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Design Charts

for Proportioning
Rectangular Prestressed
Concrete Columns
John R. Salmons
Professor of Civil Engineering
University of Missouri-Columbia
Columbia, Missouri

Donald G. McLaughlin
Structural Engineer
Burns and McDonnel Engineering Co.
Columbia, Missouri
(Formerly Graduate Student
University of Missouri-Columbia)

ith the increased use of precast


W prestressed concrete conies the scribe many different steel percentages
and prestressing levels in a few simple
challenge to the engineer to more effi- curves. These curves are applicable to
ciently design such products, If the symmetrically prestressed short col-
product is a prestressed column the de- umns (no length effects arc included)
sign engineer has few options. Some for both preliminary and final design.
references include load versus moment Nondimensiona] load versus moment
interaction curves for these columns, interaction curves and associated equa-
but most curves are for a specific size tions for rectangular columns with 270
column and a specific prestressing steel ksi (1861.7 N/mmx ) prestressing steel in
percentage. If the designer cannot de- all four faces have been developed.
sign within these limitations, the alter- These curves are based on particular
natives are to calculate and draw spe- concrete strengths, effective stress in
cific interaction diagrams for the partic- prestressing steel after losses, and the
ular column under consideration or use distance between centers of steel in the
the computer to evaluate the column tension and compressive faces. Within
capacity. In either case, the process can each chart there are curves which rep-
be time consuming and costly. resent different percentages of pre-
The design aids presented here de- stressing steel that can be present in

120
the column. With an additional equa-
tion these charts can be used to obtain a
modified effective stress in prestressing
Synopsis
steel after losses. The generalized in- A series of nondimensional ulti-
teraction curves are presented in the mate load- moment interaction
Appendix as well as design examples curves for short, rectangular con-
illustrating how the interaction curves crete columns with axial prestress-
and the stress modification equations ing are presented. Several design
should be used. examples are included to show the
application of the design charts.
General nondimensional equa-
Governing Equations tions are given which are based on
nonlinear approximations for both
The derivation of equations gener- the concrete and prestressing steel
ated for a general prestressed concrete stress-strain curves, linear strains
column parallels the development of across the cross section, strain
those for load-moment interaction rela- compatibility and equilibrium. The
tionships for any specific column. For steel location is generalized by re-
the general case, the equations depend placement of individual strands with
upon the assuming of a neutral axis lo- a rectangular prestressed steel
cation and satisfying the compatibility tube.
of strains. The concrete compression The series of curves presented
force and steel forces are calculated are for a steel strength of 270 ksi
from the strain distribution. These (1861.7 Nlmm2), concrete strengths
forces are nondimensionalized and, of 5, 6, 7, and 8 ksi (34.48, 41.37,
when used in the appropriate equations 48.26, and 55.16 N/mm 2 ), and
of equilibrium, produce a single point geometric parameters correspond-
on the generalized load-moment curve.` ing to the more commonly used col-
The entire interaction curve is obtained umns. In addition, full and partial
by varying the neutral axis location stressing of the prestressing steel
within an appropriate range. were considered.
The concrete compression force is
calculated from a concrete stress-strain
relationship which accounts for a por-
tion of the nonlinear region of the
curve. This solution is more accurate due to prestressing, precompression of
over the entire range of the interaction the concrete and bending of the mem-
curve than one based on the rectangular ber. The force in the steel tube is cal-
stress block approximation. The general culated from these strains using an ac-
equations are designed so that any con- tual stress-strain relationship for pre-
crete stress-strain curve can easily be stressing strand.
substituted for the one used for the so- The stress stage in the steel is
hition presented. analyzed using three specific cases:
The steel forces are calculated in Case 1 is appropriate when all the steel
terms of a steel percentage rather than strains are in the linear range of the
for a particular number of strands. For stress-strain curve, Case 3 is used when
analysis, the prestressing strands have all steel strains are in the nonlinear
been replaced by a thin rectangular range, Case 2 is a combination of Cases
tube of prestressing steel with an 1 and 3 and deals with steel strains in
equivalent area of steel. The total strain both the linear and nonlinear portions
in the tube consists of the steel strain of the stress-strain curve. Other pre-

PCI JOURNAL/January-February 1982 121


a)
m
U
0
U

G,= 1.7f^/E, EC_I

Concrete Strain
l (
f=
E f z
ForO c E^ . E p : 0.85f^ ^2 ` – I `^
`E p1 1Ep

<
For €< E, -- E cu : tc = 0.85f'

Fig. 1. Assumed approximation for the concrete stress-strain relationship.

P
stressing steel stress-strain relation- 8
ships could he used in the analysis pre- K fc b t = K, + K
sented here; however, the translonna-
tion would be more involved than that R R` + R,
necessary for the replacement of the = f bts
concrete stress-strain relationship. where
P„ = ultimate axial load acting on
NONDIMENSIONAL PARAMETERS column
The governing equations are used to M„ = ultimate moment acting on
generate nondimensional load versus column
moment interaction curves for pre- = concrete strength
stressed concrete columns. The evalu- b = width of cross section
ation of the equations is accomplished t = depth of cross section
by incrementing the depth of the com- K, = portion of K due to compres-
pressed concrete area (k xt) which is sive force in concrete
measured from the extreme fiber on the R c = portion of R die to compres-
compression face. The solution of each sive force in concrete
increment of k„t produces nondimen- K 8 = portion ofK due to steel forces
sional loads (K) and corresponding R s = portion ofR due to steel forces
nondimensional moments (R) which
represent a point on an interaction
CONCRETE COMPRESSION
curve. Each of the two nondimensional
PARAMETERS
terms can be considered in two parts
which correspond to the contribution of The parameters K C and R1 are depen-
the concrete and steel respectively. dent upon the compressive force of the
These nondimensional terms K and R concrete (C c) and the moment (M e) of
are defined as: this force about the bending axis of the

122

1 t/2

t/2
k„t
N.A.
B.A.
Cc

Yc

Fig. 2 Concrete stress distribution

column cross section. These quantities


are derived based on the following as- M ` (4)
1'ebt2
sumptions and approximations.
1. The concrete area displaced by
the prestressing steel in the com- STEEL FORCE PARAMETERS
pression zone has been neglected, The dimensionless expressions (KB
2. The tensile strength of the con- and R 8 ) for the prestressing steel are
crete has been neglected.
based on the following assumptions and
3. The approximation for the stress-
approximations:
strain relationship for concrete is
1. The bending strain in the pre-
shown in Fig. 1.2
stressing steel and in the concrete
A rectangular column cross section
without the prestressing steel is shown are compatible.
in Fig. 2 where the concrete stress dis- 2. Complete bond exists between the
prestressing steel and the con-
tribution and the depth of the neutral
axis (k„t) are also illustrated. crete.
The following equations can be 3. The prestressing steel is assumed
written from Fig. 2. to be a thin rectangular tube as
shown in Fig. 3. One-fourth of the
Cr. = faaebkat (1) total steel area is in each side of
M e = ycC C (2) the rectangular tube.
where The total strain in the steel at any lo-
fa re = average stress cation is evaluated in terms of three
ye = distance between centroid of components; the strain in the steel due
stress distribution and bending to prestressing (E n8 ), the strain in the
axis concrete due to prestressing (€), the
In order to obtain K, both sides of strain due to bending (EB ). The strains
the equation for C e are divided by f ht E„ and E,. e are defined as follows:'

and to obtain R, both sides of the equa-


tion for M, are divided by_f^ht 2. The re- SQ = pp f" and Epg =
1 a,
E, E,
E

sulting expressions are:


where
K c = G. (3? fHe = effective stress in prestressing
}fbt steel after losses

PCI JOURNALJJanuary-February 1982 123



b b

Steel Tube

t
B.A gt
t
.9t

' i Prestressing Strands


b' iLI b' j

Fig. 3. Steel distributed as a thin tube.

E ps = modulus of elasticity of pre- Since the stress-strain curve for pre-


stressing steel stressing steel becomes nonlinear at
E e = modulus of elasticity of con- higher strains, three possibilities of
crete stress-strain relationships occur in the
p, = Ap t l(bt) = total steel percent- cross section. All, part, or none of the
age steel strains can be in the linear range
A, = total area of prestressing steel of the stress-strain curve. Each of these
The strain due to bending is that possibilities is examined in the follow-
which exists in the column concrete as ing three cases.
a result of a failure strain at the com-
pression face of the column. The di-
mensions and variables required to cal- Case 1 — Steel Stresses Within the
culate the steel strains due to bending Linear Range
are shown in Fig. 4. The first case considers a rectangular
From the linear strain distribution, it section in which all of the prestressing
is possible to calculate the bending steel stresses are within the linear por-
strain in the top steel (E R4 ) and the bot- tion of the stress-strain curve.
tom steel (€B1):
f n1 ^ E NL E a4 C FNL
_ d, – k„ t
Ecu —
_ 1 +g-2k
Ecu
where E NL is the strain at which the
E81 — ky r 2k LL stress-strain curve becomes nonlinear
(see Fig. 5).
_k„t-d 4 _1-g-2kg
E E4 k t Ecv — 2k Ecu For this case the nondimensional
u ,, force and moment due to steel (K„ Rs)
The total strain in the top steel (ep4) can be calculated by the following ex-
and bottom steel (e px ), respectively, is: pressions:

Ep1 = l.e + p g Le + 1 + g – 2kv E (5) Ks --E 8 + €84) (7)


ru
E ve E 2 ku

__ f,, Pnfse 1 – g – 2k„ (6) R= f


s
6 c E Da ( € 81 — E Y4)
/
(8)
Eau
Eva } Er } 2kw

124

1.

___ (1-g)t/2 Ccu


e

!1Ii
gt /

t N.A.
B.A.
gt/2

CBI
b

Fig. 4. Bending strain diagram.

Case 2 -- Steel Stresses in Both xt _ PpEp s lD, ( E NL — Ep4 )


+ Ep4
+
Linear and Nonlinear Ranges 4j; EP. (En, — £p4
The second case considers a rectan- 2 ( C N L — E PI ) f7 1
gular section in which the prestressing (1.1)
(Ep1 — E p4 ) Epa J
steel strains are in both the linear and
nonlinear portions of the stress-strain R, = 9PP
curve: Eye "
f — E p4 + 2i Epq x
o.fl, L Epp
E PI > E NL EP4 C ENL
It now becomes essential to adopt a ( E NL — E pi)( ENL — E p4) +
stress-strain relationship for the pre- ( E yl — E1^4 ^S
stressing steel. The stress-strain curve
shown in Fig. 5 has been used in these ( 4E NL — Ep4 — 3Ep 1) 2'fP7 X
(EN E )2 —
L — p4
derivations.* The following equations 3 Epl — E P4 E E,
describe this curve.
12E P7 — E, 4 ) ( E NL — C PT ) ]
(12)
With Ep < FNL = 0.008: ( Ep l — E4 14
f, = EpEps (9) where
fp , is calculated from Eq. (10).
With €1,> ENL = 0.008: f 7 is the average stress between
0.075 strains of ENL, and EP , (corresponds
Ip =268- C0.9$fP, to ?,, , see Fig. 5)
EP - 0.0065 (10)
f p, is the strain at the centroid of the
where f„ is the stress in the prestressing area under the stress-strain curve
steel. between E NL and Epi (A7).
For this case, the nondimensional
force and moment due to the pre- Case 3 — Steel Stresses Within the
stressing steel (K,, R,) can be calcu- Nonlinear Range
lated by the following expressions: The third case considers a rectangu-

PCI JOURNAUJanuary-February 1982 125


).0065) ksi.

N
N

m
u)

6P4 6NL eel

Steel Strain
Fig. 5. Stress- strain curve for 270 ksi (1861.7 Nlmrre ) prestressing steel.

lar section in which all the prestressing load versus moment interaction curves
steel stresses are within the nonlinear for a specific column. Points on an in-
portion of the stress-strain curve. teraction curve are calculated by as-
suming a neutral axis location, satisfy-
E vl > E NL E 9 4 > EYL
ing the compatibility of strains, calcu-
The nondimensional farce and mo- Iating the concrete compression force
ment due to steel (K„ R 1 ) can be cal- and steel forces, and solving the equa-
culated for this case with the following tions of equilibrium. For general use,
expressions: the concrete compression force and the
steel forces were nondimensionalized.
K pp (3 Al + f94 177)
+ 2 (13) With this one deviation a general de-
f'
4
sign aid was developed for rectangular
prestressed concrete columns.
R • gpP
8f I
J PI S4

Modification for Partial


+ 2€ — Eg1 J (1 4) Prestressing
l\ !PT
For all points above the balance
The quantity fA7 is the average stress points on the interaction curves, the
between strains of E94 and E p , ; E p7 is the prestressing steel strain was found to be
strain at the centroid of the area under in the linear portion of the stress-strain
the stress-strain curve between € 94 and relationship. Therefore, a change in the
Epp, effective prestressing level causes a
The equations presented here corre- vertical translation of the interaction
spond directly to those used to develop curve in the compression control re-

126

gion. The amount the curve translates the depth of the section. This allows a
(AK) for a change in the effective pre- smooth reliable curve between the bal-
stressing level (Af, ) can be found by ance point and the load axis. However,
modifying the basic nondimensional at higher steel percentages and lower g
equation for the nondimensional load values, the concrete stress-strain rela-
K: tionship used in this derivation also
K =K, +K& shows a slight inconsistency. This is
Since all prestressing steel strains are caused by the inability of the stress-
in the linear portion of the stress-strain strain approximation to give accurate
curve, equations for modification to results for the concrete force and its lo-
K(AK) were developed in terms of the cation as the nonlinear portion of the
change in prestressing (Afte ), curve moves oil' the cross section. At
higher steel percentages and lower g
AK = P. Or .f e I +
Pp
(15) values, the concrete compression force
and its location is a major determinant
This equation can be solved for Af1e : of the load and moment capacity of the
column. The result of this inconsistency
.fc AK is a small discontinuity in the curves
4 }ae = (16)
Pv f ET
near the load axis.
L Er.
Prestressed Steel Tube
With Eqs. (15) and (16) and the inter- Approximation
action curves, a prestressed concrete
column can be designed with any level The replacement of the prestressing
of effective prestressing provided all strand with a prestressed steel tube is
the strands are stressed to the same the primary approximation in the deri-
level. Complete derivations of all vation of the equations used to generate
equations are available in a previous the load vs. moment interaction curves.
publications The accuracy of the solutions obtained
with this approximation was checked
by calculating points on the interaction
curves for specific columns. These spe-
Effects of Derivation citie columns consisted of various steel
Approximations percentages, numbers of strand, tub val-
ues, and values of g. The values ob-
Concrete Stress-Strain
tained were then nondimensionalized
and checked with the general interaction
Relationship
curves.
A nonlinear approximation for the For the case in which all the pre-
concrete stress-strain relationship is stressing steel strains are in the linear
used in order to produce more accurate portion of the stress-strain curve, the er-
results regardless of the location of the rors were in the range of 2 percent.
neutral axis. This capability is impor- However, certain factors determine the
tant since the development of an inter- magnitude of the error. For a given
action diagram requires the depth to steel percentage, the column with the
the neutral axis to vary from zero to in- largest number of strands had the least
finity. The details of the concrete error. Increasing the g value or the tlb
stress-strain approximation are shown value increased the error produced by
in Fig. 1. the prestressed steel tube, Increasing
The concrete stress-strain approxi- the steel percentage increased the
mation is especially useful as the depth magnitude of the error.
to the neutral axis becomes larger than For the case in which all the pre-

PCI JOURNAIJJanuary-February 1982 127


stressing steel strains are in the nonlin- tlb. The errors decrease as the value of'
ear portion of the stress-strain approxi- g, tlb, and the steel percentage de-
mation, the errors were on the order of creases.
4 percent. The increase in error is due The case in which the prestressing
to the inability of the prestressed steel steel strains are in both the linear and
tube to accurately evaluate the discrete nonlinear portion of the stress-strain
forces through the nonlinear portion of curve resulted in errors on the order of
the stress-strain relationship. The max- 3 percent. The magnitude of the errors
imum error occurs at large steel per- follow the same pattern mentioned in
centages and the higher values ofg and the two previous cases.

CONCLUDING REMARKS
The purpose of this study was to pro- the concrete and steel strengths and the
vide the engineer with a versatile de- ultimate load and moment acting on the
sign aid for rectangular prestressed column. From these parameters various
concrete columns without accounting column sizes, steel percentages and
for length effects. This was accom- effective prestressing levels can be
plished by the development of a gen- evaluated until a combination is found
eral formulation for a prestressed col- which satisfies the design require-
umn analysis and of nondimensional ments. This method offers efficiency
load versus moment interaction curves. and versatility in either preliminary or
The input information necessary in final design of rectangular prestressed
order to use these design aids is only concrete columns.

REFERENCES
1. Everard, N, J., and Cohen, E., Ultimate ter 1I, pp. 389-399.
Strength Design of Reinforced Concrete PCI Design Handbook -Precast Pre-
Columns, Interim Report of ACI Com- stressed Concrete, 2nd Edition, Pre-
mittee 340, ACI Publications SP-7. stressed Concrete Institute, Chicago, Il-
2. Notes on ACI 318-71 Building Code Re- linois, 1978, Chapter 8, p. 17.
quirements With Design Applications, McLaughlin, D. G., "Prestressed Con-
Portland Cement Association, 1972, crete Column Design," MS Thesis, De-
Chapter 10, p. 26. partment of Civil Engineering, Univer-
3. Nilson. A. H., Design of Prestressed Con- sity of Missouri-Columbia, December
crete, John Wiley and Sons, 1978, Chap- 1980.

128
APPENDIX A - DEVELOPMENT OF
DESIGN CHARTS

The following charts were formulated then be used as illustrated in the design
using the numbered equations in the examples.
previous presentation. Two variables f, The design curves for prestressed
and g are considered in various combi- concrete columns are similar to those
nations for rectangular columns with for regular reinforced columns in shape.
equal prestressing steel in each face. The prestressed concrete column
The steel percentage pp , is based on curves exhibit a less defined balanced
the gross cross section of the column. point but do have a concrete compres-
The following data were used in the sion control region and a tension con-
development of the design charts: trol region for each steel percentage
= OA03 in./in. (0.003 cm/cm) (see Fig. B2, Appendix B).
E, = 57.5 v' .) (psi) (ksi) An interesting feature of the charts
fp„ = 270 ksi (1861.7 Nlmm2 ) presented here is that the curves for
fde = 154.9 ksi (1068.0 N/mm2) prestressing steel percentages cross
E= 27,500 ksi (189.61 kN/mm2). each other. This occurs because in the
The charts were developed without compression control region, the higher
accounting for column length effects. the prestressing steel percentage, the
Also, the workmanship factor, 0, has not lower the column capacity. Hence, in
been applied to the curves. Therefore, the compression control region it is de-
the first step in design would be to ad- sirable to use less prestressing steel.
just the loads for slenderness effects by However, in the tension control region
using a moment magnifier approach the higher the percentage of prestress-
and applying the workmanship factor, ing steel, the higher the moment car-
. The appropriate design charts can rying capacity of the column.

FULL-SIZED DESIGN CHARTS


Because of the PCI JOURNAL size and the necessity
to save expensive PCI JOURNAL space, the sixteen
design charts in this article were reduced 50 percent.
Readers interested in securing (at cost of reproduction
and handling at time of request) photostats of the
original charts should contact PCI Headquarters.

PCI JOURNAL/January-February 1982 129


CHART NO. CHART NO. 2
0-90 0.90
f^ = 5.O k s f;0 =5.0ksi • I
fpu =270.0ksi a . z 2700 ksi . ^Pv
0.8O cc
po fse =154.9 ksi _ moo/ fSe =154.9 k 9t
00 0j g = 0. 6 t g = 0.7 t
0. 7C e 0.70
o e
OQ? o °°s Pu
p0)
0.6C 0.60
0
no rr

0.5C 0.50
U

o2
04c 0.4C
NN
03C 0.3C

0 2( /2 0.2C //

0,! C 0.10

0.00 0.02 004 006 0.06 0.10 0.12 ^i4 0.00 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.06 0.10 0.12 D.ia

K e/t =Fjo/f'bt2 Ke/t=Pue/f^bt2


CHART NO. 3 CHART NO_ 4
0.90
f^ = 5.0 k s i ^ Ip = 5.0ks1 ^•

• fpU -2700 ksi fpm =270.0 ksi


0.80
gt I

3'
P;Q fSe =154.9 ksi 9t pp fSe =154.9 ksi
00
^oa 9= 0.8 t Qc g= 0.9 t
0.70

P, oop S p^
O ^ 0 ^
0.60
00/

U 050

0.40

0.30

/// 020

_ 7 _ 7/__
7/ _
0. 0

0.00 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10 012 014


_
0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10 012 0.14

W Ke/t=%e^f^bt2
Ke/t=pie/f'bt2
r^ -aPT yin CHART NJO. 6
o_sc 0.90
N
f^ = 6.Oksi ^• f^ = 6.0 ks ^
0.8c
fp =270.0 ksi L. 0.80
fpu =270.0 ksi b .
,^-ePv

p o fSe =154.9 ksi _ 9t I


0 ^,o fse=154.9 ksi
° loa' 9= 0.6 f p °^ r 9= 0.7 t
o.7( o° e 0.7C oo° e
ao °s P^
o ^°O>S R^
og °o s
0.6i 0.6C
o° rr 00
r

U 0.5{ 0.50

QJ a7
If
Y 0.4C 0.4C

0.3c 0.3C

0.2C 0 2C

0-IC OHC

0.00 0.00
0.02 0,04 0.06 008 0.10 012 0.14 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.06 0.10 0.12 0.14

Ke/t=P"e/f^bt2 Ke/t=PUe^f^bt2
CHART NO. 7 CHART NO. 8
0.90
= 6.0ksi •
b u
fPv = 270.0 ksi fPu =270.0 ksi b I "
080 c^#
se =154.9 k i _ fse=154.9 ks.l
°•^a #
g= 0.8 9 = 0.9
e 0.7( e

o ^^^ PU 0040) Pu
qo^9 pad a9
0.61

0.S(

II
0.41

0.3'

02

_LL
0.1

0.00 _
0.02 0.04
7
0.06 0.06 0.10 012 0.14 0.00 0.02 0.04 0,06 0.06 OJU 0.12 0i4

W Ke/t=Pue^ffbt2
w Ke/t=Pue/f"bt2
r'I-1LQT Kin 0
0.91
0 9(
f^ = 7.0 ksi f'= 7.0ksi
fp U =270.0 ksi b fpu =270.0 ksi
0.81 Os(
fse=154.9 ksi 9t
^ao fse^ I54.9 ksi 9t t 5'
_____
Os
= 0.s ° 9 = 0.7 t
07' e 0.71
Pu
Q o 0o a ^
0.61

0.51
0.5(

N
a?
0.4(
0.4c

4
0.3(
03C

0 2(
02(

O,IC 0.€(

0.00 0.02 0.04 0.06 O.OB 010 0.12 0.14 0.0p 002 0.04 006 0.08 0.10 012 0.14

Ke/t=Pu e,/f^b t2 Ke/t=Pue/f^'bt2


CHART NO_ II C^1l-1\_imil[o7f
0.5C

fC = 7.0 ks i f'= 7.0ksi


Li fP^ =270.0 ks
fpu =270.0 ksi .
0.80
^ Ea fSe=154.9 kni t . °° fSe=154.9 ksi 9
°PI P ^^ 1

g= 0.8 # 9 = 0.9 t
e 070
a e
Pu
Q o ^^
0.60

-U 0.50

0.40

030

0.20

_ 7/
Ii
0.10

0.00
_ _
0.00 002 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.12 0.14 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.40 0.12 0J4
004
W
Ke/t=PUe^ffbt2 Ke/t = PLi e/ fbt2
CHART NO. 13 CHART NO. 14
0.0 090
Cn
fC = 8.0 k s i ^ • • f^ = 8.Oksi
* -, -®per
--
l =270.0 ksi . f
pu =270.0 ksi
0.5C 080
f
se =154.9 ksit gt
' •a fse=154,9 k
° 4O
O g= 0.6 t Of 9 = 0.7 t
0 7( 0 7C Q e
pu

0.6( 0.60

0.5C 050

dJ
0.4( 040

0.3( 0.30

0.21 0.20

01( 01C

0.00 0.02 0.06 0.06 0.10 0.12 0.14 0'00 0.02 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.12 0.14
004 0.04

Ke/t=pie/rbt2 Ke/t=Pue^f"bt2
CHART M( I 1-APT MO I^
no 0.9 0.9{

0 fc = 8. f^ = 8.0 ks;
c
ksi fpu
0.81
fSe =154.9 ksi 9t %,a fSel 54.9 k si gt
9p - 0.8 t 0.9 'f
0.7 e 0.71
03 Qa a^
o °Q,
m
Q
qa, °• pu
0.6 0.61

m
N
r
U
0.51 0.5(

d
N
II
0.41 0.41

0.3( 0.3C

0.21 02

0.1c //. 0.Ic


// /

0.0c o.oc
V-tie U.U4 U.Ub U.Ut$ U.IU 0.12 0.14 U.uc c1.U4 u.Ub U.Ua U.w 0.12 0.i4
W
Ke/t=Pe^ffbt2 Ke/t=Fbe^ffbt2

APPENDIX B — DESIGN EXAMPLES


4-318 Strands

i N (D

N
2'I I 1 2" , 2"

16"

Fig. Bi. Trial design 1.

DESIGN EXAMPLE 1 Enter Chart No. 6 with K = 0.512,


A square prestressed concrete col- K(elt) = 0,051 and find that a steel per-
umn in the concrete compression con- centage of 0.001 is adequate (see Fig.
trol region is to be designed using the B2). This steel percentage is also ade-
following data: quate when checked with Chart No. 7
with ag of 0.8. For a steel percentage of
Pa = 550 kips; f1 = 270 ksi 0.001, the area of prestressing required
M. = 875 kips; f e = 154.9 ksi
0 =0.7 (A,,) is given by the following equa-
f 6ksi;
tion.
The minimum cover to center of pre- A,, = pp bt = 0.001(16)16 = 0.256 in.'
stressing steel is 2 in. This requires four %-in. diameter
strands (A 9 = 0.34 in. ). The results of
Trial Design 1 trial design 1 are shown in Fig. B1.
By initially assuming that b = f = 16
in. and taking the design parameters Analysis of Trial Design
into account the following parameters The interaction curves can be used to
can be calculated. find the load and moment capacity of a
column. For trial design 1 the following
K- Pu = 550
=0.512 parameters are calculated:
O f/ ht 0.7(6)16(16)
K=0.5120.01
- _- =
R=Ke = M1
t doff bt2
R = 0.051
_ 875
= 0.051 _ 0.34
0.7(6)16(16)2 g = 0.75 Pp = t
lfi(lfi) = 0.0013
gt = (16 in.) - 2(2 in.) = 12 in.
Therefore, g = 12/16 = 0.75. A line is drawn from the origin,
The (A factor is applied to the param- through the point K = 0.512, R = 0.051
eters K and R since this workmanship to a steel percentage of 0.0013 (see Fig.
factor has not been applied to the inter- B2). The coordinates corresponding to
action curves. this end point are as follows:

138
r'I-IGQT NIfl r,
0.91

fc = 6.Oksi
b ^,^^aPU
fC=270.0 ksi
:gel
'°o fse=1`^4-9 ksi gt
0
9 = 0.7 t
0.71
0
' q e 0
o s P
K= 0.6 3 qo °o> ^'
00
a 6, C
00^' O
U,
U,

K _ 0.512
a
0.51 E
0
o V
O
^^ I 0
041 II Balance Point

O U)
10 10
:.3C O I I O 6
O
II II O

0 2( 0

Tv'7__
0.1C

0.00
/ ^.vc u,U^+ vun U.Ua 0.10 0.12 0.14

Ke/t=PUe/f^bt2

Fig. B2. Design chart for Example 1.

K = 0.63 and K(e/t) = 0.063 DESIGN EXAMPLE 2


The actual design load capacity of the
Design a 14 x 14-in. prestressed con-
column is given by the following egi .ia-
tions: crete column with four ½-in, diameter
strands with the following data:
Pu = (^ K fG f7t
= 270 ksi

t
=0.7(0.63)6(16)j6 P„ = 425 kips
= 677 kips > 550 kips M„ = 700 in.-kips fP=
f, = 5ksi = 0.7
M= O(K )S, b(t)^
First calculate K, K(elt), g and pn.
= 0.7(0.063)6(16)(16)2
K = P°
= 1083 in. -kips > 875 in. -kips
The 16 x 16-in. column with four 425
= 0.62
3/s-in. diameter strands is adequate. 0.7(5)14(14)

PCI JOURNAUJanuary-February 1982 139


CHART NO. 2
0.90
fc = 5.O ksi ^^ IP
b ^
r =270.0 ksi
040
Pz 4 fSe=154.9 ksi Lgtt H
000 3' g= 0.7
0.7C

K = 0.62 0 ° oy s R^
AKi V 6C

JK
05C
u

`S 34C

0.3C

II I
0.2C

0. IC

0.00 0.0Z 0.04 0.06 006 0.10 0.12 0!4

Ke/t=%e^ffbt2

Fig. B3. Design chart for Example 2.

K e _ M, The column will be checked for the


t Offb2 fully prestressed case. Enter Chart No.
2 with K = 0.62 and K(elt) = 0.073 (see
700 Fig. B3). This point lies outside the pp
= 0.0031 interaction curve, hence the
0.7(5)(14)(14)2 column will not work when fully pre-
stressed &, = 154.9 ksi).
= 0.073
To calculate the required level of
gt = (14 in.) - 2(2 in.) = 10 in. prestressing, locate the intersection of
elt = 0.12 line and the pp = 0.0031 in-
10 teraction curve. This point is the lower
g = 14 = 0.71 limit of AK as shown in Fig. B3.
AK=0.62-0.58=0.04
_ 4(0.153) The differential stress Af, e can be
0.0031
Ap 14(14) calculated from Eq. (16):

140

8-1/2" Strands

4-
Lr+ ^NI}

Fig. B4. Trial Design 1.

f ee = e M. 2250
^t = K t bt 20.7(5)(15)20)2
5(0.04) Of,'
27500 )j = 0.100
0.0031 I 1 + 0.0031(
L ( 57.5 V1 5000 . gt = (20 in.) — 2(2 in.)
g = 16120 = 0.8
= 63.2 ksi Enter Chart No. 3 with K — 0.125 and
The required prestressing level is: R = 0.100; the required prestressing
steel percentage is 0.0035. The re-
fe= 154.9-63.2=91.7ksi quired area of prestressing (A p1 ) is cal-
culated as follows:
The 14 x 14-in, column with four
A, = pbt = 0.0035 (16)20 = 1.12 in.R
1/z-in, diameter strand will work with f8e
This relates to eight ½-in, diameter
91,7 ksi.
strands with a total prestressing steel
DESIGN EXAMPLE 3
Design a rectangular column using
the following data:
Assume strong axis bending. METRIC (SI) UNIT
P„ = 140 kips M 2250 in.-kips
EQUIVALENTS
1 in. = 25.4 mm
= 5 ksi f = 270 ksi 1 in. 2 — 645.6 mm2
1 ft = 0.3048m
fire = 154.9ksi bit — 0.8 ¢=0.7 1 f2= 0.0929 m2
1 psf = 47.99 NIm2
Trial Design 1 1 psf = 47.88 Pa
Initiall y assume that b = 16 in. and t 1 psi = 0.006895 MPa
= 20 in. and calculate the following pa- 1 psi — 0.006895 N/mm2
rameters: 1 pcf — 16.02 kg/m2
1 kip = 4.448 kN
P. 1 kip/ft = 14.594 kN/m
K =
f^ bt 1 in.-kip= 113.0N•m
— 140 1 ft-kip = 1.356 kN•m
= 0.125
0.7(5)(16)20

PC! JOURNALUJanuary-February 1982 141


CHART NO. 3
090
fG = 5.0 ks i ' I

fpu =270.0 ksi


0.80
°'a fse-154.9 k si gt
0 Q/ g = 0.8 t
0.70 a e

l e ^O9 >
0.6C
Dp

05C

a
Y 04C

o.9C

0.2C // -i
K = 0.130

010 K= 0.125 cv
o o
r
o to
0.00
Y L ii
002 004 006 006 cc 0.10 Cr 0.12 0.14

Ke/t=Pie/f'bt2
Fig. B5. Design chart for Example 3.

area of 1.224 in.' The results of trial de- 0.125, R = 0.100 to a steel percentage of
sign 1 are shown in Fig. B4. 0.0038 (see Fig. B5).
The coordinates corresponding to this
Analysis of Trial Design 1 end point are as follows:
The interaction curves can be used to K = 0.13 and K(elt) = 0.012
find the load and moment capacity of The actual design load capacity of the
the column by using the following pa- column is given by the following equa-
rameters: tions:
K = 0.125 R=0.100 g=0.8 Pa = 0.7 (0.13) (5) (16)20
A n , __ 1.224 = 145.6 kips > 140 kips
= 0.0038 0.7 (0.102) (5) (16) (20)2
P° = bt 16(20)
= 2285 in.-kips > 2250 in.-kips
A line is drawn from the origin on The 16 x 20-in, column with eight
Chart No. 3 through the point K = b-in. diameter strands is adequate.

142
APPENDIX C — NOTATION

A, = total area of prestressing steel fz = compressive strength of con-


b = column width crete
B.A. = bending axis fp{.ue * eripI) = prestressing steel stress
C, = compressive concrete farce at subscript Iocation
d ( .,c r i p, 7 = distance between ex- f. = effective stress in prestressing
treme compression fiber steel after losses
and subscript location gt = distance between top and bot-
E = modulus of elasticity of con- tom steel layer
crete K = nondimensional load
E, = modulus of elasticity of pre- K, = portion of nondimensional Ioad
stressing steel due to concrete
er = eccentricity of ultimate load K8 = portion of nondimensional load
due to prestressing steel
^ltiN^Ascrept7 = prestressing steel bend-
k„, = depth of concrete compression
ing strain at subscript lo-
cation block
E^^ = strain in concrete due to pre-
M = moment due to concrete com-
stressing pression force
M„ = ultimate moment acting on col-
fe k = ultimate concrete strain unin
E .KL = strain at which prestressing N.A. = neutral axis
steel stress-strain curve be- Pa = ultimate axial load acting on
comes nonlinear column
Eo = concrete strain at which con- R = nondiniensional moment
crete stress-strain curves be- R^ = portion of nondimensional
come linear moment due to concrete
E n[,ur,Krrip[1 = prestressing steel strain R, = portion of nondimensional
at subscript location moment due to steel
E (,(Nunsnrapr7 = strain at centroid of non- pa = prestressing steel percentage
Iinear portion at pre- t = column depth
stressing steel stress- Jc = distance between centroid of
strain curve concrete stress distribution and
fe = concrete stress bending axis

NOTE: Discussion of this paper is invited. Please submit


your discussion to PCI Headquarters by September 1, 1982.
PC E JOURNAL,January-February 1962 143