, use ciascun and nessun
ciascun candidato each candidate
ciascun amico each friend
nessun irlandese no lrishman
Non ha fatto nessun commento. He made no comment.

Before a masculine noun startino with z or s + another consonant use ciascuno and nessuno.
ciascuno studente each student
nessuno spagnolo no Spanish person

For further explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv.

Pnoruouns 4r

PRONOUNS Subject pronouns

D Here are the ltalian subject pronouns:
What is a pronoun? Singular Meaning Plural Meaning
Apronoun is a word you use instead of a noun, when you do not need orwant io nol WE
to name someone or someth ing d irectly, for exam ple, it, you, somebody, who, that. you (familiarsingular) vol
tu vou
lui he loro tney
) There are many different kinds of pronoun, and all the words underlined in the lei she; you (polite singular)
sentences below are classified as pronouns. As you will see, theV are extremely
important and versatile words in everyday use.
I I i ked the black trousers but I (subject pronoun; direct object pronoun) rtp
couldn't afford them. You also use lei as a polite word for you. You will sometimes see it with
fm not going to eat it. (subject pronoun) a capital letterwhen used in thisway.
You knowJack? | saw him atthe (d i re ct o bj e ct p ro no u n)

[J Note that the pronounsegli (meaning he), ella (meaning she), essi and esse
I emailed hg1'my latest ideas. (indirect object pronoun) (mean i ng they) are used i n I iterary and formal written ltal ian, so you may well
lt's mine. (possessive pronoun) come across them. Howevel they are not generally used in speaking.
Someone came to see you yesterday. (indeflnite pronoun)
There's nothing I can do about it. (indefinite pronoun) Irl When to use subiect pronouns in ltalian
This is the bool( | meant. (demonstrItive pronoun)
) lnEnglishwenearlyalwaysputasubjectpronouninfrontofaverb'.lknowPaul:
That's lan. (demonstrative pronoun) thev're nice.Withoutthe pronouns itwould not be clearwho orwhat is the
Who's he? (interrogative pronoun) subject ofthe verb.
What are those lig hts over there? (interrogative pronoun)
L lnltaliantheverbendingusuallymakesitclearwhothesubjectis,sogenerally
} Personal pronounsarewordssuchasl,you,he,she,us,them,andsoforth,which no pronoun rs necessary.
make it clearwho you are talking about or talking to. Personal pronouns replace Conosco Paul, Iknow Paul.
nouns when it's clear who or what is being referred to, for example, Conosci Paul? Do you l<now PaulT
My brothels not here at the moment. He'll be back in an hour. We know Paul.
Conosciamo Paul,
> There are two types ofpersonal pronoun: Cosa sono? - Sono noci. What are they? -They're walnuts.
. subject pronou ns for the person or th i ng perform i n g the action expressed Q For more information onVerbs, see poge 66.
bV the verb.
> You do not use a subject pronoun in ltalian to translate it at the beginni ng of
I li ke you a lot.
a sentence.
Thev always go there on Sundays.
Fa caldo. lt's hot.
o obiect pronou ns for the person or th i ng most d i rectly affected by the action. Sono le tre. It's three o'clock.
l'll help Vou. che cos'A? - E una sorpresa. What is it? - lt's a surprise.
They sent it to me yesterday.
) When you do use su bject pronouns, it is for one of the following special reasons:
He gave us a very warm welcome.
o for emphasis
Tu cosa dici? What do you think?
Pago io. l'll pay.
Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv. Ci pensiamo noi. We'llseeto it.
42 PRoNOUNS Pnonouus 43

[J rhe subject pronoun can come after the verb: trU Note that lei, the polite word for Vou, also means she. This is rarely confusing,
. for contrast or claritv as thecontext makes it clear - if someone speaks directly to you using lei, the
meaning is obviously you.
lo ci vado, tu fai come vuoi. I'm going,you dowhatyou like.
Aprilo tu, io non ci riesco. You open it, I can't.

o after anche (meaning too) and neanche (meaning neither)

Vengo anchfu. l'm coming too. y' v :"lir"rl::l,
oud o n't s e n e rat y n eed to,
I ro no u n i n ta I i a n. rh e ve rb

Prendi un gelato anche tu? Are you going to have an ice cream ending mikes it clear who is being referred to.
too? y' youuse sutrject pronouns in ltalian onlyfor emphasis orfor contrast.
Non so perchd. - Neanch'io. I don't know why. - Neither do l.
y' There are two d ifferent ways of sayi ng you when tal ki ng to one person:
o when there is no verb in ltalian tu for people you know well; lei for people you don't know.
Chi E il pit) bravo? - Lui. Who's the best? - He is. y' youusevoi ifyou are speaking to more than one person.
Viene lui, ma lei no. He's coming, but she isn't.

To savits me, for instance when knocking on someone's door, and to say
who someone is, Vou use the subject pronoun'
Chi dl - Sono io. Who's that? - lt's me'
Guardal E lui. Look, it's himl

fl Howto savyou in ltalian

) |n Engl ish we have one way of saying you. I n ltalian, the word you choose
depends on:
o whetheryou'retalking to one Person ormorethan one
o howwellyou knowthe person concerned.
> Use tu when you are speaking to a person you knowwell, orto a child' lf you
are a student you can call another student tu. lfyou have ltalian relations, of
course you call them tu.

>> Use lei when speaking to strangers, oranyoneyou're noton familiarterms

with. As you get to know someone better they may suggest that you call each
othertu instead oflei.
) Usevoiwhenyou arespeaking to morethan one person,whetheryou know
them well or not.
L tu, lei andvoi aresubjectpronouns.Therearealsodifferentformsforyouwhen
it is not a su bject. These are explai ned i n the section of th is chapter on object

For further explanation ofgrammatical terms, Please see pages x-xiv.

Pnoruourus 45
La guardava, He was looking at her.
Object pronouns Vi cercavo. lwas looking foryou.
f what are object pronouns? Li conosciamo. We knowthem.
)> Object pronou ns are words such as me, him, us and them used instead of a nou n t ) For more information on Where to place pronouns, see page 49.
to show who is affected lry the action of the verlr.
Do you li ke Cla ire? - Yes I like her a
I've lost my Purse, have You seen it?
Rememberthatyou useti onlywhen speaking tosomeoneyou know
He gave us a fantastic send-off.
Why don't You send them a note?

) In English we use object pronouns in two different ways:

3l Lo. la.liand le
o when the person or thing is directlv affected by the action:
> You need to pay particularattention to how lo, la, li and le are used in ltalian.
lsawthem yesterdaY.
Thev admire him immenselY'
> To translate it you need to choose between lo or la. Use lo if the noun referred
to is masculine, and la if it'sfeminlne.
> ln the above examples, them and him are called direct obiects' Ho un panino, lo vuoi? l've got a roll, do you want it?
o when the perion orthing is indirectlvaffected bytheaction. In English you Ho una mela, la vuoi? l've got an apple, do you want it?
often use to with the pronoun in such cases.
I sent it to them Yesterday.
> To translate thern vou choose between li or le. Use li if the noun referred to is
m ascu li ne, a n dle if it's fem in in e.
Thevawarded him a medal'
sto cercando i biglietti. l'm lool<ing for the ticl<ets, have
) ln the above examples, them and him are called indi rect obiects' Li hai visti? you seen them?
l Forbothdirectandindirectobjectsthereisoneformyouuseonmostoccasions. Dove sono le caramelle? Where are the sweets? Have you
This is called the unstressed form. Le hai mangiate? eaten them?

) When lo and la are followed bv ho, hai, ha, abbiamo, avete and hanno, thev
p Unstressed direct object pronouns drop the vowel and are spelled l'.

) Here arethe ltalian unstressed object pronouns:

Non l'ho visto ieri. I didn't see it yesterday.

ml me
labbiamo preso con noi. Wetook itwith us.
f hanno cercato tutta la giornata. They looked for it all day.
ti you (fami I iar si ngular)
lo him, it
la her, you (polite singular), it
ci I l< Grammar Extra!
you (plural) when you are talking about the past and using the pronou ns lo, la, li and le you must make the
past partici ple ag ree with the noun bei ng referred to. Past partici ples arejust i ke adjectives I

ti them (masculine)
le them (feminine) ,rrd to -e for the femin ine olural.

) Unlike English, you usually put them before the verb. ll suo ultimo film? Uho viste. H is new film? l've seen it.
Ti amo. I love you. Silvia? Lho incontrata ieri. Silvia? | met herVesterday.
I biglietti? Li ho giA presi. The tickets? l've already got them.
Lo invito alla festa. l'm inviting him to the Party.
Queste scarpe? Le ho compratg anni fa. These shoes? | bought them years ago.
Non lo mangio. l'm not going to eat it.
t ) For more informotion on the Perfecttense, see page rc9.

Forfurtherexplanation ofgrammatical terms, please see Pages x-xiv'

Pnoruourus 47
45 PRoNouNs

KeY Points > You use indirect object pronouns when you are usi ng verbs such as piacere,
y' yougeneral ly use the u nstressed d i rect obj ect pronoun.
importare, and interessare to talk about what people like, care about or are
interested in.
y' nstressed d i rect object pronouns usual ly come before the verb.
Gli piace l'ltalia. He likes ltaly.
y' you need to pay special attention when translating it and them.
Lepiocciono i gatti. She likes cats.
Non q!! importa il prezzo, They don't care about the price,
sono ricchi. they're rich.
@ Unstressed indirect obiect pronouns Se gli interessa pud venire con me. lf he's interested he can comewith me.
) ln Englishsomeverbshavetobefollowed byan indirectobjectpronoun -explain
to him, write to him - but other si m i lar verbs do not: you say tell him, phone him'
) In ltal ian vou have to use i nd irect object pronouns with verbs such as dire
It is worth checking in your dictionary to see if a verb needs a d irect or
(meaning to tell) and telefonare (meaning to phone)' an i nd i rect object. lf you look u p the verb to give, for exam ple, and fi nd the
t> Aswith direct object pronouns, there are unstressed and stressed indirect example to give somebody something,thea in the translation (dare qualcosa
a qualcuno) shows you thatyou use an indirect pronoun forthe person
object pronouns.
you give something to.
>> You will generally need to use unstressed pronouns ratherthan stressed ones. Gli ho dato il mio numero di gave him my phone number.

> Here are the unstressed indirect pronouns. telefono.

ml to me, me
ti to you, you (familiar singular)
gli to him, him Key points
le to her, her; to you, you (polite singular) y' yougeneral Iy use the u nstressed i nd i rect obj ect pronou n.
cl to us, us y' U nstressed i nd i rect object pronouns are used with many verbs i n ltal ian
vi to Vou, You (Plural) which do not use them in English such as chiedere (meaning to ask)
gli to them, them and interessare (meaning to interest).
y' U nstressed i nd i rect object pronouns usual ly come before the verb.
) Unli ke Engl ish, you usually put these pronouns before the verb.
> Just as in English, when you are telling somebody something' giving somebody
something and so on, you use an indirect pronoun forthe person concerned. 5l Stressed object pronouns
Le ho detto la veritri. I told herthe truth.
> You usestressed pronounsforspecial emphasis.Theygenerallygoaftertheverb.
Gli ho dato la cartina. lgave him the map.
cercavo proprio voi. You're justthe people lwas looking for.
> lndi rect pronouns are also generally used with verbs to do with communicating Invitano me e mio fratello. They're inviting me and my brother.
with people.
D They are exactly the same as the subiect pronouns, except that me is used
Gli chiederd il permesso. l'llasl< him for permission.
instead ofio and te is used instead oftu.
(literally, I' ll ask to him)
Gli ho telefonato. I phoned him. (literally, I phoned to him)
F You use the same words for stressed d i rect and i nd i rect objects. When you use
them as indirect objects you put the word a (meaning to) before them.
Le scriverd. write to her.
lfyou see them ask them to come. DIRECT
5e li vedi chiedigli di venire.
(literally, ...ask to them...) me me
te you (fomiliar forn)
lui him
Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv. lei her, you (polite singular)
48 PRoNouNs Peoruouns 49

nol US
o ] Before oraftertheverbl
voi you (plural)
loro them > Unstressed pronouns generally come before the verb.

Miaiuti? Could you help me?
ame (to) me Ti piace? Do you li ke it?
ate (to) you (familiarform) Ci hanno visto. They saw us.
a lui (to) him Vi ha salutato? Did he say hello to you?
a lei (to) her, you (polite singular)
a noi (to) us
> | n some cases, unstressed pronouns come after the verb:
a voi (to) you (plural) o when you are using the imperative to tellsomeone to do something.
a loro (to) them The pronoun isjoined ontotheverb.
Aiutami! Help mel
> You use stressed pronouns:
Losciala stare. Leave her alone.
o whenyou wanttoemphasizethatyou mean a particularperson and not
Daglielo. Cive it to him (or her).
somebody else, and for contrast:
Arrivano. Non dirg!! niente! They're coming. Don't tell them
Amo solo te, I love only you.
anythi ngl
lnvito luialla festa, ma lei no. I'm inviting him to the party but
not her. [J trtote that if the verb consists ofjust one syllable you double the consonant
Non guardava me, guardava lei. He wasn't looking at me, he was the pronoun starts with, except in the case ofgli.
looking at her. Fallo subito! Do it right awayl
scritto a lei, a lui no. I wrote to hel but not to h im.
Ho Dille la veriti! Tell herthetruthl
Questo piace a me, ma Luca I like this one but Luca prefers the Dimmi dov'6. Tell me where it is.
preferisce I'altro. other one. Dacci una mano. Give us a hand.
o aftera preposition Dagl! una mano. Give him a hand.
Vengo con te. l'll come with you. . when you are using a pronounwith the infinitive(theform oftheverb
Sono arrivati dopo di noi. They arrived after us. ending in-re in ltalian).The pronoun isjoined ontotheverb.
Potresti venire a prendernnl? Could you come and get me?
4 For more informotion about. Prepositions, see page v2.
Non posso aiutarvi. I can't help you.
o afterdi when you're comparing one person with another Devo farlq? Do I have to do it?
Sei pii alto di me. You're ta ller tha n me. Dovresti scriverlg. You ought to write to her.
Sono pii ricchi di lui. They're richer than him Luigi? Non voglio parlarg[. Luigi? | don'twant to talk to him

@ Notethatthefinale ofthe infinitive isdropped:prendere *mi becomes

KeY prendermi,fare +ti becomesfarti and so on.
y' Stressed obj ect pronou ns are nearly al I the same as su bject pronou ns' L Stressed pronouns often come afterthe verb.
y' vou use them for emphasis, after prepositions and in comparisons- Amo solo te. I love only you.
y' you general ly put stressed obj ect pronouns after the verb. Invito luialla festa, ma lqi no. l'm inviting him to the party but
y' Vou use the same words for direct and indirect objects, but add a before not her.
them for indirect objects.

For further explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv.

50 PRoNOUNS PnoHoulvs 5r

f usinq two pronouns together Key points

) | n Eng I ish you someti mes use two pronouns together, one referri ng to the y' when you use two pronouns together the i nd i rect object comes fi rst.
indirect object and the other to the direct object, for example,l gave him it' y' Some indirect objects change when used before a direct object.
)> you often do the same kind of thing in ltalian, and must always put the indirect y' Afterorders and the infi nitiveform, thetwo pronouns arewritten as
obiect first. one word and follow the verlr.

> When Vou use two pronou ns together like this, some of them change:
mi becomes me
ti becomes te
ci becomes ce Orammar Extra!
vi becomes ve I r) Engl ish fou and one are used in general statements and questions such asYou don't do it like
thot; Con Vou park here?; One has to be careful.
Me la dai? Willyou give me it?
t se si and the reflexive form ofthe verb in ltalian for these ki nds ofstatements and questions.
It's mine, l'm notgoing to give itto

E mia - non te la do.

you. 5i fa cosi. This is howyou do it
Si pud nuotare qui? Can you swim here?
Ce I'hanno promesso. They promised it to us.
Non si sa mai. You never know.
Ve lo mando domani. l'll send it to you tomorrow.
r ) For more informotion on ReflexiveVubs, see page 87.
l When Vou want to use gli (meaningto him or to them) and le (meaning to her)
with lo, la, li or le, you add an -e to gliand join it to lo, la, and so forth.
gli/le+ lq + glielo
gli/le* |s + gliela
gli/le+ 1i + glieli
clieli hai promessi. You oromised them to her.
Gliel'ha spedite. He sent them to them.
Carlo? Glielo dird domani. Carlo? l'lltell him tomorrow.
When you use two pronouns together to give an order or when using the
i nfin itive (-re form ofthe verb), theyjoin together and are added on to the verb.

Mi piacciono, ma non vuole I like them but he won't buy me

comprar4gli. them.
Ecco la lettera di Rita, puoi Here's Rita's letter, can you give it
dorgllele? to her?
Le chiavi? Daqliele. The keys? Give them to her.
Non abbiamo i biglietti - pu6 We haven't got the tickets - can yo-
mandarggli? send us them?

[J trtote that the final e of the infi nitive is dropped: prendere + mi * li becomes
prendermeli, rn"n6q1q + ti + le becomes mandartele and so on.

Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x'xiv.

Pnonourus 53
Possessive pronouns Key points
y' ltalianpossessive pronouns are the same as ltalian possessive
What is a possessive pronoun? adjectives.
ln English the possessive Pronouns are mine, yours, his, hers, ours and theirs. y' they are masculi ne or feminine, singular or plural, depending on what
You use them instead of a possessive adjective followed try a noun. For example,
they refer to.
i nstead of saying My ba g i s the bl ue on e, y ou say Mi ne's the blue one.

)> Here are the ltalian possessive pronouns; they are exactlythe same as ltalian
possessive adjectives, but with the defi n ite article in front of them.

* ror more informotion on Possessive adiectives and the oefinite orticle, see pages j4
and 11.

Singular Plural Meaning

Masculine Feminine Masculine Feminine
il mio la mia tmlel le mie mrne
iltuo la tua i tuoi le tue yours(familiar)
il suo la sua I suol le sue his, hers, Vours (polite)

il nostro la nostra i nostri le nostre ou rs

il vostro la vostra i vostri le vostre yours

il loro la loro i loro le loro thei rs

There are three ways of sayin gyours, because there are three words for
you -tu, lei and voi.

Questa borsa non E la mia, E la tua. This bag's not mine, it's yours.
Non A il mio, E il fU-g, signore. lt's not mine, it'syours, sir.
La nostra casa 6 piccola,
la vostra E grande. Our house is small, yours is big.
I miei genitori e i suoi si conoscono. My parents and hers know each other'

E Note that i miei. ituoi and isuoi are used to referto someone's parents.
Vivo con i miei. I live with my parents.
Cosa hanno detto i tuoi? What did your parents say?
Lucia d venuta con i suoi. Lucia came with her Darents.

l In ltalian, possessive pronounsagreewith the noun they're used instead of.

For examDle il mio can onlV be used to refer to a masculine singular noun.

Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv.

Pnoruourus 55

Ne usually comes before the verb, except when the verb is an order or the
ne and ci
infin itive (the -re form of the verb).
D ne and ci are two extremely useful pronouns which have no single equ ivalent
When itcomes aftertheverb thefi nal -e ofthe infinitive is dropped.
in English.Therearesome phraseswhereyou haveto usethem in ltalian.
Volevo parlarng. I wanted to talk about it.
It follows any other pronoun and is written as one word with it and the verb
En" form.
ne is a pronoun with several meanings.
Ddmmene uno perfavore. 6ive me one of them please
> lt can referto amounts and quantities. Dagliene due rossi. Cive him two red ones.
. lt meanssome,andcan be usedwithouta noun,just lil<e English.

Ne vuoi? Would you like some? n Note that when joined to ne, mi becomes me, ti becomes te, ci becomes ce,
vi become ve and gli and le become glie.
Vuoi del pane? - Ne ho grazie. Would you like some bread? -
I've 9ot some, thanl<s.
> |n English, when talki ng about amounts and quantities, you can saY How much Key points
do you want of it?, or How much do Vou wont? and How many do you want of themT ' y' ne can be used to mean some.
or How mony do Vou wlnt? Ne translates of it and of them but it is not optional. y' ne canalso be used to mean of itor ofthemwhen talking about
So you need to rememberto use it in sentences of the kind shown below.
amou nts and quantities. Unlike English, it is not optional.
Ne ho preso la meti. l've taken half (of it). y' ne is used to mean dbout it or about them and so forth with verbs and
Ne vuoi la meta? Do you want half (of itlof them)?
adjectives followed by di.
Quanti nevuole? How many (of them) do you want?
Ne voglio pochi. I don't want many (of them).
1l ne usuaily comes before the verb.

> Ne af so means obout it/them, of it/them, with it/them, and so on, when used with
Ital ian adjectives or verbs wh ich are fol lowed by di, for exam ple contento di
(meaning happy about),stufo di (meaning fed up with),aver Paura di (meaning t c-i

to be afraid 0fl, scrivere di (mean ing to write about). > Ci is used with certain verbs to mean itor obout it.
Ne e molto contenta. She's very happy about it. Ripensandoci mi sono pentito. When I thought it over I was sorry.
Ne sono conscio. I'm aware of it. Non ci credo per niente. I d o n't bel ieve it at a ll"
Ne erano stufi. They were fed up with it. Ci penserd. l'llthinl< about it.
Ne sei sicura? Are you sure (of it)? Non ci capisco niente. I can't understand it at all.
Ne hai paura? Are you afraid of it? Non so che farci. I don't know what to do about it.
Ne ha scritto sul giornale. She's written about it in the PaPer.
Ci is often used with ltalian verbs which are followed by a, for example:
Non se ne accorge. He doesn't realize it.
o credere a qualcosa to believe something, to believe in something
> With ad iectives and verbs followed bv di, ne can be used to refer to nou ns that
have already been mentioned.
Non ci credo. I don't believe it
Parliamo del futuro. - Let's talk about the future. . pensarea qualcosa to thinl(aboutsomething
Sr-, Yes, let's tall( about it. Non voglio nemmeno pensarE[. I don't even want to th in k about it.
Hai bisogno della chiave? - Do you need the l<ey?
. far caso a qualcosa to notice something
No, non ne ho piir bisogno. No, I don't need it any more
Non ci ho fatto caso. I didn't notice.
S ror more information on di, see Prepositions page v4.
rl Note that the equ ivalent Eng lish verb may not be followed by any preposition
at all.
For further explanation ofgrammatical terms, Please see pages x-xiv.
56 PRoNouNs Pnoruourus 57

> With verbs followed by a, ci can be used to refer to nouns that have already Indefinite pronouns
been mentioned.
lfantasmi, non ci credi? Chosts - don'tyou believe in them? What is an indefinite pronoun?
Non pensi mai al futuro? - Don't you ever think about the An indefinite pronoun is a word like evenlthing, nobody and something which is
Ci penserd quando sard pid future? - l'll think about it when used to referto people orthings in a non-specificway.
vecchio. l'm older.

) ci is usedwith the verb entrare in some common idiomatic phrases. > Some ltalian indefinite pronouns always keep the same form:
Cosa c'entra? what's that got to do with it? o chiunque anyone
lo non c'entro. It's nothinq to dowith me. Attacca discorso con chiunque. She'll talk to anyone.

Like ne, ci usuallV comes before the verb, except when the verb is an order, . niente nothing
the infinitive (the -re form of the verb) or the -ing form. Cosa c'd? - Niente. What's wrong? - Nothing.

[J Note that niente and nulla mean exactly the same, but niente is used more
Key points often.
y' ci isused to mean it or about it. o nulla nothing
y' ci isused with verbs which can be followed by the preposition a. Che cos'hai comprato? - Nulla. What did you buy? - Nothing.
y' ci usually comes before the verb. o qualcosa something, anything
Ho cualcosa da I've got something to tell you.
Ha bisogno di Do you need anything?
Voglio qualcos'altro. Iwant something else.
r ) For more information on Negotives, see page ug.
> Other indefi nite pronouns are mascul ine singularwords, with a fem in ine form
ending in-a:
o ciascuno, ciascuna each
Ne avevamo uno per ciascuno. We had one each.
Letortecostanodieci euro ciascuna. The cakes costten euros each.
. nessuno, nessuna nobody, anybody; none
Non d venuto nessuno. Nolrody came.
Hai visto nessuno? Did you see anybody?
Nessuna delle ragazze d venuta. None of the girls came.
09nuno, ognuna eacn
ognuno di voi each ofyou
qualcuno, qualcuna somebody; one
Ha telefonato qualcuno. Somebody phoned.
Chiedilo a qualcun altro. Ask somebody else.
Conosci qualcuna delle ragazze? Do you know any of the girls?

uno. una somebody

Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see Pages x-xiv. Ho incontrato uno che ti conosce. I met somebody who knows you.
58 PRoNouNs Pnoruouls 59

C'E una che ti cerca. There's somebody (mea ning o womon)

looking foryou.
[f ruotethatinEnglishyoucansayEverybodyiscoming',They'reollcoming,orAllof
them are cominq. All three sentences are translated into ltalian in the same way,
o alcuniand alcune (meaning some) are always used in the plural. using tutti and a plural verb. tutti cannot be followed by di, so don't try to
Ci sono posti liberi? - Si, alcuni. Are there any empty seats? - Yes, some. translatedll of them -translate theyall.
Ci sono ancora delle fragole? - Are there any strawlrerries left? o tutto everything,all
Si, alcune. -Yes, some. Va tutto bene? ls everything okay?
) The following pronouns can be singular or plural, masculine or feminine: fho finito tutto. l've finished it all.
o altro, altra, altri, altre the other one; another one; other people
Laltro d meno caro. The other one is cheaoer.
Key points
Preferisco l'altra. prefer the other one.
y' Some i ndefi n ite pronouns always have the same form.
Non m'interessa quello che dicono I don't care what other people say.
glialtri. pronouns can be masculine orfeminine, sinsular

Le altre sono partite. The others have gone. " :jii#l:"finite

Prendine un altro. Take another one.

@ ruote that altro can also mean dnyf hing else

Vuole altro? Do you want anything else?

. molto, molta, molti, molte a lot, lots
Ne ha molto. He's got lots.
molti di noi a lot of us
o parecchio, parecchia, parecchi, parecchie quite a lot
C'e ancora del pane? - ls there any bread left? -
Si, parecchio. Yes, quite a lot.
Avete avuto problemi? - Sr', parecchi. Did you have problems? - Yes, a lot
. poco, poca, pochi, poche notmuch, notmany
C'€ pane? - Poco. ls there anv bread? - Not much.
Ci sono turisti? - Pochi. Are there any tourists? - Not many.
o tanto, tanta, tanti, tante lots, so much, so manv
Hai mangiato? - si, tanto! Have you eaten? -Yes, lots!
Sono tanti! There are so many of them!
troppo, troppa, troppi, troppe too much, too many
Quanto hai speso? -TropDo! How much have you spent? -
Too muchl
Ci sono errori? - 5i, troppi. Are there any mistakes? -
Yes, too many.
tutti, tutte everybody, all
Vengono tutti. Everybody is coming.
Sono arrivate tutte. They've all arrived (they're oll women).

For further explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv.

6o Pnonouls Pnoruourus 6r

Relative pronouns
p what is a relative pronoun? In English who is used both as a question word, and as a relative pronou
> n Eng ish the relative pronou ns are who, which, that and whom. They are used
I I In ltalian:chi is used in questions, and che is used asa relative pronoun:
to specify exactly who or what is being talked about, for exam ple, The man who Chi va al concerto? Who's going to the concert?
hls just come in is Anna's boyfriend;The vlse that you broke cost a lot of money. la ragazza che hai visto the girl (that) you saw
> Relativepronounscanalsointroduceanextrapieceofinformation,forexample,
Peter, who is o brilliant painter, wants to studv ott;Their house, which was built in 89o,
needs o lot of repoirs.
> | n Eng I ish you often use which to refer to a fact or situation that you've j ust
mentioned. ln ltalian use il che.
Loro non pagano nulla, il che They don't pay anyth ing, which
p che non mi sembra giusto, doesn't seem fair to me.
> | n Eng ish who, whom and thdt are used to tal k about people and which and t hat
I Dice che non 6 colpa sua, il che She says it's not herfault, which
are used to tal k about th i ngs. I n ltal ian you use che for al I ofthese. 6 vero. is true.
quella signora che ha il piccolo that lady who has the little black dog
cane nero
Mio padre, che ha sessant'anni, Myfather, who's sixty, is retiring. Grammar Extra!
va in pensione.
You may come across il quale used to mean who, which, thdt and whom. il quale is more formal
una persona che detesto a person whom I detest r lran che. il quale has fem inine and plural forms: la quale, i quali and le quali.

l'uomo che hanno arrestato the man that they've arrested suo padre, il quale d awocato his father, who is a lawyer
la squadra che ha vinto the team which or that won le sue sorelle, le quali studiano a Roma his sisters, who study in Rome
il dolce che hai fatto the pudding you made
rl quale, la quale, i quali and le quali are used most often with prepositions.
> |n EngI ish you can m iss out the relative pronoun: o person I detest; the mon l'albergo al quale ci siamo fermati the hotel that we stayed at
thev've Irrested You can never miss outche. la signora con la quale parlavi the ladyyou weretalking to
the person I admire most + la persona che ammiro di pit) gli amici ai quali mando questa cartolina the friends l'm sending this card to
the money you lent me - i soldi che mi hai prestato la medicina della quale hanno bisogno the medicinethey need

) Prepositions are sometimes used with relative pronouns: the mon to whom r ) For more information about Prepositions, see poge v2.

she wIs t\lking/the mon thot she wos tIlking to; the girl who he's going out with
In English the preposition often goes atthe end ofthe phrase.

) In ltalian, when you use a preposition with a relative pronoun, use cui instead : I quello che
ofche, and putthe preposition in front of it. > ln English you can put the one or the ones in front of a relative pronoun such as
la ragazza di cui ti ho parlato the girl that I told you about who, which, that and whom. For exam ple, Thot s the one that I'd like;TheY're the ones
gli amici con cui andiamo in the friends who we go on holiday we need.
vacanza with
la persona a cui si riferiva the person he was referring to to feminine nouns. The relative Dronoun is che.
il quartiere in cui abito the area in which I live
quello che non funziona.
E That's the one wh ich isn't workinq.
ilfilm di cui parlavo the film which I was talking about
quello che preferisco.
E That's the one I prefer.
E quella che parla di pii. 5he's the one who talks most.

For further explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv.

6z PnoHouls 63

) To say the ones in ltalian use quelli for masculine nouns or quelle for feminine I nterrogative pronou ns
nouns.The relative pronoun is che.
Sono quelli che sono partiti They're the ones who left without What is an interrogative pronoun?
senza pagare. paying. lnEnglishtheinterrogativepronounsarewho...?,which...?,whose...?,wh0m...7
Queste scarpe sono quelle che These shoes are the ones you and what...l.TheV are used without a noun, to asl< questions.
ha ordinato. ordered.

> With a preposition use cui instead of che. Putthe preposition in front of cui.
t The interrooative pronouns in ltalian
E quello a cui parlavo. He's the one lwas tall<ing to.
D These are the interrogative pronouns in ltalian:
Sono quellia cui ti riferivi? Are they the ones to whom you were
referri ng ?
chi? Who?Whom?
Sono quelli di cui abbiamo bisogno. They're the ones we need. Che? What?
Cosa? What?
[| trtote that in English the relative pronoun can be left out, for example,
che cosa? What?
Thot's the one I wdnt instead of Thdt's the one thot I want.ln ltalian the relative
pronoun che can never be left out. Quale? Which?Which one?What)
Quanto? How much?
Quanti? How many?
Key points
y' D Chi, che, cosa, and checosa neverchangetheirform.
checan referto both people and things in ltalian.
/ ;fffi:*","?!ll,1l,li,l'll5hich
and that can be reft out in Ensrish'
chi e?
Chi sono?
Who is it?
Who are they?
Che vuoi? What do you want?
y' Use cui i nstead ofche after a preposition.
Cosa vuole? What does he want?
querre are used to sav the one or the ones
Che cosa vogliono? What do they want?
" #:J:;J;fl:Ti;[::d
E| Note thatthere is no difference lretween che, cosa and che cosa.

D Quale is used for the mascul ine and femi nine singular, and quali is used
for masculine and feminine plural.
Conosco sua sorella. - Qualel I know his sister. -Which one?
Ho rotto dei bicchieri. - Qualil I broke some glasses. -Which ones?

For more information on Question words, see page 65.

Quanto and quanti have feminine forms.

Farina? Quanta ce ne vuole? Flour? How much is needed?
Quantg di loro passano la sera How many ofthem spend the
a leggere? evening reading?

For further explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv.

64 Pcottoutts Pnoruouus 55

p_] che cos'A or qual E? Demonstrative pronou ns

) che cos'6? and qual e? both mean whot isl but are used in different ways:
What is a demonstrative pronoun?
o Use che cos'd? or che cosa sono? when you're asking someone to explain
ln Eng lish the demonstrative pronouns are this, that, these and those. They are
or identify something.
used instead ofa noun to point out people orthings, for example, Thdt's my brother
Che cos'C questo? What's this?
Che cosa sono questi? - What are theseT -
Sono funghi. They're mushrooms. | | Using demonstrative pronouns
Usequal E? orquali sono?, notche,when you askwhot is?,orwhat lre? D These are the demonstrative oronouns in ltalian:
to find out a Darticular detail, number, name, and so on.
Masculine Feminine Meaning
Qual € il suo indirizzo? What's her address?
Singular questo questa this, this one
Qual d la capitale della Finlondia? What's the capital of Finland?
quello quella that, that one
Quali sono i loro nomi? What are their names?
Plural questi queste these, these ones
@ Note that quale becomes qual in front of a vowel quelli quelle tnose. tnose ones

p chir
> The demonstrative pronoun must agree with the noun it is replacing
Questo e mio marito. This is my hustrand.
} Use chi for both who and whom "
Questa E comera mia. This is my bedroom.
Chi ha vinto? Whowon?
Questi sono i miei fratelli. These are my brothers.
Chi hai visto? Whom did you see?
Quali scarpe ti metti? - Queste. Which shoes are you going to wear?
) When there is a preposition in your question put it in front of chi. -These ones.
A chi I'hai dato? Who did you give itto? Qual d la sua borsa? - QUella. Which bag is yours? -That one.
Con chi parlavi? wh o were yo u ta lki ng to ? Quelli quanto costano? How much do those cost?
A chi si riferiva? To whom was he referring?
@ Note that quello and quella can also be used to mean thlt man and that woman
D Usedi chi A? ordi chi sono? toaskwhothings belongto. Dice sempre bugie quello. That man is always telling lies.
Di chi questa borsa?
E Whose is this bag? Conosci quella? Do vou know thatwoman?
Di chi sono queste chiavi? Whose are these keys? t) For more information on Demonstrotive adje*ives, see page 3c..

Key points
Pronouns in y' The demonstrative pronouns In ltalian are questo and quello.
; Hffi;; ";::t*il]'n""on"'ue
Qu_esto and
quello have mascul i ne, fem i n i ne, si n g u lar and plu ral

y' They agree with the nouns they replace.

For further explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv.

Venas 57

> |n ltalian, nouns are used as the subject of verbs just as they are i n English,
VERBS but pronouns are used much less often. This is because the end ing of an ltalian
verb often shows you who the subject is.
Mia sorella gioca a tennis. My sister is playing tennis.
What is a verb?
A verb is a word which describes what somebody or something does, what they
gjsle bene. She plavs well.

are, or what happens to them, for exam ple, play, be, disappelr. t ) For more information on Subject pronouns, see poge 41.

D ltalian verb forms also change dependi ng on whether you are talking about
Overview of verbs the present, past or future: credq means I believe, credevo mean sl believed and
crederd means lwill believe.
) Verbs are frequently used with a nounor with somebody's name, for exam ple
> ln English some verbs are irregular,
playing football. In English, pronouns such as for example, you do not add -ed to speak, 90,
Children like stories; lason's
t, Vou and she often come in front of verbs, for example, She knows my sister.
or to make the past tense. In the same way, some ltalian verbs do not follow
the usual patterns.These irregular ltalian verbs include some very important
)> Verbscanrelatetothepresent,thepastorthefuture; thisiscalledtheirtense. and common verbs such as andare (mean ing to go), essere (meaning to be) and
fare (meaning to do or to moke).
* For more informotion on Nouns and Pronouns, see pages t ond 4o.
t ) For Verb tables, see supplement.
) Verbsareeither:
o reqular: theirformsfollowthe normal rules
Key points
o irregular: theirforms do notfollowthe normal rules
y' ltalian verbs have differentendings depending on theirsubjectand
ther r tense.
> Almost all verbs have a form called the infin itive that isn't present, past or y' Endings are added to the verb stem.
future,(forexample,wolk, see,hear).ltisusedafterotherverbs,forexample,
You should walk;You c\n see; Kirsty wants to come. In Eng lish, the infin itive is
y' vouoften do not need to use a pronoun lrefore a verlr in ltalian.
usually shown with the word to, for example ,to speak, to elt, to live.

> Inltaliantheinfinitiveisalwaysjustonewordthatinmostcasesendsineither
-are, -ere or-ire: for example, parlare (meaning to speak),credep (meaning
to believe) anddormire (meaning to sleep).

) Regular English verbs can add three endings to the infinitive: -s (wolks), -ing
(walking) and -ed (wolked).

) ltal ian verbs add endings to the verb stem, which is what is left of the verb
when you take away the*are, -ere or-ire ending of the infinitive.This means
the stem ofparlare is parl-, the stem ofcredere is cred-, and the stem of
dormire isdorm-.
) ltalian verb endings change according to who orwhat is doing the action.
The person orthing thatdoes the action is called the subjectofthe verb.

) ln English you nearly always put a noun or a pronoun in front of a verb to show
who is do ing the action, for exam ple ldck s peoks ltolion; She's pllYing tennis.

For further explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv.

Venas 69
58 Venes

The present tenses The present simple tense

t ] Howto makethe present simpletense of regular-are verbs
What are the present tenses?
that are used to tal k about what is true at
The Dresent tenses are the verb forms
> Verbs that have an infi n itive ending n -are, such as parlare, abitare and

the moment, what generally happens and what is happeninq now; for example' studiare have a particular pattern ofendings.
t'm a student; t trTvel to college by troin;The phone's ringing. D Tomal<ethepresentsimpletenseofregular-areverbstalceoffthe-areending
to oet the stem ofthe verb.

> In English thereare twotensesyou can useto talkaboutthe present: Infinitive Meaning Stem (without-are)
. the Dresent simPle tense parlare to speoK parl-
I live here. abitare to live abit-
They always qet up early.
studiare to study studi-
o the Dresentcontinuoustense
He is eatino an apple. Then add the correct end i ng for the person you're tal lci ng about.
You aren't listening.
Here are the present simple end ings for regular-are verbs:
> n ltal ian there is also a Dresent simple and a present continuous tense.

Present simple Present simple of

) As in English, the present simDle tense in ltalian is used to talk about: endings parlare Meaning: to speok
. thingsthatare generallYtrue -o (io) parlo I speak/am speaking
D'inverno fa freddo. It's cold in winter.
-l (tu) parli you speak/are speaking
o what people and things usuallY do
(luillei) parla helshy'it ksl
-a spea pea ki g
Giulia non mangia la carne. Giulia doesn't eat meat.
(lei,/Lei) parla you speak/are speaking
s s n

Queste macchine consumano These cars use a lot of petrol.

(noi) parliamo we speal(/are speakinq
molta benzina.
We often ge to the cinema. -ate (voi) parlate you speak/are speaki ng
Andiamo spesso al cinema.
-ano (loro) porlano they speak/are speaking
U nl i ke i n the Dresent si m ple tense i n ltal ian can be used to tal l( about:
Engl ish,
o what is happening right now Parli inglese? Do you speak English?
Piove. It's raininq. Chi parla? Who's speal<ing?
Cosa fai? What are you doinq? Pdrlano bene italiano. They speal< good ltal ian
I n ltal ian the present conti nuous is also used to tal k about th I ngs that are
happening right now.
Ci sto pensando. l'm thinkino about it. rtp
* For more information on the use of the Prcsenttenses, see plges 59 ond 8t. When you are talking about a male, a female or a thing, or are using
lei as the polite word for you, you use the same verb form.

rw ti) For more informotion on Ways of saying'you' in ttalian, see page 42.

You can usethe ltalian present simple to translate both the English
simple present and the English present continuous.
(rl Note that in ltalian there's often no need to use a subject pronoun such as
It's raining.
io (meaning l) ortu (meaning you) because the verb ending makes it clear
It rains a lot"
who is doing the action. However, when you're talking about people you can
* For more information on Howto usethe present simpletense, see page n use the pronouns lui, lei or loro with the verb for the sake of emphasis or to
make things clearer.

Forfurtherexplanation ofgrammatical terms, Please see Pages x-xiv.

70 vERBs Vrnas 7r

Parla italiano lui? Does he speak ltalian? > H ere are the present si m ple end i ngs for reg u lar -ere verbs:
Lei parla bene inglese, ma lui no. 5he speaks good English, but he
doesn't. Present simple Present simple of
endings credere Meaning: to befieve
Loro non parlano mai. TheV neverspeak.
-o (io) credo I believe
When you're talking about things you ALWAYS use the verb by itself, with no -l (tu) credi you believe
-e (lui,/lei) crede helshe believes
Vedi I'autobus? - Si, arriva. Can you see the bus? -Yes, it's coming. (lei,/Lei) crede you believe
Vuole queste? - No, costano Do you want these? - No, they cost *ramo (noi) crediamo we believe
troppo. too much. -ete (voi) credete you believe

* For more information on Subject, pronouns, see page 41. -ono (loro) credono theV believe

Non ci credo, I don't believe it.

Key points
Crediai fantasmi? Do you believe in ghosts?
the -are end i ng off the i nfi n itive of a regular verb you set Lo credono tutti. They all believe it.
" L,r.?:*:
/ one of these endings to the stem:-o, -i, -a, -iamo, -ate or
y' youonlyusea pronoun with theverbforemphasisorto bespecially When you are talking about a male, a female or a thing, or are using
clear, but only when tall<ing about people. ei as the polite word for you, you use the same verb form.

m Note that in ltalian there's often no need to use a subject pronoun such as io
p-] How to make the present simple tense of regular:erq verbs (meaning l) ortu (mean ing you) because the verb ending makes it clear who
is doing the action. However, when you're talking about people you can use
> Verbs that have an i nfi nitive end i ng i n -ere, such as credere, ricevere and
the pronouns lui, lei or loro with the verb for the sake of emphasis or to mal<e
ripetere have their own pattern ofendings.
things clearer.
> To mal<e the present simple tense of regular-ere verbs take off the -ere ending Lui non ci crede. He doesn't believe it.
to get the stem and then add the correct end i ng for the person you're tal ki ng Lei crede ai fantasmi, io no. 5he believes in ghosts, I don't.
Loro lo credono tutti. Theyall believe it.
Infinitive Meaning stem (without -ere) When you're talking about things you ALWAYS use the verb by itsell with
credere to believe cred- no Dronoun.
ncevere to receive ncev- La minestra? Non sa di nulla. The soup? lt doesn't taste of
ripetere to repeat ripet- anything.
Le piante? Crescono bene. The plants?They're growing well.
) The io, tu and noi end ings you add to the stem of-ere verbs are the same as
-are verb end i ngs. The other end i ngs are d ifferent.
t ) For more informotion on Subject pronouns, see page 41.

Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv.

72 VERBS Vrnes 73

llfilm finisce alle dieci. The fl lm finishes at ten.

Finiscono il lavoro. They're finish ing the work.
Non pulisco mai la macchina. I never clean the car.
Preferi5c[ l'altro? Do you prefer the other oneT
It depends. Non capiscono. They don't understand.
It's rain ing.
a Note that in ltalian there's often no need to use a subject pronoun such as io
(meaning l) or tu (meaningyou) because the verb ending makes it clear who
is doing the action. However, when you're talking about people you can use
KeY Points the Dronouns lui, lei or loro with the verb for the sa ke of em phasis or to mal<e
y' tf youtake the-ere ending offthe infinitive ofa regularverbyou get things clearer.
the stem. Lui non pulisce mai la macchina. He never cleans the car.
y' Vouadd one of these end i ngs to the stem: -o, *i, -e, -iamo, -ete or -ono. Lei mi capisce sempre. She always understands me.
y' Vouonlyuse a pronounwiththeverbforemphasis orto bespecially Loro preferiscono I'altro. They preferthe otherone.
clear, butonlywhen talking about people.
When you're talking about things you ALWAYS use the verb by itself, with
no oronoun.
[3] How to make the present simple tense of regular-ire verbs ll primo treno? - Parte alle cinque. Thefirsttrain? ltgoesatfive.
> Mostverbs that have an infinitive ending in -ire, such asfinire (meaning to Le lezioni quando finiscono? - When do lessons finish?
flnish), puf ire (meaning to cleln) and capire (meaning to understand)followone Finiscono alle quattro. They finish at four.
pattern of end ings in the present. Some common verbs such as dormire and Some common -ire verbs do not add -isc- to the stem. The most important
servire have a different Dattern. ones are dormire (meaning to sleep), servire (meaning to serve), aprire
) To make the present si mple tense of all -ire verbs take off the -ire end ing to (mean ing to open), partire (mean ing to leave), sentire (mean ingto hear) and
get the stem ofthe verb. soffri re (mea n ing to suffer).

lnfinitive Meaning Stem (without -ire) The end ings of these verbs are as follows:
finire to flnish fin-
Present simple Present simple of
pulire to clean pul- dormire Meaning: to sleep
capire to understand cap- (io) dormo sleep/am sleeping
-o I
dormire to sleep dorm- (tu) dorm!
I You sleeP,/are sleePing
servrre to seNe serv-
-e (luillei) dorme helshe,/it sleeps/is sleepi ng
(lei,/Lei) dorme you sleep/are sleeping
> Here are the present si m ple end i n gs for regu lar -ire verbs:
(noi) dormiamo we sleep/are sleeping
Present simple Present simple of (voi) dormite you sleep/are sleeping
endings finire Meaning: to finish
-ono (loro) dormono they sleep/are sleeping
-tsco (io) finisco I finish/am finishing
-rscl (tu) finisci you finish/are fi n ishi ng

-tsce (luillei) finisce helshe/it fi n ishes/ fl Note that these endings are the same as -ere verb end ings, except for the
is finishing second person plural (voi).
(lei,/Lei) finisce you fi nish/are fi nishing Dormo sempre bene. I always sleep well.
-tamo (noi) finiamo we fin ish/are finishing A che cosa serve? What's it for?
(voi) finite you fi nish/are finishing When are you leaving?
-ite Quando part!1q?
-iscono (loro) finlseqte they fin ishlare fi n ish i ng Soffrqne molto- They are suffering a lot.

For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv.

Vrnes 75
74 VERB5

D Here are the present simple forms of produrre:

ri+ Present simple of

When you are talking about a male, a female or a thing, or are using produrre Meaning: to produc?
ei as the polite word for you, you use the same verb form.
(io) produco I produce/l am producing
(tu) produci you produce/you are producing
(lui,/lei) he/she,/it produces/is producing
points produce
Key (leilLei) Vou produce/are producing
11 Take the-ire ending off the infinitive of a regular verb to get the stem. (noi) produciamo we produce/are producing

tl For most-ire verbs the end ings you add to the stem are: -isco, -isci, (voi) producete Vou produce/are producing
-isce, -iamo, -ite or-iscono. (loro) producono thev produce/are produci ng
J/ A few common -ire verbs add these endings to the stem:-o, -i, -e,
-iamo, -ite, -ono. The present tense ofall verbs ending in -porrefollow the pattern ofcomporre,
( youonlyusea pronoun withtheverbforemphasisorto bespecially and all verbs end ing in -durre follow the pattern of produrre.
clear, but only when talking about people.

s I where to put the stress when savinq the infinitive

> When you say the i nfi n itives of -are and -ire verbs the stress goes on the a
!!_l Infinitives that end in -rre or i ofthe ending:
D All regularverbs have inflnitivesending in-are, -ere, or-ire. Non vuole parlare. He doesn't want to speak.
Non riesco a dormire. can't sleep.
) A few common i rregu lar verbs have i nfi n itives end i ng i n -rre. For exam ple;

comporre to compose condurre to lead > When you say the infinitive of most -ere verbs the stress goes on the syllable
porre to put produrre to produce that comes before the ending.
proporre to propose ridurre to reduce Devono vgndere la casa. They've got to sell their house
suPporre to suppose tradurre to translate Pu6 ripqtere? Could you repeat that?

D Here are the present simple forms ofcomporre However, there are a number of very i mportant i rregular -ere verbs which have
the stress on the fi rst e ofthe end i ng.
Present simple of
comporre Meaning: to compose -ere verb Meaning
(io) compongo I compose/l am composing avere to have

(tu) componl you compose/you are composing cadere to fall

(lui,zlei) dovere to nave to

compone he/she/it composes,/is composing
persuadere to persuade
(leilLei) compone you compose/are composr ng
potgre to be able
(noi) componiamo we compose/are comPosrng
flmanere to remoin
(voi) componete you compose/are composi ng
vedere to see
(loro) compongono they compose,/are composi ng

Fa'attenzione a non cadere. M ind you don't fall.

Non puoi avere il mio. You can't have mine.

r) For more information on the lnfinitive, see poge 13,8.

For further explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv.

Venes 77

D Here are the present simple forms ofandare:

ffl Howto makethe present simpletense of common irreoularverbs
L There are manv verbs that do not follow the usual patterns. These i nclude
some verv common and importantverbs such asavere (meaning to have)
fare (meaning to do ot to make) and andare (meaning to go).
you golare going
) Here arethe presentsimpleforms ofavere:
he / she/ it goes / i s goi n9
Present simple of you golare going
avere Meaning: to hdve
(io) ho I have/have got
(tu) hai vou nave
(lui,zlei) helshe/it has
(lei,/Lei) you have
Ci vado spesso. I often go there.
(noi) abbiamo we have
Dove vai? Where are you going?
(voi) avete Vou have
Va bene. That's okay.
(loro) hanno tney have
Vanno tutti al concerto. They're all going to the concert
Ho due sorelle. l've got two sisters. t ) For other irregulor verbs in the present simple tense, seeVerbtobles in the supplement
Hai abbastanza soldi? Have you got enough money?
Abbiamo tempo. We've got time.
Hanno i capelli biondi. They have blonde hair. z I How to use the present simple tense in ltalian
> The present si mple tense is often used in ltalian in the same way as in English,
Here are the present simple forms offare: but there are also some important d ifferences.
Present simple of
D As in English, you usethe ltalian presentsimpletotalkabout:
fare Meaning: to do, to mdke

(io) faccio ldo,/am doing, I make/am making o thingsthatare generallytrue

(tu) fai you dolare doing, you make/ La frutta fa bene. Fruit is good foryou.
are making o currentsituations
(lui,zlei) he/she/itdoes/ is doing, he/she/ Vivono in Froncia. They live in France.
it makes/is making
you dolare doing, you mal(e/ . what people and things usually do
are making Litiqano sempre. They always quarrel.
(noi) facciamo we dolare doing, we make/ Si blocca spesso. It often jams.
are making
you dolare doing, you make/
o fixed arrangements
(voi) fate
Comincia domani. It starts tomorrow.
are making
(loro) fanno they dolare doi n9, they make, > U nli l<e in English, the ltalian present si mple is used to talk about:
are making
o what is happening right now
Faccio troppi errori. I make too many mistakes. Arrivol I'm coming!
Cosa fai sta sera? What are you doing this evening? Non manoi niente, You're not eating anyth ing.
Fa caldo. It's hot. o whatyou are going to do
Fanno quello che possono. They're doing what they can. E rotto, lo butto via. It's broken, l'm going to throw it away.
Ci penso io. l'll see to it.
Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv.
78 VERBS Venss 79

. pred ictions essere and stare

Se fai cosi lo rompi. lf you do that you'll break it
> In ltalian there are two irregularverbs, essere and stare, that both mean to be.
o offers ln the present tense they follow the patterns shown below:
Pago io. l'll pay.
Pronoun essere stare Meaning: to be
) ln English the perfecttense is used to say how long someone has been doing
(io) sono sto tam
something, or how long something has been happening. In ltalian you use
(tu) sel stai you are
da and the present si m Dle tense for th is ki nd ofsentence.
(lui,/lei) he/she/it is
AsDetto da tre ore. l've been waiting forthree hours. e sta
you are
Da quanto tempo studi How long have you been learning
(noi) stamo stiamo we are
I'italiano? Italian?
(voi) siete state you are
4 For more information on the use of tenses with da, see page ry4. (loro) sono stanno thev are

Key points > essere is the verb general ly used to translate to be:

/ simple tense in ltalian is used as in Enslish, and has a few Cosa sono? What are they?
l::ffi::?t E italiana. She's ltalian.

/ simple with da to talk about how lons somethins has Sono io. It's me.
;::jHl,fisent E un problema. It's a problem.
siete pronti? Are you ready?

> However, stare is used for to be in some common contexts:

. to sav or ask how someone is
Come stai? How are you?
Sto bene, grazie. I'm fine thanks.
Mio nonno sta male. My grandfather isn't well.
o to sav where someone is
Luigi sta a casa. Luigi's at home.
Star6 a Roma due giorni. l'll be in Romefortwo days.
o to saywhere something is situated
La casa sta sulla collina. The house is on the hill.
. with the adjectives zitto and solo
Vuole stare solo, He wants to be alone.
Sta'zitto! Be quietl
o to make continuous tenses
Sta studiando. He's studying.
Stavo andando a casa, I was going home.

t ) For more information on the Present continuous, see page 81.

Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv,

8o Vrnas Venes 8r

Key points The present continuous tense

y' essere is generally used to translate to be. > | n ltalian the Dresent continuous is used instead of the
present simple to talk
y' stareis used to talk about health, where people and things are and about what is happening at the moment, when you want to emphasize that it's
with some adjectives. happening right now.
y' stareis also used to make continuoustenses.
Arrivano. Theyarecoming
Stanno arrivando! They're coming!

The ltalian present continuous is made with the present tense of stare and the
gerund ofthe verb. The gerund is a verb form that ends in -ando (for -are verbs),
or -endo (for -ere and -ire verbs) and is the same as the -ing form ofthe verb in
En g ish, for exam ple, walking, swimming.

Sto cercando il mio passaporto. l'm looking for my passport.

Sta scrivendo. He's writing.
Stanno dormendo. They're sleeping.
Cosa stai facendo? What are you doing?
t) For moreinformationon store, see p\ge7g.

> To make the geru nd ofan -are verb, take offthe end i ng and add -ando,
for exam ple, mangiando (mean ing eating), cercando (me aning looking for)-
To make the gerund ofan -ere or -ire verb, take offthe ending and add -endo,
for example, scrivendo (meaning writing), partendo (meaning leaving).
t ) For more information on the Gerund, see page 14.

Only use the ltalian present continuous to talk about things that are
happening at this very minute. Use the present simple tense to talk about
things that are continuing, but not necessarily happening at this minute.
l'm studying medicine.

Q For more information on the Present simple tense, see plge 69

Key points
y' Onty use the present conti nuous i n ltal ian for actions that are
happening right now.
y' To makethe present continuous, use the presenttense of stare and
the gerund ofthe main verb.

For further explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv.

82 VERBS Vrnas 83

The imperative o The end i n gs for -ere verlr i m peratives are -i (tu form), -a (lel form), -iamo

(lets), -ete (voi form) and -ano (polite plural).

For example, prendere + prend- + prendi.
What is the imperative?
An imperative is the form of the verb used to give orders and instructions, lmperative of
for exam ple, Sit down!', Don't go!: Let's stlrt! prendere Example Meaning: to take
prend! Prendi quello, Marco! Take that one Marco!
prenda Prenda quello, signore! Takethatone, Sirl
[l Usins the imperative
prendiamo Prendiamo quello. Let's take that one.
> |n ltal ian, you use a d ifferent form of the i mperative depend i ng on whether prendete Prendete quelli, ragazzil Take those ones. ch i ld ren!
vou are:
prendano Prendano quelli, signori! Take those ones, lad ies and
o telling someone to do something gentlemenl
o telling someone not to do something
o speaking to one person or more than one person o The endingsfor most-ireverb imperatives are-isci (tu form), -isca
(lei form), -iamo (lets), -ite (voi form) and -iscano (polite plural).
o speaking tosomeoneyou calltu
For example, finire - fin- - finisci.
o speaking formally
) The pronouns tu, lei (the formal way of sayi ng you) and voi all have thei r own [J Notethatsci is pronounced likeshe;sca is pronounced sko.

forms of the imperative, although you don't actually use these pronouns lmperative of
when giving orders and instructions.There is also a formal pluralform of the finire Example Meaning: to finish
imperative. finisci Finisci l'esercizio, Marco! Finish the exercise, Marco!
. You can also use a form of the i mperative to make su ggestions. Th is form finisca Finiscatutto, signore! Finish itall, Sir!
is like let's in English. finiamo Finiamo tutto. Let'sfinish irall.
finite Fi nite i compiti, ragazzil Finish your homework,
p How to tell someone to do somethino childrenl
finiscano Finiscano tutto signori! Finish it all, ladies and
) You make the imperative of regu lar verbs by add ing end ings to the verb stem, gentlemen!
which is what is left when you take away the -are, -ere or-ire. There are
d ifferent endings for-are, -ere and -ire verbs:
The endi ngs for verbs that do not add -isc to the stem, such as partire
o The endings for-are verb imperatives are -a (tu form), -i (lei form), (meaning to leove), dormire (meaning to sleep) aprire (meaning to open) and
-iamo (let's), -ate (voi form) and -ino (polite plural). For example, sentire (meaning to listen) are -i, -a, -iamo, -ite and -ano.
aspettare + aspett- + aspetta. Dormi Giulia! Co to sleep Ciulial
Partiamo. Let's go.
lmperative of
aspettare Example Meaning: to wdit t ) For more informotion on Regular -ire verbs, see page 72.
aspetta! Aspetta Marco! Wait Marco!
> Some ofthe commonestverbs in ltalian have irregular imperativeforms.
aspetti! Aspetti, signore! Wait Sir!
H ere are the forms for some im oortant verbs:
aspettjemq Aspettiamo qui. Let's wait here.
dare dire essere fare andare
aspettale! Aspettate ragazzil Wait children!
(tu) da'! ordai! di'! sii! fa'! orfai! va'! orvai!
aspettjne! Aspettino un dttimo signorit Wait a moment ladies and
(lei,/Lei) dia! dica! sia! faccia! vada!
(noi) diamo diciamo stamo facciamo vadanol
(voi) date! dite! siate! fate! andate!
(loro) diano! dicano! siano! facciano! vddano!
Forfurtherexplanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv.
84 Vsees Vrnas 85

Sii bravo, Paolo! Be good Paolo! > Pronouns also come AFTER the -iamo form of the i mperative, joini ng onto it
Faccia pure, signore! Carry on, sir! to mal<e one word.
Dite la veriti, ragazzil Tell the truth, childrenl Proviamolo! Let's try itl
Mandiamooliela! Let's send it to them
Q For more informotion on the imperltives of lrregulor verbs, seeVerb tobles.
Pronouns come BEFORE the lei form ofthe imperative and the polite plural form.
Mi dia un chilo d'uva, perfavore. Cive me a kilo of grapes please.
Key points
La prenda, signore. Take it, sir.
y' There are fam iI iar and pol ite forms of the i mperative.
Ne assaggino un po', signori! Trya bit, ladiesand gentlemen!
y' the -iamo form is used to translate lefs. Si accomodi! Tal<e a seat!

r ) For more information on Reflexive verbs, see poge 87

p Where do pronouns go? Key points

l In Engl ish, pronouns such as me, it and them always come after the i mperative, y' Pronouns come after the tu, voi and -iamo forms of the i m perative.
for example Wotch me!;Tlke it!; Cive them to me! y' Pronouns wh ich come after the i mperative join onto it to make one word.
> In ltalian pronouns comeAFTERthe imperative in thetu and voiforms: y' Pronouns come beforethe polite imperative, and do not join onto it.
o The pronounjoinswith the imperativeto makeoneword,
Guardami, mammal Look at me, mum!
Aspettdteli! Waitforthem!
4] Howto tell someone NOTto do something
. Whenthe imperative isonlyonesyllable mi becomes-mmi,ti becomes
> When you are tell ing someone you call tu NOT to do somethi ng:
-tti. lo becomes -llo and so on.
Dimmi! Tellme! . use non with the inflnitive(the-are, -ere,-ireform) oftheverb
Fallo subito! Do it immediately! Non dire bugie Andrea! Don'ttell liesAndreal
Non dimenticare! Don't forgetl
o When the pronouns mi, ti, ci and vi are followed by another pronoun they
become me-, te-, ce- and ve-, and gli and le become glie-.
t i) For more information on the tnfinitive, see page 38.
Mandameli. Send methem. . if there is also a pronoun, join it onto the infinitive, or put it in front
Daolielo. Give itto him. Non toccarlq! OR
Non lo toccarel Don't touch it!
Non dirglieleloR
Non glielo dire! Don'ttell him about itl
ln ltalian you always put the indirect object pronoun first.
Non far4fl ridere! OR
Q For more informotion on lndireaobjectPronouns, see page 46. Non mifar ridere! Don't mal<e me laugh!
Non preoccuparli! OR
Non ti preoccupare! Don't worryl
Non bagnar!i! OR
Non ti bagnare! Don't npt \ /ptl

fl ruote thatthe infi nitive usually drops the fi nal e when the pronoun joins onto it.
For further explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv'
86 Vrnes Vrnes 87

) | n all other cases, to tell someone not to do somethi ng: Reflexive verbs
o use non with the imperative
Non dimenticate agazzi.
r Don't forget children. What is a reflexive verb?
Reflexive verbs in English are ones where the su bj ect and object are the same,
Non abbia paura, signora. Don't be afraid, madam.
and wh ich use reflexive pronouns such as myself , yourself and themselves,for exam ple
Non esaoeriamo! Don't let's go too farl
I've hurt myself; Look after yourself!;Ther/re enjoying themselves.
o join pronouns onto the end of the voi and -iamo forms of the imperative
Non guarddteli! Don't look at them.
Non ditemelo! Don't say it to me! rl Usino reflexive verbs
Non mangiomolitutti. Don't let's eat them all. The basics
Non diamoglielo. Don't let's give it to them. D Thereare more reflexiveverbs in ltalian than in English.The infinitiveform of
a reflexive verb has -si joined onto it, for example, divertirsi (meaning to enjoy
o put pronouns in front of the lei and polite plural forms of the imperative
oneselfl.fhis is the way reflexive verbs are shown in dictionaries. si is a reflexive
Non liguardi, signora. Don't lool< at them. madam. pronoun and means himself herself , itself , themselves and oneself .
Non si preoccupino, signori. Don't worrv ladies and gentlemen.
reflexive in ltalian. In addition, many verbs that include get, for example to get
Key Points up, to get dressed, to get annoyed, to get. bored, to get tInned, are reflexive verbs i n
y' to tella person you call tu not to do something' use non with the Italian. Here are some imoortant ltalian reflexive verbs:
infinitive. accomodarsi to sit down;to take a seat
y' fo tell all other people notto do something use non with the imperative. addormentarsi to 90 to sleep
alzarsi to get up
y' To say Let'snot use non with the-iamoform. annoiarsi to get bored; to be bored
arrabbiarsi to 9et angry
chiamarsi to be called
chiedersi to wonder
divertirsi to enjoy oneself to have fun
farsi male to hurt oneself
fermarsi to stop
lavarsi to wash; to get washed
perdersi to get lost
pettinarsi to comb one's hair
preoccuparsi to worry
prepararsi to get ready
ricordarsi to rememDer
sbrigarsi to nurry
svegliarsi to wal(e up
vestirsi to dress; to get dressed
5i accomodi! Tal<e aseat!
Mialzo alle sette. Iget up at seven o'clock.
Come ti chiami? What are you called?
Non vi Dreoccupate! Don't worryl
5!rqa!i! H u rry up!
For further explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv.
88 Venas Veeas 89

Ci prepariamo. We're getting ready. Mialzo presto. I get up early.

Matteo si annoia. Matteo is getting bored. Mia sorella si veste. My sister's getting dressed.
Lucia si A fatta male. Lucia hurt herself. Si lamentano sempre. They're always com plai n i ng.
I bambini si divertono. The children are enjoying themselves
> The present tense forms of a refl exive verb are j ust the same as those of an
@ ruote that in English, you can often add a refl exive pronoun to verbs ifyou want ordinary verb, except for the addition ofthe reflexive pronoun in front ofthe verb
to, for example, you can say Don't worry vourself! or He didn't hurry himself. Whenever t) For more information on the Presenttense, see poge 68.
) Some ltalian verbs can be used both as reflexive verbs, and as ordinaryverbs D The fol lowi no table shows the refl exive verlr divertirsi in ful l.
with no reflexive pronoun. lfyou are talking about getting yourself ready you use
Reflexive forms of divertirsi Meaning
prepararsi; ifyou are tal ki ng about gettting the d inner ready you use preparare.
mi diverto l'm enjoying myself
Mi preparo alla maratona. l'm getting ready for the marathon.
ti diverti you're enjoyi ng yourself
Sto preparando il pranzo. l'm getting lunch ready.
si diverte he is enjoying himself
Mi chiedo cosa stia facendo. I wonderwhat doing. he's
she is enjoying herself
Chiedia Lidia perchd piange. Ask Lidia why she's crying. you are enjoying yourself
ci divertiamo we're enjoying ourselves
@ Note thatchiedersi literally meansto oskoneself
vi divertite you're enjoying yourselves
si divertono they're enjoying themselves

Grammar Extra!
Some reflexive verbs i n ltal ian add the pronou n ne after the reflexive pronoun. The most
| 3-l where to out reflexive pronouns
important ofthese verbs is andarsene (meaning to go away, to leove).
Me ne vado. l'm leaving. L The reflexive pronoun usually goes in front of the verb, but there are some
Votlene! Co away! exceptions. The pronoun goes in front ifthe verb is:
Ce ne andiamo. Let's be off. o an ordinary tense, such as the present simple
Se ne sono andati. Thev've left.
Sidiverte signora? Are you enjoying yourself madam?
The pronouns mi, ti, si, ci and vi become me, te, se, ce and ve when they are followed by Mi abituo al lavoro. l'm getting used to the work.
another pronoun, such as ne.
t) For more information on the Present simple tense, see plge 69.

. the polite imperative

I z I Howto make the Dresenttense of reflexive verbs
Si awicini, signore. Come closer. sir.
D First, decide wh ich refl exive pronou n to use. You can see how the refl exive
r) Formore information onthelmperotive, see pogeSz.
pronouns correspond to the subject pronouns in the following table:

Subject pronoun Reflexive pronoun Meaning

o an imperativetelling someone NOTto dosomething
(io) ml myself Non vi awicinate troppo ragazzi. Don't come too close children.
(tu) ti yourself Non si lamenti, dottore. Don't complain, doctor.
(lui), (lei), (lei,zLei), (loro) sl mse lf, herself, itself,
h i

yourself, themselves
> The pronoun comes after the verb if it is thetu orvoi form of the imperative,
used positively:
(noi) cl ourselves
(voi) Svegliati! Wake up!
VI vou rsetves
Divertitevil Enjoy yourselves!
For further explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv.
90 VERBS Venas 9r

> In the case of the infi nitive, used with non to tell someone NOT to do something,
Key points
the Dronoun can either:
y' Reflexive verbs are commoner in ltalian than in English.
. go in frontofthe infinitive
OR t verbs that i nclude 9et are often translated by an ttat ian refl exive
. join onto the end ofthe infinitive
y' Reflexive pronouns usually go infrontoftheverb.
Non tj bruciare! OR Don't burn yourselfl
Non bruciargl!
Non ti preoccupare! OR Don't worrV!
Non preoccupar!i!
with the
4 Using reflexive verbs with parts of the bodv and clothes

@ trtote that, when tell ing someone not to do someth ing, you use non
> n ltalian you often talk about actions to do with your body or your clothing
infi nitive for people you call tu.
using a reflexive verb.
) There are also two options when you use the infinitive of a reflexive verb after
Milavolcapelliognimattina. lwashmyhaireverymorning.
a verb such aswant, must, should or c0n't.The pronoun can either:
Mettiti il cappotto! Put your coat on!
. go infrontofthe mainverb
Si E rotta la gamba. She's broken her leg.
o join onto the end ofthe infinitive @ ruote that you do not use possessive adjectives in this l<ind ofsentence.
Instead you use the definite article il, la, iand so on with the noun. and
Mi voglio abbronzare. OR I want to get a tan. a reflexive verb.
Voglio abbronzarmi.
Mi lavo le mani. I'm washing my hands.
Ti devi alzare. OR You must get up.
Devi alzarli. .) For more information on Aiticles, see poge rc.
Vi dovreste preparare. OR You ought to get ready.
Dovreste prepararyi.
is l How to use reflexive verbs in the perfect tense
Non mi posso fermare molto. OR I can't stop for long.
Non posso fermarmi molto. > The Eng lish perfect tense, for example, I hove burnt myself , and the English sim ple
past, for exam ple I burnt myself yesterday, are both translated by the ltal ian perfect
> | n the same wav, in conti nuous tenses, the refl exive pronoun can either: rense.
. go in front ofthe verb stare t) For more information oboutthe Perfecttense, see poge'ro8.
o join onto the gerund D The perfect tense of reflexive verbs is alwavs made with the verb essere and the
past participle.
Ti stai annoiando? OR Are you getting bored?
Stai annoidndoti? Mi sono fatto male. I've hurt myself
Sistanno alzando? OR Are they getting up? > Thepastparticipleusedintheperfecttenseofreflexiveverbshastoagreewith
Stanno alzdndosi? the su bject ofthe sentence. You change the -o end i ng ofthe partici ple to -a if
ruote that the pronoun is always joined onto the gerund when it the subject is femi n ine. The masculine plural end ing is -i, and the feminine
@ is not used
Dlural is -e.
in a continuous tense.
Incontrandoci percaso, Meeting by chance, we had a Silvia si ealzatetardi stamattina. Silvia gotup latethis morning.
abbiamo parlato molto. long talk. Vi siete divertit! ragazzi? Did you have a nice time, childrenl
Pettinondomi ho trovato un When I combed my hair lfound a Mie sorelle si sono abbronzate. Mv sisters have qot tanned.
capello bianco. white hair.

For further explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv.

92 VERBS Vrrns 93

The future tense

feminine adjective when you are talking
lf you are female always use a What is the future tense?
aboutyoursell and always makethe past participlefemininewhen you The future tense is a tense used to talk about someth ing that will happen, or will
are talking aboutwhatyou have done. be true in the futu re, for example He'll be here soon; I'll give you a call; lt will be sunny
Mi sono svegliata, mi sono I woke up, got up and got dressed.

alzata e mi sono vestita.

l! usinq the present tense to talk about the future

D Sometimes, both in ltalian and in English, you use the present tense to refer
@ other uses of reflexive pronouns to the future.

} ci. vi and si are used to mean eoch otherandone another. ll corso comincia domani. The course starts tomorrow.
Ci vogliamo molto bene. We love each other very much. Quando partite? When are vou leavinq?

Si vede che si odiano. You can see thev hate one another. L I n the following cases the present tense is used i n ltalian, while the future is
Vi conoscete? Do vou know each other? used in English:
o to saywhatyou'reaboutto do
Paoo io. l'll pav.
T'P Prendo un espresso. l'll have an espresso.

Rememberthatwhen you is used to mean people in general, it is often o toaskforsuggestions

translated by si. Dove lo metto? Where shall I put it?
Si cosi.
fa You do it this way. Cosa facciamo? What shallwe do?
Non si tocca! You can't touch them! Q For more information on the Present simpte, see page 69.
Come si dice "genitori" in inglese? How do you say "genitori" in
English? > n ltal ian the futu re tense is used after quando n cases where when is fol lowed
| i

bythe present in English.

Quando finird, verrd da te. When I finish l'll come to yours.
Lo comprerd quando avrd l'll buy itwhen I've got enough
KeY Points abbastanza denaro, money.
y' The perfect tense of reflexive verbs is made with essere, and the past
participle agrees with the subject of the verb.
I z I How to make the future tense
y' with the defi n ite article to tal k about wash i ng
Refl exive verbs are used
) | n En g I ish we ma ke the future tense by putti ng will,'ll or shall i n front of the
your hair, breaki ng your leg, putting on your coat, and so on.
verlr. ln ltalian you change the verb endings: parlo (meanin g I speak), becomes
parf erd (meaning I will speak) in the future.

D To make the future of regular-are and -ere verbs take the stem, which is
what is left of the verb when you take away the -are, -ere or -ire end ing of
the infinitive and add the following endings:
o erd, erai, erri, eremo, erete, eranno
For example, parlare + parl- + parler6.

) The following tables show the future tenses of parlare (meaning to speak) and
For further explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see Pages x-xiv. credere (mean ingto believe).
94 vERBs Vrnes 95

Pronoun Future tense of parlare Meaning: tospeak D Some verbs do not have a vowel before the r of the future end in g "
Thei r end i n gs
(io) parlerd l'llspeak
(tu) parlerai you'llspeak o rd, rai, ra, remo, rete, ranno

helshe'll speak > The following table shows the future tense of some of these verbs which you
(lei,/Lei) you'llspeak should learn.
(noi) parleremo we'llspeak
Verb Meaning to tu lui,/lei nol vol loro
(voi) parlerete you/l speak l-
andare ro go andrd andrai andrri andremo andrete andranno
(loro) parleranno they'll speak ]

1."d"* to fall cadrd cadrai cadrti cadremo cadrete cadranno

Gli parlerd domani. l'll soeakto him tomorrow. t..
lo rre to say dird dirai dirA diremo direte diranno
loovere to have to dovrd dovrai dovrri dovremo dovrete dovranno
Pronoun Future tense ofcredere Meaning: tospeok
(io) crederd l'll believe
re to do/ fard farai fard faremo farete faranno

(tu) crederai Vou'll believe l_

to be able potrd potrai potra potremo potrete potranno
(lui,/lei) helshe'll believe J-
credeni to know sapro sapral sapr.t sapremo saprete saPranno
(leirzLei) you'llbelieve l'1!:',"
lvedere to see vedrd vedrai vedrii vedremo vedrete vedranno
(noi) crederemo we'll believe t-.
to live VIVTO vtvral vtvfo vtvremo vivrete vtvranno
(voi) crederete you'll believe l",r"11
(loro) crederanno theV'll believe
Andrd con loro. l'll go with them.
Non ti crederanno. They won't believe you. Pensi che diranno la veritd? Do Vou thinl< thev'll tell the truth?
Noncredochefarribeltempo. ldon'tthinktheweatherwillbenice.
@ trtote that there are accents on the fi rst and th i rd person si n gu lar forms, Lo saDremo domani. We'll know tomorrow.
to show that you stress the last vowel.
D Some verbs have no vowel before the future end ing, and they also change their
) To malce the future of regu lar -ire verbs ta ke the stem and add the following
stem. for examDle:
end ings:
o ird, irai, ird, iremo, irete, iranno Verb Meaning to tu lui,/lei nol vol loro
For example, finire - fin- - finir0. nmanere to remarn rimarrd flmarral rimarrd nmarremo rimarrete nmarrann(
tenere to hold terrd terrai terrA terremo terrete terranno
> The following table shows the future tense of finire (mean ing to finish).
ventre ro come verro verral verrd verremo verrete verranno
Pronoun Future tense offinire Meaning: to fnish volere to want vorrd vorral vorrd vorremo vorrete vorranno
(io) finird l'llfinish
(tu) finirai you'llflnish Verbs with infi nitives that end in -ciare and -giare, for example, parcheggiare
(luillei) helshe'llfinish (meaning to park), cominciare (meaning to stlrt), mangiare (me aningto eot)
finird you'llfinish
(lei,/Lei) and viaggiare (meaning to trovel) drop the ifrom the stem in the future.
(noi) finiremo we'llfinish Forexample, mangiare* ffiohg-+ manger6.
(voi) finirete you'llfinish Comincerd domani. l'll start tomorrow.
(loro) finiranno they'llfinish Manqeranno alle otto. They'll eat at eight o'clock

Quando finirai il lavoro? When will vou finish the work?

Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv.

96 VERBS Venss 97

> Verbs with infin itives that end in -care and -gare, for example cercare Sard difficile. It'll be difficult.
(meaning to lookfor, to try), seccare (meaning to onnoy), pagare (meaning to pdy) Non ne sarai deluso. You won't be disappointed by it.
and spiegare (meaning to explain) add an h before the future ending in the future. Non avrd tempo. lwon't have time.
For example, pagare + pagh- * pagher6.
Lo avrai domani. You'll have it tomorrow.
Cercherd di aiutarvi. l'll try to help you.
Mi pagheranno sobato. They'll pay me on Saturday.

Q For more informotion on Spelling,see pageEl Grammar Extra!

ln English we sometimes use will or'll to say what we th ink must be true, for exam ple,You'll be

rw tired after that long journey; lt'll be about three miles from here to the town centre.
The future tense in ltalian is used in the same wav.
You usevero to translate will it? and vero or no to translate won't it? Saranno venti chilometri. It'll be twenty kilometres.
and so on at the end ofsentences. Avri cinquant'anni. He'llbefifty.
Non costerri molto, vero? Itwon't cost much, will it?
Arriveranno fra poco, no? They'll be here soon, won't theyl
Key points
y' The futu re end i ngs of reg u lar-are and -ere verbs are era, erai, erri,
eremo, erete, eranno.

Grammar Extra!
y' The future end i ngs of regular-ire verbs are ird, irai, irti, iremo, irete,
Will you is used in English to ask someone to do something: Will you hurry up?;Will you stop talking!
You use the ltalian imperative, orthe verbvolere (meaning to wdnt) to translate this sort ofrequest.
Sta'zitto! Willyou be quiet!
Vuoi smetterla! Willyou stop thatl

I J_l The future tense of essere and avere

) essere (meaningto be)andavere (meaning tohave) have irregularfutureforms.

Pronoun Future tense Future tense

ofessere Meaning ofavere Meaning
(io) saro t'il be avro l'llhave
(tu) saral you'llbe avral Vou'll have
(luillei) helshe/it will be he/she/itwill have
sara avra
(leilLei) you'll be you'll have
(noi) saremo we'llbe avremo we'llhave
(voi) sarete you'll be avrete you'll have
(loro) saranno they'llbe avranno they'll have

Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv.

98 VERBS Venns 99

The conditional Conditional of conditional of

parlare Meaning credere Meaning
What is the conditional? (io) parlerei l'd speak crederei l'd believe
conditional is used to talk about th ings that wou ld happen or wou ld
The be true (tu) parleresti you'd speak crederesti Vou'd believe
under certain cond itions, for exam ple, I would help you if I could. (lui,zlei) he/she'd speak hy'she'd believe
It is also used in requests and offers, for example,Could You lend me some money?; parlerebbe crederebbe
(leilLei) Vou'd speak you'd believe
I could give you a lift.
(noi) parleremmo we'd speak crederemmo we'd believe
(voi) parlereste you'd speak credereste you'd believe
(loro) parlerebbero they'd speak crederebbero thev'd believe
f!_l Usino the conditional
l In English, when you'retalking aboutwhatwould happen in certain
Con chi parleresti? Who would you speak to?
circu mstances, or saying what you cou ld or would like to do, you usewould,
Non ti crederebbe. He wouldn't believe you.
'd or could with the infinitive (the base form of the verb).

I would pay the money back as soon as possible. @ ruote that the same form ofthe verb is used forthe pronouns lui, lei and Lei.
lf Vou asked him he'd probably say yes.
You could stay here for a while.
> To make the conditional ofregular-ire verbs take the stem and add the
following endings: -irei, -iresti, -irebbe, -iremmo, *ireste, -irebbero.
) ln ltalian the conditional is used in this kind ofsentence. Likethe presentand
> The following table shows the cond itional of finire (mean ing tu finish).
the future tenses, you make it by adding end ings to the verb stem, which is
what is left of the verb when you take away the -are, -ere or -ire ending of the (io) finirei l'd finish
infinitive. (tu) finiresti you'd finish
> You use the cond itional of any ltalian verb to say what wou ld happen or wou ld (lui,zlei) helshe'd finish
be true. finirebbe
(leilLei) Vou'd finish
Sarebbe difficile. Itwould be difficult. (noi) finiremmo we'd finish
Farebbe finta di capire. He'd Dretend to understand. (voi) finireste you'd finish
Mia madre non me lo MV motherwouldn't let me. (loro) finirebbero they'd finish

D You use the cond itional ofthe verbs Potere (mean ingto be able) and dovere Non finiremmo in tempo. We wouldn't finish in time.
(meaning to hove to) to say what could or should happen or could or should
be true.
@ trtote that the same form of the verb is used for the pronouns lui, lei and Lei.

Potremmo andare in Spagna We could go to Spain next year.

il prossimo anno. p The conditionals of volere. potere and dovere
Dovresti studiare di pii. You should study more. > You use the cond itional of the verb volere (mean ing to wlnt) to say what you
would like.
p Howto make the conditional Vorrei un'insalata. l'd li ke a sa lad.

) To make the cond itional of regular -are and -ere verbs take the stem and add > You use the conditional ofvolere with an infinitive to saywhatyou would like
thefollowing endings: -erei, -eresti, -erebbe, -eremmo, -ereste, -erebbero. to do.
D The fol lowi ng table shows the cond itional of parlare (mean i n g to speak) and Vo,ffgmnne ven i re con voi. We'd like to come with yor..
credere (mean ing to believe). Vorrebbero rimanere qui. They'd I i ke to stay here.

For further explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv.

IOO VERBS Venss 'tot

D The conditional of potere is as follows

rtp Conditional of
I n ltal ian there are two wavs of sayi ng I' d like to: vorrei and mi piacerebbe. potere Meaning
Vorreivederequelfilm.OR I'dliketoseethatfilm. (io) potrei I could
Mi piacerebbe vedere quel film. (tu) potresti you could
(lui,zlei) he/she/it could
(lei,zLei) you could
) The conditional of volere is irregular:
(noi) potremmo we could
conditional of (voi) potreste you could
volere Meaning (loro) potrebbero they cou ld
(io) vorrel |d tike
(tu) vorresti you'd like
You use the conditional ofdovere (meaning to have to)
(lui,zlei) helshe'd like
you'd like
o to saywhatyou orsomebody else should do

(noi) vorremmo we'd like Dovrei fare un po'di I should do some exercise.
(voi) vorreste Vou? like
Dovresti telefonare ai tuoi. You should phone your parents.
(loro) vorrebbero theyd like
. totalkaboutwhatshould bethe case, orshould happen.
Dovrebbe arrivare verso le dieci, He should arrive at around ten

rw Dovrebbe essere bello. This should be qood.

ln English, the conditional Whotwould you like?is more polite than

D The conditional of dovere is as follows:
whlt do Vou want? ln ltalian there is no difference in politeness'
Vuoi un gelato? Would you like OR Conditional of
Do Vou want an ice cream? dovere Meaning
Vuole altro, signora? Would you like anything else, (io) dovrei lshould
madam? (tu) dovresti you should
(lui,zlei) helshe/it should
(lei,zLei) you should
You use the conditional ofthe verb potere (meaningto be Lble)with an Infinitive.
(noi) dovremmo we should
o to saywhatcould bethe case, orcould happen. (voi) dovreste you should
Potresti avere ragione. You could be right. (loro) dovrebbero they should
Potrebbe essere vero. It could be true.
Potrebbero vendere la casa. They could sell the house.

o to ask if somebody could do something.

Potresti chiudere la finestra? Could Vou close the window?

Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see Pages x-xiv.

rO2 VERBS Venes to3

1] The conditional of essere and avere

@ lrregular conditionals ]

> Some common verbs do not have a vowel before the r of the cond itional ending, > essere (meaning to be) and avere (meaningto have) have irregular conditionals.
their endings are rei, resti, rebbe, remmo, reste, rebbero. Conditional of Conditional of
tu lui,/lei nol vot loro essere Meaning avere Meaning
Verb Meaning ro
(io) sarel t'd be avrel l'd have
rndare ogo andrei andresti andrebbe andremmo andreste andrebbero
(tu) saresti Vou'd be avresti Vou'd have
cadere to fall cadrei cadresti cadrebbe cadremmo cadreste cadrebbero
(lui,zlei) he/she/ he/she/
sapere to know saprel sapresti saprebbe sapremmo sapreste saprabbero sarebbe itwould be avrebbe itwould have
vedresti vedrebbe vedremmo vedreste vedrebbero (leilLei) you would be you would have
vedere to see vedrei
(noi) saremmo we'd be avremmo we'd have
VIVETE to live vtvrel vivresti vivrebbe vtvremmo vivreste vivrabbero
(voi) sareste you'd be avreste you'd have
Non so se andrebbe bene. Idon't know if itwould be okay. (loro) sarebbero they'd be avrebbero they'd have
Sapreste indicarmi la strada Could you tell me the way to
per la stazione? the station?
Sarebbe bello. Itwould be lovely.
Non so se sarei capace di farlo. I don't know if I'd be able to do it.
Nonvivrei mai in un Paesecaldo. l'd neverliveinahotcountry.
Non avremmo tempo. We wouldn't have time.
D Some verbs have no vowel before the cond itional end ing, and change thei r stem, Avresti paura? Would you be frightened?
for examDle, rimanere, tenere, venire:

/erb \,leaning ro :u uillei nol vol loro

Key points
ftmanere o remain nmarrel 'imarresti 'imarrebbe flmarremmo rimarrest€ rimarrebberc y' fne ltal ian cond itional is often the eq u ivalent of a verb used with would
lenere o hold terrei !erresti terrebbe terremmo terreste terrebbero t::i:i,t;:,
ventre o come verrel /erresti ,rerrebbe verremmo verreste verrebbero / ,outdandshourd are transrared by the cond itionars ofvorere,
potere and dovere.
* For more i nformation on verbs which change their stem, see page 7 5'

D Verbs such as (ominciare (mean i n g to stdrt) and mangiare (mean i n g to edt),

which end in -ciare or-giare, and which drop the i i n the future tense also drop
the i in the conditional. Grammar E><tra!
When would it start? The conditional we have looked at so far is the present cond itional. There is also the perfect
Quando comincerebbe? cen!!j!ional, wh ich is used to talk about what would have happened in the past.
Manoeresti quei funghi? Would vou eat those mushrooms?
The perfect conditional is made up ofthe conditional ofavere oressere, and the past participle
* For more informatton on the Future tense, see page 93. Verbs which form thei r perfect tense with avere, such as fare (mean ing to do) and pagare
(meani ng to pay) also form their perfect conditional with avere. Those form i ng their perfect
} Verbs such as cercare (mean ing to look for) and pagare (mean ing to pay), wh ich with essere, such as andare (mean ing to go) also form their perfect cond itional with essere.
end in -care or-gare, and which add an h in the future tense also add an h in r) FormoreinformationaboutthePetecttenseondthePostparticiple,seepagesrcS-tog.
the conditional.
Non I'avreifatto cosi. I wouldn't have done it like that
Probabilmente cercherebbe He'd probably look for an excuse Non l'avrebbero oaoato. Theywouldn't have paid it.
una scusa. ci saresti andato? Would Vou have gone?
Quanto mi pagheresti? How much would you pay me? I n ltalian, unlike in English, the perfect conditional is used to report what somebody said in the past

4 for more informotion on Spelling, see plge :9l. Hadetto che mi avrebbe aiutato. He said he would help me
Hanno detto che sarebberovenuti. Theysaid theywould come.

For further explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv.

ro4 VERB5 VEnas ro5

The imperfect tense | :_l How to make the imoerfect tense

D You make the imperfect tense of regular-are, -ere and -ire verbs by knocking
What is the imperfect tense? offthe-re from the infi nitive to form the stem ofthe verbs and add ing -vo, -vi-,
The imperfect is a tense used to saywhatwas happening, what used to happen
-va, -vamo, -vate, -vano.
in the past and what things were like in the past, for example, I was speoking to
mv mother. ) The following tables show the im perfect tense of three reg u lar verbs: parlare
(meaning to speok),credere (meaning to believe) andfinire (mean ing to f,nish).

f when to use the imperfect tense lmperfect tense lmperfect tense

ofparlare Meaning ofcredere Meaning
) InEnglishvarioustensesareusedtotalkaboutwhatthingswerelikeinthepast,
(io) parlavo lwas speaking credevo I believed
forexample, Itwasroining;lusedtolikeher;ldidn'tknowwhatto do' In ltalianthe
(tu) parlavi you were speaking credevi you believed
imperfect is the tense you use to translate the verbs in all three ofthese sentences.
(lui,zlei) helshe was he,/she believed
> Usethe ltalian imperfecttense: parlava speaki ng credeva
o to describe what things were li ke, what people were doing and how people (lei/Lei) you were speaking you believed
felt in the Dast. (noi) parlavamo we were speaking credevamo we believed
Faceva caldo. It was hot. (voi) parlavate you were speaking credevate you believed
Aspett4vano im pazienti. They were waiti ng impatiently.
(loro) parlavano theywere speaking credevano they believed
Eravamo tutti felici. Wewereallhappy.
Avevo fame. lwas hungry.
lmperfect tense
o to say what people knew, thought or meant in the past. offinire Meaning
Non sapevo cosa volevi dire. Ididn't knowwhatyou meant.
(io) finivo I was finishing
Pensavo che fosse lui, Ithought itwas him.
(tu) finivi you were finishing
. to savwhat used to happen orwhat people used to do in the Past. (lui,zlei) he,/she was finishing
Ci trovavamo ogni venerdi. We met everv Friclay. (lei,/Lei) you were finishing
Vendevano le uova al mercato. They used to sell eggs in the market. (noi) finivamo we were finishing
o todescribewhatwas going onwhen an eventtook place. (voi) finivate you were fi ni sh i ng

Guardavamo la partita quando We were watching the match when (loro) finivano they were fi n ish ing
E entrato lui. he came in.
E successo mentre dormivano. lt happened while they were asleep' Con chi parlavi? Who were you talking to?
Mentre parlavi mi sono ricordato While you were talking I remembered Credevamo di aver vinto. We thoughtwe'd won.
di qualcosa. something. Loro si divertivano mentre They had fun while I was working.
io lavoravo.
Una volta costava di pir). It used to cost more.
Grammar Exira!
The imperfect continuous is made with the imoerfect tense ofstare and the gerund"The imperfect
continuous is used to describe what was going on at a particular moment.
: ] Perfect tense or imperfect tense?
Che stavano facendo? What were they doinq ? D The ltal ian perfect tense is used for what happened on one occasion.
Non stava studiando, dormiva. He wasn't studying, he was asteep.
Oggi ho giocato male. Iplayed badly today.
fi For more information on the Gerund, see page ]23. Ha finto di non conoscermi. He pretended not to recognize me.

Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv.

106 VERBS Venes ro7

) The ltalian imperfect tense is used for repeated actions or for a continu ing state
of affa i rs. Orammar Extra!
Da studente oiocavo a calcio. When lwas a student I played football. The f talian im perfect tense is used to translate sentences su ch as How long had thev known each
other?;They hod been going outtogether for a year when thqt got engaged; He hod been ill since lastyear
Fingevano sempre di avere They always pretended they'd
The words for and since are translated by da.
capito tutto. understood everythi ng.
Mi sentivo male solo a pensarci. lfelt illjustthinking about it. A quel punto aspettava gii da tre ore. By then he'd already been waiting for
three hours.
Non sorrideva mai. She never smiled.
Guidavo dalle sei di mattina. l'd been driving since six in the morning.
Ci credevi? Did vou believe it? Da quanto tempo stava male? How lono had he been ill?

Q For more information on da, see page V4.

@ Verbs with an irreqular imperfecttense
) The im perfect of essere (mean ing to be) is irreg ular:

(io) ero lwas

(tu) erl you were Key points
(luillei) he/she/it was y' youmake the i mperfect tense of reg ular verbs by knocki ng off the fi nal
(lei,zLei) you were -re ofthe i nfinitive and add ing end ings: -vo, -vi, -va, -vamo, -vate,
(noi) eravamo we were

(voi) eravate you were / ;::;r"rfect is used for actions and situations that continued for
(loro) erano tneywere some ti me in the past.

Era un ragazzo molto simpatico. He was a very nice boy.

Eravamo in ltolia. We were in ltaly.
Erano le quattro. lt was four o'clock.

bere (meaning to drink), dire (meaning to soy),farc (meaning to do, to make)

and tradurre (meaning to translate) arcthe most common verbs which have
the normal imperfect endings added onto a stem which is irregular. You just
have to learn these.

Verb (io) (tu) (lui,zlei) (noi) (voi) (loro)

bere bevevo bevevi beveva bevevamo bevevate bevevano
dire dicevo dicevi diceva dicevamo dicevate dicavano
fare facevo facevi faceva facevamo facevate facavano
tradurre traducevo traducevi traduceva traducevamc traducevate traducevan(

Di solito bevevano solo acqua. They usually only drank water.

Cosa dicevo? Whatwas lsaying?
Faceva molto freddo. It was very cold.
Traducevo la lettera. I was translating the letter.

For further explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv.

Venas ro9

The perfect tense pl How to make the past participle

D The past participle is alwavs part of the perfect tense.
What is the perfect tense?
In English the perfect tense is used to tall< about what has or hasn't happened, > To make the past partici ple ofa reg u lar -are verb, take offthe -are ofthe
for example We've won, I haven't touched it.
infinitive and add -ato.
parfare (meaning to speak)-parlato (spoken)

D To make the past participle of a regular-ere verb, tal<e off the -ere of the
[l usino the perfect tense infinitive and add -uto.
) In English the perfect tense is made up of the verb to hove followed by a past credere (meaning to believe) - slsduto (believed)
participle, such as done, broken, worked, is used to tall< about:
D To make the past partici ple of a reg lar -ire verb, tal<e off the -ire of the
o what vou've done at some ti me i n the past, fo r exam ple,wdye bggn to Australil -
infinitive and add -ito.

o what you've done so far, for exam ple, I'W-gaten half of it.
+ finito
fi nire (mean i n g tu fi nish) (fl nished)
) InEnglishthesimplepast,nottheperfectisusedtosaywhenexactlysomething
happened, for example, We met last summer; I ate itllst night; lt roined a lot yesterday'

D In ltalian there are twoways of making the perfecttense: { How to make the perfect tense with avere
o the present tense ofavere (meaning to have) followed by a past participle > To make the perfect tense with avere:
o the present tense ofessere (meaning to be), followed by a past participle' o choose the presenttenseform ofavere that matches the subjectofthe
Q FormoreinformationonthePresenttenseofavereondessere,seepagesrcgandnz.
o add the past participle. Do not change the end ing of the participle to make
D The ltal ian perfect tense is used to say: it agree with the subject.
o whatvou've done at sometime in the past.
D The perfect tense of parlare (mean ing to speok) is as follows:
Ho gil visto quel film. l've already seen that film.
Sono uscita con lui un paio di lye_Ueen_s!_twith him a couple of Present tense of
volte. times. avere Past participle Meaning

o what vou've done so far. (io) ho parlato I spoke or have spoken

far we've only done the present. (tu) hai parlato you spoke or have spoken
Finora abbiamo fatto solo il So
(lui,zlei) he/she spoke or has spoken
Presente, ha parlato
(lei,zLei) you spoke or have spoken
) Unli ke in English, the ltal ian perfect tense is ALSO used to say what you d id at
(noi) abbiamo parlato we spoke or have spoken
some particular time, orwhen exactly something happened.
(voi) avete parlato you spoke or have spoken
Ho visto quel film s4bato scorso. I saw that film last Saturday.
(loro) hanno parlato theV spoke or have spoken
Sono uscita con lui ieri sera. lwent outwith him last night.
E successo ieri. It happened yesterdaY.
Non gli ho mai parlato. l've never sooken to him.
Roberta gli ha parlato ieri. Roberta spoke to him yesterday
Do not use the perfect tense to say since when, or how long you've been
doing something -da and the presenttense is used forthis in ltalian'
Q For more information on da, see page 74.

For further explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv.

IIO VERBS Venss ttt
D You do not useavere to make the perfect tense of:
@ verbs with irregular past participles
L As in English, some very com mon verbs have irregu lar past participles. These are
o reflexiveverbs
some of the most imDortant ones: . certai n verbs that do not take a d i rect object, such as andare (mean i n g to go),

+ aperto (opened)
venire (mean i ng to come) and diventare (mean ing to become).
aptirc (to open)
ALSO coprire (to cover) coperto (covered) @ Note that in English the verb to hove canbe used on its own in replies such as
chiudere (to close) chiuso (closed) No, he hasn't, and question phrases such ashaven't. you? -avere cannot be used
decidere (to decide) deciso (decided) in thiswav in ltalian.
dire (to say) detto (sdid)
fatio (done, mode) Te l'ha detto? - No. Has he told you? - No, he hasn't
fare (to do,to make)
friggere (to flry) + frirto fried) Lo hai fatto, vero? You've done it, haven'tyou?
leggere (to read) letto (reod)
r) For more information on Questions, see plge ..52.
mettere (to put) messo (put)
ALSO promettere (to promise) promesso (promised)
morire (to die) morto (died) ol When to make the past participle agree
offrire (to offer) offerto (offered)
prendere (to take) + preso (taken)
> When you make the perfect tense with avere, the past participle never agrees
sorpreso (surprised)
with the subiect.
ALSO sorprendere (to surprise)
rispondere (to reply) risposto (replied) > You must make the past participle agree with the object pronouns lo and la
ALSO spendere (to spend) speso (spent) (mean ing him, her and it) when they come in front of the verb.
rompere (to bredk) rotto (broken)
Hai visto Marco? - Si, l'ho visto. Have you seen Marco? - Yes, l've seen
scegfiere (to choose) scelto (chosen) nrm.
scrivere (to write) scritto (written)
Eun bel film, lo hai visto? lt's a good film, have you seen it?
vincere (to win) vinto (won)
Hai visto Lucia? - Non I'ho vista. Have you seen Lucia? - No, I haven't
ALSO convincere (to convince) convinto (convinced)
seen her.
vedere (to see) visto (seen)
> You must mal<e the past participle agree with the object pronouns li and le
El trtote that, as in English, some ltalian past participles are also used as
with. (meaning them) when they come in front of the verb.
adjectives. When they are adjectives they agree with the noun they go
fried potatoes | fiammiferi? Non li ho presi. The matches? | haven't taken them.
patate fritte
ls the banl< open?
Le frdgole? Le ho mangiate tutte. The strawberries? l've eaten them all.
E apert4 la banca?
Q For more information on Adie*ives, see plge 20.
Key points

@ when to make the perfect tense with avere y' meltal ian perfect tense is used to translate both the En g I ish perfect,
) You use avere to make the Derfect tense ofmost verbs. and the English simple past.

Ho preso il treno delle dieci. Igot the ten o'clock train. y' lneltalian perfect tense is made with avere oressere and the past
Have vou put it in the fridge?
parti ci ple.
[hai messo in frigo?
PerchE l'hai fatto? Why did you do it? y' mepast participle does notagree with the subjectwhen the perfect
Carlo ha speso pi! di me. Carlo spent more than me. tense is made with avere, except when certa in object pronouns come
in front ofthe verb.
Abbiamo comprato una mocchina. We've bought a car.
Dove avete parcheog iato? Where did vou park?
Non hanno voluto aiutarmi. They didn't want to help me.

Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv.

1I2 VERBS Venes rr3

How to make the perfect tense with essere

> The most important of these verbs are
) To make the oerfect tense with essere:
andare to go arrivare to arrive

. choosethe presenttenseform ofesserethat matchesthe subjectof

diventare to become entrare to come in

the Sentence.
partire to leave rimanere to stay

o add the past participle. Mal<e the ending of the participle aqree with
riuscire to succeed, manage salire to go up, get on

the subject.
scendere to go down succedere to happen
stare to be tornare to come back
) The perfect tense of andare (meaning to go) is as follows:
usctre to go out venire to come
Present tense E rimasta a casa tutto il giorno. She stayed at home all day.
ofessere Past participle Meaning
Siamo riusciti a convincerla. We managed to persuade her.
(io) sono andato orandata I went or have gone
Seimaistataa Bologna,Tina? HaveyoueverbeentoBologna,Tina?
(tu) sel andato or andata you went or have gone

(lui) e andato helit went or has gone

Le arrivate.
tue amiche sono You r friends have arrived.

(lei) e andata she/it went or has gone

Cos'd successo? What happened?

(leilLei) e andato orandata you went or have gone [J wote that essere is used to make the perfect tense of piacere (mean i n g
(noi) sramo andati orandate we went or nave gone literally to please).The past participle agrees with the subject of the ltalian
verb, and not with the subject of the English verbto like.
(voi) siete andati orandate you went or have gone

(loro) 5()no andati orandate theV went or have gone La musica ti e piaciuta, Roberto? Did you like the music, Robert?
Icioccolatini mi sono piaciuti I liked the chocolates very much.
Le foto sono piaciute a tutti. Everyone liked the photos.
Ttp > Use essere to make the perfect tense ofall reflexive verbs.
You make past participles agree when they follow the verb essere,
Imiei fratelli si sono alzati tardi. My brothers got up late.
in the same way that you make adjectives agree.
Le ragazze si sono alzate alle sei. The girls got up at six.
Sei pronta, Maria? Are you ready Maria?
Sei andata anche tu, Maria? Did you go too, Maria? t ) For more informotion on Reflexive verbs, see poge 87.

Q For more information on Adje*ives, see page 2c.

Key points
y' whenthe perFect tense is madewith essere the past participle agrees
with the subject ofthe sentence.
@ When to make the perfect tense with essere
y' essereis used to make the perfect tense of some very common verbs
) Useessere to makethe Derfecttense ofcertain verbsthat do nottakea that do not take a d i rect obj ect.
direct object.
y' essere is used to make the perfect tense of all reflexive verbs.
* For more information on Direct obje*s, see plge 44.

For further explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv.

Venes rr5

The past historic Past historic

of partire Meaning
What is the past historic? (io) partii I left
The past historic is equ ivalent to the English simple past, except that it is only (tu) partisti you left
used in written ltalian. In spoken ltalian the oerfect tense is used to talk about (lui,zlei) helshe left
the Dast. (leilLei) Vou left
(noi) partimmo we left
(voi) partiste you left
Recognizing the past historic partirono
(loro) they left
>> You donot need to learn the past historic (il Passato remoto), since you will
never need to use it. However, you may come across it in written ltalian. To help
(meaning to be), Parld piano. He spoke slowly.
Vou recognize it, here are the past historic forms ofessere
parlare (meaning to believe), Non lo credettero. They did not believe it.
avere (meanin gto have), (meaning to speak), credere
and partire (meaning to leove). Parti in fretta. He left hastily.

Past historic Past historic

ofessere Meaning ofavere Meaning Key points
(io) fui twas ebbi I had y' You will come across the past historic in written ltalian.
(tu) fosti you were avesti you had y' lt is translated by the English simple past.
(lui,/lei) he/she was he/she had
fu ebbe
(lei,/Lei) vou were Vou had

(noi) fummo we were avemmo we had

(voi) foste vou were aveste you had

(loro) furono they were ebbero thev had

Cifu un improwiso silenzio There was a sudden silence when

quando entrai nella stanza. I came into the room.
Non ebbero nessuna sPeranza. They had no hope.

Past historic Past historic

ofparlare Meaning ofcredere Meaning
(io) parlai I spoke credei orcredetti I believed

(tu) parlasti you spoKe credesti you believed

(lui/lei) he/she spoke cred6 or helshe believed

parld you believed
(leilLei) vou spoKe credette
(noi) parlammo we spoKe credemmo we believed

(voi) parlaste you spoKe credeste you believed

(loro) parlorono they spoke crederono or they believed


Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv.

Venas rr7
Non gli avevo mai parlato prima. l'd never spoken to him before.
The pluperfect or past perfect tense Sara gli aveva parlato il giorno Sara had spoken to him the day
pflma. before
What is the pluperfect tense?
The pluperfect tense is used to talk about what had happened or had been true E Note that you use the same form of avere for lui, lei and Lei.
at a point in the past, for example, l'L-fugonSn to send her o card.
+ For more informotion on Verbswith irregulor past participles, see page flo

f Using the pluperfect tense rw

> When talking aboutthe pastwe sometimes referto things that had already Do not use the pluperfect tense to say since when, or how long you had
happened previously. In English we use hod followed by a past participle such been doing someth ing - da and the imperfect tense is used forth is in ltalian.
as done, broken, worked, arrived to do this. This tense is called the pluperfect or Abitavamo li dal rggo. We'd lived there since r99o.
Dast Derfect.
Q For more information on da, see Prepositions poge y4.
> Theltalianpluperfecttenseisusedinasimilarway,butliketheperfecttense,
it can be made with eitheravere oressere, and the past participle.
s I When to make the pluperfect tense with avere
Q For more information on Post porticiples, see poge rc9.
D As with the perfect tense, you use avere to make the pluperfect tense of most
Avevamo gii mangiato quando We'd already eaten when he arrived'
d arrivato.
Thev'd otrviously managed to solve
> You do not useavere to makethe pluperfecttense of:
Ovviamente erano riusciti a
risolvere il problema. the Droblem. o reflexiveverbs
r certai n verlrs that do not take a d
i rect object, such as andare (meani n g to go),
venire (meaningto come),diventare (meaning to become).
p How to make the pluperfect tense with avere owiamente avevo sbaqliato. I'd obviously made a mistake.
) To mal<e the pluperfect tense with avere: Avevano lavorato molto il giorno They'd worked hard the day lrefore"
. choose the i mperfect form ofavere that matches the subject of the sentence. prima.
. add the past participle. Do not change the ending of the participle to make [) ruote that, as with the perfect tense, the past participle agrees with the
it agree with the subject. ob iect pronou ns lo and la, (mean ing him, her and it) and li and le (mean ing
them) when they come before the verb.
Q ror more informotion on the tmperfecttense of avere and Past participles, see poges
rc6 ondrcg. Non l'avevo vista. I hadn't seen her
Le lettere? Non le aveva mai lette. The lettersl He'd never read them.
} The pluperfect tense ofparlare (meaning to speak) is as follows:
r ) For more informotion on objea pronouns and the Perfecttense, see pages 44 and rc8.
lmperfect tense
ofavere Past participle Meaning
Key points
(io) AVEVO parlato I had spoken
(tu) AVEVI parlato Vou had spoken
y' tnepl u perfect tense is used to tal k about what had al ready happened
helshe had spoken in the past.
aveva parlato
you had spoken y' meltalian pluperfecttense is madewith the imperfect ofavere or
(noi) avevamo parlato we had spoken essere, and the past participle.
(voi) avevate parlato Vou had spoken y' avereis used to make the pluperfecttense of mostverbs.
(loro) avevano parlato theV had spoken

For further explanation ofgrammatical terms, Please see pages x-xiv'

Venes rr9

@ How to make the pluperfect tense with essere The passive

) To make the pluperfect tense with essere:
What is the passive?
. choose the mperfect form of essere that matches the su bj ect of the sentence.
The passive is a verb form that is used when the subject ofthe verb is the person
o addthepastparticiple.Maketheendingoftheparticipleaqreewiththesubject. or th ing that is affected by the action, for example, Everyone was shocked by the
> The pl uperfect tense of andare (mean i n g to go) is as fol lows: incident;Two people were hurt;The house is being demolished.
lmperfect tense
ofessere Past participle Meaning
(io) ero andato andata
or I had gone ! using the passive
(tu) erl andato orandata vou nad gone L Verbs can be active or Dassive.
(lui) era andato he/it had qone
(lei) era andata she/it had gone > In a sentence with an active verb the subject of the sentence does the action:
(leilLei) era andato or andata vou nad gone Subject Active verb object
(noi) eravamo andati orandate we had gone
She does most of the work
(voi) eravate andati orandate you had gone
A dog bit him
(loro) erano andati orandate they had gone

Silvia era andata con loro. Silvia had gone with them. In a sentence with a passive verb the action is done by someone or something

Tutti i miei amici erano andati alla festa. All myfriends had goneto the party. that is not the subject ofthe sentence.
Who/what the action is
E when to make the Pluperfect tense with essere subject Passive verb done by

)> when essere is used to make the perfect tense of a verb, you also use essere to Most of the work is done by her.

make the pluperfect. He was bitten by a dog.

Q For m ore i nformotion on Moking the perfect tense with essere, see p age 12.
To show who or what is responsible for the action in a passive sentence you use
>> Use essere to ma the plu perfect of al I refl exive verbs, and of certai n verbs
byin English.
that do not take a direct object, such as andare (mean ing to 4o), venire
(mean ing to come), riuscire (mean ingto succeed), diventare (me aningto become) You use passive rather than active verbs:
and piacere (meaning to like).
Owiamente non glierano He obviously hadn't liked the
o when Vou wanttofocuson the person orthing affected bytheaction
piaciuti iquadri. p i ctu res. lohn was injured in an accident.
Sono arrivata alle cinque, ma arrived at five, but they'd
I o when you don't know who is responsilrle for the action
erano gii partiti. already gone. MV car was stolen last week.
Fortunatamente non si era fatta male. Luckily she had n't hu rt herself

Key points z I How to make the passive

y' Verbs that mal<e thei r perfect tense with essere also make thei r > ln English we use the verb to bewith a past participle (is done, wos bitten)to
pluperfect tense with essere. make the passive.
y' wnen the plu perfect tense i s made with essere the Past partici ple
agrees with the subject ofthe sentence.
> | n ltalian the passive is made in exactly the same way, using essere (mean ing

y' essereis used to make the pluperfecttense of reflexive verbs and

to be) and a past Darticiple .

certai n verbs that do not take a d i rect obj ect. t ) For more rnformation on the Post participle, see page rc9.

For further explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv.

Venes tzt

Siamo invitati ad una festa a We're invited to a party at their > You can change the tense ofthe verb essere to make whatever passive tense
casa loro. nouse. Vou want.
L'elettricitti E stata taoliata ieri. The electricity was cut off yesterday Sarete tutti invitati. You'llall be invited.
La partita C stata rinviata. The match has been postponed. Non so se sarebbe invitata. I don't know if she would lre invited.

E stato costretto a ritirarsi dalla He was forced to withd raw from the
D Some past participles are irregular.
gara. competition.
) When you say who or what is responsi ble for the action you use da (mean i ng by). Q For more information on trregutor past participtes, see plge no.

I ladri sono stati catturati dalla The thieves were caught by the
polizia. police
Grammar b<tn!
[J Note that the past partici ple ag rees with the subject of the verb essere i n the
same way an adjective would. venire (meaning to come) and rimanere (meaningto remain) are sometimes used instead of
essere to make the passive.
Q For more informatton on Adiectives, see plge 20. venire i s used i n the present, i mperfect, futu re and cond itional to ma ke passives, but not i n

the perfect or pluperfect.

) Here is the perfect tense of the -are verb invitare (meaning to invite) in its
When are thev changed?
passive form. Quando venoono cambiate?
Venivano controllati ogni sei mesi. They were checked everv six months
(subject Perfect tense Past VerrA criticato da tutti. He'll be criticized by everyone
pronoun) ofassere Participle Meaning It would be discovered.
Verrebbe scoperto.
(io) - masculine sono stato invitato I was, have been
rimanere is used very often with ferito (mean ing injured), and with participles describ ing
- feminine sono stata invitata i nvited
emotion, such as stupefatto (m eaning amazed) and deluso (meaning disappointed).
(tu) - masculine sei stato invitato you were, have been
rimasto ferito in un incidente stradale. iniured in accident.
- feminine sei stata invitata invited ! He was a car

E rimasta stupefatta dalla scena. She was amazed by the scene

(lui) e stato invitato he was, has been
i nvited
(lei) C stata invitata she was, has been
i nvited
sl Avoidinq the passive
(leilLei) - masculine e stato invitato you were, have been
invited D Passives are not as common i n ltalian as they are in English. I n many cases,

- femin ine 6 stata invitata you were, have been where we would use a passive verb, one of the following alternatives would
i nvited be used in ltalian:
(noi) - masculine siamo stati invitati we were, nave Deen . anactiveconstruction
siamo state invitate we were, have been
Due persone sono morte. Two people were killed.
i nvited Mi hanno rubato la macchina Mv car was stolen last week.
la settimana scorsa.
(voi) - masculine siete stati invitati Vou were, have been
c'erano delle microspie nella The room was bugged
i nvited
invitate you were, have been stanza.
-feminine siete state
invited Dicono che sia molto ambizioso. He's said to be verv ambitious.
(loro) - masculine sono stati invitati they were, have been o an ordinaryverb made passive by having si put in front (this is known as the
si passivante)
- feminine sono state invitate theywere, have been
Qui si vende il pane. Bread is sold here.
5i parla inglese. English spoken.

Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv. Dovesitrovanoimigliorivini? Wherearethebestwinestolrefound?
Vrnas rz3

In ltalia il prosciutto si mongia In ltaly ham is eaten with melon The gerund
col melone,
Gli spaghetti non si mangiano spaghetti should not be eaten What is a gerund?
con le dita! with one's fingers! In English the gerund is a verb form end ing in -ing which is used to make
"comodo" si scrive con una "comodo" is spelled with only continuous tenses, for exam ple,Whlt are you doing? lt can also be used as a noun
solo m. one m. oran adjective, forexample,l love swimmina',0 skating rink.

E Note that wherever the subject comes in the sentence the verb has to agree
with it.
ll_l Usino the oerund
o an imDersonal construction with si ) In ltalian the gerund is a verb form ending in -andoor -endo. lt is used to make
5i dice che non vada molto bene. lt's id not to be going very well.
sa continuous tenses.
Non si fa cosi. That's not how it's done. Sto lavorando. l'm working.
Cosa stai facendo? What are you doing?

Ttp o The gerund fol lows the present tense of stare to make the Dresent continuous.

When you want to say someth i ng I i ke I was told, ot She was given use an sto scrivendo una fettera. l'm writing a letter.
activeconstruction in ltalian: Mi hanno detto (meaningtheytold me)'' Stai cercando lavoro? Areyou looking forajob?
Le hanno dato (meaningthey gove her).
t) For more informotion on the Prcsent continuous, see page 8t.

o The gerund follows the imperfect tense of stareto make the past continuous.
Points ll bambino stava pianaendo. The little boy was crying.
y' mepassive is made usingessere with the Past participle Stavo lavando i piatti. I was washing the dishes.
( tnepast participle must agree with the subject ofessere. E Note thatthe ltalian past particiDle is sometimes used where the gerund
y' Alternatives to the passive are often used in ltalian. is used i n En g I ish: essere disteso means to be lying: essere seduto means
to be sitting and essere appoggiato means to be leoning.
,Ela_dj$eEq s u I d iva n o. He was lying on the sofa.
Era seduta accanto a me. She was sitting next to me.
La scala era appogoiata al muro. The ladderwas leaning againstthe
The gerund can be used by itself:
o to saywhen something happened
Entrando ho sentito odore di When lcame in lcould smellfish.
Ripensandoci, credo che non Thinking about it, I don't reckon
fosse colpa sua. itwas his fault.
o to saywhy something happened
Sentendomi male sono andato Because I felt ill I went to bed.
a letto.
Vedendolo solo, d venuta a Seeing that he was on h is own she
parlargli. came to speak to him.
Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv.
Venes rz5

. to sav in what circumstances something could happen l{ when not to use the gerund
Volendo, potremmo comprarne lf we wanted to, we could buy ) lnEnglishthe-ingformcanfollowotherverbs,forexample,Shestartedcrying;
un altro. another one. He insisted on poying;They continued working.

D In ltalian the gerund is not used in th is way. A construction with a preposition

rtp and the infinitive is used instead.

The gerund never changes its form to agree with the subject ofthe Ha cominciato a ridere, She started laughing.
sentence" Hai finito(i mangiarel Have you finished eating?

,) For more informotion on Prepositions after verbs, see page u3.

| :l_l Howto make the gerund D lnEnglishweoftenuse-inqformsasnouns,forexample,driving,skating,clelning.

> To make the gerund of-are verbs, tal<e off the-are ending of the infinitive to > ln ltalian you cannot use the-ando and -endo forms like this. When talking
getthe stem, and add-ando. about activities and interests you use nouns, such as il giardinoggio
(meaning gardening),la pulizia (meaning cleoning) and il fumo (meaning
lnfinitive Stem Gerund Meaning
lavorare lavor- lavorando working
A mia madre piace molto My mother loves gardening.
andare and- andando going
il giardinoqgio.
dare d- dando giving
Facciamo un po'di pulizia. Let's do a bit of cleaning.
stare st- stando bei ng
llfumo fa male. Smoking is bad foryou.

@ Note that the only-are verb that does not follow th is rule isfare, and verbs > |n English you can put an -ing noun in front of another noun, for example,
made offare with a prefix, such as rifare (meaning to do again) and disfare skating rink.
(mea n i n g to u ndo).f he geru nd offare i s facendo.
) ln ltalian you can neverputone noun in frontofanothernoun.
) To make the geru nd of-ere and -ire verbs, take off the -ere or-ire end ing of o Often you linktwowordstogetherwith a preposition:
the infinitive to get the stem, and add -endo. calzoncini da bagno swimming trunks
lnfinitive Stem cerund Meaning una borsa per la spesa a shopping bag
cradere cred- credendo believing un istruttore di guida a driving instructor
?5Sere ess- essendo being . Sometimesthere isoneword in ltalianfortwo Englishwords:
dovere dov- dovendo having to la patente the driving licence
finire fin- finendo finishing una Discina a swimminq pool
dormire dorm- dormendo sleeping

[J trtote that the only-ire verb that does not follow this rule isdire (and verbs
made ofdire with a prefix, such as disdire (meaning to clncel) and contraddire When you want to translate this kind of English two-word
(meaning to contrldict).The gerund ofdire isdicendo. combination it's a good idea to look it up in a dictionary.

For further explanation ofgrammatical terms, please se€ pages x-xiv.

Vrnss rz7

I Where to out pronouns used with the gerund lmpersonalverbs

> Pronouns are usually joined onto the end of the gerund. What is an impersonal verb?
Vedendoli E scoppiata in When she sawthem she burst into In Eng lish an im personal verlr has the su bject it, but th is'it'does not refer to any
lacrime. tears. specifi c thing; forexample, It's golng to rain; lt's nine o'clock.
Ascoltandolo mi sono Listening to him, lfellasleeP.
Incontrondosi Per caso sono Meeti ng each other by chance, theY t I Verbs that are alwavs impersonal
andati al bar. went to a caf6.
L Verbs such as piovere (meaning to roin)and nevicare (meaning to snow), are
>> when the gerund is part of a continuous tense the pronou n can either come always impersonal because there is no person, animal or thing doing the action.
before stare or bejoined onto the gerund. > Theyareusedonlyinthe'it'form,theinfinitive,andasagerund(the-ingform
Ti sto parlando OR I'm tall<ing to you. ofthe verb).
Sto parlandoti. Piove. It's raining.
Si sta vestendo OR He's getting dressed. it raining?
Sta piovendo? ls
Sta vestendoti. Ha iniziato a piovere It started to rain.
Me lo stovano mostrando OR Theywere showing me it. Nevicava da due giorni. It had been snowing for two daYs.
Stovano mostrdndomelo, Pensi che nevicherri? Do you think it'll snow?

@ N ote that the perfect and pl u perfect tenses of verbs to do with the weather
Points such as piovere, nevicare, grandinare (meaning to hoil) and tuonare
y' Usethe gerund in continuoustenseswith stere, and by itselfto say (meaning to thunder) can be made either with avere or essere.
when or why something haPPened. Ha piovuto or E piovuto molto ieri. lt ra ined a lot yesterday.
y' -ing formsi n En g I ish are not always translated by the gerund' Aveva nevicato orera nevicato lt had snowed during the night.
durante la notte.

z I Verbs that are sometimes impersonal

D fare is used imDersonallv to talk about the weather and time of day:
fa caldo. It's hot.
Fa freddo. It's cold.
Faceva bel tempo. Itwas good weather. OR
The weatherwas good.
Fa semPre brutto temPo. The weather's always bad.
Fa notte. It's getting dark.

Fa niente means lt doesn't matter.

For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv.

I28 VERBS Venes tz9

) d, and othertenses ofessere are used impersonallv, like it's and othertenses of D parere and sembrare (both meaning to seem) a,e often used impersonally.
to be in English. Sono contenti? - Pare di si. Are they happy? - lt seems so.
E tardi. It's late. L'ha credutol - Pare di no. Did he believe it? -Apparently not.
Era presto. It was early. Forse va tutto bene, ma non Maybe everything's okay, but it
E da tre ore che aspettano. It's three hours now that they've sembra. doesn't look like it.
been waiting. Pare che sia stato lui. Apparently itwas him.
Era Pasqua. It was Easter. Sembra che tu abbia ragione. Seeminglyyou're ri9ht.
Non era da lei fare cosi. Itwasn't like herto act like that.
@ trtote that the ltalian construction with a verb can often be translated by the
adv erbs a pparently and seemingly.

> Other verbs used i m personal lV are bastare (mean ing to be enough), bisognare
Just use the verb by itself when tall<ing about the time or the weather. and occorrere (both meanin gto be necessIry), irnportare (meaning to be
There is no ltalian eouivalentfor"it". important).
Basta? ls that enough?
essere is used in impersonal constructions with adjectives, for example: Bisogna prenotare? ls it necessary to or do you have to
o with an adjectivefollowed byan infinitive book?

E facile capire che qualcosa non va.

lt's easy to see that someth ing's wrong. Bisogna arrivare un'ora Prima. You have to get there an hour before.
Mi A impossibile andarvia adesso. lt's impossible for me to leave now. Occorre farlo subito. It should be done at once.
E stato stupido buttarli via. It was stupid to throw them away Oggi o domani, non importa. Today or tomorrow it doesn't matter.
Sarebbe bello andarci. It would be nice to go there. with
fl trtote that these verbs can be replaced by i m personal constructi ons
o with an adjective followed by che essere and an adjective.
Evero che sono stato impaziente. lt's true that l've been impatient. E necessorio prenotare? ls it necessaryto book?
Era bello che c'eravamo tutti. lt's nice that we were all there. Sarebbe opportuno farlo subito. It would be best to do it at once

Grammar Extra!
When an impersonal construction with che is used to refer to something that is a possibility
rather than a fact, the following verb must be i n the subi unctive.
The following impersonal expressions refer to what might, should, or could be the case, rather Vieni? - Pud darsi. Are you coming? - Maybe.
than what is the case, and therefore thev are always fol lowed by the subju nctive: Pud darsi che vincano. It's possible or maybe they'llwin.
o Epossibileche.. It's possible that
E possibile che abbia sbagliato tu. lt's possible that you made a mistake
o Non i possibile che... It's impossiblethat.
Non A possibile che sappiano It's im possible that they should l(now. OR Key Points
They can't possibly know.
r Efocileche... It's likelythat...
y' lmpersonalverbs and expressions can only be used in the'it'form,
E facile che piova. It's likelythat it'll rain. OR the infinitive and the gerund.
It'll probably rain. y' lmpersonal verbs are often used when talking about the weather.
. E difficite che... It's unlikelythat...
E difficile che venga. It's unlikelV that he'll come.
Q For more information on the Subjunctive, see page 13o.

For further explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv.

Venas r3r
r3o Venas

The subjunctive
What is the subjunctive? The io,tu, lui and lei forms of the present subjunctive are all the same.
The subjunctive is a verb form that is often used in ltalian to express wishes, The noi form of the present subjunctive is the same as the present simple.
thoughts and beliefs. In English the subjunctive is only used occasionally,
main ly in formal language, for example, lf I were Vou...; So be it; He osked thlt they
* For more information on the Presentsimple, see poge 69.

be removed.

The following table shows the present subjunctive of three regular verbs:
parf are (meaning to spelk),credere (meaning to believe)andfinire (meaning

[ :.1 Usino the subiunctive to frnish).

D lfyou have the word che (meaning thot) in an ltalian sentence you often have lnfinitive io, tu, lui, lei nol vol loro
to use the subjunctive. parlare parli parliamo parliate porlino
l The subjunctive is used afterche: credere creda crediamo crediate credano
o fol lowi ng verbs such as pensare (mean i ng to think), credere (mean in g finire finisca finiamo finiate finiscano
to believe/think) and sperare (meaning to hope).
Penso che siagiusto. Ithink it'sfair. Non voglio che mipqrlino. I don't want them to speak to me.
Credo che partano domani. I think they're leaving tomorrow.
Pud darsi che non ti creda. Mavbe she doesn't believe you.

Spero che Luca arrivi in tempo. I hope Luca arrives in time. E meglio che lo finisca io. It'll be best if lfinish it.

Some common verbs that are irregular in the ord inary present tense also have
irregular present subj unctives:

Whereas in English you can say either I think... or I thinkthat... in ltalian lnfinitive io, tu, lui, lei nol vol loro
you alwavs say che. andare to go vada andiamo andiate vddano
avercto have abbia abbiamo abbiate abbiano

following the verb volere (meaning to want). dare to give dia diamo diate diano
diciate dicano
Voglio che i miei ragazzi siano I want my children to be happy. dire to sdy dica diciamo
felici. dovere to have to debba dobbiamo dobbiate debbano
Vuole che la aiuti. she wants me to help her essere to be sta stamo siate srano
fare to do/make faccia facciamo facciate facciano

p How to make the present subjunctive ootefe to be able possa possiamo possiate possano

scegliere to choose scelga scegliamo scegliate scelgano

> To make the present su bj unctive of most verbs, take off the -o end i n g of the
stare [o De stia stiamo stiate stiano
io form and add endings.
tenere to hold tenga teniamo teniate tengano
l For-are verbs the endings are -i, -i, -i, -iamo, -iate, -ino. tradurre to translate traduca traduciamo traduciate traducano
> For -ere and -ire verbs the end ngs are -a, -a, -a, -iamo, -iate, -ano.
i uscireto go out esca uscramo usciate escano
venire to venga ventamo veniate vengano
[J ruote that in the case of-ire verbs which add -isc in the io form, for example come

finisco (mean ing I flnish) and pulisco (mean ing I clean),-isc is not added in volere to wdnt voglia vogliamo vogliate vogliano
the noi and voi forms.

For further explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv.

r32 VERBS Vrnes r33

E meglio che tu te ne vada. You'd better leave. pud darsi che it's possible (that)
Vuoi che lo traduca? Do you want me to translate it? Pud darsi che non venoa. It's possible that he won't come.
E facile che scelgano quelli rossi. They'll probably choose those red ones.
€ un peccato che it's a pity (that)
Spero che tua madre stia meglio I hope your mother is better now.
E un peccato che non sia potuto It's a pitv he couldn't come.
Credi che possa essere vero? Do Vou think it can be true?

Key points
It is best to learn the irregular subjunctives of common verbs such as
y' Wnenyou express a wish, hope, or belief with a verb + che, the verb avere (meanin gto h1ve), essere (meaningto be), andare (meaning to go)
fo I I ow i n g rn t rt' * and fare (meaning to make or do).
y', :|" :''0.0"':, 1: _r,l_ol' "
che cannot be missed out in ltalian.

che is not always followed by the subjunctive. Use the ordinary present, future
and so on, when you're saying what you know, or are sure of.

@ When to use the present subiunctive So che d tuo. I know it's yours.
5a che vale la pena. She l<nows it's worth it.
) Use the present subjunctive when you're saying what you think, feel or hope.
Sono certo che verri. I'm sure she'll come.
) The following are com mon verbs and expressions used td express opin ions and
hopes. They are used with che followed by the su bj unctive:
Key points
. pensareche tothink(that) y' Usethe presentsubjunctive+cheto saywhatyou think,feel orhope.
Pensano che abbia ragione io. They think l'm right. y' Do notusethesubjunctive*cheto saywhatyou knoworaresureof.
Pensi che sia giusto? Do you think that's fair?

credere che to believe/think (that)

Credechesiastatauna Hethinksitwasaredcar.
macchina rossa. Grammar Ertra!
verbs and verbal expressions that express thoughts and hopes are followed bV di + the infinitive,
supporre che to suPPose (that) Instead ofche + the subiunctive ifthe subject ofthe sentence is thinl(ing, hoping orfeeling
Suppongo che quello sia il padre. I suppose he'sthefather. ,,omething about themselves.
( ompare the following examples: in the sentences on the left side the two verbs have the same
sperare che to hope (that)
\u bect - 1... 1... and so on. These use di + infin itive. I n the sentences on the right the two verbs
Spero che vada bene. I hope it'll be okay. lrave different subjects - 1... they... and so on. These use che + subj unctive.

essere contento che to be glad (that) lnfi nitive construction subjunctive construction
sonocontento chefaccia beltempo. l'm glad theweather's nice. Penso di Doter venire. Penso che possano venire.
!thinklcan come. I think that thev can come.
midispiace che I'm sorry (that) Credo di aver sbaqliato. Credo che abbiamo sbagliato.
Mi dispiace che non vengano. l'm sorry they're not coming. Ithink I've made a mistake. ! think we've made a mistake.
E contenta di esser Dromossa, Sono contento che sia stata promossa.
E facile che it's likely (that) She's glad she passed. l'm glad she passed.
E facile che piova. It'll probably rain. Vi dispiace di partire? Ti dispiace che loro p.rrtanoT
Are vou sorry vou're leaving? Are vou sorry thev're leavingl

Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv.

Venes t35

or subjunctive after volere?

l ] How to make the perfect subjunctive
@ Infinitive I

) volere can be used with eitherthe infinitive orthe subjunctive'

) To make the perfect subj u nctive you si m ply use the subj unctive of avere
(meaning to have) or essere (meaning to be) with the past participle.
) As in English, the infi nitive is used in ltalian to say what you want to do'
D For example, fare (mean i ng to moke or to do) makes its ord i nary perfect tense
Voglio essere felice. Iwant to be happy. and its perfect subjunctive with avere, wh ile essere makes its ord inary perfect
Vogliamo aiutarla. We want to helD her. tense and its perfect subjunctive with essere.

>' However, when you're sayi nq what you want someone else to do, or how you Q For more information on the Perfecttense and Past porticiples, see pages rc8to9.
want something to be, you use che followed by the present subiunctive. ordinary perfect perfect subjunctive
Voglio che tutto sia Pronto' I want everything to be readY.
fare io, tu,lui, lei ho fatto, hai fatto, ha fatto abbia fatto
Vuole che tu faccia il tuo meglio. He wants you to do your best' to do/make noi abbiamo fatto abbiamo fatto
Vogliamo che loro vadano via. We want them to 90 away' voi avete fatto abbiate fatto
loro hanno fatto dbbiano fatto
>. when you're saying what you wanted someone else to do in the past, or how
assere to sono stato, sono stata sia stato, sia stata
vou wanted something to be, change the present subjunctive to the imperfect to be tu sei stato, sei stata sia stato, sia stata
subiunctive. lui e stato sia stato
Volevo che tutto fosse pronto. I wanted everything to be ready' lei E stata sia stata
leilLei stato, C stata sia stato, sia stata
Voleva che loro andossero via.
She wanted them to 90 away'
nol siamo stati, siamo state siamo stati, siamo state
voi siete stati, siete state siate stati, siate state
Q For moreinformotion on the tmperfeftsubjunctive, see pageB6'
loro sono stati, sono state siano stati, siano state

Non credo che l'dbbiano fatto loro. I don't think they did it.
E possibile che sia stato un errore. lt might have been a mistake.
Grammar b&ra!
The subjunctive is used after certain conjunctions which include che
ol When to use the perfect subiunctive
o prima che before
Vuoi parlargli prima che Parta? Do you wantto speakto him before he goes? > When you want to say what you think or hope about something i n the past,
use a verb such as penso che and spero che, followed by the perfect subiunctive.
[t Notethatprimadi andtheinfinitiveisusedifthetwoverbshavethesamesubject
Penso che sia stata una buona idea. I think itwas a good idea.
Mi ha parlato prima di Partire. He spoke to me before he went.
Gli ho parlato prima di Partire. lspoke to him before lwent.
Spero che non si sia fattamale. I hope she didn't hurt herself.
Spero che abbia detto la verita? | hope you told the truthT
o affinchE sothat
E possibile che abbiano cambiats lt's possible they've cha nged their
Ti do venti euro affinch6 Possa l'll give you twenty euro so tnat you can
idea. minds.
comprarlo. buV

a a meno che unless I ] Avoidino the perfect subiunctive

Lo prendo io, a meno che tu lo voolia. l'll ta ke it, un less Vou want it'
> Instead of using expressions such as penso che and d possibile che with the
a nelcasoche incase perfect subjunctive, you can use secondo me (meaningin my opinion) or forse
Tidoilmionumeroditelefonol'llgiveyoumyphonenumberincase (meaning perhops) with the ordinary perfect tense to saywhatyou think or believe
nel caso che venqa a Roma. you come to Rome'
Secondo me E stata una buona idea. In my opinion it was a good idea.
Q For more information on Coniunctions, see page 187.
Forse hanno cambiato idea. Perhaps they've changed their minds.
t i, For more informotion on the Perfect tense, see page rc8

For further explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv'

136 VERBS Venas r37

> you can also avoid usi ng the perfect subj u nctive by sayi n g what you th i n k fi rst, Se fossi in te non lo pagherei. lf lwereyou lwouldn't pay it.
and adding a verb such as Penso, credo or spero to the end ofthe sentence Se fosse piD furba verrebbe. lf she had more sense she'd come.
veriti, spero?
Hai detto la You told thetruth, I hope?
The imperfect subjunctive of the other important irregular verbs - bere
Hanno fatto bene, penso. They did the right thing, I think. (meaning to drink), dare (meaningto give), dire (meaning to say), fare (meaning
to make or to do) and stare (mean ing to be) - is as follows:
KeY Points
(io) (tu) (lui,zlei) (noi) (voi) (loro)
y' whenyou express a wish, hope, or belief about something in the past,
beveste bevessimo
bere bevessi bevessi bevesse bevessimo
the verb following che should be in the perfect subj unctive.
dare dessi dessi desse dessimo deste dessero
y' You can someti mes reword sentences to avoid usi n g the perfect su bj unctive.
dire dicessi dicessi dicesse dicessimo diceste dicessero
fare facessi facessi facesse facessimo faceste facessero

@ How to make the imperfect subjunctive stare stessi stessi stesse stessimo steste stessero

D The imperfect subjunctive is made by addi ng end ings to the verb stem' lf only he drank less!
Se solo bevesse meno!
) Theendingsfor-areverbsare-assi,-assi,-asse,-assimo,-aste'and-4ssero; Voleva che gli dessero il He wanted them to give him
the end ings for-ere verbs are -essi, -essi, -esse, -essimo, -este, and -essero; permesso. permission.
the end ings for -ire verbs are -issi, -issi, -isse ' -issimo, -iste and -issero.
l Thefollowingtableshowstheimperfectsubjunctiveofthreeregularverbs: parlare
(meaning to speak),credere (meaning to believe) andfinire (meaning toflnish)' s ] When to use the imperfect subiunctive
pa rlare credere finire D The imperfectsubjunctive is used totalkaboutwhatyou wanted someoneto
parlassi credessi finissi do in the past, or about how you wanted things to be.
(tu) parlassi credessi finissi Voleva che fossimo pronti alle He wanted us to be ready at eight.
parlasse credesse finisse
(lei,zLei) Volevano chetuttofosse in ordine. Theywanted everything to betidy.
(noi) parlassimo credessimo finissimo Volevo che andasse pii veloce. I wanted him to go faster.
(voi) parlaste credeste finiste
> | n Engl ish, when you are tall<ing about what you would do in an imagi ned

(loro) parlassero credessero finissero situation, the Dast tense is used to describe the situation, for example,
Whatwould you do if you won the lottery?
Volevano che parlassicon I'inquilino. Theywanted me to speakto the tenanL
Anche se mi credesse, non farebbe Even if he believed me hewouldn't
> In ltalian the imperfectsubiunctive is used forthis kind of imagined situation,
niente. do anything. which is often introduced byse (meaning i[).
se solo finisse prima delle ottol lf only it fi n ished before eight o'clockl Se ne avessi bisogno, te lo darei. lf you needed it l'd g ive it to you.
Se lo sapesse sarebbe molto lf he knew he'd beverydisappointed.
The imperfect subj unctive ofessere is as follows:
(io) fossi
5e solo avessi pi! denaro! lf only I had more money!
(tu) fossi
(luillei) fosse
(lei/Lei) fosse Key points
(noi) fossimo y' Thei m perfect su bj u nctive is used when talki ng about what you
(voi) foste wanted someone to do, or how you wanted thi ngs to be.
(loro) fossero y' ne imperfect subjunctive is used to talk about imagined situations.
Forfurtherexplanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv.
Venes r39
. to tell someone you call tu not to do something
The Infinitive
Non fare sciocchezzel Don't do anything sillyl

the infinitive? Non toccarlo! Don't touch itl

What is
walk, see, heor'
ln English the infinitive is the basic form of the verb, for example, Q For more information on the tmperotive, see poge 82.
and con. The nfi nitive i s often
lt is used after other verbs such as should, must i

used with to:to s\eak, to eat, to live.

{ tnfinitiveorqerundl
D lnEngfish,prepositionssuchasbefore,afterandwithout,arefollowedbythe-ing
p using the infinitive form of the verb, for exampl e, before leaving, ofter eating.
D I n Engl ish the i nfi nitive may be oneword, for exam ple, speak' or two words' ) In ltalian prepositionsarefollowed bythe infinitive.
for example, t o speak.In ltalian the infinitive is always one word, and is the vertl
Prima di aprire il pacchetto, Before opening the packet, read
form that ends in -are, -ere, or -ire, for example, parlare (meaning to
The fi nal -e of the leggi le istruzioni. the instructions.
credere (meaning to believe),finire (mean ing to flnish)'
infinitive ending is sometimes dropped'
E andato via senza dire niente. He went away without saying
a nyth i ng.
fl trtotethat there are a few verbs with i nfi n itives end i ng i n -urre, for exam Dopo aver telefonato E uscita. After making a phone call she went out.
(mea to translote),pnod u rre (mean i n g to prod uce) and ridu rre
trad u rre n i n g
(meaningtoreduce)'-urreverbsfo||owthePatternofprodurre,whichyou D In English the -ing form of the verb can be used as a noun, for example,
can find i n the verb tables at the back ofthe bool(' They enjoy dancing. In ltalian the infinitive, not the gerund, is used as a noun.

l The infinitive is the form of the verb shown in dictionaries' ASSS!1aIq la musica d rilassante. Listening to music is relaxing.
Camminare fa bene. Walking is good foryou.
> In ltalian the infinitive is used in the following ways:
o afteradjectives and nounsthatare followed bydi
Sono contento di vederti. I'm glad to see You. rrp
Sono sorPreso di vederti qui. I'm surprised to see You here' Remember to use the infi n itive with mi piacewhen saying what
Sono stufo di studiare. l'm fed up of studYing. activities you like:
Ho voglia di uscire I feel lil<e going out. Mi piace cavalcare. I like riding.
Non c'E bisogno di Prenotare. There's no need to book.

. afteranotherverb
Non devi andarci se non vuoi. You don't have to go if You don't
Grammar Efrra!
Posso entrare? Can lcome in?
As well as the ordinary infin itive there is also the perfect infinitive. In English this is made with
Cosa ti piacerebbe fare? Whatwould you like to do?
r + the past participle, for example He could hove done better; He claims to have
he i nfinitive hdve
Preferisce sPendere i suoi soldi He prefers to sPend his money on .
ten,an eagle.ln ltalian the perfect infin itive is made with avere or essere + the past participle.
in vestiti. clothes.
Pu6 aver avuto un incidente. He may have had an accident.
otogiveinstructionsandorders,particular|yonsigns,onforms,andin Dev'essere successo ieri. It must have happened yesterday.
reciPes and manualS
Rallentare. slow down.
Spinoere. Push'
Scaldare a fuoco lento per cinque H eat gently for five m inutes' Key point
minuti. y' t n tta lia n th e infi n itive is one wo rd.
pages x-xiv'
For further explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see
r4o vERBs Venas r4r

p_l Linking verbs together o verbs such as piacere, dispiacere and convenire
Mi piace andare in bici. I like cycling.
D I n Eng t ish both the i nfi n itive and the -ing form can fol low after another verb,
p e, D o Vou want to come? ; They stopped workin a.
Ci dispiace andarvia. We're sorry to be leaving.
fo r exa m I

Ti conviene partire presto, You'd best set off early.

) Inltalianonlytheinfinitivecanfollowanotherverb.Verbsaregenerallylinked
tothe infinitive in oneof thesethreewavs: o vedere (meaning to see), ascoltare (meaning to listen to) and sentire
(m ea n i ng to hear)
. directly
Ci ha visto arrivare. He saw us arriving.
Volete asDettare? Do you want to wait?
Ti ho sentito cantare. I heard you singing.
o with the preposition a
L'abbiamo ascoltato parlare. We listened to him talking.
Hanno cominciato a ridere, They started to laugh.
o with the preposition di
. fare (meaning to make) and lasciare (meaning to let)
Non mifar ridere! Don't make me laugh!
Quando sono entrato hanno When I came in they stopped
Let me do it.
Lascia fare a me.
smesso di Darlare. ta I ki ng.

* For more information on the Prcpositions a ond di, see pages v4 and v6. fl trtote that far fare qualcosa and farsi fare qualcosa both mean to hdve
something done:
@ Other I i n l<i n g prepositions are someti mes used, for exam ple, stare per far
Ho fatto riparare la mocchina. I had the car repaired.
quafcosa (meaning tobe Iboutto do something).
Mi sono fatta tagliare i capelli. I had my hair cut.
Stavo per uscire quando ha I was about to go out when the

squillato iltelefono. pnone rang. D The following common verbs are also followed directly by the infinitive:
bisognare to De necessary
desiderare to want
lt_j Verbs that are not linked to the infinitive bv a preoosition odiare to hate
l A nu mber of very com mon verbs are fol lowed d i rectlv bV the i nfi n itive: preferire to Prefer
. dovere to have to, must
Odio alzarmi presto al mattino. I hate getting up early in the morning.
E dovuto partire. He had to leave.
Desiderava miqliorare il suo inglese. He wanted to improve his English.
Dev'essere tardi. It must be late.
Bisoona prenotare. You need to book.
o potere can, may Preferisco non parlarne. I prefer not to talk about it.
Non oosso aiutarti. I can't help you.

Potresti aprire la finestra? Could you open the window?

Potrebbe essere vero. It might be true. sl Verbs followed bv a and the infinitive
. sapere toknowhowto,can > Some verv common verbs can befollowed bva'dnd the infinitive
Sai farlo? Do you l<now how to do it? andare a fare qualcosa to go to do something
Non sapeva nuotare. He couldn't swim. venire a fare qualcosa to come to do something
o volere towant imparare a fare qualcosa to learn to do something
Voglio comprare una mocchina nuova. I want to buy a new car. cominciare a fare qualcosa to start doing orto do something
continuare a fare qualcosa to go on doing something
rtp abituarsi a fare qualcosa
riuscire a fare qualcosa
to get used to doing something
to manage to do something
vof er dire (literally to wontto soy) is the ltalian for to mean.
Non so che cosa vuol dire. ldon't l(nowwhat it means. Sono venuti a trovarci. They came to see us.
Siamo riusciti a convincerla, We managed to persuade her.
Forfurtherexplanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv. Dovr6 abituarmi ad alzarmi presto. l'll have to get used to getting up early.
I42 VERBS Venes r43

) As in English, you can put an object between the verb and the i nfi nitive: Prepositions after verbs
aiutare qualcuno a fare qualcosa to help somebodv to do someth ing
> Inglishverbsareoftenfollowedbyprepositions,forexample,l'mrelvingonyou,
invitare qualcuno a fare qualcosa to invite somebody to do something
I hev'll write to him, He was accused qf murder.
insegnare a qualcuno a fare qualcosa to teach somebody to do someth i n g
> Ihe same is true of ltalian verbs, which are often followed by prepositions.
@ ruotethat insegnare takes an indirectobject.
. entrare in to go into
Hanno invitato Lucia a sedersi TheV invited Lucia to sit at their Siamo entrati in aula. We went into the classroom
al loro tdvolo. table.
piatti. > As in English, ltalianverbscan befollowed bytwoprepositions.
Ho aiutato mamma a lavare i I helped mum wash up.
parlare a qualcuno di qualcosa to talk to someone about something
Ha inseqnato a mio fratello a He taught my lrrotherto swim.
nuotare. > With some verbs the ltalian preposition may not be the one you would expect'
For example, to in English is not always a in ltal ian, di is not always translated
by ofland so forth. The most important ones of these are shown in the examples
pl Verbs followed by di and the infinitive on thefollowing pages.
) The following are the most common verbs that can be followed by di and
t i' For more information on Verbs used with a preposition ond the infinitive,
the infinitive:
see pqge 141.
cercare di fare qualcosa to try to do something
decidere di fare qualcosa to decide to do something
dimenticare di fare qualcosa to forget to do someth ing
smettere di fare qualcosa to stop doing something
When Vou learn a new verb, check if there's a preposition that goes
ricordarsi di aver fatto qualcosa to remember having done something with it, and learn that too.
negare di aver fatto qualcosa to deny doing something

Cerca di smettere di fumare. He's trying to stop smoking.

Ho deciso di non andarci. I decided not to go. I lVerbsfollowed bva
Non mi ricordo di aver detto I don't remember saying anything
with the ind irect object of verbs such as dire (meaninq to sdy) and
a is used
una cosa del genere. I i ke that.
dare (meaning to give).
Ho dimenticato di prendere la I forgot to take my key.
dare qualcosa a qualcuno to give something to someone
dire qualcosa a qualcuno to say something to someone
mandare qualcosa a qualcuno to send something to someone
ri+ scrivere qualcosa a qualcuno to write something to someone
Learn the lin king preposition that goes with im portant verbs. mostrare qualcosa a qualcuno to show sgmething to someone

t ) For more information about. lndirect objects, see page 46.

Key points
y' ltal ian verbs can be followed by the infi nitive, with orwithout a li nking rtp
preposition. In English you can sayto give someone something. ln ltalian you cannot
y' ltalianverbs are not followed by the gerund. leave out the preposition - you have to use a with the person who is the
indirect object.

Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv.

144 VERBS Venes r45

) Herearesomeverbstakingainltalianwhenyoumightnotexpectit,sincetheEnglish ridere di qualcosa,/qualcuno to laugh at something/someone

equivalent either does not have the preposition to or has no preposition at all: stufarsi di qualcosa,/qualcu no to get fed up with someth i ng,/someone
arrivare a (una cittri) to arrive at (d town) stupirsi di qualcosa to be amazed by something
awicinarsi a qualcuno to approach someone trattare di qualcosa to be about something
chiedere qualcosa a qualcuno to ask someone for something vantarsi di qualcosa to boast about somethi ng
far male a qualcuno to hurt someone Non mi fido di lui. I don't trust h im.
giocare a qualcosa to play someth ing @ame/sport) Ho bisogno di soldi. I need money.
insegnare qualcosa a qualcuno to teach somebody something Discutono spesso di politica. They often discuss politics.
partecipare a qualcosa to take part in something Mi sono stufato di loro. I gotfed up with them.
rispondere a qualcuno to answer someone
rivolgersi a qualcuno to asl< someone
somigliare a qualcuno to lool< like someone
:] Verbsfollowed bUlla
permettere a qualcuno di fare qualcosa to allow someone to do somethi ng > Here are some verbs taking da in ltalian when the English verb is not followed
pJoibire a qualcuno difare qualcosa to forbid someone to do something byfrom:
rubare qualcosa a qualcuno to steal something from someone dipendere da qualcosa/qualcuno to depend on something/someone
ubbidire a qualcuno to obey someone giudicare da qualcosa to judge by something
scendere da qualcosa to get off something (bus, train, plone)
Chiedi a Lidia come si chiama Ask Lidia what her dog's called.
sporgersi da qualcosa to lean outof something
il suo cane.
Quandiarrivi a Londra? When do you arrive in London? Dipende dal tempo. It deDends on the weather.
Parteciperai alla gara? Are you going to take part in the
competition? Verbs that are followed bv a preposition in English but not in ltalian
Non permette a Luca di uscire. She doesn't allow Luca to go out.
L Although the English verb is followed by a preposition, you don't use a
* Forverbssuchospiocere,mancareandrincrescere,seeVerbalidiomsonpageu6. preposition with the following ltalian verbs:
g uardare q ualcosa,/q ualcu no to look at something,/someone
rw ascoltare qualcosa/qualcuno to listen to something/someone
Remember that you often have to use a preposition with an ltalian cercare qualcosa/qualcuno to look for somethi n g/someone
verb when there is no preposition in English. chiedere qualcosa to askforsomething
aspetta re q ualcosa,/q ua lcu no to wait for someth ing,/someone
p_l Verbs followed bv di pagare qualcosa to pay for something
L Herearesomeverbstakingdi inltalianwhentheEnglishverbisnotfollowedbyof Guarda la sua foccia. Look at his face.
Mi stai ascoltando? Are you listening to me?
accorgersi di qualcosa to realize something
aver bisogno di qualcosa to need something sto cercando la chiave. l'm looking for my key.
aver voglia di qualcosa Ha chiesto qualcosa da mangiare, He asked for something to eat.
to want something
discutere di qualcosa to discuss something Aspettamil Waitfor mel
fi darsi di qualcosa/qualcuno to trust someth i ng,/someone Ho gii pagato il biglietto. l've already paid for myticket.
intendersi di qualcosa to knowaboutsomething
interessarsi di qualcosa to be interested in something
lamentarsi di qualcosa to complain about something
y' vanvuarian verbs ar. notfoili;:i,luilt or.o"r,tion you would expect.

ricordarsi di qualcosa/qualcuno to remem ber someth i ng/someone / a preposition with a verb in ltalian, but not in English, and

For further explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv.

146 VERBS Venas r47

Verballdioms Vi piacciono le montagne? Do Vou like the mountainsT

(literally: are the mountains pleasing to
) Some important ltalian verbs behave differentlyfrom their English equivalent, you?)
for example:
Sono vecchi, non gli piace They're old, they don't like this music.
Mi piace l'ltolia. I like ltaly. questa musica. (literally: this music isn't plelsing to them)
Mi piocciono i cani. I like dogs.

> Both English sentences have the same verb like, which agrees with the subject, l.
r ) For moreinformotion on lndireaobjeapronouns, see poge 46.

L The ltal ian sentences have d ifferent verbs, one si ngular (piace) and the other
plural (piocciono).This is because the verb piacere literally means to be pleasing, rq
and in one sentence what's pleasing is singular (l'ltalia) and in the other it's Use the infinitive, not the gerund, when tall<ing about the activities
plural (i cani). you lil<e:

D lf you use this wording in Engl ish you also get two d ifferent verbs: ltaly is Mi piace cucinare. I like cooking.
pleasing to me; Dogs are pleasing to me. Ci piace camminare. We like walking.

lf it is not used with the pronouns mi, ti, gli, le, ci, or vi, piacere isfollowed by
Remem ber to turn the sentence around i n th is way when talki ng the preposition a.
aboutwhatvou like in ltalian. Il giardinaggio piace a mia sorella. My sister likes gardening.
(literolly: gordening is pleosing to my
I suoi film non piocciono a tutti. Not evervone li kes his films.
f Present tense of piacere
(literally: his fllms are not pleasing to
) When talking about likes and dislikes in the present use piace if the subject everyone)
of the verb is singular, and piacciono if it is plural.
L'ltolia piace ai tuoi? Do your parents like ltaly?
l Use the appropriate indirect pronoun: mi, ti, gli, le, ci, orvi. (literally: Is ltaly pleosing to your porents?)

[l Note thatgli means both to him, and to them,so it is used to saywhat he likes,
and what they like. 2 Othertensesofpiacere
Questo colore non mi piace. I don't like this colour. > You can use piacere in anytense.
(literally: this colour is not pleasing to me)
Credi che la casa piaceri a sara? Do you think Sara will like the house?
Ti piacciono le mie scarpe? Doyou likemyshoes?
Questo libro ti piacerebbe. You'd like this book.
(literolly: are my shoes pleasing to you?)
Da giovane gliptgggva nuotare. When hewasyoung he liked
Non gli piacciono idolci. He doesn't like desserts. swimming.
(literally: desserts are not pleIsing to
ll concerto A piaciuto a tutti. Evervone liked the concert.
Non credo che il colcio piaccia I don't think the teacher likes football.
Le piace l'ltolia, signora? Do you like ltaly, madam? al professore.
(literally: is ltaly pleasing to Vou?)
Ci piace il mare. We lil<e the sea.
(literally: the seo is pleasing to us)
Mi dispiace means l'm sory. Change the pronoun to gli, le, ci and so on
if you want to say He's sorry,She's sorry orWe're sorry.
For further explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv.
r48 VERB5

E Otherverbs like piacere NEGATIVES

> There are a number of other important verbs that are used with an indirect
pronoun, or are followed by the preposition a.
What is a negative?
>> As with piacere, the person who is the subject of the verb in English is the A negative question or statement is one which contains a word such as not,
indi rect object i n ltalian. never or nothing'. He's not. here', I never eot meIt: She's doing nothing \bout it.
o convenire (literolly)to be advisable
Ti conviene partir Presto. You'd better set offearlY.
Non conviene a nessuno fare cosi. Nobody should behave like that. llnon
> The ltalian word non (mean ing not) is the one you need to make a statement
. mancare (literally) to be missing
ora question negative:
Fammi sapere se ti manca Let me know ifyou need anything.
Non posso venire. I can't come.
Non hai la chiave? Haven'tyou gotthe key?
Mi manchi. lmissyou.
Giuliana non abita qui. Ciuliana doesn't live here
. interessare to beofinterest > | n English not or nt comes after verbs. I n ltalian non comes in front of verbs.
Se ti interessa Puoi venire lf you're interested you can come.
Non i qui. It's not here.
Pensi che interesserebbe a Luigi? Do you think Luigiwould be
Non d venuta. She d idn't come.
i nterested?
I miei non hanno la mocchina. My parents haven't got a car.
. importare to be imPortant Lei non 6 molto alta. She's not very tall.
Non mi importa! I don't carel
ln English we sometimes make sentences negative byadding don't,doesn'tor
Non importa a mio marito. My husband doesn't care. didn't before the main verb, but in ltalian you always j ust add non to the verl:
o rincrescere (literally)to mal<e sorry Positive Negative
Ci rincresce di non Poterlo fare. We're sorrywe can't do it. Lavorano. Thevwork. Non lavorano. They don't work.
Se non ti rincresce vorrei lf you don't mind l'd like to think it Lo vuole. He wants it. Non lo vuole. He doesn't want it.
pensarci su. over.

. restare to be left
l've got fifty euro left.
Mi restano cinquanta euro' N EVER use the verb fa re to translate don't. doesn't or didn't in
A Maria restano solo ricordi. Maria only has memories left. negatives.

KeY Points words such as mi, ti, lo, la, ci, vi, li or le in frontofthe verb, non goes
lf there are
y' lurnthe sentence around when using verbs like piacere' immediately in front of them.
y' Usethe preposition a, oran indirectobjectpronoun. Non I'ho visto. I didn't see it.
Non mi piace il calcio. I don't lil<efootball.
lfyou have a phrase consisting ofnotwith anotherword or phrase, such as nof
now,or notVet, use non before the otherword.
non adesso not now
non ancora not yet
non sempre not always
non dopo sobato not after Saturday
Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv'
Necnrrves t5t

> want to be more emphatic, or to make a contrast, use no instead of

BUT, if you . non...nessuno/nessuna+noun no0rnot...any
non, and put itafterthe otherword. Non c'd nessun bisogno di andare. There's no need to go. or
Sempre no, ma qualche volta. NotALWAYS, but sometimes There isn't any need to go.

> You use no instead ofnon in certain phrases: o non... piO no longer0rnot... any more

. In the Phrase o no (meaning or not) Non escono pii insieme. They're not going out together any
Areyou coming or not? more.
Vieni o no?
che gli piaccia o no whether he likes it or not . non ...n6... n6... neither ,.. nor
o ln the phrase di no after some verbs: Non verranno n6 Chiara Neither Chiara nor Donatella
I don'tthink so. n6 Donatella. are coming.
Credo di no.
Spero di no. I hope not. lf you beg in a sentence with a negative word such as nessuno or niente,
Ha detto di no. He said not. do not use non with the verb that comes after it.
Nessuno E venuto. Nobody came.
p other neqative Phrases Niente 6 cambiato. Nothing has changed.
him. BUT
>> ln English you only use one negative word i n a sentence: t havenJ evgl seen
Non e venuto nessuno.
ln ltalian vou use non followed by another negative word such as niente
Non E cambiato niente.
(meaning nothing), or mai, (meaning never).
Non succede mai. It never hapPens. D I n ltalian you can have more than one negative word following a negative verb.
Non ha detto niente. She d idn't say anything. Non fanno mai niente. They neverdo anything.

) The following are the most com mon phrases of th is kind '
!!qn si confida mai con lqsgu_nq. He never confides in anyone.

o non... mai never 0r not ever D As in English, negative words can be used on their own to answer a question.

Non la vedo mai. I never see ner. Cos'hai comprato? - Niente. What did you buy? - Nothing.
Chiti accompagna? - Nessuno. Who's going with you? - Nobody.

rtp Key points

You put mai between the two parts of the perfect tense' y' To make a verb negative put non in front of it.
Non I'ho mai vista. I've never seen her' y' it is good grammar to fol low non with
untit<e Eng I ish, i n ltal ian
Non ci siamo mai stati. We've never been there'
another negative word.

non ... niente nothi ng or not ...anYthing

NsI hanno fatto nieite' They didn't do anythi ng.

non ... nessuno nobody or not ... anYbodY

Non ho visto nessuno. I d id n't see any[:odY.

non ... da nessuna Parte nowhere or not.... anywnere

Non riuscivo a trovarlo I couldn't fi nd it anvwhere.

da nessuna Parte.

For further explanation ofgrammatical terms, Please see Pages x-xiv'

Quesnorus r53

lfyou are aski ng about a person, place or th i ng usi ng a nou n, put the nou n at
QUESTTONS the end ofthe question.
E partita tua sorella? Has your sister gone?
E bella la calabria? ls Calabria beautiful?
What is a question?
A question is a sentence which is used to ask someone about something and sono buoni gli spaghetti? ls the spaghetti niceT
which often has the verb in front ofthe subject. lfthe English question has a pronoun such as you, they or he in it, you:
o keeD to normal word order
o don'ttranslatethe pronoun into ltalian unlessyou wanttostress it
Different types of questions Parlcno italiano? Do they speak ltalian?
) Some q uestions can be answered by yq5 or no. They are someti mes cal led ves,/no Ha francobolli? Have you got stamps?
questions. When you ask this type ofquestion your voice goes up at the end of E caro? ls it expensive?
the sentence. C'e tempo? ls there time?
ls it raining? Fa I'awocato? ls he a lawyer?
Do vou like olives? Va bene? ls that okay?
You're leavi ng tomorrow?
> lfyou do want to stress you, he, they andso on, use a pronoun in ltalian, and put
> Other questions begin with question words such as why, where and when and it at the end ofthe sentence.
have to be answered with specific information. Parla italianolei? Do vou speak ltalian?
Why are you late? Viene anche lui? ls he coming too?
Where have vou been? llhanno fatto loro? Did thev do it?
When did they leave?
t '") For more information on Pronouns, see page 40.

f How to ask ves/no questions in ltalian z j How to answer yes./no questions

l lf you are expecti ng the answer yes or no, make your voice go up at the end of
> I n English you can answer questions simply by sayi ng yes or no. lf this doesn't
the ouestion.
seem qu ite enough you add a short phrase, usi ng the verb thaLstarts the q uestion.
Do you speak ltalian? Yes, I do.

r(+ Can he swiml Yes, he can.

Have you been to Romel No, I haven't.
In ltalian Vou can turn an adjective ora verb into a question simply by
making yourvoice go up on the last syllable. Are they leaving now? No, they'rc not.

Basta? ls that enough? > In ltalianyou can veryoften answerjustwith sior no.
Piove? ls it raining? Stai bene? - Sr'. Areyou ol(ay?-Yes.
Chiaro? ls that clear? Ti piace? - No. Do you like it? - No.
Buono? ls it nice?
lf you don't want to answer this sort of question with a definite yes or no you
can use ohrases such as:
Penso di si. Ithinkso.
Spero di si. I hope so.
Credo di no. I don't think so.
For further explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv' Spero di no. I hope not.
I54 QuEsroNs Quesrrorus r55

D lf youwant to answer more fully you have to repeat the verb that's i n the ltal ian Question words
t l How to ask questions usino question words
Sai nuotare? - Si, so nuotare. Canyou swim?-Yes, lcan (swim).
ls it raining?-Yes, it's raining OR
D The following are common question words wh ich never change their form:
Piove? - Si, oiove.
Yes. it is. . dove? where?
Capiscil - No, non capisco. Do you understand? - No, I don't Dove obiti? Where do you live?
. come? how?
@ trtotethatthereisnoltalianequivalentforanswersusingshortphrasessuch come si fa? How do you do it?
as yes, I do; No, I don't; No, they hlven't.
m trtote that come can be translated by whatl when it is used to mean pardon?

Scusi, come ha detto? 5orry, what did you say?

KeY Points
y' Makeyourvoice go upattheend ofquestions.
. quando? when
Quando parti? When are you leaving?
y' Putnounsand stressed pronounsattheend ofthequestion'
y' tf youwant to answer more fully, repeat the verb that is used in the o perch6? why
question. Perch€ non vieni? Whv don'tyou come?

[J Note that perchd also means beccuse.

Lo mangio perchi ho fame. l'm eating it because l'm hungry.

chi? who?
chi e? Who is it?
Chi sono? Who are they?

che? what?
Che giorno € oggi? What day is it today?

cosa? what?
Cosa vuoi? What do you want?
che cosa? what?
Che cosa fanno? What are they doing?

t ) For more information on Conjunctions, see page ft7

Remember to shorten che cosa (meanin gwhat) and come (meaning
how,whot)to che cos'and com'when they are followed by a vowel.
What is it?
How did it happen?

Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, Please see Pages x-xiv.

> Some cuestion wordsdo sometimes chanqetheirform.
r56 QuEsfloNs Qursrrorus r57

> You can use quale to ask for precise information alrout people or th ings. lt has zl How to answer questions which use question words
a plural form quali, and a singular form qualwhich is used in front of a vowel:
D lfsomeone asks you a question such as chi e? or Quanto costa?, you answer
o Use qualewith a singularnounwhen you wanttoaskwhich orwhot' usi ng the same verb.
Per quale motivo? Forwhat reason?
chie?-ECiutia. Who's that? -That's Giulia
Ouale stanza preferisci? Which room doyou prefer?
molto. How much does it cost? - lt costs a lot
Quanto costa? - costa
. Usethesingularform qualwhen the nextword startswith avowel. D When you don't l<now the answer you say Non lo so, or Non so followed by the
Qual€ iltuo colore preferito? What's you r favou rite colour? original question.
Qual d la tua cdmera? Which isyourroom?
chi e? - Non lo so. Who's that? - | don't know.
. Use qualiwith plural nouns. Non so chi E. I don't know who it is.

Quali programmi hai? What plans have you got? Quanto costa? - Non lo so. How much does it cost? - | don't know.
Qualisonoituoisportpreferiti? Whichareyourfavouritesports? Non so quanto costa. I don't know how much it costs.

. Use quaf e by itself when you want to askwhich one.

Quale vuoi? Which one would vou like?

. Use quali by itself when you want to ask which ones.

Grammar E>&ra!
I he question word wh4t can be either a pronoun or an adjective. In the sentence What do you want?
Quali sono i migliori? Which ones are the best?
It's a Dronoun and you can use che, cosa, or che cosato translate it.
> You can use quantoorthefeminineform quantato askhow much'.
when what is an adjective, and is used with a noun, for example wh at day is it todav? Vou translate
. Use quanto by itself to askhow much? rr by che, and NOT by cosa, or che cosa.

Quanto costa? How much does it costl che giorno e? What day is it?
Quanta ne vuoi? How much do you want? it translated by come?
[f Note that when whdt? mean s pordon? is

o Use quanto as an adjective with masculine nouns and quantawith r) ror more information on Adjectives and Pronouns, see pages zo and 4o.
lemrnrne noun5.
Quanto tempo hai? How much time haveyou got?
Quanta stoffa ti serve? How much material do vou need?

} Use quantito ask how many. Usequantias an adjectivewith masculine nouns : ] Where does the question word come in the sentence?
and quantewith feminine nouns. > | n Engl ish, question words I i ke who, what, where and when nearly always come
Quanti ne vuoi? How many do you want? atthe beginning ofthe sentence. r
Quanti giorni? How many days? Who are Vou?
Quante notti? How many nights? Who does it belong to?

o For more information on Adjectives, see page 20. Where do you come from?
What do you thinkT
E Note that some verv common questions do not start with the ltalian question
> ltalian question words often come fi rst in the sentence, but this is by no means
word you might expect.
always the case. Here are some exceptions:
Quanti anni hai? How old are you?
Come si chiama? What's he called?
. lfvou want to emphasize the person orthing you are asking about, you can
put a noun or pronoun first.
com'a? What's it like?
Tu chi sei? Who are vou?
Lei cosa dice? What do vou think?

see pages x-xiv.

La mia borsa dov'il Where's mv bag?
Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, please
r58 QuEsroNs QursroHs r59

o lf there is a preposition such as with, for,from or to at the end of the English Questa d la tua macchina, vero? This is vour car, isn't it?
q uestion, you M U ST put the ltal ian preposition at the start ofthe q uestion. Ti piace la cioccolata, vero? You like chocolate, don't vou?

Di dove sei? Where do you come from? > When you expect someone to agree with you by saying no, use vero only
Con chi parlavi? Who were you tall<ing to? Non sono partiti, vero? They haven't gone, have they?
A che cosa serve? What's itfor? Non fa molto male, vero? It doesn't hurt much. does it?

@ Note that when you ask someone what time they do something, the question
starts with a che ora
A che ora ti alzi? What time do you get up? Grammar Extra!
+ For more information on Prepositions, see page V2.
r)uestions such a sWhere are you going? andwhv did he do that? are direct questions.
this type of question is phrased in a more roundabout way, for example:
. When Vou are asl<ing about the colour, make, or type of something Vou must Tell me where you are going.
startthe cuestion with di. Would you mind telling me where you are going?
Di che colore 6? What colour is it? can Vou tell me why he d id that?
What mal<e is it? I'd like to know why he d id that.
Di che marca E?
lwonderwhy he did that.
. When Vou are asking who owns something start the question in ltalian
I lt is tvpe ofquestion is called an ind i rect question. lt is very simple to ask i ndirect questions In
with di.
Italian: you simply add a phrase to the beginn ing of the d irect question, for example, you could
Di chi questa borsa?
E Whose bag is this? .rdd Pud dirmi (meaning Can you tell me) to the question Dove va? (meaning where ore you going?)
Di chi sono quelle scarpe rosse? Who do those red shoes belong to? Pu6 dirmi dove va? Can you tell me whereyou're going?

I lre following are other phrases that introduce an i ndi rect question:
Key points Dimmi... Tell me...
y' Uostquestion words don't change theirform. Vorrei sapere... I'd liketo know...
y' Question words do notalways comefirst in ltalian questions. Mi domando... lwonder...

y' lfthereisa preposition in the ltalian questionyou MUSTput itfi rst.

Non capisco... I don't understand...
Dimmi perch6 l'hai fatto. Tell me why you did it.
Vorrei saDere quanto costa. l'd like to know how much it costs.
Mi domando cosa pensano. I wonder what they think.
@ Ouestions which end with question phrases Non capisco che vuol dire. I don't understand What it means.
) InEnglishyouaddaquestionphrase(likearen'tyou?,isn'tit?,didn'tlandsoon)
to the end ofa sentence to check that an idea you have is true. You expect the
person you're speaking to will agree by saying yes (or no, if your idea is negative),
This is the house, isn't it?
You won't tell anyone, willyou?

l I n ltal ian, when you expect someone to sav yes to your idea, you put either no,

orvero at the end ofthe sentence and mal<e yourvoice go up as you say the word.
Mi scriverai, no? You'llwrite to me, won'tyou?
Vieni anche tu, no? You're com ing tob, aren't you?
Hai finito, no? You've fi nished, haven't you?

Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv.

Aovenes r5r

o if the adjective ends in -e for both masculi ne and femi nine, just add -mente
Adjective Adverb Meaning
veloce velocemente quickly, fast
What is an adverb? corrente correntemente fluentlV
An adverb is a word used with verbs to g ive information on where, when or
how an action takes place, for exam ple, here, today, quickly. An adverb can also Parla correnten0en!e I'italiano. She spealcs ltalian fluentlv.
add information toadjectivesand otheradverbs,forexample,extremely quick,
very quickly. o if the adjective ends in -le, or -re, you drop the final e before adding -mente
Adjective Adverb Meaning
facile facilmente easily
How adverbs are used particolare particolarmente particularly
) You useadverbs:
Puoi farlo facilmente. You can easily do it.
o with verbs: HeSngyglthere; She smiled hlppilv. Non d particolarmente buono. It's not particularly nice.
o with adjectives: She's rlther ill; I feel a lot hoppier.
o with other adverbs: He drives reallv slowlv; l'm very well.
D Adverbs are also used at the start of a sentence to g ive an idea of what the speaker
Don't try to make adverbs agree with anything - they always keep the
is thinl<ing or feel ing.
same form.
Luckilv, nobody was hurt.
Surprisinqlv, he made no objection.
.) lrregular adverbs
> ln ltalian there are two kinds of adverbs which do not behave i n the way j ust
How to form adverbs described. TheV are:

p the basics o adverbs which are completelydifferentfrom the adjective

o adverbs which are exactly the same as the masculine adjective
l In Engl ish you can mal<e an adverb from the adjective slow by add ing -ly. You can
do a similar kind ofthing in ltalian. ) The adverb related to buono (mean i ng good) is bene (mean i ng well). The adverlr
related to cattivo (meaningbod) is male (meaningbadly).
> Here are some guidelines:
Porlano bene I'italiano. They spea k lta ia n pfell.
o if the adjective ends i n -o in the mascul i ne, take the fem in ine form, end ing
Ho giocato male. I played badly.

in -a. and add -mente

> Words such as fd$and hard canbe both adjectives and adverbs:
Masculine adjective Feminine adjective Adverb Meaning
a fast car
lento lenta lentamente slowly
You're driving too fast.
fortunato fortunata fortunatamente luckily
a hard question
He works very hard.
Cammina molto lentAmgn:le. He wall<s very slowly.
Fortunatannenllg non ha piovuto. Luckily, it didn't rain. > The same kind of thi ng happens in ltalian: some adverbs are the same as the
masculine adjective. The following are the most common ones:
o chiaro (adjective: cledr; adverb'. cleorly)
ll significato E chiaro. The meaning is clear
For further explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv. Giulia parla chiaro. Ciulia speaks clearly,
162 ADVERBS Aovenes 163

o giusto (adjective: right, correct; adverb'. correctly, right) Making comparisons using adverbs
il momento giusto. the right moment. > n Engl ish, there are two major ways of compari ng things
| using an adverb.
Marco ha risposto oiusto. Marco answered correctlv.
. To express the idea of 'more'or 'less'you either put -er on the end of the
o vicino (adjective: nedr, close; adverb: nearby, near here) adverb, ormoreorless infrontof it: earlig!,soongI,more/less of,ten.Thisway
E molto vicino. He's very close, of comparing things is called the comparative.
I miei amici abitano vicino. My friends live nearby.
there swimming pool near here?
. To express the idea of 'the most' or'the least' Vou either put-est on the end,
C'E una piscina vicino? ls a
or most or leost in front of it: earligg soonest, most/least often. Th is wav of
. diritto (adjective: strdight; adverb: straight on) comparing things is called the superlative.
ll bordo non E diritto. The edge is not straight.
Siamo andati sempre diritto. We kept straight on.
t ] Comparatives and superlatives of adverbs
o certo (adjective: sure, certoin: adv erb'. of course)
l'm not sure.
> ln ltalian you make comparisons expressing the idea of 'more'or 'less'by
Non ne sono certo.
putting pii (mean ing more) and meno (mean ing less) in front of the adverb.
Vieni stasera? - Certo! Are you coming this evening?
- Of course! pru spesso more often
pii lentamente more slowly
o sof o (adj ectiv e: alone, I o nelv: adv erb'. only)
meno velocemente less quickly
Si sente solo. He feels lonely
L'ho incontrata solo due volte. l've only met her twice. D You use di to sav thdn.

o forte (a dj e ctiv e'. str o n g, h a rd i adv erb : fa st, ho r d) Correva pii forte di me. He was running faster than me.
E pi! forte di me. He's strongerthan me. Viene meno spesso di lui. She comes less often than he does.
Correva forte. He was running fast. Luca parla pii correttamente Luca speaks English more correctly
l'inglese di me. than I do.
o mofto (adjective: d lot of; adverb: o lot,very, very much)
Ha agito pi! prudentemente She's acted more sensibly than I have.
Non hanno molto denaro. TheV haven't got a lot of moneY
di me.
Quel quadro mi piace molto. I like that picture a lot.
Loro lavorano pii sodo di prima. They work harder than before.
o poco (adjective: little, notvery much;adverb notvery much,notvery)
> In ltalian you can make comparisons expressing the idea of 'the most'or
Hai mangiato poco riso. You haven't eaten very much rice.
'the least'by putting piD (meaning nore) or meno (meaning less) in front
Viene in ufficio poco spesso. she doesn't come to the oflicevery often.
of the adverb and by putting di tutti (meaning of all) after it.
a Note that although these adverbs lool< | ike adjectives, they
their form.
N EVER change
Cammina pi! piano ditutti. She walks the slowest (of all).
ghafattomenovolentieriditutti. Hedid itthe leastwillingly.
Mia madre ci veniva piri spesso My mother came most often.
Points KeY di tutti.
y' vougenerally make adverbs byadding -menteto adjectives' t I For more informotion on Adjectives see plge 20.
y' ndverbs neveragree with anything.
y' Some adverbs havethe sameform asthe masculine adjective.

Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv'

Aovenes 165

p lrreqular comparatives and superlatives of adverbs

Grammar Ertra!
>> somevervcommonttalianadverbshaveirregularcomparativesandsuperlatives. , that something is getting better and better,worse and worse, slower and slower, and so on,
Here are the commonest oneS. ",ry
, r' sem pre with the comparative adverb.

Adverb Meaning comparative Meaning Superlative Meaning Le cose vanno sempre meglio. Things are going betterand better.
well meglio better meglio di tutti best (ofall) Mio nonno sta sempre peggio. My grandfather's getting worse and worse.
male badly peggro worse peggio di tutti worst (of all) Cammina sempre pii lento. He's wall<ino slower and slower.

molto a lot ptu more pi! di tutti most (of all)

not mucn meno less meno di tutti least (of all)


Key points
Loro hanno giocato meglio di noi' They played betterthan us.
y' To express the idea of 'more'and 'most' with adverbs use pii.
Si sono comPortati peqgio del solito' They behaved worse than usual'
y' To express the idea of 'less'and 'least'use meno.
Ho speso pii
di dieci sterline' I spent more than ten Pounds.
y' t)sedito mean'than'.
Andrea ha giocato meqlio di tutti. Andrea plaved best of all.

p pii di.... meno di...: dipi0, dimeno

rather different wavs.
o You use pir) di and meno di to say morethon and lessthon when comparlng
things where you would use thdn in English.
Paolo le piace Pi! di Marco' She likes Paolo more than Marco.
Leggo meno di te. Iread less than Vou.
Non guadagna Pii di me. He doesn't earn more than I do.
Pesa meno di Luca. He weighs less than Luca.

. lf there is no than in the sentence in English use di piir and di meno'

Costa di piB. It costs more.
I I i ke that one less.
Quello mi piace di meno.
Ho speso di meno. I spent less.

o di piiand di meno are also used to mean rnost and ledst'

la cosa che temeva di piit the thing she feared most
quello che mi piace di meno the one I like least
di meno.

Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xlv'

r55 ADVERBS Aovenes 167

Some common adverbs

| 1-l Adverbs to use in evervdav conversation These adverbs are such common words that it,s a qood idea to learn
> Just as i n English, you can often answer a question si mply by using an adverb. as many as possl[rle.
Vieni alla festa? - Forse. Are Vou coming to the Party? - Mavbe.
Deve proprio partire? - Do you really have to go? -
Si, purtroppo. Yes, unfortunately. / Adverbsthattellvou HOW MUCH
) The following are particularly useful adverbs: > molto, poco, troppo and tanto are used with adjectives, verbs and other
. ecco here
Ecco I'dutobus! Here's the bus! . Use mof to to mean very or very much.

Ecco la sua birra! H ere's you r beer! Sono moltq stanca. l'm very tired.
Ti piace? - 5i, molto. you like it? -Yes, very much.
[J trtotethatyou can sayecco (meaning hereyou are)when you hand somebody
Ora mi sento molto meglio. I feel much better now.
somethinq. Ecco combines with the pronouns lo, la, li and le to mean Here she
is,Herethey oreand so forth: . use pocoto mean notvery ot not. very much
Dov'd Carla? - Eccola! Where's Carla? - Here she isl Questa mela E poco buona. This apple isn'tvery nice.
Non vedo i libri -Ah, eccoli! I can't see the books - oh, here they are! Mi piacciono poco. I don't like them very much.
Eccolo! Here he is! Ci vado poco spesso. I don't go there very often.
o anche too . Usetanto tomean soor so much.
E venuta anche mia sorella. My sister came too. Questo libro A tanto noioso. This book is so boring.
o certo certainlY; ofcourse Tu mi manchitanto. I missyou so much.
Ofcourse you can. Mi sento tanto meglio. I feel so much better.
Certo che puoi.
Certo che si Certainly. . use troppo to mean too or too much.

o cosi so, like this, like that E tropDo caro. It's too expensive.
icel Porlano troppo. Theytalktoo much.
E cosi simpotica! 5he's so n

It opens like this. Le sei? E troppo presto. 5ix o'clock? That's too earlv
5i apre cosi.
Non si fa cosi. You don't do it like that. {1'] tlote that molto, poco, troppo and tanto can also be used as adjectives.
When you use them as adverbs they do NOT agree wlth anyth ing.
o davvero reallY
E successo dawero. It really happened.
o forse perhaPs, maYlre
Forse hanno ragione. Maybe they're right.
. abbastanza quite, enough
E abbastanza alta. She's quite tall.
o proprio really
Non studia abbastanza. He doesn't study enough.
Sono pIqPIle stanca. l'm really tired.
. appena just, onlyjust
. purtroppo unfortunately lJho appena fatto. l've just done it.
Purtroppo non posso venire' Unfortunately I can't come'
lJindirizzo ere appena leggibile. The address was only j ust leg ible.

Forfurtherexplanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv'

168 Aovenss Aovenes r59

piuttosto quite, rather o prima before

Fa piuttosto caldo oggi. It's quite warm today. Prima non lo sapevo. I didn't knowthat before.
E piuttosto lontano. It's rather a long way. o spesso often
quasi nearly Vanno spesso in centro. They often go into town.
Sono quasi pronta. l'm nearly ready. o subito at once
Hanno qlrasi finito. They've nearly fi nished. Fallo subito! Do it at once.
o tardi late
thattellvou Oggi mi sono alzata tardi. I got up late today.
lil Adverbs WHEN
o adesso now
Non posso farlo adesso. I can't do it now. 5 I Adverbs that telt you WHERE
ancora still, vet
. le there
Sei ancora a letto? Are you still in bed? Vienivia di li. Come away from there.

Silvia non E ancora arrivata. Silvia's not here yet. o laggii down there, overthere
domani tomorrow E laqqii da qualche parte. It's down there somewhere.
E apparso laggii in lontananza. Itappeared overthere in the distance.
Ci vediamo domani. See you tomorrow.
o lassi uDthere
dopo after, later
un paesino lass0 in montagna a little village up there in the mountains
Ci vediamo dopo. See you later.
. li there
gii already
Mettilo li. Put it there.
te l'ho gii detto. l've already told you.
a qua nere
ieri yesterday
Eccomiqua! l'm herel
leri ha piovuto molto. It rained a lotyesterday.
o qui here
mai never, ever Vieni qui. Come here.
Non sono mai stato in America. l've never been toAmerica.
sei mai stato in America? Have you ever been to America? {n Note that li has an accent to distingu ish it from the pronoun li (meani ng them)
and li has an accent to distinguish it from la (mean ing the, her or it).
oggi today
Oogi andiamo al mare. We're going to the seaside today. r:) For more information on Aftictes Ind Pronouns, see pogesrc and 4o.

ora now o ci there

Ora cosa facciamo? Whatare we going to do now? ci sei mai stato? Have you ever been there?
poi then . dappertuttoeverywhere
E poi che cos'E successo? And then what happened) Ho cercato dappertutto. I looked everywhere.
presto soon, early o lontano a long way away
Arriveri presto. He'll be here soon, Abita lontano. He lives a long way away.
Mi alzo sempre presto. I always get up early. o sotto underneath, downstairs
Porta una giacca con una He's wearing a jacket with a t-sh irt
maglietta sotto. underneath.
Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv.
ll bagno C sotto. The bathroom is downstairs.
I7O ADVERBS Aovrnns t7"t

soPra up, on top Where to put adverbs

qui sopra up here
lldizionario E sopra quella pila The dictionary is on top of that pile lr--l ndverbs with verbs
dilibri. ofbooks. > You normally putadverbs immediatelyaftertheverb.
fuori outside Non posso farlo adesso. I can't do it now.
Ti aspetto fuori. l'll wait for you outside. Parli bene l'italiano. You speak ltalian well.
Non torno pii. l'm notcoming back.
dentro inside
Vai dentro. Go inside.
D lfyouwanttoemphasizetheadverbyoucanputitatthebeginningofthesentence
Ora non posso. I can't do it just now.
indietro back Prima non lo sapevo. I didn't know that before.
Torniamo indietro. Let's turn back.
davanti atthefront
Voglio sedermi davanti. I want to sit at the Front.
In Engl ish adverbs can come between the subject and the verb:
It often changes. Adverbs can N EVER come in this position in ltalian.

| 9l Adverbs consisting of more than one word Marco viene sempre. Marco always comes.
D In English you sometimes use a phrase instead of a single word to give Di solito vince Jessica. Jessica usually wins.
information about time, place and so on, and the same is true in ltalian.
. una volta once D When you are using adverbs such as mai (meaning never), sempre (meaning
una volta la settimana once a week alwoys), gii (mean i n g al reo dy), pi i (m ean i n g ag oi n) and appena (mean i n g just)
with verbs in the perfect tense, you put the adverb between the two parts of
. duevolte twice the verb:
Ho provato due volte. Itried twice. Non sono mai stata a Milano. I've neverbeen to Milan.
o moltevolte manytimes E semDre venuto con me, He always came with me.
fho fatto molte volte. l've done it many times. L'ho gii letto. l've already read it.

o da qualche parte somewhere t ) For more information on the Perfecttense, see poge rc8.
Ho lasciato le chiavi da qualche l've left my keys somewhere. /
parte. zl Adverbs with adjectives and adverbs
o qualchevolta sometimes > Put the adverb in front ofthe adjective or otheradverb, as you do in English.
Qualche volta arriva in ritardo. 5he sometimes arrives late. Fa troppo freddo. It's too cold.
o di solito usuallV Vai pii piano. Go more slowly,

Di solito arrivo prima. I usually get here earlier.

For further explanation ofgrammatical terms, Please see pages x-xiv'
Pnrnosrrrolrs t73

The prepositions used in ltalian may not be whatyou expect, forexample,

PREPOSITIONS the ltalian preposition in is used for both the following:
I miei sono in ltalia. My parents are in ltaly.
I miei vanno in ltalia. My parents are going to ltaly
What is a preposition?
A preposition is one word such as ot, for, with, into or from, or words such as ) You sometimes need to use a preposition in ltalian when there is no preposition
in front of or near to, which are usually followed lry a noun or a pronoun' in English.
Prepositions show how people and things relate to the rest ofthe sentence' Hai bisogno di qualcosa? Do you need anything?
for exampf e, S he's ot home; tt's fuyou;You'll get into trouble; lt's in front of you. Chiedi a Lidia cosa vuole. Ask Lid ia what she wants.

1) For more information on Prepositions ofter verbs, see plge u3

Using prepositions rw
f where they go When you look up a verb in the dictionary, take note oFany preposition
that is shown with the translation.
> Prepositions are used in front of nouns and pronouns to show the relationship
between the noun or pronoun and the rest ofthe sentence' congratularsi con to congratulate
We're going to Rome. dire qualcosa a qualcuno to tell someone something
Andiamo a Roma.
Vieni con me. Comewith me.

>' In English you can separate a preposition from its noun or Pronoun and
part ofa sentence, for example, Is I prepositions that combine with the definite article
it at the end ofa question, or at the end of
Who were you tolking to?; the people I came with.
D When the prepositions a, di, da, in and su are followed by the definite article
- il, la, i, le and so on, thev combine with it to make one word.
) Inltalian prepositionsalwaysgo infrontof anotherword and neverattheend
+il +lo +la +l' +l + gli +le
ofa question or Part ofa sentence:
Who did vou come with? a al allo alla all' al agli alle
Con chi sei venuto?
di del dello della dell' dei degli delle
la ragazza alla quale ho dato la the girl I gave the key to
da dal dallo dalla dall' dai dagli dalle
tn nel nello nella nell' nel negli nelle
sul sullo sulla sull' sul sugli sulle
p which preposition to use

>> | n ish certai n adjectives and verbs are always followed by particu lar
En g I
r) For more information on Articles, see page lo l,
prepositions, for example, hoppy with, ofraid qL tllkto, smile 0t The same is true
Si guardava allo specchio. He was looking at himself in the mirror.
in ltalian. la cima del monte the top ofthe mountai n
sono deluso del voto che ho preso. I'm disappointed with the mark | 9ot.
Sto dai miei. I live with my parents.
Andiamo in ltalia. We're going to ltaly' Cos'hai nella tasca? What have you got in your pocket?

EJ Note thatwhen a preposition is used in front ofthe -ing form in English, a I soldisono sul tdvolo. The money's on the table.
preposition is used in front ofthe infinitive (the -re form ofthe verb) in ltalian.

E andato via senza salutarci. He went away without sayinq

goodbye to us. y' | ta I i a n p re pos i t i o n s a r. r, *"l"rurll 1l?o n, o, n orh e r wo rd.
Sono stufo di studiare. l'm fed up of studying. y' Thepreposition used in ltalian maynot bewhatyou expect.

y' ttalian prepositions combi ne with the defi n ite article to make one word.

For further explanation ofgrammatical terms, Please see Pages x-xiv'

r74 PREPOSTIONS PReeosmorus r75

a, di, da, in, su and per Use a to mean at with times and festivals.
alle cinque at five o'clock
Ea a mezzogiorno at midday
) a is used with nouns to tell you where
al fine settimana at the weekend
alla porta at the door a Pasqua at Easter
al sole in the sun at Christmas
a Natale
all'ombra in the shade
Vivo al terzo piano the third floor
E a letto,
I live on
He's in bed rw
alla rodio on the radio Remem lrer that q uestions beg i n ni n g What time ... must start with the
preposition a in ltalian.
alla tivi .; onTV
> Use a to mean to when you're tall<ing about qoinq to a place. A che ora parti? What time are you leaving ?

Andiamo al cinema? Shallwe go to the cinemaT . Use a with months to mean in.
Sei mai stato a NewYork? Have Vou ever been to NewYork? Sono nata a mdggio. lwas born in May.

@ Note that if the place is a country, use in in ltalian"

Andr6 in Germania quest'estate. l'm going to Germany th is su m mer. a is used with nouns to tellVou how.
> Useato mean dtwhenyou'retalking aboutbeing ata Dlace. a piedi on foot
Devo essere all'aeroporto alle dieci. I've got to be at the a i rport at ten. a mano !y hand
Scendo alla prossima fermata. l'm getting off at the next stoP. . apocoaPoco little Dy little
Luigi Ea casa. Luigi is at home. . with flavours.
Use a
> Use a to mean in when you're talking about being in a town. un gelato alla fragola a strawberry ice cream
Abitano a Bologna. They live in Bologna. una torta al cioccolato a chocolate cake
gli spaghetti al pomodoro spaghetti with tomato sauce
@ wote that if the place is a country, use in in ltalian.
Vivo in Scozia. llive in Scotland. ) a is used with nouns and Dronouns after some verbs.
Vive in Conada. He lives in Canada. |jho datoa Selene. I gave it to Selene.

> Use a to mean owoy when you're talking aboutdistances. no.

Piace a me, ma a mia sorella I like it, but my sister doesn't.

a tre chilometri da qui three kilometres awav from here A che cosa stai pensandol Whatareyou thinking about?

a due ore di distanza in macchina two hours awav by car 0 ror more informotion on Prepositions after verbs, see poge w3.

[J ruote that owly canbe left out oFthis kind of phrase, but a has to be used in
[J trtote that the unstressed pronouns mi, ti, gli, le, ci and vi come in front of
Italian. the verb and are not used with a.
lJalbergo E ad un chilometro The hotel is a kilometre from the Ti ha parlato? Did she speak to you?
dalla spioggia. beach.
cliel'ho dato. I gave it to her.
l a is used with nouns to tellVou when. Mi piace. I like it.
volte at times
Q For more information on lndirect pronouns, see poge 46.
a temPo on time
alla fine in the end ) aisusedwiththeinfinitive(the-reformoftheverb)tosaywhatyourpurposeis.
Sono uscita a fare due passi. I went out for a little walk

For further explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv. Sono andati a fare il bagno. They've gone to h"ue ,*it.
176 PREpOSTnONS Pneeosrrrorus t77

) diis used after milione(meaning million), and words forapproximate numbers, such
as un migf iaio(meaning obout o thousand) and una ventina(meaning obouttwenty).
D di is used to talkaboutwhoorwhatsomething belongsto.
un milione di dollari a million dollars
il nome del ristorante the name ofthe restaurant un migliaio di persone about a thousand people
il capitano della squadra the captain ofthe team una ventina di m4cchine about twenty cars
E di Marco. It belongs to Marco.
Di chi E? Whose is it?
) di is used after certain verbs and adiectives.
Ti ricordi di Laura? Do you remember Laura?
> Use dito referto the person who made somethinq.
sono tentando di concentrarmi. I'm trying to concentrate.
un quadro di Picasso a picture Dy Picasso
Learancesono ricche divitaminaC. Oranges are rich in vitamin C
una commedia di Shakespeare a play!y Shakespeare Era pieno di gente. Itwasfullof people
un film di Fellini a Fellinifilm
'Q For more information on Prepositions after verbs ond Adjeaives, see pages 43 and zo.
) In English, ownership can be shown lry using a noun with's, ors'added to it,
for example th e child's name, the boytteacher.In ltalian you change the word.
order and use di to translate th is sort of ohrase. rw
la macchina di mia madre my mother's car Remember that some verbs are single words in English, but in ltalian
(literally: the car of my mother) they are phrases end ing with di, for example, aver bisogno di(mean ing
la casa dei miei amici myfriends'house to need) and avervoglia di(meaning towlnt).
l'Otello diVerdi Verdi's Othello Non ho bisoono di niente. I don't need anything.
4 For more information on Possessive odjectives and Possessive pronouns, see poges Non ho voqlia di andare a letto. I don't want to go to bed.
34 lnd 52.

) In English, when there is a connection between two things, one noun can be
di is used with nouns to saywhen.
used in front of another, for example the car keys, the bothroom window. In ltalian didomenica on Sundays
you change the word order and use di to translate this sort ofphrase. di notte at night
iltavolo della cucina the kitchen table di giorno durinq the day
il periodo delle vacanze the holiday season ) Use dito mean in with seasons and parts.of the dav.
il professore di inglese the English teacher d'estate rn summer
il campione del mondo theworld champion d'inverno in winter
) When a noun such ascotton, silver, paperisused as an adjective, use di in ltalian
[| wote that in can also be used with seasons, for example, in estate(meaning
una maglietta di cotone a cottonT-shirt in summer).
una collana d'argento a silver necklace . di mattina in the morning
dei tovaglioli di carta paper napkins ' di sera in the evening
) di sometimes means flrom.
) di is used in comparisons to mean thdn.
E di Firenze. He's from Florence. E pir) alto dime. He's tallerthan me.
Di dove sei? Where are you from? E pii brava dilui. 5he's betterthan him.
) di is used to say what something contains orwhat it is made of. ) Use dito mean in aftera superlative.
un gruppo di studenti a group ofstudents ilpii grande del mondo the biggest in the world
un bicchiere di vino a glass ofwine la pii brava della classe the best i n the class
E fatto di plostica. It's made o,f plastic. il migliore d'ltalia the best in ltaly

Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv. Q For more informotion on Superlotives, see page 27
r78 PREPosrroNs Pareosmons r79

) da is used totalkabouthowlong something has been happening.

. Use dawith oeriods of time to mean for.
E pi!bravo di tutti and E pii brava di tutti are ways ofsaying Vivo qui da un anno. l've been living hereforayear.
He's the best and she's the best.
. Use dawith ooints in time to mean since.
da allora since then
) del, della, dei, delle and so on (di combined with the definite article) are used Ti aspetto dalle tre. l've been waiting for you since three
to mean some. o'clock.
C'era della gente che aspettava. There were some people waiting.
Vuoi dei biscotti? Would you like some biscuits?
El wote that the present tense is used in ltalian to talk aboutwhat has been
happening for a period, or since a certain time.
) di is used With the infinitive (the -re form of the verb) when it is used as a noun. E a Londra da martedi. He's been in London sinceTuesdav.
Ho paura divolare. I'm afraid of flying.
* For more informotion on the Presenttense, see plge 69.
Non ho voglia di mangiare. I don'tfeel like eating

) da is used with passive verbs to mean by.

Ea" dipinto da un grande artista painted Dya greatartist

) da is used with places to mean flrom. I ladri sono stati catturati dalla The thieves were caughtDythe
a tre chilometri da qui three kilometres from here
polizia. police.

Viene da Roma. Hecomesfrom Rome. * For more information on the Passive, see page fig .

) Use da to talk about getting, jumping or falling off something, or getting or

P da is used with the infinitive (the -reform of the verb) when you're talking
falling out of something.
about things to do.
lsobel i scesa dal treno. lsobel got offthe train.
C'E molto da fare. There's lots to do.
ll vaso E cascato dal terrazzo. The plant pot fell
Affthe balcony.
E un film da vedere. It's a film that you've got to see.
llgatto E saltato dal muro. The cat jumped offthe wall.
Non c'd niente da mangiare. There's nothing to eat.
E scesa dalla mocchina. She got out ofthe car.
E, da bere? And what would vou like to drink?
Sono cascato dal letto. I fell out ofbed.
) | n English you can say what something is used for by putting one noun in front
@ Notethatda... a... meansfrorn... t0...
of another, for exam ple a racing car, an evenina dress. In ltalian change the word
da cima a fondo from top to bottom orderand use da.
dalle otto alle dieci from eight to ten
un nuovo paio di scarpe da corsa a new pairofrunning shoes
> use da with andare to say you're going to a shop, orto someone's house or Paolo non ha il costume da Paolo hasn't got his swimming
workplace. bagno. trunks.
Vado dal giornalaio. I'm going to the paper shop. ) da is used when describing someone or something.
andato dal dentista. He's goneto the dentist's.
una ragazza daqliocchi azurri
a girl with blue eyes
Andiamo da Gabriele? Shallwe go to Gabriele's house?
un vestito da cento euro a dress costing a hundred euros
> Use da with essere to say you're at a shop, orat someone's house orworkplace.
L da is used with nouns to mean ds.
Laura E dal parucchiere. Laura's at the hairdresser's.
Da bambino avevo paura del buio. As a child I was afraid of the dark.
Sono da Anna. l'm atAnna's house.

For further explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv.

18o PREPosrnoNs Pneposrrrorus r8r

E.lin El Note that you can also use di with seasons (d'estate) and a with months
(ad ottobre).
) Usein with essere to mean in when you are talking about where someone or
someth ing is - except in the case of towns. ) in is used with oeriods of time to mean in.
Vive in Canada. He lives in Canada. L'ha fatto in sei mesi. He did it in six months.
E nel cassetto. It's in the drawer. Puoi finirlo in trenta minuti. You can finish it in thirty minutes.
@ trtotethat in the caseoftownsyou usea in ltalian.
) in is used with modes of transport to mean by
Abitano a Bologna. They live in Bologna.
Siamo andati in treno. WewentWtrain.

You don't use in with adverbs such as qui (meaning here) and li (meaning there)
E meglio andare in bici.

in is used to say howsomething is done.

It's betterto go Dy bil<e.

Camminavano in silenzio. Theywalked in silence

E scritto in tedesco. lt's written in Cerman.

Use in with andare to mean to when you're talking about where someone or
something ls going to, except in the case of towns.
) Use su to mean on.
And16 in Germdnia quest'estate. l'm going to Cermany this summer.
ll tuo cellulare 6 sul pavimento. Your mobile phone is on the floor.
E andato in ufficio. He's gone to the office.
Mettilo sulla sedia. Put it on the chair.
fl ruote that in the case of towns you use a in ltalian. E sulla sinistra. It's on the left.
Sei mai stato a NewYork? Have vou ever been to NewYorl(?
[f trlote that sul giornale means in the poper

rtp lJho letto sul giornale. I read it in the paper.

essere in vacanza means to be on holidav,andare in vacanza means

to go on holiday. rw
qui su and qua su mean up combines with su to make one word
D Use in to mean into when you're talking about getting lnto something, or with a double s: lassD (meaning up there).
putting something into something.
Siamo qui su. We're up here.
5u, sali in mocchina. Come on, get into the car Eccoli lassir. They're up there.
Come sono penetrati in banca? How did they get into the bank?
fha gettato in acqua. He threw it into the water

@ ruote that in is also used with verbs such as dividere (meaning to divide) and ) su is used with tooics to mean dbout.
tagliare (meaning to cut). un libro suqli animali a book about animals
L'ha tagliato in due. She cut it into two
su is used with numbers
* For more information on Prepositions afterverbs, see poge u3. . totalkaboutratios
) Use in to mean in with Vears, seasons and months. in tre casi su dieci in three cases out often
nel duemilasei in two thousand and six due giornisu tre two davs out of three
in estate in summer
in ottobre in October
o with an articleand a numberto indicatean approximateamount
E costato sui cinquecento euro. lt cost around five hundred euros.
Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv. E sulla trentina. 5he's about thirty.
r8z Pneposrrrorus Pnenosmorus r83

LqlPer Some other common prepositions

) peroften means for. f One-word and two-word prepositions
Questo E per te. This isforyou. ) As in English, ltalian prepositions can be one word or consist of more than one
E troppo difficile per lui. It's too difficultfor him. word, for exam ple vicino a (mean i ng near) and prima di (mean i ng ofter).
lJhocompratoDertrenta centesimi. I bought itforthirtycents. The following are some of the commonest prepositions in ltal ian:
Ho guidato pertrecento chilometri. drove for three hundred ki lometres
o prima di before, until
@ ruote that when you are talking about how long you have been doinq prima di me before me
something you use da. prima delle sette before seven o'clock
Aspetto da un pezzo. l've been waiting for a while Non sari pronto prima delle otto. ltwon't be ready untileight o'clock.
l per is used with destinations.
ilvolo per Londra theflightto London
il treno per Roma the train to Rome
When a preposition includes a or di remember to combine these words
) per is used with verbs of movement to mean through.
with definite articles such as and le.
I ladri sono entrati per la finestra. The burglars got in through the
Siamo passati per Birmingham. We went through Birmingham. [l ruote that prima di, like many other ltalian prepositions, can be used in front
ofan infinitive (the -re form ofthe verb).
) per is used to indicate how somethi ng is transported or communicated.
Dobbiamo informarci We need to find out before startinc
Der Posta Dy post
prima di cominciare. or before we start.
per via aerea Dy airmail
per posta elettronica Dy email o dopo after
per ferrovia !y rail Ci vediamo dopo le vacanze. See you after the holidays
per telefono byoron the phone DoDo aver mandato l'sms ha After send ing orafter she'd sent the
spento il telefonino. text she switched off the Dhone.
@ ruote that per is NOT used when referring to means of transportfor people,
in is used instead. a Note that dopo di is used with pronouns.
in macchina qY car Loro sono arrivati dopo di noi. They arrived after us.
) per is used to explain the reason for something. E) For more information on Pronouns, see page 40.
Uho fatto per aiutarti. ldid itto helpyou.
|Jabbiamo fatto per ridere. We did it for a laugh. finoa until,asfaras
Ci sono andato Der abitudine. I went out ofhabit, Resto fino a venerdi. I'm staying until Friday.
Non I'ho fatto per pigrizia. I didn't do it out of laziness. Vengo con te fino alla posta. I'll come with you as far as the post
E successo per errore. It happened by mistake.
) per is used in some very common phrases. E Note that Fino a quando? (meaning literally until when)is used to ask How long?
uno per uno one by one Fino a quando puoi rimanere? How lonq can you stay?
giorno per giorno day by day
una Dervolta
due per tre
one at a
two times three
time rrp
When a preposition includes a or di remember to combine these words
with definite articles such as il. la and le.
Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv.
r84 PREPosrroNs Pneeosrrrorus t85

. fra in,between,among o davantia infrontolopposite

Torno fra un'ora. l'll be back in an hour. Era seduta davanti a me nell'aereo. She was sitting in front of me in the
Era seduto fra il padre e lo zio. He was sitting between his father Dtane.
and his uncle. la casa davanti alla mia the house opDosite mine
Fra i soprawissuti c'era anche The pilot was among the survivors.
il pilota. Ttp
a Note that fra di is used with oronouns. When a preposition includes a or di remem ber to com bine these words
with definite articles such as il. laand le.
Fra di noi ci sono alcuni mancini. There are some left-handers amonq us.

+ For more information on Pronouns, see page 40.

. dietro behind
dietro la porta behind the door
rtp @ Note that dietro di is used with pronouns.
fra poco means in a shorttime,or soon. Sono seduti dietro di me. They're sitting behind me
Lo sapremo fra Doco. We'll soon know. E) For more information on Pronouns, see page 40.

. tra is an alternative form of fra, and can be used in exactly the same way
o sotto under, below
tra un'ora in an hour
ll gatto si E nascostosotto il letto. Thecat hid underthe bed.

tra poco 500n

' cinque gradi sotto zero five degrees lrelow zero

tra il padre e lo zio between hisfatherand his uncle . sopra over, above, on top of
tra i feriti among the injured le donne sopra i sessant'anni women over sixty
cento metri soDra il livello del mare a hundred metres above sea level
durante during
sopra l'armadio on top ofthe cupboard
durante la notte during the night
con with, to
o accantoa nextto
Siediti accanto a me. Sit next to me.
Ci and16 con lei. l'llgowith her.
Hai parlato con lui? Have you spoken to him?

senza without
When a preposition includes a or di remem ber to com b ine these words
Esci senza cappotto? Are you going out without a coat?
with definite articles such as il.laand le.
@ wote that senza di is used with pronouns.
Non posso vivere senza di lui. I can't live without him. o verso towards, around
correva verso l'uscita. He was running towards the exit
Q For more informotion on Pronouns, see page 4c..
Arriverd verso le sette. l'll arrive around seven.
. contro against
wote that verso di is used with pronouns.
Sono contro la caccia. l'm aqainst hunting.
Correvano verso di lui, Theywere running towards him.
@ wote that contro di is used with pronouns.
* ror more information on Pronouns, see plge 4c..
Non ho niente contro di lui. l've got nothing against him.
. a causa di because of
lJaeroporto E chiuso a causa della The airport is closed because offog.
Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv. nebbia.
t86 Pneposrrorus

When a preposition includesa ordi rememberto combinethesewords
with definite articles such as il,la and le. What is a conjunction?
A conjunction is a word such as and, but, or, so, if and because, that links two
words or phrases, or two parts of a sentence, for exam ple, Diane ond I hove been
o malgrado in spite of
friends for yeors; I Ieft because I was bored.
Malorado tutto siamo ancora We're stillfriends in spite of
amici. everything.

e, ma, anche, o, perch6, che and se

p Preposition oradverbl ) These common ltalian conjunctions correspond to common English conj unctions,
) In English some words can be used both as adverbs, which describe verbs, such as and and but. However thev are sometimes used differently from their
and as prepositions, which go in front of nouns and pronouns. English counterparts, for example, Ma no! (literally, But no! ) means Nol, or
Of course notl
) The word before is an adverb in the sentenceWe've met before and a preposition
in the phrase before dinner. L Shown belowarethecommon ltalian conjunctionse, anche, o, ma, perch€,
che and se and how they are used:
Q For more informotion on Ailverbs, see page $o. o e and, but,whatabout
) ln ltalian you don't usually use exactly the same word as both an adverb and io e Dovide David and I

a preposition: tu ed io you and me

o prima and davanti are advertrs Lo credevo simpotico e non lo €. I thought he was nice, but he isn't.
to non ci vado, e tu? I'm not going, what aboutyou?
Perch6 non me l'hai detto prima? Why didn'tyou tell me before?
la casa davanti the house opposite. @ trtote that you use di or a, not the conjunction e, to translate try ond, go and
ano so on.
o prima di and davanti a are prepositions Cerca di capire! Try and understand!
Ne ho bisogno prima di giovedi. I need it beforeThursday. Vado a vedere. l'llgo and see.
Ero seduto davanti a lui a cena. I was sitting opposite him at dinner.
* For more information on di and d, see page v4
. ma but
strano ma vero strange but true
Dice cosi, ma non ci credo. That's what he says, but I don't
believe it,

A Note that ma is used for emphasis with si and no.

Ti dispiace? - Ma no! Do you mind? - Of course not.
Non ti piace? - Ma si! Don't you like it? -Yes of course I do.
o anche also,too,even
Parla tedesco e anche francese- She speal<s German and also French.
Ho fame. - Anch'io! l'm hungry. - Me tool
Lo saprebbe fare anche un bambino. Even a child could do it.

a oor
For further explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv. due o tre volte two or three times
r88 Cor.rruHcnons Cor.r;urucnorus r89

Some other common conjunctions

) The following conjunctions are used a lot in colloquial ltalian:
. allora so, rightthen
when you're talking about alternatives.
Allora, cosa pensi? So. what do vou think?
Possiamo guardare la TV oopure We can watch TV or listen to music. Allora,cosafacciamostasera? Rightthen,whatshallwedothisevening?
ascoltare musica.
o dunque so,well
Ha sbagliato lui, dunque € giusto Itwas his mistake, so it's right he
o perch6 because che paghi. should pay.
Non posso uscire perch6 ho molto I can't go out because l've got a lot Dunque, come dicevo... Well, as I was saying...
da fare. to do. quindi so

@ ruote that perch€ also means why. L'ho gii visto, quindi non vado. I've already seen it, so l'm not going
Perch6 vai via? - Perch6 d tardi. Whvareyou going?* Because it's late. perd lrut, however, though
Mi piace, per6 E troppo caro. I like it - bnt it's too expensive.
. che that
Non € l'ideale, perd pu6 andare. It's not ideal, however it'll do.
Ha detto che fari tardi. He said that he'll be late. 5i, lo so - strano peIo. Yes, I know- it's odd though.
Penso che sia il migliore. I thinl< that it's the best.
invece actually
Q For more information on chefollowed by the Subjundive, see page Bo Ero un po'pessimista, ma invece I wasn't too hopeful, but actuallV
C andato tutto bene. itallwentfine.

rtp rtp
ln English you can sayeitherHe says he loves me or He savsthat he loves me
invece is often used foremphasis in ltalian - it isn'talwaystranslated in English.
In ltalian cheis NOToptional inthisway.
So che le piace la cioccolata. know (that) she likes chocolate.
Ho pensato chefosse lui, ma lthought itwas him but it
invece no.

o se il whether o anzi infact

Fammi sapere 5q c'E qualche Let me know jf there are any Non mi dispiace,anzi sono contento. I don't mind, in Fact l'm glad.
problema. problems. o quando when
5e fosse pii furbo verrebbe. !f he had more sense he'd come. Giocano fuori quando fa bel They play outside when the
Non so se dirglielo o no. I don't know whether to tell him tempo. weather's nice.
or not.
E Note that in sentences referrinq to the future, the f,uture tense is used after
* For more information on se fotlowed by the Subjunctive, see poge 3o.
Lo fard quando avr6 tempo. l'll do itwhen I have time.

o For more information on the Future tense, see page 93.

. mentre while
E successo mentre eri fuori. It happened while you were out
a come as
Ho fatto come hai detto tu. Id id as you told me.
E Note that quando and mentre tell you WH EN something happens; come tells
For further explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv. you HOW something happens.
r9o coNJUNcflONS

Split conjunctions SPELLI NG

l Englishsplitconjunctionssuchaseither...orandboth...andaretranslatedby
split conjunctions in ltalian
. o ... o either... or f Howto spell wordsthat have a hard kor o sound
o oggi o domani either todaV or tomorrow D In ltal ian the [k] sound you have in the Engl ish words kite and car is spelled in
Ti accompagneranno o Carlo o Either Carlo or Marco will go with two differentways, depending on thefollowing vowel:
Marco, vou. o cbeforea,oandu
o n6 .,. nE neither... nor; either... or o ch before eand i

Non mi hanno chiamato n6 Neither Claudio nor Luca has

D This means thatthe ltalian wordfor singer is spelled cantante (pronounced
Cloudio n6 Luca. ohoned me.
lkan-t0n-t0v): the word for n ecklace is spelled collana (pronounced lkol-la-nal),
Non avevo n6 guenti ne scarponi. I didn't have either gloves or boots.
and the word for cure is spelled cura (pronou nced [koo-ra]).
o sia... che both... and > H owever, the ltal ian word for thot is spel led che (pronounced [kay]) and the
Verrano sia Luigi che suo fratello. Both Luigi and his brotherare coming.
wordfor chemistry is spelled chimica (pronounced lkee-mee-kol.

@ Note that i n English a si nqular verb is used in sentences that have split
conjunctions. In ltalian a plural verb is used in sentences wlth split conjunctions
ifthe two people or things involved are both the subject ofthe verb. rq
Remember that the ltalian words for kilo and kilometre are spelled
Non venoono n6 lui n6 sua moglie. Neither he nor his wife is coming.
with ch:
due chili two kilos
cento chilometri a hundred kilometres

f n the same way, the hard [g] sound that you have in the English word gos is

also spelled two ways in ltal ian:

o g before a, o and u
o gh beforeeand i

This meansthatthe ltalian wordforcat is spelled gatto (pronouncedlga-toel:

the word for elbow is spelled gomito (pronounced lgo-mee-toel), and the word
f ot ta ste i s s pe | ed g u sto (p ro n o u nced lg o o s-to el).

However, the ltalian wordfor leagues is spelled leghe (pronouncedllay-gayl)

and the word for lokes is spelled laghi (pronou ncedflah-gheel.

l2J How to pronounce c + a vowel

) As we have seen, the ltalian letter c is pronou nced like a [k] when it's followed
by a, o, or u.

) When c is fol lowed by e or i it is pronounced I i ke the [chl in children. Th is means

that centro (meaning centre) is pronounced lchen-troland citti (meaning city)
For further explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv.
is pronounced lchee-tohl.
r92 SPELLTNG Sneu-rruc r93

p Howto pronounce q * a vowel When an ltalian verb has a [sh]or [j] sound before the infinitive ending, for
example asciare (meaningto leove) and manglare (meaninq to eot), you drop
l The ltalian letter g is pronounced li ke the lgl in gas when it's followed by a, o,

the i of the stem before endings starting with e or i,

or u. When an ltalian g is followed by e or i, however, it's pronounced like the
Ul i n jet. Th is means that gente (mean i n g people) is pronou nced llen-tayl and This means that you spell the tu form ofthe present tense ofthese verbs lasci
giorno (meaningday) is pronounced flor-nol. and mangi.
Lasci la finestra aperta? Are you leaving the window open?
p Howto spell verb endings which have c org+ vowel Cosa mangi? What are you eating?

) When an ltalian verb has a hard il<l or [g]sound before the infinitive ending, ) lasceri, lasceremo
The futures of the two verbs are spelled lascerd, lascerai,
for example cergare (meaningto look [or) and pagare (mean ingto poy),you lascerete, lasceranno and mangerb, mangerai, mangeri, mangeremo,
have to change the spell ing to ch and gh i n forms ofthe verb that have end ings mangerete, mangeranno.
starting with e or i. Fa caldo, lascerd a casa il It's hot, l'll leave my jumper at

) H ere are the present and futu re tenses of cercare and pagare, showi n g how maglione. nome.
the spelling changes. Domani mangeremo meno. We'tl eat less tomorrow.

Vowel that Present of Present of

follows c/9 cercare Meaning pagare Meaning Ttp
o cerco I lool< for pa90 I pav Although the spell ing ofsome verb end ings changes, the pronunciation
cerchi paqhi stavs the same.
vou lool< for vou pav
cerca he,/she looks for paga he/she pays
cerchiamo we lool< for paghiamo we pav
cercate you look for Pagate you pay
@ How to spell plurals of nouns and adjectives ending in -ca or -ga
cercano thev look for pagano they pay
) When a femini ne noun or adjective has a hard [k] or [g] sound before the singular
ending -a, you add an h to the plural ending.
Vowel that Future of Future of
follows c,/g cercare Meaning pagare Meaning Singular Meaning Plural Meaning
e cercherd l'll lool< for paqherd l'll paV amtca friend amiche fri end s

e cerqferai you'lllool<for pagherai you'llpay flga line righe lines

cercherA helshe will pagheri helshewill pay ncca rich ricche rich
lool< for lunga rong lunghe rong
cerqheremo we'll lookfor pagheremo we'll pay
e cercherete you'll look for pagherete you'llpay friend ofhers
una sua amlca ncca a rich
e cergheranno they'll lookfor paq[eranno they'll pay le sue amiche ricche her rich friends
una riga sotto le parole a line underthewords
Cosa cershi? - Cergq le chiavi. What are you lool<ing for? Ne ho letto solo poche righe. I just read a few I ines of it.
- l'm lool<ing for my lceys.
Pagq io. - No, paghiamo noi. l'll pay. - No, we'll pay.
Feminine nouns and adjectives always keep their hard Ik] and [g]
sounds in the plural.
For further explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv.
rg4 SPELLTNG Seeu-rruc r95

In some words, such words as farmacla (meaning chemist's) and bugla (meaning
I l_l How to spell plurals of nouns and adjectives endino in -co or -oo
the stress is on the i, and the plurals l<eep the i: farmacie; bugie.
l There is not a fixed rule for the sound ofthe consonants c and g in the plural of
Non dire bugie. Don't tell lies.
masculine nouns and adjectives ending I n -co and -go.
In others, such asfaccia (meaning face)and spiaggia (meaning beoch)theiof
) Some words keep the hard sound of their c or g in the plural, and add an h to
the si ngular ending is not stressed, and the plural is not spelled with i: facce;
the spelling.
Singular Meaning Plural Meaning le nostre spiagge preferite ourfavourite beaches
fuoco fire fuochi fires
albergo hotel alberghi notels
p Howtouseaccents
ncco rich ricchi rich
lungo rong lunghi rong
) Accents have two main uses: one is to show that a word is stressed on the
last syllable, which is not normal in ltalian, for example citti (meaning city),
E un albergo per ricchi. It's a hotel for rich people. universiti (mean ing university), perch6 (meaning why/because), cercheri
(meaning I will lookfor).
Ho icapelli lunghi. I've got long hair.
The plurals of manV other words, however, change from the hard Ik] sound to Q For more information on stress, see poge D6.
the [ch] sound, orfrom the hard [g] to [j].This means their plurals are not spelled
with an added h.
) The second use of accents is to distinguish between words that have identical
pronunciations and spellings.
Singular Meanlng Plural Meaning
Without an accent With an accent
amtco friend amrcl fri ends
da from da helshe gives
astrologo astrologer astrologi astrologers
e and e
greco Creel( grecl Creek
psicologici psycholog ical
la the/it ta tnere
psicologico psycholog ical
ti them ri there
un astrologo greco a Creek astrologer ne ofitlthem n6 neither
i miei amici e i loro problemi my friends and their psycholog ical se if se himself
psicologici problems si himself/herself/one 5l yes

te you td tea
f How to spell plurals of nouns ending in -io
> When the i of the -io end ing is stressed, as it is in zio (mean ing uncle) and invio Mettila li. Put it there.
(meaning dispatch), the plural is spelled with double i: zii, invii. Non so se I'ha fatto da s6. ldon't l<now if he made it himself
Ho sei zii e sette zie. l've oot six uncles and seven aunts

> lf the i of the -io ending is not stressed you spell the plural end ing with only rtp
one i, for example figlio - figli; occhio * occhi. The words pu6, gii, ci6, pii and gil are spelled with an accent.
Ha gli occh! azzurri. He's got blue eyes.

@ How to spell plurals of nouns ending in -cia and -oia KeY Points
D The spelli ng of the plurals of these words also depends on whether the i of the 1/ Spelling changes are someti mes necessary to keep the consonants
endino is stressed. c and g hard.

r' Accents show that the last syllable of a word is stressed.

Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv.
Srnpss r97

relallta reality ulnilverlsiltd university

fel lil ciltd happiness,felicity feldelltri fidelity
culriolsiltd curiosity falcolltri facultY
Which syllable to stress bonltd goodness citltti city
) Most ltal ian words have two or more syllables, (un its containing a vowel cruldelltri cruelty eltri age
sound). In this section syllables are shown divided by I and the stressed vowel tilvn TV meltri half
is in italic.
> Most words are stressed on the next to the last syllable, for example, fil nelstra" > There are some common adverbs and conjunctions that have the stress on
the flnal syllable and are spelled with an accent, for example, perlch6, colsi,
) Some words are stressed on the last vowel, and this is always shown by an and pelrd.
accent, for example, ul nilverl silti.
) Some words have thei r stress on an u nexpected vowel, but are not spel led
Q For moreinformation about Spelling, see plgeD1.

with an accent, for exam ple, macl chil na (mean i ng cor).

D lf a word has the stress on a vowel you wouldn't expect, the stressed vowel is p words that stress an unexpected svllable
in italics, for example, vogliono (mea ningthey wont), vendere (meaning to sell),
D Some words have the stress on a svllable which is neither the last, nor the next
quindici(mea ningflfteen), medico (mean ing doctor).
to the last.
D This book also marks the stress in words in which ibefore anothervowel is ultille usefu I porltoltille portallle
pronounced like y, forexample Lidia.
diflfilcille d ifficu lt sulbilto suddenly
nulmelro numDer penltolla saucepan
p Words that are stressed on the next to last svllable calmelra bedroom comlpilto homeworl<
D Two-syllable words always stress the fi rst vowel, un less the fi nal vowel has moldullo form
an accent:
@ trtote that past participles such as filnilto (meaning flnished) and parltilto
c4l sa house giorlno oay
(meaning left) alwavs have the stress on the next to last syllable, but there
bellla beautiful dule two are simi lar-looki ng words, such as sul bilto (meaning immediotely) and
solno I am speslso often comf pif to (meaning homework), that are not past particiPles, and that have
luli he oglgi today the stress on a syllable you wouldn't expect.
l Words with three or more syllables generallv have the stress on the next to the
inlglelse Eng lish parllalvo I was speaking
When learn ing new vocabu lary, check in the d ictionary where the
genltille n ice anldreblbe he'd go
stre55 00es.
setltilmdlna weel< parl lel rel mo we'll spea k
stalziol ne statron sulperlmerlcclto supermarket
stralorldil nal rial menlte exrraordinarily
!1_l Stress in verb forms
p Words that stress the last svllable > In the present tense, the loro form alwavs has the stress on the same vowel as
the io form:
D There are a number of nou ns in ltalian that have the stress on the fi nal svllable
io form loro form
and are spelled with an accent.They sometimes correspond to English nouns
that end with ty, such as university and foculty. porllo I speak parl lal no they speak
conlsildelro I consider conlsildelralno theyconsider
For further explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv. mialllelno l'm training sialllelnalno they'retraining
198 SrREss

> lnthefuturetenseofallverbsthestressisonthelastsyllableoftheioformandthe
lui,/lei form.These two verb forms are spelled with an accent on the stressed vowel.
salrd lwill be t uno(un, una) 31 trentuno
lalvolrelrd lwillwork z due 40 quaranta
fl lnr lr4 itwillfinish 3 tre 41 quarantuno
aslpetltelr,i she'llwait 4 quattro 5o cinquanta
5 cinque 58 cinquantotto
L The infinitive of-are verbs always has the stress on the a ofthe ending, for 6 sei 6o sessanta
example inlviltalre (meaning to invite) and camlmilnolre (meaning to wotk). 7 sette 63 sessantatrd
The infinitive of -ire verbs always has the stress on the i of the ending, for 8 otto 7o settanta
example parltilre (meaning to leave) andfilnilre (meanin gto finish). 9 nove 75 settantacinque
D The infinitive of -ere verbs sometimes has the stress on the first e of the ending, lo dieci 8o ottanta
for example, veldelre (meaning to see) and avlelre (meaningto have). However, rr undici 8r ottantuno
these verbs often stress a syllable before the -ere ending, for example venlaelre
12 dodici 9o novanta
(meaning to sell), dilvildelre (mean ing to divide) and eslselre (mean ingto be). 13 tredici 99 novantanove
14 quattordici 100 cento
r5 quindici 101 centouno
ri+ 16 sedici
17 diciassette
Remem ber that -ere verbs do not always stress the e ofthe endi ng,
and take note ofthe stress when learnino a new verb.
r8 diciotto 300 trecento
r9 diciannove 400 quattrocento
20 venti 500 cinquecento
21 ventuno 6oo seicento
i_l Different stress for different meanings 22 ventidue 700 settecento
23 ventitrE 8oo ottocento
D In a few cases one word has two pronunciations, depend ing on its meaning. 24 ventiquattro 900 novecento
The following are sbme examples: 25 1000 mille
zG ventisei 'lool milleuno
Normal stress Meaning Unusual stress Meaning
27 ventisette 2000 duemila
an lcolra agar n ncnor
on lcolra a
z8 ventotto 25oO duemilacinquecento
calpiltalno capta i n calpiltalno they happen 29 ventinove l.OOO.OOO un milione
meltro meter meltrd metro 30 trenta (i n En glish'r,ooo, ooo)

a pagina diciannove on page nineteen

nel capitolo sette in chapter seven
Key points dieci per cento ten per cent
y' Two-syllablewordsarestesssedonthefirstsyllable,unlesstheresanaccent. seicento euro six hundred euros
y' Longerwords are usuallystressed on the nextto the tast syllable. tremila persone three thousand people
y' lfthestressisonanunexpectedvowelyouneedtolearnit. trtote that in the numbers 2r, 3r, 4r and so on, the fi nal vowel of venti, trenta
-/ @
and quaranta is lost: ventuno, trentuno, quarantuno.The same thing
happens with the numbers 28,38, q8 and so on: ventotto, trentotto,
quarantotto. When tre is combined with another number it takes an accent:
For further exptanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv. trentatri G3), centotrE (to3), milletrd (too3).
2OO NUMBERS Nurrrgens zor

l!_J uno, un or una? @ rullstop orcomma?

) | n ltalian the same word - uno - is used for the number one and the indefi nite D Use a full stop, nota comma, to separate thousands and millions in figures
article d. (settecentomila) Too,ooo (seven hundred thousand)
) When using uno as a number in front of a noun, follow the same rules as for the (cinque milioni) 5,ooo,ooo (five million)
indefinite article. D Usea comma instead ofa decimal pointto showdecimals in ltalian.
un uomo one man o,5 (zero virgola cinque) o.5 (nought pointfive)
uno scienzato one scientist 3,4 (tre virgola quattro) 3.4(three pointfour)
una ragazza one girl '| st primo(r")
un'anatra one duck
2no secondo (2")
Q For more informotion on the tndefinite article, see page v .
J terzo G")
4th quarto (4")
D When replying to a question, use uno if what's referred to is masculine, and tr quinto (5")
una if it's feminine. 6th sesto (6')
Quanti giorni? - Uno How many days? - One. 7t' settimo (Z')
gth ottavo (8")
Quante notti? - Una. How many nights? - One.
nth nono (9")
) Use uno when counting, unless referring to somethi ng or someone femi nine 'lorn decimo (ro")
L Do NOT use un to translate one hundred. or one thousand. ilth undicesimo (rr')
t8tn diciottesimo (r8")
cento metri one hundred metres
2lst ventunesimo (zt")
mille euro one thousand euros trentatreesimo G3")
) with milione (meaning 'loo'" centesimo (roo")
You do use un million) and miliardo (meaningthousand
o lsr centunesimo (ror")
1000.' millesimo (rooo")
Quante persone? - Un milione. How many people? - One million.
un milione di dollari
un miliardo di euro
one million dollars
one thousand million euros
Learn the first ten ofthese numbers.
@ wotethatwhen un milioneand un miliardoarefollowed bya noun, di isadded.

> To make the others, take numbers such as venti and trentotto, drop the fi nal
p Which numbers have plurals? vowel and add -esimo. lf the number ends in tre, DON'T drop the final e before
)Theonlynumberswhichhavepluralsaremille,milione,andmiliardo.Due,tre, adding -esimo.
quattro and so on are added to mila to make duemila (meaning two thousand), la ventesima settimana the twentieth week
tremila (meaning three thousand) and quattromila (mean ing four thousand). il trentottesimo anno the thirty-eighth year
mille euro one thousand euros il loro trentatreesimo anniversario their thi rty-third anniversary
diecimila euro ten thousand euros di matrimonio
un milione di dollari one million dollars These numbers are adjectives and can be made masculine orfeminine, singular
venti milioni di dollari twenty million dollars or plural.
un miliardo disterline one thousand million pounds il quindicesimo piano the fifteenth floor
due miliardi di sterline two thousand million pounds la terza lezione the third lesson
i primi piatti the first courses
For further explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv. le loro seconde scelte their second choices
2O2 NUMBERS TrurRruo Dnre zo3


A Note that when writing these numbers in figures you should use a little o,

or a, depend ing on whether what's referred to is masculine or fem inine. Che ora 6? orChe ore sono? Whattime is it?
il r50piano the r5th floor E I'una meno venti. It's twenty to one.
la z4a giornata the z4th day E I'una meno un quarto. It'saquartertoone.
E I'una. It's one o'clock.
) Roman numerals are often used for centuries, popes and monarchs.
E I'una e dieci. It's ten past one.
il XIV secolo the r4th century E I'una e un quarto. It's a quarter past one.
PaoloVl Paul VI E f'una e mezza. It's half past one.
Enrico ll! Henry lll Sono le due meno venticinque. It's twenty-five to two.
Sono le due meno un quarto. It's quarterto two.
4 For more information on Numbers used in dates, see page 2o4.
Sono le due. It's two o'clock.
Sono le duee dieci. It's ten past two.
Sono le due e un quarto. It's a quarter past two.
Sono le due e mezza, It's half past two.
sono le tre. It's three o'clock.

Use sono le forall times not involving una (meaning one).

A che ora? (At) what time?

Arrivano oggi. -A che ora? They're arrivi n g today. -What ti me?

a Note that dt is optional in English when asking what time someth ing happens,
buta mustalwavs be used in ltalian.
a mezzanotte at midnight
a mezzogiorno at midday
all'una (del pomeriggio) at one o'clock (in the afternoon)
alle otto (di sera) at eight o'clock (in the evening)
alle 9:25 oralle nove e at twenty-five past nine
alle r5:5o oralle sedici e at 16:50 or sixteen fifty

@ ruote thatthetwenty-four hourclock is often used in ltaly.

Forfurther explanation ofgtqmmatical terms, please see pages x-xiv,

2o4 TTMEAND DArE True Rro Dnre zo5


I giorni della settimana The days ofthe week rw
lunedi Monday In ltalian you use il primo for the first day of the month. For all the
martedi Tuesday other days you use the equivalent of two, three, pur and so on.
mercoledi Wednesday
giovedi Thursday
iltre maggio the third of May
venerdi' Friday
sabato Saturday

Quando? When? Quando? When?

lunedi on Monday 099i today
di lunedi on Mondays stamattina this morning
tutti i lunedi every Monday staSera this evening
martedi scorso lastTuesday
venerdi prossimo next Friday Ogni quanto? How often?
sabato della settimana prossima a week on Saturday ogni giorno every day
sabato tra due settimane two weeks on Saturday ogni due giorni every other day
@ ruote that days of the week DON'T have a capital letter in ltalian. una volta alla settimana once a weeK
due volte alla settimana twice a week
IMESIDELLANNO THE MONTHS OFTHEYEAR una volta al mese once a month
gennaio January
Quando 6 successo? When did it happen?
febbraio Felrruary
marzo March di mattina in the morning
aprile April di sera in the evening
moggio May ieri yesterday
giugno JUne ieri mattina yesterday morning
luglio July ieri sera yesterday eveni ng,/last ni ght
agosto August ieri notte last night
settembre September I'altro ieri the day before yesterday
ottobre October una settimana fa a week ago
novembre November due settimane fa two weeks ago
dicembre December la settimana scorsa last week
When? I'anno scorso last year
in or a febbraio in February When is it going to happen?
Quando succedera?
il primo dicembre on Decemberrst
il due dicembre domani tomorrow
on Decemberund
domani mattina tomorrow morning
nel r999 (millenovecento- in 1999 (in nineteen ninety-nine)
domani sera tomorrow evening,/night
dopodomani the day after tomorrow
il priino dicembre zooo on Decemberrst20oo
fra or tra due giorni in two days'time
nel duemilasei in two thousand and six
fra or tra una settimana in a weel<'s time
@ ruotethat monthsoftheyearDON'Thavea capital letter in ttalian. fra or tra quindici giorni in two weeks'time
il mese prossimo next month
For further expQnation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv. l'anno prossimo next vear
Mnrru lnoex zo7

dalla i3, r73 e 24,187 9li il,46, 50, 84, 146

MAIN INDEX dalle 13,173

37,58 glie
50, 55, 84
dallo r73 each 92
oare 46,4'J,83,131,137 ecco r66 gliele 5o
a agli r73 bisognare r4r see verb table 24 egli 41 glieli 5o
48,174-175,203 13, 129,
a:afterverbs :4'3,|M,146,147, ai 13, r73 DUOnO 24, 28 ,161,161 dates 15,204 ertner ... or 190 glielo 50
148,175 ar 13,173 but 187 davanti 17o ella 41 grande 24,28
a 1,10,17,18 alcuni 58 by 1r9, 17 5, 17 6, 17 9, 181, 182 davanti a 185 emphasis 4i,48,69,71,73 graveaccent r95

a aTtcte
+ 13, 17 all 3Z 58,59 see ci daysoftheweek 2o4 endings: adjectives 20, 21, 22, 23, 29 he 40
a + infinitive Vo,141,142,175 all' 13, r73 caoere 75,95,1o2 decimal point 2ol endings:nouns \2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9 her 34
a causa di r85 alla 13, r73 caro 25 definitearticle ro,rt16, 2234, 35 endings: verbs 66,67 hers

a meno che 84 alle r3, r73 caso: nel caso che r3 deflnite article: entrare 56, il3 herself 87

abbastanza 167 allo r3, r73 cattivo 28 with parts ofthe body t5,35, 9l -er 26,163 him 44
about 54,55 allora r8q ce 50, 55, 84 definite article: -ere verbs 66 himself 87,88
accanto a 185 afto 28 cento t8 with possessives 34 -ereverbs: conditional 98 his 34,52
accents 94,195, 196,197, r99 altro 37,39, 58 cercare 192 defi nite article: combined -ere verbs: future 94 hopes 132,136

active verbs 19, r2r, r22 among 184 certo 162, r66 with otherwords 13i4,173 -ere verDs: geruno 81,r24 how 155

acure accent on ro, rz ra degli r3, r73 -ereverbs: imperative 83 how long 78,1o8, rZ 179, 183
r95 cne 32, 33, 60, r55,
61, 62, 63,
adjectives dei -ere verbs: imperfect how much/mony
zo-39, r28 anche 42,166,'t87 r5z r88 13,173 105 32,54,63
adjectives: ancora 168 che: che cosa 63, 64, r55, r57 del 13, i73 -ere verbs: i 11,12

agreement 1,20,21,22,23,24,33 and 24,187 che: dell' 13,173 imperfect subjunctive r36 i: i loro 34,52
adjectives: comparative andare 67,76,77,83,95,1c2, followed by the subjunctive 130 della 13, U3 -ere verbs: past historic 114 i: imiei 34,52
rnrl <unarlf,riva i6 )j ril, 12, il3, n8, r3l che: il che 6l delle 13,173 -ere verbs: past ParticiPle ro8 i: i nostri 34,52
adjectives: demonstrative 30,3r dello 13,173 -ere verDs: i: i piir 27
see verb table 4 chi 6r, 63, 64, r55
andarsene demonstrative adjectives 30,31 present continuous 8r i: i suoi 34,52
adjectives: 88 chi: di chi 63,158,176
endrngs 20 , 21, 22, 23, 29 answers 153,157 ch iaro r6r demonstrativepronouns 40, 65 -ereveTbs: present sim?le 70,V,72 i: i tuoi 34,52
adjectives: feminine 21,22 ony 8,37 ch iunque describing words see adjectives -er€ verbs: i: i vostri 34,52
any0oay 57 ci 44, 46,55-56, 88, 92, 169 di 14,26,29, 54,64,r58,163,U6-r78 presentsubjunctive 13o,131 I 40
followed bydi 54,B8,177 on$hing 57 ciascuno 38,39, 57 di: afterverbs 144,145,177 essere 6279,83,9r,96,97ro3, il 1,ll

adjectives: anzi 189 come 28,29, r55, 156, r5Z r89 di + article 13,14,173 ro8, r2,114, n6, il8,119,128, l3l,135 il: il loro 34,52
followed by infinitive 138 appena $7,1v comparativeadjectives 26,28,29 di + infinitive r33, r4o, U8 see verb table 35 il: il maggiore 28

adjectives:indefinite 37,38,39 aprire comparativeadverbs di: di cui 6o esse 41 il: il migliore 28

73, 83,1il r63,r64
adjectives: in exclamations 33 -are verbs 66 comparisons 26,28,29,48,163 di: di meno 164 essi 41 il: il minore 28

adjectives: -are verbs: conditional comPorre di: di no r50, r53 -esl 27,163 il: il mio 4,52
98 74
n:rfi.idl6< | r<ad :< -areverbs: future 93,94 con r84 di: di pii 164 every 37 il: il nostro 34,52
adjectives:plural 22,23,193,194 -are verbs: gerund 81,124 conditional di: di si 153 everybody 58 il: il peggiore 28
adjectives:position 20,24,25 -areverbs: imperative 82 conditional: di: di tutti r63 everything 57,59 il: il pi0 27

adjectives: -areverbs: imperfect lo5 rl lcaurdr vEr u> te2, tw' dietro t85 exclamations: che used in t8 il: ilquale
possessive r5, 25,34-36 -are verDs: conjunctions r87-r9o difficile r28 faci le r28, r32 il: il suo 34,52
ad.jectives: imperfect subjunctive 136 consonants 84 dire 46, 83, 95, to2, 106, Il,124, fare 67,76,83, 95, ro2, 106, ril, il: il superiore 28
<hnrtpnpd form< )7 )A -are verbs: past historic n4 contento r3r,137 124, 127, 131, 135, 137, 141 il: il tuo 34,52
adjectives: word order 24,25 -are verbs: past participle ro8 continuous tenses 79, 1o4,123, 126 see verb table 25 see verb table 36 il: il vostro 34,52
adverbs 160-17r -are verbs: contrnuouS tenSe: direct object M feminineadjectives 1,21,22,92 imagined situations 137

adverbs: comparative presentcontinuous 8r ofreflexives 90 direct object pronouns 40 femininenouns 1,2,3,4,5,6,7 imperative 82-86
dr ru >uPEr rdLrvc r63,164 -are verbs: present simple 69,70 contro r84 direct object pronouns: few: ofew t8 imperative: word order 49,84,85
adverbs: word order 171 -are verDS: convenire V1,148 stressed 47,48 finire 72, 83, 94,99,1o5,1o9, imperfecttense 1o4-ro7
adverbs: vs prepositions r86 present subjunctive r3o, r3l cosa 63, r55, r57 direct object pronouns: r3o,131, 136 imperfect continuous 1o4

affinch6 r34 arnvare 113 cosa: cos'd r55 unstressed 44,45,46 fino a 183 imperfect subjunctive 134, 136, 137

after r68, r83 articles ro-r9 cosr' 166 directquestions t59 for 78,107,172,179,182 impersonalverbs 127-129
against r82 179 could 98 diritto 162 forse 129,135,166 importare 47,129,148
as...os 28 credere /, 93, 94, 98, 99, ro5, dispiacere r4l forte 162 in t3,t8o-181
ofadjectives 20, 21,22,23 aspettare 82 r09, il4, r3o, r31, 136 dispiacere: mi dispiace ]B2,r47 fra r84 in + article 13, 173

at 13, 17 2, 17 4, 175, 177, 178 see verb table 20 diventare Il, il3, tl8 fron 8,172,176,178 in B)4,27,i74,175,12,180,181
ofarticles avere credere: followed byche divertirsi 89 178 indefinite adjectives 37-39
1,11,12,17,27 76, 96, 9Z ro3, ro8, n4, r32, r35
il6, r3l credere: followed bydi r33 doing words see verbs futuretense 93-97 indefinite article lo, r7-r9
ofpast participle seeverb table 9 cui dormire 73,83 future tense: indefinite pronouns 40, 57-59
45, 91, ril, 12, 60,62
r6, ilz 18, r2o owoy 174 da dopo 168, r83 irregularverbs 95,96,97 indirect object 44
agreement: Dasso 28 da article
+ 13, 173 dove 155 accents 94,198
future tense: indirect object pronouns 40,84
ofpossessive adjectives 35 bastare 129 dagli 13, r73 dovere 75, 95, 98, lor, l3l, l4o gender l,2,3,4, ll indirect object pronouns:
agreement: be 79 dai r3, 173 doublingofconsonants 49,84 gerund 81, toA, 123-126, 139 stressed 48
ofpclsessivepronouns 52,53 bello 23,r28 dal t3, 173 dunque 189 get 87 indirect object pronouns:
agreeilentofverbs 66,67 bene r6r dall' t3, r73 durante 184 giusto 162 unstressed 46.47
2O8 MAIN INDEX MruH lruoex zo9

indirectquestions 159 la pio 27 negli 8,173 parecchio 3738,39,58 possessive pronouns 40,52-53 reflexive verbs:
infinitive 49,50,55,56,66,75, la quale 6l nei 8,173 Parere 129 possibile 'r28 perfecttense 91, lil
85, 98, r38-142, r98 la sua 34,52 neither ... nor tgo parlare 69, 93,94,98, 99, lo5, potere 75, 95, 98, ror, r31, l4o reflexive verbs:
infinitives:afteradjectives r38 Ia tua 34,52 nef 8,173 r09, n4,116, l3l, 136 POVeTO 24 presenttense 89
infinitives: la vostra 34,52 nell' 13, r73
'seeverbtable50 pred ictions 78 regularverbs 66
afteranotherverb 90,138,14o la 169, r95 nella r3, r73 participles: p ren dere 83, ill relative pronouns 60-62
infin itives: lasciare r4r, r93 nelle 13, r73 past 9r, t08, to9, n6, ilg,123 preParare 88 restare r48
after prepositions ]B9,141,142, 179 least 27, t63 nello 13, r73 Partire 73,83, il3, 14 prepararsi 88 rimanere 75, 95, Io2, ll3, l2l
i nfin itives: le D,44,45,46,5(),84, ilr, n7 nessuno 25, 38,39, SZ r5r parts ofthe body 15, 9l prepositions 13, r4, 48, 60, 6r, rincrescere r48
ending in -rre 74,75 lei 41,42,43,47,69,74,82,85,99 never 49 Passato remoto ll4 r25, 172-186 riuscire 113, ll8

-ingform 56,81,123,125,139,14o Lei 4r,99 nevicare p7 passive rr9-122 prepositions: afteradjectives 172 -'s 176
instructions r38 fe foro 34,52 niente 57,127,151 passive: irregularverbs l2l prepositions: s' see si
interessare 47,148 Ie meno 27 no 96, r5o, r53, r58, r59 past continuous 123 followed by infinitive v2 salire lr3
interrogative adjectives 32 le mie 34,52 nobody 57 past historic rr4-rl5 prepositions: inquestions 64,158 saPere 95, lO2, l4O
interrogativepronouns 63-64 le nostre 34,52 noi 41,48 past participles 45,91, lo8, ro9, prepositions + se 132 188

tnto V2,t8o fe pii 27 nulla 57 il6, r19, 123 definite article 13,14, t73 se r95
invariable adjectives 22,37 fe sue 34,52 no longer r5l past participles: prepositions after verbs secondo r35
invece r89 le tue 34,52 non 85, 86, 90, r49 irregularverbs 111 143-1 45, 1 46, | 4-/, 1 48, 17 2 sembrare 129

io 41,42 levostre 34,52 non... da nessuna parte t50 past particiPles: presentconditional 98-lo3 sempre 165,17l
-ire verbs 66 Iess 26,'163 non... mai l5o used as adjectives lll present continuous 68, 81, 123 sentire 73, 83, r4l
-ireverbs: conditional 99 lets 82,84 non... n€...n6 r5r past perfect see PluPerfect present simple 68,59-75 senza 184
-ireverbs:future 94 li 44, 45, 50, rr, 17 non,.. nessuno r5l peccato: presentsubJuncttve 13o,131,132, servire 73
-iFAVArlr<.or,,n/ ql 11,
li 169, r95 non.,, niente r5o d un peccato che 133 133' r34 scendere ll3
-ireverbs: imperative 83 :ll 93 n0 one 57 peggio 164 presenttense 68 several 37
-ireverbs: imperfect ' ro5 ro r, il,44,45, 50, ilr,117 non ... pii 151 peggiore 28 Presenttense:reflexiveverbs 89 she 40,43
-ire verbs: foro 41,48 not u9 pensare l3o presenttense: used forfuture 93 should rol
imperfectsubjunctive 136 lui 41,42,47,99 nothing 57,149 Pensare che 132,135 prima 169 si: impersonal 51,92,122
-ireverbs: past historic 15 m' see mi nouns rg,4o pensare di 133 prima che r34 si: si passivante 12l,122
-ireverbs:pastparticiple ro8 ma 87 prima di 134,183 si: reflexive pronoun 87 88, 92
nouns: endrngs 2,3,4 Per 14O, r82
-ire verbs: mai r5o, 168, r/l nouns: English, perchd 155,188 primo 2ol si r53,r95
present continuous 8l male 16l used in ltalian 8 perfectconditional to3 produrre 75 sia... che l9o
-ireverbs: presentsimple 72,V,74 malgrado 186 nouns:feminine 1,2,3,4,5,6,7 perfect infinitive 139 pronouns 40-65,66,67 simple past to8, ill,114
-ire verbs: mancare r48 nouns: masculane \2,3,4,5,6,7,8 perfectsubjunctive 135,136 pronouns: reflexive 8Z 88 since 179
presentsubjunctive r3o,r3r masculineadjectives 1,20,21, nouns:plural 1,2,28,9,18,r93, perfecttense 45,91,92,1o5, pronouns: singularnouns r,2,3,4,5,6,9,il
i rregular com parative and 22,23 194,195 ro8-rr3, 127 word order 84, 85, 86, 126,153 soTTrtre /3
superlative adjectives 28 masculineand feminine nouns:singular 1,2,3,4,5,6,9 perfect tense: pronunciation 83 some 14,54,58,178
irregular comparative and forms of words 4,5,6 numbers V7,199-2o2 made with avere lo9, ilo,]n pud darsi 129,133 somebody 40,57,58
superlativeadverbs 164 masculinenouns 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8 nuovo 24 perfect tense: qualche 25,37,39 someone 57
i rregu lar verbs: me 47,50,55,84 o r5o, r87 made with essere il2, t13 qualcosa 57 something 57
conditional 99, too, lol, to2, lo3 me 42,44 o...o 190 perd r89 qualcuno 57 sopra l7o, r85
i rregular verbs: megllo 164 oDJ ect 87,142 personal pronouns 4r-5r quale 25,32,63,156 sotto 169,185
future tense 95,96,97 meno 26,29,163 oD.jecl pronouns 40, 44, 47, 111, 117 piacere 47n3,il8,r39, 141,146,147 quale...ilquale 61 spelling 95,96, ro2, r9l-r95
irregularverbs:imperative 83 mentre 189 object pronouns: word order piano quale...qual e 64,156 spell ing:
irregularverbs:imperfect 106 mettere ill 44,45,46,48,49,50,55 piccolo 28 quali 25,32, 63,156 ofplurals 8, 9, r93, r94,195
i rreg ularverbs: mi 44,46,88 occorrere t29 piovere 127 qualsiasi 37,39 sPerare 13o, 132,135
imperfect subjunctive B7 migliore 28 of 54,176 Pi0 26,29, 163, r/ quando 93,155,189,2o5 stare 79,81, lo4, rl3,131, 137
irregularverbs: passive t2l mille r8 off 178 pluperfect tense rr6-rr8 quanti 32,33, 63, 156 see verb table 79
irregular verbs: mine offe rs 78,98 plu perfect tense: quanto 25, 28, 29,32,33, 63, r56 stems 66, 69, 82,93, 98
past participle til minore 28 ogni 25,37,39 made with avere il6, 17 quelli 25,30,31,65 stress 94,196-198
i rregu lar verbs: mofto 25,29,37,39,58,162,167 09nuno 57 pluperfect tense: quello 25,30,31,65 stress: in infinitives 75
present subjunctive r3r, r32 mo ntns 204 on 14,174,175,177 made with essere n8 quello: quello che 6l stressedpronouns 46,47,44
-issimo 29 more 26,163 0ne 51,2OO plural: 1,2,7,8,9,11,22,200 questions r52-r59 su 14,181
tt 41,45,55,70,72,84,127,128 most 27,163 one another 92 spelling r93,194, r95 questions: indirect r59 suartrcle
+ 14, i73

rts . 34 my 34 87 poco 3Z 38,39, 58, r62,167 questionwords 18,25,152,155, subject 66, 6z 8Z 1o9, il2, n3,
Jo Ds 3, r8 myself 87 opanions Subjunctive polite plural 82,83 156 il6, n8, il9,122,146
l': definite article 11,12 naming words see nouns oppu re r88 possession 34,64,116 qu€sto 25, 30,31, 65 subjectpronouns 40,41-43,69,
f': object pronoun 4s adjectives
nationalities: 21 orders and instructions 82, r38, r39 possessive qui 169 v,73
ta 1,12,44,45, 50, ]il, 117 ne 54-55,88 orders and instructions adjectives t5, 25,34-36 quindi 189 subjunctive 128, r3o-rf7
la loro 34,52 n6...n6 r9o wordorder 50,55,56,89,90 possessive adj ectives: reflexive pronouns 87,88 subjunctive: imperfect
la meno neanche 42 our 34 agreement 34,35 reflexive pronouns: subjunctive: irregularverbs
la mia 34,52 necessario r29 ours possessive adjectives: word order 89,90 subjunctive: perfect
ll nostra 34,52 negatives 18, r49-r5l ourselves 87 withfamilymembers 35,36 reflexive verbs 5r, 87-92, ilZ il8 subjunctive: present

succeoere t13 Verbs 66{48 yours 52

suggestions 93 VerDS: acttve yourself 8Z 88
Spelling verbs:
ending -care/gare

yourselves 87
sufl' 14,173 Spelling verbs:
sulla 14,173 followed by a 55,141,142
verbs: followed by
di t4z,t77 Introduction
superf ative adjectives 27, 28, zg followed by infinitive t4o, i4l
superlative 163, r64 verbs: irregular 66,67
supPorre 132 verbs: prepositions after ]q1,142
The Verb Tables in the following section contain 9o tables of ltalian verbs
syllable 84, 196 verbs: regulaT 66
t' see ti vero 96, r58, r59
(some regular and some irregular) in alphabetical order. Each table shows you
tanto 3Z 38,39, 58, 167 verso 185 the following forms: Present, Perfect, lmperfect, Future, Conditional, Present
te 47,50,55,84 vi 44,46,88,92
telefonare 46 vicino 162
5ubjunctive, lmperative and the Past Participle and Gerund. For more
fenere 95, r02, r3l vivere 95 information on these tenses, how they are formed, when they are used and so
tense 66 voi 41,42,43,48,8,A2,84 on, you should look at the section on Verbs in the main text on pages 66-148.
tnan 26,163,177 volere 95, 99, roo, t3o, t3t, t34, l4o
that 30,40, 60, 65, r3o voler dire 14o
that mon 6S vowels stress In order to help you use the verbs shown in Verb Tables correctly, there are also
that one 31, 65 vowels:followingcandg 192
a number ofexample phrases at the bottom ofeach page to show the verb as it
thatwoman 65 we
the l weather see lmpersonal verbs is used in context.
their 34 whot 32,63,64,157,158
theirs ...!
what (o)
them 40,44,45,84 when
In ltalian there are regular verbs (their forms follow the regular patterns of -are,
the one 6r, 62 where r55 -ere or -ire verbs), and irregular verbs (their forms do not follow the normal
these 30,65 which 32,60,63 rules). Examples of regular verbs in these tables are:
thev 4o,7o who 40,60,6r,63,64
tnrS 30, 65 whom 60,63,64 parlare (regular -are verb, Verb Table 5o)
tnts one 3r,65 whose 63,158, 176
those 30,65 why 155
credere (regular -ere verb, Verb Table zo)
ti +4,45,46, 88 will 93,96, 97 capire (regular -ire verb, Verb Table r3)
Ime 15, r75,2O3 wttn 172
time and date 2o3-2o5 word order: in imperatives
to 13,14, 44, 46, 66,138, r74,178,18o 50, 55, 56,84, 85, 86 Some irregular verbs are irregular in most of their forms, while others may only
tornare 13 woro 0r0er: have a couple of irregular forms.
towns and cities V4 in questions r53, r5Z r58
tra i84 woTo oroer:
troppo 3Z 38,39, 58, 167 with adjectives 20,24,25 The Verb lndex at the end ofthis section contains ovelrooo verbs, each of
tu 41,42,43,82,84,85,90 word order:with adverbs V1 which is cross-referred to one of the verbs given in the Verb Tables. The table
tutti 3Z 58 word order: with gerunds 55, 126
tutto 3Z 39, 59 word order: with negatives 149 shows the patterns that the verb listed in the index follows.
un 1,v,37,57,2OO wor0 0rdeT:
un' 17,37,2OO with object pronouns 44,45,
una 1,17,57,200 46,48,49, 50, 55
uno 17,57,2oO woTo ordeT:
unstressedpronouns 44,46,49 with prepositions V2
-urre verbs 74,75,138 woro or0er:
us 40,44 with reflexive pronouns 89, 90
uscire n3, l3l would 98
v' see vi years 15,2O4
ve 50,55,84 yes r53
v€cchio 25 yes: yes/no ques!ons 152, 153, r54
vedere 75, 95, t02, lo2, rt, t4l you 40,41, 51, 92
venire 95, lo2, lI, ]13, n8, l2l, l3l you: ways ofsaying 42,43
verbal idioms 146{48 vour 34
_ Yll rorl.l vens rnsLes


(io) mi accorgo (io) mi accorgerd (io) mi addormento (io) mi addormentero
(tu) ti accorgi (tu) ti accorgerai (tu) ti addormenti (tu) ti addormenterai
(tu i,ztei) (lu i,zlei) (lu i/lei)
., . .. .. sr accoroe
(rer/ Le r)
;. . ,.
(re r/ Ler)
.. sr accoroerd
(lu i,zlei)
(re r/ Le r.)
.. . .. .. st a000rmenter4
(re r/ Le r)
(noi) ci accorgiamo (noi) ci accorgeremo (noi) ci addormentiamo (noi) ciaddormenteremo
(voi) vi accorgete (voi) vi accorgerete (voi) vi addormentate (voi) viaddormenterete
(loro) si accorgono (loro) si accorgeranno (loro) si addormentano (loro) si addormenteranno
, (io) mi sono accorto/a (io) mi accorgerei (io) mi sono addormentato/a (io) mi addormenterei
(tu) ti sei accorto/a (tu) ti accorgeresti (tu) ti sei addormentato,/a (tu) tiaddormenteresti
(lu i,zlei)
(lu i,zlei)
., . .. .. sr e accorto/a
(lu lei)
,, ,;, ,, si e addormentato/a -. -.:
(lu i,zlei)
(rer/Ler) (ieilr-eii slaccorgereDDe (rer/ Ler)
.l 1.
(rerl Ler)
si addormenterebbe
(noi) ci siamo accorti/e (noi) ci accorgeremmo (noi) ci siamo addormentati,/e (noi) ciaddormenteremmo
(voi) si siete accorti/e (voi) vi accorgereste (voi) vi siete addormentati,/e (voi) viaddormentereste
(loro) si sono accorti,/e (loro) siaccorgerebbero (loro) si sono addormentati/e (loro) si addormenterebbero
(io) mi accorgevo (io) mi accorga (io) mi addormentavo (io) mi addorment'
(tu) ti accorgevi (tu) ti accorga (tu) ti addormentavi (tu) ti addormentl
(lu i,zlei) (lu i/lei) (l u i,/l ei) (lu i,zlei)
.,erl. ..Le .. sr accoroeva sr accorga 5t addormentava
(r r) tieizLeii ,t,^, ,, ^,, (rer/LerJ
(noi) ci accorgevamo (noi) ci accorgiamo (noi) ciaddormentavamo (noi) ci addormentiamo
(voi) vi accorgevate (voi) vi accorg iate (voi) viaddormentavate (voi) vi addormentiate
(loro) si accorgevano (loro) si accorgano (loro) siaddormentavano (loro) si addormentino
dLLUr I I Ll accorto addormentati addormentato
accorg iamoci addormentiamoci
accorgetevi addormentdtevi
^ --^-^^^A^-i
dLLUr ggr ruv)l addormentando


5i d accorto del furto solo il giorno dopo. He only nottced it had been stolen the Non voleva addormentarsi. He didn't want to go to sleep.
next dav. Mi si E addormentato un piede. My foot has gone to sleep.
Mi sono accorto subito che qualcosa non andava. I immediately realized something Sono stanco: stasera mi addormenterd subito. l'm tired: I'll go to sleep immediately
was wrong. toniaht.
Awisami se non mi accorgo che d tardi. warn me if I don't notice it's getting late.

Remember that subject pronouns {re not used very often in ltalian. Italic letters in ltalian words show where stress does not follow the usual rules.


(io) vado (io) andrd (io) aPPaio (io) aPParird
(tu) vai (tu) andrai (tu) appari (tu) aPParirai
(lu i,zlei) (lu i,zlei) flu i,/tei) (lu i,zlei)

(iei/r-ei) va (ieizre ij a no rd
(reilLeii appare (iei/r-eii apparrrd
(noi) andiamo (noi) andremo (noi) appariamo (noi) appariremo
(voi) andate (voi) andrete (voi) apparite (voi) apParirete
(loro) vanno (loro) andranno (loro) appoiono (toro) appariranno
(io) sono andato/a (io) andrei (io) sono apparso/a (io) aPParirei
(tu) sei andato,/a (tu) andresti (tu) sei apparso/a (tu) aPPariresti
(lu i/lei) (lu i/lei) (lu i/lei) (lu i,zlei)
e andato/a .l . .. .: andrebDe (ieizreii e apParso/a (lei/rei) aPParlreDDe
tleizLeij (rerl Le ) |

(noi) siamo andati,/e (noi) andremmo (noi) siamo apparsi/e (noi) appariremmo
(voi) siete andati,/e (voi) andreste (voi) siete apparsi,/e (voi) apparireste
(loro) sono andati/e (loro) andrebbero (loro) sono apparsi/e (loro) apparirebbero
(io) andavo (io) vada (io) aPParivo (io) appaia
(tu) andavi (tu) vada (tu) aPParivi (tu) appaia
(lu i,zlei) (lu i,zlei) (lu i/lei) (lu i,zlei)
apparlva .. . .. .. aDData
(iei/Lei) anoava (leillei) vaoa tleizLeii (re r/ Le r)
(noi) andavamo (noi) andiamo (noi) apparivamo (noi) appaiamo
(voi) andavate (voi) and iate (voi) apparivate (voi) appaiate
(loro) andavano (loro) vodano (loro) apparivano (loro) appaiano
val andato appari apparso
andiamo appariamo
andate apparite
andando apparendo


Andremo in Grecia quest'estate. We're gotng to Greece this summer. Oggi Morio appare turbato. Mario seems upset todoy.
Su, andiamol Come on, Iet's go! ll fantasma appariva ogni sera a mezzanotte. The ghost appeored at midnight
Com'd andata? How did it go? every night..
Come va? - bene, graziel How are you? - fine thanks! Tra poco il sole apparirri in cielo. The sun will soon appear in the sky.
Stasera andrei volentieri al ristorante. I'd like to ga to a restaurant this evening

Remember that subject pronouns are not used very often in ltalian. Italic lefteE in ltalian wotds show where stress does not follow the usual rules'

ry#rylM vene Tneles
' Pd'


(io) apro (io) aprird (io) arrivo (io) arriverd
(tu) apri (tu) aprirai (tu) arrivi (tu) arriverai
(lu i/lei) (lu i,u lei)
(lu i,zlei)
(lu i,u lei) .l . .: arnverd
(lei,u Lei) aPre (lei,zlei) aPrlrd (leillei) arrlva (rer/Ler)
(noi) apriamo (noi) apriremo (noi) arriviamo (noi) arriveremo
(voi) aprite (voi) aprirete (voi) arrivate (voi) arriverete
(loro) oprono (loro) apriranno (loro) arrivano (loro) arriveranno
(io) ho aperto (io) aPrirei (io) sono arrivato/a (io) arriverei
(tu) hai aperto (tu) apriresti (tu) sei arrivato/a (tu) arriveresti
(lu /lei)
(lu i/lei)
:. . .. .. na aDerto
(lu i,zlei)
(iei/reii aprlreDDe
( lu i,/le i)
(eilLeii e arrlvaro/a
.l . ..
(rerl LerJ
.: arnvereDDe
(ie r/ Le r)
(noi) abbiamo aperto (noi) apriremmo (noi) siamo arrivati/e (noi) arriveremmo
(voi) avete aperto (voi) aprireste (voi) siete arrivati,/e (voi) arrivereste
(loro) hanno aperto (loro) aprirebbero (loro) sonoarrivati,/e (loro) arriverebbero
(io) aprivo (io) apra (io) arrivavo (io) arrivi
(tu) aprivi (tu) apra (tu) arrivavi (tu) arrivi
(lui,zlei) (lu i/lei) (lu i,zlei)
(lu i,zlei)
(iei,zLei) aPrlva (leiilLei) aPra
.. . ..
.: arnvava (lei,/Lei) arrlVl
(noi) aprivamo (noi) apriamo (noi) arrivavamo (noi) arriviamo
(voi) aprivate (voi) apriate (voi) arriVavate (voi) arriviate
(loro) aprivano (loro) dprano (loro) arrivavano (loro) arrivino
apri aperlo arriva arrivato
apriamo arriviamo
aprite arrivate
apren0o arrivando


Posso aprire la finestra? can I open the window? A che ora arrivi a scuola? What time do you arrive 0t school?
Dai, non apri i regali? Come on, aren't you going to open Vour presents? Sono arrivato a Londra alle sette. t arrived in London 0t seven
Non ha aperto bocca. She didn't soY a word. Non arrivava mai in ororio. He never orrived on time.
AsDettami, sto arrivandolWoit for me, t'm comingl
Etroppo in alto, non ci arrivo. tt's too high, I can't reach it.

Remember that subject prcnouns ara not used very often in ltalian. Italic letters in ltalian words show wherc stress does not follow the usual rules.

ffiffi__ull! to''-rt
vEns TneLrs


(io) assumo (io) assumerd (io) ho (io) avrd
(tu) assumi (tu) assumerai (tu) hai (tu) avrai
(lui,zlei) (lu i/lei)
(lu i,/lei) (lu i/lei) L- .. . .. .. avr4
(jeizLeii assume (teillei) assumerd (leirzLei) rrd (rerlLer)
(noi) assumiamo (noi) assumeremo (noi) abbiamo (noi) avremo
(voi) assumete (voi) assumerete (voi) avete (voi) avrete
(loro) assumono (loro) assumeranno (loro) hanno (loro) avranno
(io) ho assunto (io) assumerei (io) ho avuto (io) avrei
(tu) hai assunto (tu) assumeresti (tu) hai avuto (tu) avresti
(lu i,zlei) (lui,/lei) (lu i,zlei)
na assunto assu mereDDe itu.i{te1] ha avuto
(rerlLerJ (ieilLei) avreDDe
dei/r-eii treiZLeii
(noi) abbiamo assunto (noi) assumeremmo (noi) abbiamo avuto (noi) avremmo
(voi) avete assunto (voi) assumereste (voi) avete avuto (voi) avreste
(loro) hanno assunto (loro) assumerebbero (loro) hanno avuto (toro) avrebbero
(io) assumevo (io) assuma (io) avevo (io) abbia
(tu) assumevi (tu) assuma (tu) avevi (tu) abbia
(lu i/lei) (lu i,u lei) (lu i,zlei) {luillei) abbia
(lei,zlei) assumeva deizLeii
assuma (ieiZr-eii aveva (re r/ Le r)

(noi) assumevamo (noi) assumiamo (noi) avevamo (noi) abbiamo

(voi) assumevate (voi) aSsumiate (voi) avevate (vo i) alrb iate
(loro) assumevano (loro) assumano (loro) avevano (loro) abbiano
assu m i assunto abbi avuto
aSsumiamo abbiamo
assumete abbiate
assumendo avendo


Lazienda assumera due operai. The compony is going to tlke on two workers. All'inizio ha avuto un sacco di problemi. He had a lot of problems ft first.
E stata assunta come programmatrice. She's got a iob as o programmer. Ho gid mangiato. l've olready eaten.
Sei bravo: ti assumerei come assistente.You're good: I'd give you a iob as an Ha la mocchina nuova. She's gat a new cIr.
ossista nt. Aveva la mia etA. He wIs the s\me 1ge as me.
Quanti ne abbiamo oggi? Whdt's the date today?

Remember that subject pronouns ane not used very often in ltalian. Italic letters in ltalian words show where stress does not follow the usual rules.
Vene Tneles a'fi:'/


(io) bevo (io) berrd (io) cado (io) cadrd
(tu) bevi (tu) berrai (tu) cadi (tu) cadrai
(lu i/lei)' (lu i,zlei) (lu i/lei) (lu i,zlei)
(le i,zLe i)
(leillei) Derrd .:
. .:
Le rJ
cade (jeilreij cadta
(noi) beviamo (noi) berremo ".
(noi) cadiamo (noi) cadremo
(voi) bevete (voi) berrete (voi) cadete (voi) cadrete
(loro) bevono (loro) berranno (loro) cddono (loro) cadranno
(io) ho bevuto (io) berrei (io) sono caduto/a (io) cadrei
(tu) hai bevuto (tu) berresti (tu) sei caduto/a (tu) cadresti
(lu i/lei) (lu i,zlei) (lu i,/lei) (lu i,zlei)
na Devuto (rerlLer) .l .'..
.: e caduto/a (lei,uLei) caoreDDe
(noi) abbiamo bevuto (noi) berremmO (noi) siamo caduti,/e (noi) cadremmo
(voi) avete bevuto (voi) berreste i (voi) siete caduti/e (voi) cadreste
(loro) hanno bevuto (loro) berrebbero (loro) sono caduti/e (loro) cadrebbero
(io) bevevo (io) beva (io) cadevo (io) cada
(tu) bevevi (tu) beva (tu) cadevi (tu) cada
(lu i/lei) (lui/lei) (lu i,zlei) (lu i,zlei)
(reiZLeii beveva tleiZLeii
beva ,,^, ,, ^,, cadeva (rerlLerJ

(noi) bevevamo (noi) beviamo (noi) cadevamo (noi) cadiamo

(voi) bevevate (voi) beviate (voi) cadevate (voi) cadiate
(loro) bevevano (loro) bevano (loro) cadevano (loro) cddano
bevi bevuto cadi caduto
beviamo cadlamo
bevete cadete
bevendo cadendo


Vuoi bere qualcosa? Would you like something to drink? Ho inciampato e sono caduta. I tripped and fell.
Berrei volentieri un bicchiere di vino bianco. I'd love a gloss of white wine. ll mio compleanno cade di lunedi. My birthday is on o Monday.
Beveva sei caffd al giorno, ma ora ha smesso. He used to drink six cups of coffee Ti A caduta la sciarpa. You've dropped your scarf.
a day, but he's stopped now. Attento che fai cadere il bicchiere. Mind Vou don't knock over your glIss

Remember that subject pnonouns arc not used very often in ltalian. Italic letters in ltalian words show where strcss does not follow the usual rules.
Vens Tnelrs Vrns Thales


(io) cambio (io) cambierd (io) caPisco (to) cap tro
(tu) cambi (tu) cambierai (tu) caPisci (tu) capirai
(lu i/lei) (lu i/lei) (lu i/lei) (lu i/lei)
^,, camDra
trcr/ (ieizLeii camDrerd tleizLeii
caPrsce (leilLei) ca9tta
(noi) cambiamo (noi) cambieremo (noi) capiamo (noi) capiremo
(voi) cambiate (voi) cambierete (voi) capite (voi) capirete
(loro) Cdmbiano (loro) cambieranno (loro) capiscono (loro) capiranno
(io) ho cambiato (io) cambierei (io) ho capito (io) capirei
(tu) hai cambiato (tu) cambieresti (tu) hai capito (tu) capiresti
(lu i/lei) (lu i/lei) (lu i,zlei) (lu i/lei)
:. .". .'. ha camDtato ' atmhro16hho :. . .. .. na caDrto .. . .. .:
(re r/ Le r)
(rerl Le r) \rErl LEr,/ (re r/ Ler)
(noi) abbiamo cambiato (noi) cambieremmo (noi) abbiamo capito (noi) capiremmo
(voi) avete cambiato (voi) cambiereste (voi) avete capito (voi) capireste
(loro) hanno cambiato (loro) cambierebbero (loro) hanno capito (loro) capirebbero
(io) cambiavo (io) cambi (io) capivo (io) capisca
(tu) cambiavi (tu) cambi (tu) capivi (tu) capisca
(lu i/lei) (lui,zlei) (lu i/lei) (lu i/lei)
.. . ._ .. camDtava
(rerlLeD (lei,zLei) camDl (ieilr-ei) caPlva (leillei) caPrsca
(noi) cambiavamo (noi) cambiamo (noi) capivamo (noi) capiamo
(voi) cambiavate (voi) cambiate (voi) capivate (voi) capiate
(loro) cambiavano (loro) c0mbino (loro) capivano (loro) capiscano
cambia cambiato capisci capito
cambiamo capiamo
cambiate capite
cambiando capendo


Ultimamente A molto cambiato. He's changed a lot recently. Va lrene, capisco. OK, I understand.
Cambiamo argomento, Let's change the subject. Non ho capito una parola. I dtdn't understand o word
Vorrei cambiare questi euro in sterline. I'd like to chonge these euros into pounds. Fammi capire... Let me get. this straight...
Non ti capird mai. l'll never understand Vlu.

Remember that subject pronouns ane not used very often in Italian. Italic letters in ltalian words show where stress does not follow the usual rules.
W:ffi Vene TReLes Vr*, forrm fr%


(io) cerco (io) cercherd (io) chiudo (io) chiuderD
(tu) cerchi (tu) cercherai (tu) chiudi (tu) chiuderai
(lu i,/lei) (lu i,zlei)
.. . .. ..
(lu i,u lei) (lu
(lei,zLei) Cer6a (leilLei) cercnerd (rer/Ler.)
treiuLeii cn luderd
(noi) cerchiamo (noi) cercheremo (noi) chiudiamo (noi) chiuderemo
(voi) cercate (voi) cercherete (vo i)
ch iudete (voi) chiuderete
(loro) cercano (loro) cercheranno (loro) chiudono (loro) chiuderanno
(io) ho cercato (io) cercherei (io) ho chiuso (io) chiuderei
(tu) hai cercato (tu) cercheresti (tu) hai chiuso (tu) chiuderesti
(lu i,zlei) /lrri /loi\
(lu i,/lei) (lu i/lei)
.l . .. .:
(rerl Le r)
ha cercato (rerl Le rJ
na cnluso ;:'i,':;(
\rer/ Ler,,
(noi) abbiamo cercato (noi) cercheremmo (noi) abbiamo chiuso (noi) chiuderemmo
(voi) avete cercato (voi) cerchereste (voi) avete chiuso (voi) chiudereste
(loro) hanno cercato (loro) cercherebbero (loro) hanno chiuso (loro) chiuderebbero
(io) cercavo (io) cerchi (io) chiudevo (io) chiuda
(tu) cercavi (tu) cerchi (tu) chiudevi (tu) chiuda
(lui,zlei) (lu i/lei)
(lu i,zlei)
(lu i,zlei)
(leillei) cercn
.. . .. .. cnruceva .. . .. .: cnruoa
,,^, r, ^,, I
(rer/ LeU (re r/ Le r)

(noi) cercavamo (noi) cerch iamo (noi) chiudevamo (noi) chiudiamo

(voi) cercavate (voi) cerchiate (voi) chiudevate (voi) chiudiate
(loro) cercdvano (loro) cerchino (loro) chiudevano (loro) chiudano
cerca cercato cnruol ch i uso
cerchiamo chiudiamo
cercate ch i ud ete
cercando chiudendo


Le ho cercate dappertutto. I've looked for them everywhere. La fobbrica ha chiuso due anni fa.The factory closed two yeors ago.
Stai cercando lavoro? Are you looking for o jobT Con lui ho chiuso. I've finished with him.