Wireless Technology - An Overview by Paul Budde

Introduction Wireless access to voice and data services is swiftly becoming the core strategic issue in the telecommunications industry. Equitable and economical access to customers facilitates fast roll out of services and enables profitable operation. Cordless access technologies have been helping to achieve this ideal. Current issues include:
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the exploitation of microwave point-to-multipoint systems particularly for data and internet applications the introduction and/or expansion of Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications (DECT) and other similar technologies as wireless access methods for residential and business subscribers the emergence of Wireless Data Centrex, which provides opportunities for many operators to enter the previously sheltered market of data access within buildings, (a key development for European carriers in particular) increased competition in local loop access such as use of CATV fiber optic cables and other radio technologies for telephony and data transmission privatization of former government-owned monopolies in telecommunication markets continues to present new opportunities many new ventures in the cordless world have been initiated by a collaboration of industry players, rather than just single organizations, leading to development of international standards. Examples include Bluetooth (a wireless standard interconnecting mobile phones and computers) and Symbian (an operating system for wireless personal digital assistants)

The market is for cordless products is still growing rapidly because users have realized the value of wire-free access. It has already derived many benefits from wireless PBXs and LANs. These include: y lower cabling costs y better staff productivity y reduced phone bills y greater flexibility y improved reliability

However.Overview of cordless standards . Exhibit 1 .9 GHz TDMA-TDD 4 384 Kb/s 5 ms 32 Kb/s ADPCM 32 Kb/s ADPCM 32 Kb/s ADPCM 32 Kb/s ADPCM No. of TDMA 1 multiplexed circuits Bit rate Frame duration Peak power (average) Error detection Control channel/control method 72 Kb/s 2 ms 10 mW (5 mW) CRC Associated control channel 200mW (25mW) 80 mW (10 mW) CRC Embedded Control Autonomous distributed control CRC Dedicated control channel Autonomous distributed control Channel assignment Autonomous distributed control DECT Cordless Technology . The suppliers who come out on top will be the ones who add value for users by exploiting the intelligence in their products.15 Mb/s 10 ms 250 mW (10 mW) CRC Associated control channel Autonomous distributed control Send + receive calls Yes 1. The real issue is marketing.9 GHz TDMA-TDD 12 1.y integration of wide-area and on-site systems Customers have become confused over the proliferation of standards and have raised concerns over the security.5 ms Send + receive calls Yes 1. safety and strength of cordless technology. It should be noted that CT-2 has become outdated and completely phased out in many countries. The major technical issues regarding cordless access technology have been solved.9GHz TDMA-TDD 8/16/32 384Kb/s 2. The following table gives an overview of the 4 main cordless standards available.2001 System Main area of application CT-2 Public areas DECT Business PACS Business PHS y Public areas y Business y Home Caller Speech coding Path transfer (hand over) Frequency band Radio access Calling only (public) None 800 MHz FDMA -TDD Send + receive calls Yes 1. the PBX suppliers do see cordless access as an important part of their 'next generation products'.

Regulatory authorities regarded DECT as good solution as they were having problems in controlling widely differing types of cordless telephony in the market. A summary of the standard features follows: Exhibit 2 . The equivalent of DECT in the . wireless PBXs. fast hand-over and enhanced signaling capabilities. but potentially very profitable.DECT standard features Transmission Type Multiplex Procedure Modulation Technique Frequency Range Carrier Spacing Number of Carriers Total Duplex Channels Traffic Density Maximum range Mobility Speed Digital FDMA/TDMA GFSK 1880-1900MHz 1. CT-2 and DECT were once rival cordless technologies in the European market.000 Erlang per Square kilometers 300 meters 20-50 km/hour Duplex Channels/Carrier 12 Cordless access will be a crucial element for the next generation of on-site voice and data communications systems. however. In the case of voice systems. DECT.Introduction DECT was standardized in 1992 by ETSI as a pan-European specification for short-range cordless telephones.728MHz 10 120 10. new market for wireless LANs A primary incentive for installing wireless technology in offices is reducing the cost of system installation/alteration for organizations that often relocate workers. An installed base of 200 million units is projected by the end of 2005 DECT Standard The DECT standard (ETS 300 175-1 to 8) primarily defines the parameters for the air interface between a mobile station and a base station. including support for ISDN services. The DECT Forum claims that DECT is used in more than 110 countries around the world with over 45 million terminals expected to be shipped this year. has replaced most CT-2 installations due to its superior feature set. public access service and wireless local loops. It is of central importance to suppliers in both markets: y y for PBX suppliers who are faced with a saturated market and lengthening product lives for LAN suppliers. mobility and productivity of office workers are probably stronger selling points than the longterm cost savings anticipated from wireless LANs. Other problems included inadequate security against eavesdropping and the use of diverse and prohibited frequency bands. it has opened the way to a high risk.

DECT is known for its flexibility since it can handle virtually any form of telecommunications access. Cellular network operators and hardware vendors linked the two technologies in the late 90's. Generic Access Profile (GAP) EN 300 444. ARQ and FEC (which also leads to enhanced data security) comprehensive interworking facilities with other networks: ISDN. factories and in public places. Such efficiency has resulted in tariffs up to 40% cheaper than cellular mobile. LAN. On the other hand. thus no frequency planning required Today.000 users per square kilometer possible standardized radio interface dynamic channel assignment techniques self-organizing.USA is Personal Access Communications Systems (PACS) whilst Personal Handy Phone System (PHS) is the Japanese equivalent. Users in these types of environments only require access on the premises and never move faster than at the walking speed. and GSM can be used for voice. Dual mode handsets were developed which initially search for DECT access before resorting to GSM access. They can handle more than 100. business and public sectors operation of picocellular networks in extremely high user densities: 10. On the other hand. The first products available were based on Ericsson's proprietary DCT900 technology. cellular mobile does provide much wider mobility and as cellular penetration grows this tariff advantage is being lost. However. or who may be roaming from one country to another. is used in association with the common interface standard provided in EN 300 175. data and multimedia in the private. interrupt-free handovers and ISDN voice adequate security against eavesdropping with data encryption high data transmission with speeds up to 2Mb/s error detection and correction facilities such as CRC.25.000 users per square kilometer. GSM provides continuous wireless access for people who may be traveling at high speeds (such as those in cars or trains). ETSI has also developed a standard for DECT access to the Internet. If DECT access is found. a range of virtual PBX services are accessible such as . equipment based on DECT is being used in homes. DECT technology provides: y y y y y y y y y y high transmission quality using digital techniques. The addition of DECT to a GSM network offers the prospect of extending a network's reach into high-traffic indoor areas such as offices. exhibition centers and shopping malls. offices. For example. The air interface standard. competition has arisen in situations where no real alternatives have previously been. it has recently been threatened in the business market by GSM's high capacity 'Office-In-A-Box' solution. X. The DECT/GSM Hybrid Cordless access technologies make very efficient use of airwaves.

with possibility of roaming between all three modes. wireless PABX systems supporting up to 150 DECT terminals. not as a home or business cordless system. Typical applications include the following: y y y y DECT wireless systems that are adjuncts to new or existing PABX's. y Wireless PBX. all calls made via DECT access would accrue to the employer's account while all calls made via GSM access could be sent to the customer's personal account. non-interrupted hand-over ensuring signal clarity. This major difference has helped PHS become a successful competitor to conventional cellular mobile phones in Japan.07 million subscribers and then began falling due to pressure from mobile cellular competitors impacting on subscribers.8 million. PHS is also suitable for Wireless Local Loop and high bit-rate data services. The three main Japanese service providers . However the high cost of the handsets and the ongoing development of 'behind the PABX' GSM offerings led to the closure of the service shortly afterwards. It has been adopted in Japan in two main applications: y Public Mobile Service. excellent security and high quality of signal transmission. NTT DoCoMo. there is some optimism that PHS could have a major come back due to its superior voice quality and higher speed data transmission. It was originally developed in response to a need for a digital cordless telephone system. Call charges and other costs can be set according to which access is in use at the time. Table 1: The Future of DECTDECT-ISDN Integration The integration of ISDN and DECT has resulted in a system that delivers mobility. Interest in a dual mode GSM/DECT service culminated in the launch of BT Cellnet's Onephone service in May 1999.dialing between telephone extensions. The superior voice quality of PHS has attracted many corporate customers although younger generations have switched to . These can be used as stand-alone wireless PABX's or as adjuncts to larger wired PABX's Single line (analogue extension or PSTN) DECT cordless phones ISDN compatible corded telephones Personal Handy Phone System Introduction The Japanese equivalent to DECT is PHS (Personal Handyphone System). it was developed as a public access product. For example. with up to 128 cordless phones connecting to the PABX as analogue extensions. By October 2000 the total number of subscribers in Japan had stabilized at around 5. and TT Net (previously Astel) .DDI-P.have been aggressively promoting PHS. The initial rapid expansion had a lot to do with the unique regulatory and pricing environment of mobile communications in Japan. These systems support integrated paging and LAN based text messaging to handsets A family of ISDN based. Currently. however from the outset. The Japanese PHS market peaked in 1997 at 7. all the new ISDN features.

The number of subscribers is now around 5 million. now used by millions of subscribers worldwide in public PHS networks. Soon. It has been estimated that the infrastructure deployment cost of PAS in China is US$130 per subscriber. . the companies representing interest in the Japanese PHS system established their own MoU Group.iMode services in Japan. There are plans that PHS public access systems will also be deployed in Bangladesh and Taiwan. Telecommunication Technology Committee (TTC) and Radio Equipment Inspection and Certification Institute (MKK) participated as public organization members and 10 other organizations were initially involved as observers. Japan's ARIB. continuing rapid growth. telemetering. which uses dynamic channel allocation. PHS-WLL networks. and commercially available operating data transmission speed between of 64 kbps. and handset to handset direct data communication (transceiver). The per minute charge for PAS services in China at just 10% of the cellular mobile charges has been a major stimulant to growth. PHS is being deployed in China under the name of Personal Access System (PAS). and anywhere.000 PHS users in the greater Bangkok metropolitan area. PHS Technical Standard The Personal Handyphone System (PHS) standard is a TDD-TDMA based low tier microcellular wireless communications technology operating in the 1880 to 1930 MHz band. Users enjoy high speed web browsing. Other data transmission applications now popularly adopted include. There are currently around 500. There are currently 15 to 20 manufacturers involved in handset production. PAS has already been deployed to around 130-160 cities in China. These members include MPT of Japan and the telecommunications authorities of Singapore and Australia who joined the group as supervisory agents. 128 kbs and faster speeds will be available on PHS. and can be cost effectively deployed in environments ranging from urban to rural environments. the success of Telecom Asia in promoting PHS over the cellular companies in Thailand has renewed hopes that PHS can succeed in other markets. The data speed of PHS is currently at 64kb/s and it is expected to deliver 128kb/s in the Spring of 2002. corporate database access. The PHS data transmission technology is based on the PIAFS data protocol whose use in existing public networks already occupies 15% of the total network traffic and 45% of the total calls. corporate indoor PBX applications and in the home environment. PHS users experience voice quality comparable to wireline service. The standard supports a 32kbps bearer capability on each of the 24 TDMA frame slots. allowing 32kbit/s ADPCM high grade speech quality and a variety of data transmission applications. Within the group there are 85 odd signatory member organizations including carriers and manufacturers within and outside Japan. The cell installation architecture. file transfers and convenience of e-mail access anytime. In addition. the location identification service. requires reduced cell station installation planning and costs for the operators. with more than 40 models supporting high voice quality and a minimum of 32kbps data transmission. PHS MOU Group Not wanting to be left behind by their GSM counterparts.

etc. Indonesia and most recently the United States. The market is still in its infancy and needs to undergo further development.Medium Speed WLANs (transmission rates in the range of 256kb/s to 2Mb/s) Frequency Band: Technology: Antenna Power: 2. It also determines approaches to spectrum allocation and provide support for field trials and commercial system testing. The technology avoids the use of costly T1 leased lines often employed in inter-building connections (including WLAN point-of-sale applications such as setting up cash registers in a seasonal display area). security and health issues. Exhibit 3 . including demonstration of WLAN capabilities to potential users and resolution of spectrum allocation. in temporary locations or where cabling may hinder the installation of wired LANs. a wired LAN in a building. the majority of WLANs used today are accessed remotely by cellular phones. They are easy to install. pagers. The following exhibits show WLAN specifications for medium and high-speed networks as defined by the Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications in Japan. the market is widely viewed as vendor-driven and many potential users need to be convinced the products are worthwhile. WLANs may also be used to connect terminals to printers and other devices. Central and North America). However. According to many industry studies. The PHS Forum of the Americas now includes fourteen companies who meet regularly to coordinate efforts related to PHS standards definition and promotion of the technology (within South. WLANs are useful when employees are on the move. offer the same transmission rates as wired LANs and adequate security.45GHz (ISM band) Spread Spectrum Less than 10mW . Complete integration of WLAN with other networks is also very important.The main activities of the PHS MoU include: y elaboration of PHS technical specifications y coordination of PHS terminal certification with respect to terminal standards y promotion of PHS international roaming y coordination of intellectual properties y other promotional activities The marketing push for PHS outside of Japan has resulted in the formation of a number of industry fora in Australia. Wireless LANS Introduction A wireless LAN (WLAN) is a flexible data communication network used as an extension to. or an alternative for.

11b public access is available now.11. Major consumer ISPs such as EarthLink are even selling inexpensive 802.11b home gateways.11 network infrastructure is installed. They typically strike a deal with a landlord to deploy wireless access points ("APs" .Exhibit 4 . so they will be far less expensive than 3G for the end user. A large proportion of the installations has been for niche markets to date (i. but it is expected that many horizontal applications will follow as 802. As a result. including 802. hospitals etc. Users who already have an 802.11b have led to widespread corporate installations. It uses frequency hopping and infrared direct sequencing techniques. Home users are buying cheap 802.e. An 802. .11b network at home or the office don't need to buy any new equipment to connect. releasing its WLAN system. In 1999. The improved performance and lower costs of IEEE 802. WLAN applications are currently prevalent throughout vertical markets. 802. This standard enabled a gross bit rate of 11Mb/s. In addition to homes and enterprises.11b networks are now being deployed aggressively by businesses to give their employees mobility within the enterprise. Competition has already driven down the costs of deploying 802. airports. however WLANs are now on the verge of breaking into the mass-market. 802. there are many issues affecting the future deployment of WLANs.11b networks are now popping up in public spaces.Higher Speed WLAN (transmission rates greater than 10Mb/s) Frequency Band: 18-20GHz (quasi-millimeter wave) Technology: Time Division Duplex (TDD) based on 4 FSK or QPSX systems Antenna power: Less than 300 mW WLAN technologies are also being developed in other frequencies such as the 5 GHz band.11b gear to extend their DSL or cable broadband Internet access wirelessly to the entire house. Though it is still early. warehouses.11 is expected to make WLANs an economically competitive option for any office environment Initially WLANs could not deliver more than 1 to 2Mb/s in throughput.11b networks from thousands to hundreds of dollars.11b.11b AP has a maximum typical range of 500 to 1000 feet. retail outlets.11b ubiquitous in all public spaces will require an enormous number of microcarriers. a number of wireless network companies ("microcarriers") are actively building 802. Apple was the first to adopt this standard.11b public networks use unlicensed frequencies and are cheap to set up and operate. 802. in 1999. Airport.). According to one major computer company.11b networks in public spaces such as hotels. a standard formally approved in 1996 for WLAN networks.: shortterm leased buildings. airports. So making 802. Most importantly. the IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electric Engineers) ratified a new standard for high-speed WLANs: IEEE 802. 802.802.11b wireless transmitter hubs) in the facility and then pay the landlord monthly fees and/or a cut of revenue. 802. conference centers and retail establishments like Starbucks.

Since some of these follow no particular technical standard. Direct sequencing enables a maximum data rate of 11 Mb/s. Apple uses two antennae on each device to decrease the chance of this occurring. This frequency band is also used by industrial equipment such as microwave ovens. Frequency Hopping: During the coded transmission. Apple's Airport The released AirPort based on IEEE 802. In other words. both transmitter and receiver hop from one frequency to another in synchronization. point-of-sale systems. Routers or bridges also have to be installed to manage the data flow across a network. they are not geared to minimize disruption to other services in the same frequency band. is developing tests under a "Wi-Fi" logo in order to facilitate interoperability and boost customer confidence. . wireless PBXs and WLANs. there are already many technologies using it for communications. spread-spectrum devices like bar-code readers. This makes the spread-spectrum transmissions extremely secure. Exhibit 5 . In many countries these systems can now operate with stronger power transmitters without allocation of a frequency license. Since most countries do not requires licenses in the ISM band for transmissions below a certain power level. Spread spectrum technology transmits signals across a range of frequencies using very low energy levels. Direct sequencing is best suited to high-speed. client/server applications where radio interference is minimal.4 GHz ISM band. Although AirPort only works with Macintosh computers. Multiple systems can operate within the radio-range of each other but at a reduced data rate. Many other manufacturers are also releasing IEEE 802. The range is approximately 30 meters in open areas but less in the presence of interfering objects such as walls and other structures.11 standard. uses the unlicensed 2. The signal is coded by the transmitter and decoded by the receiver. The receiving station decodes the signal.About spread-spectrum wireless communications Both frequency hopping and direct sequencing techniques are based on spread-spectrum technology.11 compatible systems. Frequency hopping is best suited to environments where the level of interference is high and the amount of data to be transmitted is low. which attenuate or reflect radio signals. the Wireless Ethernet Compatibility Alliance. The rapid movement between frequencies makes it a very secure way of transmitting data.Short-Range Spread-Spectrum Deregulation has directly affected short-range. Direct Sequencing: This method entails the coded transmission being spread out simultaneously over a wide number of frequencies. it is widely marketed by major manufacturers to the mass market. WLANS have a much lower cost with only directional antennae interfacing directly with a wireless network access point. including Bluetooth. the signals arrive from different paths with opposite phases canceling each other out. The signal is so diffused that it appears as background noise. WECA. Reflection of radio signals is a problem when the sum of all reflections adds up to zero or to a very low signal strength. This means transmissions appear as background 'white noise'.

which will capture the majority of the market. In fact. Key findings of a study regarding Wireless Communications Systems (WCS) included: y y y y y y As WCS prices decline and performance improves. N. WPBXs are useful for employees who are periodically away from their desks or stationed in different locations within the same general area such as neighboring conference rooms or site inspections.In-Building Wireless In-building wireless systems take two forms. The need for WCS varies significantly with the type of employee and department within an organization. This will be followed by a moderate price premium plateau. A MultiCell/Multi-User (MC/MU) system will be required for large business facilities (50 or more employees) and a Single-cell/Multi-user (SC/MU) system will be required for small facilities (5 to 50 employees). continued improvement in performance and reductions in price per user. However. motivation and purchase justifications will switch. Businesses indicated they require performance and capabilities equal to those of a wired desk telephone. WLANs and wireless data collection. this will allow wireless telephones to account for the majority of all business telephones (PBX. Initially. weight and function) of desktop and portable wireless phones will also be required. The market is made up of wireless PBXs (WPBX). Sales growth for the vast majority of WPBXs is expected to be in stand-alone versions deployed for specialized applications. Cellular/Cordless telephone performance and capability would not be acceptable benchmarks for business users. opted for wireless LAN technology as both the quickest and cheapest means of linking its seven fire stations. In short.. Key Telephone and Centrex) in the not too distant future. Needs also vary depending on the size and type of business. Various types (differing in size. will see WCSs make inroads into markets traditionally monopolized by wired business telephone systems. WCS needs cannot be satisfied by any one type of wireless phone or system. The county of Los Alamos. Concerns about noise and interference emerged as a major factor when purchasing and using a WCS. The WCS market will grow according to three price premium plateaus. Finally. Initial high-priced premium plateaus will only attract a small segment of the market consisting of those businesses with a strong demand for WCS.M. customers purchase and use WCS to improve employee productivity and communication. Consequently. A WPBX enables personal mobility with access to both data and voice. It paid off in May 2000 when fires raged and efficient communications were essential. WCS purchase justifications will increasingly be made on cost. . the remainder of the market will be attracted to WCS only when it reaches parity with the cost of a wired telephone. already some finely tuned WLAN technologies have become a low-cost alternative serving remote locations. those designed for mobility and those designed to replace wires. Wireless Local Loop Wireless Local Loop (WLL) is a system that connects subscribers to the public switched . police headquarters and utility departments.

the worldwide WLL market will reach more than 202 million subscribers by the end of 2005. They include: y DECT y PHS y CDMA DECT is successfully used as WLL technology in several Asian countries such as India. which make up half of the world's population and mostly lack plain old telephone services (POTS). Germany and the USA. The system built on the concept of Radio in the Local Loop (RLL) permits rapid and flexible expansion of subscriber capacity. This firm has estimated anywhere between 172 million to 307 million consumers will demand WLL service worldwide in the near future. In Europe 2-3% can be anticipated. Several technologies can be used for wireless local loop installations. According to the market research firm MTA-EMCI. limited only by the availability of transmission frequencies. GDP growth in parts of south-east Asia are often 10% or even higher. In fact. WLL has a much lower incremental investment cost than copper wires and it is much cheaper to deploy for areas with low subscriber density. China. some WLL competitors' rates are already cheaper than fixed call operators in countries such as Denmark. Much of the WLL growth is currently in the developing economies. An investment in telecommunication infrastructure often adds triple the value to GDP. This will enable new telecom carriers to bypass existing wireline networks to deliver POTS and data access to the mass market. yet actual service provided is currently around 50-60 million subscribers. proprietary fixed radio access and fixed cellular systems. PHS WLL systems are being used in SE Asia and in a number of South American countries. Developing nations like China. Cordless access has already made it possible to quickly connect customers including corporate customers to the public network. WLL will help to unlock competition in the local loop. The subscriber line terminates at a permanently installed radio transceiver fitted with a small rod antenna. Brazil. A relationship between each area's roll out of POTS and . Russia and Indonesia look to WLL technology as an efficient way to deploy POTS for millions of subscribers without incurring massive infrastructure costs. WLL equipment can connect to a normal telephone or a standard wall jack.Radio in the Local Loop: An Economic Force There is a close correlation between a nation's gross domestic product (GDP) and the penetration of telephone lines. Exhibit 6 .telephone network (PSTN) using radio signals. Speech quality is better than in corresponding analogue mobile installations. India. The radio signals substitute copper wires for all or part of the connection between subscribers and the switch. Finland. This includes cordless access. In developed economies. and Indonesia.

Bearing this in mind. the Bluetooth SIG has offered the technology on a royalty free basis and surrendered intellectual property rights to those companies that have joined the initiative. The standard range within a room is 10 meters. In this respect. Each Bluetooth-enabled device can communicate with a number of other devices. It is capable of transmitting data at a gross rate of 1Mb/s. Table 2 . small companies can evolve in a healthy way without having to move into urban areas. Unlike infrared. This cryptography can be used to encrypt packets between 8 to 128-bits. All devices within a piconet share a common connection known as the master.Wireless Local Loop subscribers per region . with a fast rollout of telephone lines. However.11.Sept 2000 Region West Europe East Europe Africa Middle East North America Latin America Asia/Pacific Share of total world market 5% 9% 6% 1% 1% 21% 57% Bluetooth Bluetooth is a short-range radio technology developed by the Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG). The transmitter switches to low power or stops altogether as soon as traffic volume decreases to a low level. Bluetooth is not limited to the 'line-of-sight' requirement since it can transmit through solid objects. . The radio operates in a globally available frequency band. As Bluetooth is targeted for use with mobile phones and portable computers.45GHz (ISM band) thereby ensuring worldwide operation. although there is an option to extend it to 100 meters within a house. Bluetooth is much more secure than the inadequate 40-bit encryption used by IEEE 802. Full-strength 128-bit cryptography is used for authentication. Bluetooth technology self-adjusts the power to a suitable level that a data transmission requires.their GDP growth can be inferred. power consumption affecting battery life is a major concern. Such systems are referred to as 'Wireless Personal Area Networks' or WPANs. In rural or remote areas the lack of telecommunication services often leads to economic recession and urbanization. It is expected to make these digital devices much user-friendlier. 2. To promote its rapid adoption. creating a 'piconet'. Thus objective national policies should lead to a rapid deployment of POTS infrastructure. Bluetooth is designed to allow the exchange of voice and data between devices such as mobile phones and portable PCs without proprietary cables.

Table 3 .660 1. Toshiba and more than 2000 other 'Adopter/Associate' member companies.800 2.500 2.300 23.300 1.100 21.200 66 0 0 190 390 620 0 530 1.100 14.500 34. Furthermore. mobile phones etc.800 670 3. predicting WLAN and Bluetooth-embedded systems will together stimulate revenues of US$53. Intel. enabling integration into many more products.800 58.900 22.700 0 1.4 billion Bluetooth enabled devices by 2005.400 7.400 1. thus reducing power consumption and call costs Linking a microphone/earpiece to a mobile phone without cables.There are many applications for Bluetooth including: y y y y A mobile phone which connects with a laptop computer or a POTS-connected basestation at home.940 12.500 126. the Bluetooth SIG (Special Interest Group) included 'Promoter Companies' 3Com. Bluetooth enabled desktop PCs are expected to debut soon. rather than using the mobile cellular system. Innovation.2000-2005 2000 Telecommunications Computing Digital still cameras Output equipment Accessories Automotive Industrial/medical and vertical markets Home networking Total 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 8.000 453.000 83. IBM.970 7.400 11.700 233.100 1. It is believed Bluetooth will not really begin to make a mark until at least the end of 2003. Nokia.Bluetooth devices forecasts . Lucent. less expensive packaging and solutions that transfer some of the work to a host processor.200 2.900 4.600 5.300 428. a high-tech market research firm.600 80.400 2. Another group is equally positive about the prospects for Bluetooth. Motorola. Ericsson. at a meeting Automatic and instantaneous synchronization of files between two or more laptop and desktop computers As of March 2002. The same headset could work with a POTS-connected (Plain Old Telephone Service) base-station at home or in the office Exchanging data between laptop computers. Some ways to cut cost will include onechip solutions combining radio and base-band functions. research and development need to lead to a reduction in the costs of Bluetooth solutions.060 6.800 .200 43.000 4. the call is placed through the standard wireline telephone service.700 152.000 5. Microsoft. A limited quantity of Bluetooth enabled mobile phones and notebook computers were released at the end of 2000 to test the market.400 600 2.700 123.12 billion in 2006. another group is even more bullish predicting 2 billion Bluetooth products will be produced in 2005 alone.206 2.800 671. When calls are made from a mobile handset within one's own home. However.600 12.100 34.000 287.400 4. has predicted there will be more than 1.

8 465.5 142.Growth rate (per cent) Offset for chips: (ship 15% in prior yr) 14.2 .1 262.8 48.7 84.3 267.7 83.3 56.9 200.7 712.

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