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Chapter 3

1) When the following receptors are engaged what mechanism is initiated in a

a. Mannose receptor
i. Activate lectin complement cascade
ii. Enhance complement fixation
b. CR3
i. Recognize LPS and iC3b
c. CR4
i. Recognize LPS and iC3b
d. Scavenger receptor
i. (-) charged molecules
ii. Nucleic acid, phosphate-containing
iii. Gram + and gram -
2) When the following receptors are engaged what mechanism is initiated in a
a. TLR’s
b. TLR4 – expressed in macrophage
i. Recognizes LPS
3) What do TLR 3, 4, 5 and 7 bind to?
a. TLR 3
 Ligand: Double-stranded viral RNA
 Recognizes: Viral RNA
b. TLR 4
 Ligand: LPS
 Microorganisms: gram (-) bacteria
Recognition of LPS by TLR4 induces changes in macrophage gene expression
c. TLR 5
 Ligand: Flagellin, a protein
 Microorganism: Bacteria
d. TLR 7
 Ligand: Single-stranded viral RNA
 Microorganisms: RNA viruses
4) Know the TLR4 signaling mechanism.
a. All of the extracellular including LBP and intracellular, MyD88-TIR domain
and IKK-NFkB-signaling.
i. TLR4 is brought LPS by LBP
5) In the previous question, what 5 genes (that you learned about) are transcribed
because of the TLR-4 recognition?

Inflammatory Cytokines
1. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β)(HEAT CYTOKINE)
a. Induce changes to the endothelial cells of blood
vessels in the infected tissue that allow fluid and
cells to leave the blood
b. Work with TNF-alpha
c. Calls for IL-6 production
2. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) (HEAT CYTOKINE)
a. Induces fat and muscle cells to metabolize, make
heat, and raise the temperature in the infected
b. Move to liver and signal and activates hepatocytes
to create acute phase reactants (MBL & CRP)
3. Interleukin-12 (IL-12)
a. Recruits and activates NK cells that in turn secrete
cytokines (Secrete interferon-gamma to activate
macrophages) that strengthen the macrophages
response to infection, macrophages help clean up
the dead and dying cells
b. Protect against viral infections
4. CXCL8 (chemoattractant cytokine) = IL-8
a. Recruits neutrophils from the blood and guides
them to the infected tissue
5. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) (HEAT CYTOKINE)
a. Induce changes to the endothelial cells of blood
vessels in the infected tissue that allow fluid and
cells to leave the blood
c. Causes blood in venules to clot
d. Prevents spread of infection to the blood

*All chemokines are cytokines*


Bacteria can be recognized in the cytoplasm of a cell with NOD-LIKE RECEPTORS

NOD – 1
NOD – 2

6) What is the general term given to these 5 gene products?

a. Inflammatory cytokines
7) Know what neutrophils do and what lineage they come from during hematopoiesis
a. Myeloid Lineage
i. Granulocytes
1. ( <1 %) Basophil: control immune response to parasites
2. (1-6 %) Eosinophil: kill antibody coated parasites
3. (40 – 75%) Neutrophil: phagocytosis and killing organisms

8) What is another name for neutrophils

a. Polymorphonuclear leukocyte
i. Variable and irregular shapes of their nuclei
ii. Microphages
iii.Smaller sized than macrophages
iv.Most abundant WBC (50 billion in circulation)
v.Life span < 2 days
vi.60% of hematopoietic activity of bone marrow
vii.Large reserve kept in bone marrow
viii.MORE PRR’s than macrophage
ix.Macrophage secrete - GMCSF
a. Goes to bone marrow for hematopoiesis regulation
(to tell it to release more neutrophils and
monocytes to fight infection)
b. recruit circulating neutrophils, monocytes and
lymphocytes to enhance their functions in host
9) Know the 4 classes of adhesion molecules and which adhesion molecule they bind
1. Selectins (bind carbohydrates, initiate leukocyte-endothelial
a. Name: L-selectin
i. Tissue
1. Naiive and some memory WBC’s
2. Neutrophils
3. Monocyte
4. Macrophage
5. Eosinophil
b. Ligand
i. GlyCAM-1
ii. CD34
iii. MAdCAM-1
2. Vascular addressins (bind to L-selectin; initiate leukocyte-
endothelial interaction)
a. Name: CD34
i. Tissue
1. Endothelium
b. Ligand
i. L-selectin

3. Integrins (bind to cell adhesion molecules and extracellular

a. Name: αLβ2 integrin (LFA-1, CD11a/CD18)
i. Tissue
1. Monocyte
2. T cells
3. Macrophages
4. Neutrophils
5. Dendritic cells
b. Ligands:
i. ICAMs
c. *typically bind to Ig superfamily proteins*
d. *strong adhesion*

4. Immunoglobulin superfamily (various roles in cell adhesions;

target for integrins)
a. Name: CD2 (LFA-2)
i. Tissue
1. T cells
b. Ligand
i. LFA-3
Example: ICAM-1

*LFA bind to ICAMs*

10) Know the 4 steps of extravasation

a. When cells need to come out of the blood stream

i. Bring lymphocytes out into a secondary lymphoid tissue through
high endothelial venule (HEV: tiny blood vessels that serve a lymph
node), bring lymphocytes into lymph node
1. Rolling adhesion (slow it down)
a. Vascular addressins -> selectins
2. Tight binding (stop)
i. Stops the cells
3. Diapedesis (move into 2 endothelial cells)
a. Leave blood stream to be inside tissues
4. Migration (migrate along gradient)
a. LEADS to a chemokine gradient

11) How can you tell the difference between a general cytokine vs. a chemokine?
a. Cytokines: small soluble proteins used as means of communication between
i. Binding of cytokine to receptor induces intracellular signals that
change the behavior of the second cell
ii. Short-lived molecules
iii. Exert influence w/ in a short distance from cell that made them
iv. Some cases cytokine-secreting cell makes direct contact with the cell
it will influence
b. Chemokine: chemoattractant cytokine (direction)
i. Attract neutrophils away from blood and toward the infected area
where macrophages are secreting inflammatory cytokines
c. How chemoattraction fx’s?
i. A chemokine receptor on neutrophils that binds CXCL8, which then
signals the cells to move up the concentration gradient of the
12) Neutrophil granules and the names of them.
a. Primary (azurophilic)
i. Lysozyme
ii. Defensins
iii. Myeloperoxidase
b. Secondary (specific) granules
i. NADPH oxidase proteins
ii. Lysozyme
iii. lactoferrin
c. Tertiary (gelatinase) granules
i. gelatinase
13) Respiratory burst associated with neutrophils
a. Transient increase in oxygen consumption
i. purpose is to raise the pH of the phagosome so the granule contents
can become active to kill pathogen
ii. 2H2O2 -> catalase -> 2H2O + O2 (water and oxygen)
14) Neutrophil NETS
15) What are the 2 acute phase proteins you learned about and what can they do
a. C-reactive protein
i. activate classical complement cascade
b. Serum Amyloid A
i. Binds to some TLR’s leading to increased inflammation through
increased cytokine release
c. Mannose-binding lectin
i. Activate the Lectin complement cascade
ii. Enhance complement fixation to pathogen surfaces
16) Know all 3 complement pathways. What has to be present for them to start, the
initiating enzyme and all the following components cut in order.
1. Alternative
a. Initiating enzyme – spontaneous hydrolysis of C3
b. Creates iC3
i. Increases its reactivity allowing for the
binding of the serine protease Factor B
ii. Factor B cleaved by the serine protease
Factor D to form Ba and Bb.
iii. Ba is released into solution but Bb forms a
complex, iC3Bb( initial C3 convertase of the
AP which can produce reactive C3b)
iv. This C3b binds with Factor B and Factor D
forming C3 convertase C3bBb.
1. The C3bBb is a proteolytic complex
that initiates the amplification
process by formation of more C3b
molecules, building further C3bBb
convertases, resulting in the surface
deposition of C3b molecules.
Leads to the generation of C3 convertases via interactions with Factor B, Factor D and properdin,
C3b is inactivated through a controlled mechanism involving several inhibitor components such
as MCP and Factor H.
c. Binding of another C3b-fragment to the C3-
convertase of the alternative pathway creates a C5-
convertase (C3b2Bb)
d. The formation of the C5 convertase initiates the
final lytic process. The AP can act as a powerful
amplifier of both CP and LP as the C3b formed by
these pathways fuel the formation of both C3
convertase and C5 convertase, thus forming an
amplification loop.
The potential activation of the alternative pathway is kept in check by a natural inhibition, factor
H and factor I. Factors H and I in plasma inactivate C3b enzyme in solution but C3b on cell
surfaces cannot be inactivated due to protection by the bound properdin. This ensures that the
alternative pathway is primarily inactive in plasma and specifically activated on the surface of
invading cells.
2. Lectin
a. Initiating enzyme – MBL
b. Same steps as classical
3. Classical
a. Initiating enzyme – CRP, 1 IgM, 2 IgG’s
b. binding to C1q (first protein of the cascade) leading
to activation of C1r
i. C1r cleaves C1s-> activates the serine
proteases that lead to cleaving of C4 (c4a &
c4b) and C2 (c2a & c2b)
ii. Leading to formation of C4b2a (C3
convertase) -> cleaves C3 into C3a and C3b.
iii. C3a acts as a recruiter of inflammatory cells
iv. C3b binds to the C4b2a complex to form C5
convertase (C4b2a3b)
v. C5 convertase initiates the formation of the
Membrane Attack Complex (MAC)
1. Inserts into membrane creating
functional pores in bacterial
membranes leading to its lysis.
2. Classical pathway could be activated
independent of antibodies.
17) Name of the complement convertases and their components.
a. C3 convertase of the classical
i. C4b2a
b. C5 convertase of classical
i. C4b2a3b
c. C5 convertase of the alternative
i. C3b2Bb
d. C3 convertase of the alternative
i. C3bBb
18) Type I interferons vs. Type II interferons
a. Type I: cytokines (Interferon-α & Interferon-β) produced as a defensive
response to viral infections
i. Prevent viral replication by activating host genes that destroy viral
mRNA and inhibit translation of viral proteins
ii. Increase the expression of ligands for NK cell receptors
iii. Activate NK cells to kill virus-infected cells
iv. Barely detectable in blood until person is infected
b. Type II (IFN-γ)
i. NK cells are principal source of Type II interferon
ii. Principal targets are macrophages
1. Interaction -> IFN-γ w/ IFN-γ receptor on macrophage =
signals that further activate macrophages so that it becomes
more efficient in phagocytosis and destruction of
pathogens, as well as in secreting inflammatory cytokines
*secretion of IL-12 by macrophages to activate NK cells & secretion of IFN-γ by NK cells = (+)
feedback loop -> increases strength of innate response to terminate infection w/o adaptive
19) What cells can produce Type I interferons?
a. Virus-infected cells
20) What is the main innate immune cell activated by Type I interferons?
a. NK cells
21) Know the 2 effector functions of NK cells.
a. Cytotoxic
b. Inhibitory
22) What type of infection do NK cells typically fight against?
a. Viral
23) What type of response is created in a cell that an NK cell has targeted (virally
24) What cytokine does an NK cell secrete to activate macrophages?
a. Type II interferon
25) What happens to virally infected dendritic cells when NK cells outnumber them?
a. The NK cells become cytotoxic cells and kill the dendritic cells
26) What happens to virally infected dendritic cells when they outnumber NK cells?
a. NK cells secrete cytokines that induce the dendritic cells to differentiate into
a form that leaves the infected tissue and migrates in the lymph to the
draining secondary lymphoid tissue
i. This initiates the adaptive response
Chapter 4
Antibodies and antigens
 Bind with specificity and AFFINITY
 Produced by the B lymphocyte in response to infection
 Circulate in blood and lymph
 Bind to pathogenic microorganism and their toxins in the extracellular spaces of the
body Isotype and class are synonymous
 Can be a BCR or antibody
a. IgG
b. IgA
c. IgM
d. IgD
e. IgE
Fx’s: recognized and binds to antigens
Targets the bound antigen to other components of the immune system
Epitope- carbohydrate sequence that allows binding
Antibodies- secreted form of proteins known as immunoglobulin or BCR
BCR- membrane bound
Fc region – effector function and tell the antibodies isotype/class
Need more ER for activated plasma cell (antibody producing factory)
- Mature b cells express Ig’s
o When bonded it proliferates and differentiates to plasma cell
Are bound to antibodies
Are biological macromolecules
Proteins and carbohydrates most common
“Mature or develop” = somatic recombination = BCR/TCR being made
*slides 48 & 49*
1) What does the germline configuration of the Ig variable region genes look like in all cells
except mature B-cells?
a. Uncut gene, many different V, D, and J regions that code for portions of a single
Ig and other unnecessary DNA exons (has not gone through rearrangement yet)
i. “Intervening DNA”
2) What does the germline configuration of the TCR variable region genes look like in all
cells except mature T-cells?
a. In all cells its going to be germ line sequence but in mature t cells and B cells its
will have gone through rearrangement
3) What gene segments need to come together to make a functional gene (for the variable
region) in B-cells for heavy and light chains?
a. VJ for light chain
b. VDJ for heavy chain
4) TCR gene segments
a. α-chain: VJ
b. beta-chain: VDJ (variable, diversity, joining)
5) What are the different isotypes of heavy chains and light chains?
a. Heavy chain
i. α alpha - IgA 1, 2
ii. δ delta – IgD
iii. γ gamma - IgG 1, 2, 3, 4
1. highest concentration of isotypes in the bloodstream after
2. can cross the placenta
iv. ε – IgE
1. no hinge region and 4 constant region domains
v. μ – IgM
1. activate complement
2. no hinge region and 4 constant region domains
b. Light chain
i. κ kappa
ii. λ lambda
6) Which chain (heavy or light) confers the antibody’s isotype?
a. The HEAVY chain determines the subclass of each antibody.
7) What do the constant domains do for the Ig’s?
a. dedicate functions and binds to Fc receptors
b. Do they bind to the antigen?
i. They bind to the antigen and confer effector functions.
c. Do they confer effector function or have no function at all?
i. They mediate the effector functions of the antibody molecule by binding
to serum proteins and call surface receptors.
8) What does CDR stand for and why are these important?
a. complementary determining region = Hypervairable

b. Its the most variable region so its going to have the most contact with the
epitope; It gives you diversity and specificity.
9) What does HV stand for?
a. Hyper variable regions = CDR Complement Determining region
i. Where specifically are these in the BCR/Ab?
1. Hyper variable regions are found in the Fab part of the variable
domain region.
10) Which gene segments provide diversity to CDR1 and 2?
a. different V segments region of heavy and light
11) Where does the diversity for CDR 3 come from (which gene segment)?
Different D segments

a. In the light chain determined by the V/J junction

b. In the heavy chain V/D and D/J junctions

12) Know the major characteristics of the different antibodies (Ab’s). Ex. bivalent, highest
concentration Ab in blood, allows for phagocytosis, can cross the placenta, small (good
in extravascular areas)
13) What are the ways we can get diversity in the antigen binding sites.
a. Combinatorial
b. multiple V, J and D segments can be used
c. N and P nucleotide additions ((junctional diversity))
d. somatic hypermutation
e. combinatorial association of heavy and light chains
14) Somatic recombination in greater detail. Rag genes and gene products.
a. RAG1 and RAG2 - which two cell types are these active in and what do they do?
i. Maturing B and T cells in the lymphoid tissue
ii. They take place in gene rearrangement in splicing of B cells and T cells.
15) RSS – what are these and what two cell types would these be useful?
a. RSS= recombination sequence signals
b. Gene segments VDJ where Rag 1 and 2 knows where to land
c. RSS ensures that the DNA molecules are brought together in the right order
flaking the germ-line
d. RSS is locates 3' on V// 5' on J// Both side of D
16) 12/23 or 1turn-2turn rule
a. You cant put together a 12 and a 12 or a 23 and a 23
b. 1 Turn = 12
c. 2 Turn = 23
d. Ensures that gene segments VDJ are joined in the correct order
e. Also give
17) TdT
a. Adds N-nucleotides (new nucleotides) during junctional diversity
i. Randomly
ii. Upper and lower strands
18) P and N nucleotide additions
a. Junctional diversity
b. (palindromic=antiparallel)
19) What is somatic hypermutation? Where does it take place? Which cells does it affect?
When does it happen, before or after activation)? Is there a specific area that is mutated
more than other areas?
a. A critical enzymatic process utilized by B cells to generate antibodies.
i. Introduces point mutations throughout rearranged V regions at high rate
ii. Increase affinity (more binding)
1. Change IgM -> IgG
b. occurs in B cell variable regions CDR1-CDR3
i. secondary lymphoid tissue (lymph node)
c. mature, activated Bcells that are NOT Plasma Cell
d. AFTER the Bcell is activated (recognized antigen)
e. No, it takes place in the whole variable region
20) Switch regions.
a. No switch regions needed in front of delta
b. Where are they located?
i. flank the 5' side of the C-genes (with the exception of the delta gene)
c. What do they switch?
d. How does it switch?
i. 1. initiation of transcription of the C-region gene
e. Which cells does this happen in and when does it happen?
i. B cells that are proliferating in response to an antigen
f. What benefit does it provide?
g. What can be the Ab isotype be switched to and which isotypes can’t be switched
i. Recombination with a cluster of c genes, excising the previous C gene
and joining a new c gene with a previously assembled V region
21) Affinity maturation.
a. Somatic hypermutation of B cells after being introduced to an Antigen.
b. What does this result in?
i. Results in Antibodies with higher affinity for the Antibody .
22) Look at figure 4.37 (the changes in the immunoglobulin genes that occur over a B cell’s
lifetime) Understand that chart. Know which changes are permanent (changes to DNA)
vs. those that are not permanent (alternative splicing of RNA). You will most likely have
to go back into the text to get a good understanding of what is going on in this chart.
23) An Ab is made up of 4 chains (2 heavy and 2 light) what holds them together?
a. Disulfide bonds
24) In a given Ab, are the 2 heavy chains exactly the same and are the 2 light chains exactly
the same?
a. yes
25) What is allelic exclusion and how does it affect your adaptive immune cell receptors?
a. The process of immunoglobulin genes rearrangement , tightly controlled to
make only one heavy and one light chain
b. By ensuring that B cell produce IgM and IgD of a single antigen specificity
26) From IgG to IgG where do you expect to find the greatest amino acid differences?
Constant regions or variable regions and if the answer is the variable regions, which
specific regions of the variable regions?
a. the hinges of the y-1, y-2, y-3, y-4 in the constant region
27) Do light chains have isotypes? If so, how many different isotypes are there and what are
they? Can one Ab have multiple light chain isotypes?
a. Light chains have two isotypes (Kappa and Lambda) therefore they have two.

b. An antibody (Ab) can only have one isotype in the light chain and NOT multiples.

c. NO they are either Kappa or Lambda

28) What happens during somatic recombination and what happens during somatic
hypermutation? Where and when do each happen?
a. Somatic recombination
i. In the Bone marrow in B cell and the Thymus in T cells
ii. It introduces nucleotide substitutions throughout the variable regions of
the rearranged immunoglobulin heavy and light chain genes
b. Somatic hypermutation
i. It occurs in cells of the soma (follicle center) , mature in the bone
ii. During B cell development
29) What enzyme is involved in both somatic hypermutation and isotype switching?
a. activation induced cytidine deaminase(AID)
i. enzyme that converts cytosine to uracil, which are then excised and
replaced with non-templated nucleotidesgr2
ii. a lot of changes that don’t matter to the BCR affinity; but will only take
in the changes that are beneficial to the affinity
30) Isotype switching - (antibody is effect in the constant region of H-chain)
a. Important to change isotypes for different effector functions
31) Look at the different epitopes
a. Discontinuous

b. Linear

32) What does a B-cell do to change a membrane BCR into a secreted antibody?
a. It doesnt change
33) IgD and IgM membrane immunoglubulins.
a. Are the antigen binding sites the same?
i. yes// B cells express both IgM and IgD that are specific for the same
b. What is different between the two immunoglobulins?
i. IgM is the first antibody produced by a Bcell// A BCR
c. How are they both on the surface at the same time?
i. First antibody created
d. If they cut the DNA to change isotype, could they both be expressed at the same
i. Yes. The antibody isotype of a B cell changes during cell development
and activation. Immature B cells, which have never been exposed to an
antigen, express only the IgM+ isotype in a cell surface bound form. The
B lymphocyte, in its mature ready-to-respond form, is known as "naive B
lymphocyte." The naive B lymphocyte express both surface IgM+ and
IgD+. The co-expression of both these immunoglobulin isotypes renders
the B cell 'mature' and ready to respond to antigen.
34) Look at fig. 4.21 and 4.28. Have an idea of the linearity of constant region genes and
know which constant region genes have switch regions in front of them and which
constant region genes don’t have a switch region. Why doesn’t C delta need a switch
region in front of it? If you switched from IgM to IgG1 could you ever go back to IgG3 or
35) How many subclasses of IgG and IgA are there?
a. IgG
i. IgG1
ii. IgG2
iii. IgG3
iv. IgG4
b. IgA
ii. IgA 2
Extra Review

Q: Antibodies are always present on mucosal surfaces?

A: True

Q: B cells that secrete antibody are referred to as:

A: immunoglobulins

Q: _____ is the most abundant antibody in the blood and lymph?

A. IgG

Q:Antibodies consist of two identical Heavy chains (H chains) and two identical Light chains (L
A: True

Q: The amino-terminal regions of the Heavy and Light chains are ______ in sequence.
A: Variable

Q: Carbohydrates are attached to the Light chain?

A: False; carbohydrates are attached to the heavy chains

Q: Each Y shaped antibody molecule has 2 identical antigen binding sites?

A: True

Q: The fragment that corresponds to the arms where antigens bind is referred to as?
A: Fab - Fragment antigen binding

Q: The fragment corresponding to the stem that readily crystallize or is constant and mediates
the effector function of the antibody molecule by binding to serum proteins and call surface
receptors is referred to as
A: Fc Fragment Constant
Q: Which region of the Antibody defines the five main types of isotypes or classes:
A: Heavy chain in the constant region

Q: The _____ chains are denoted by the corresponding lower case Greek Letter?
A: Heavy chain

Q: This greek letter (γ) is:

A: Gamma

Q: This greek letter μ is:

A: Mu

Q: This greek letter δ is:

A: Delta

Q: This greek letter ε is:

A: Epsilon

Q: This greek letter α is:

A: Alpha

Q: This greek letter α is:

A: IgA

Q: This greek letter ε is:

A: IgE

Q: This greek letter δ is:

A: IgD

Q: This greek letter μ is:

A: IgM

Q: This greek letter (γ) is:

A: IgG

Q: The ____ chain only has two isotypes or classes : Kappa and Lambda.
A: Light

Q: This greek letter (λ) is:

A: Lambda

Q: This greek letter (k) is:

A: Kappa

Q: Each antibody contains either kappa or Lambda light chains and not both?
A: True
Q: Which two antibodies have four constant domain?
A: Mu; (u) IgM / Epsilon (3) IgE

Q: Epitopes are:
A: The part of an antigen to which and antibody binds

Q: An antigen can bind to a TCR or a BCR/Ab (antibody)?

A: True

Q: An antibody basic unit structure consist of ____ polypeptide chains.

A: Four

Q: IgE binds to Mast cells?

A: True

Q: Multiple binding sites on an antibody is referred to as:

A: Avidity

Q: Which region defines the five main isotypes:

A: Heavy Chain constant

Q: ___ is the most common antibody in mucosal secretions?

A: IgA

Q: _____ is mainly found in the plasma?

A: IgM

Q: Which is the only antibody class to cross the placenta to provide passive humoral (innate)
immunity to the developing and newborn infant
A: IgG

Q: The major points of difference in antibody:

A: IgG: abundant in the blood and can cross the placenta.

Acts as opsonin

Activate complement

IgA: abundant in the body// in mucosal surface.

IgM: The first isotype that you will see on a the surface of a new B-cell// The first BCR// First
Isotype// The first isotype secreted during an infection.

IgE: Allergic reaction// bind to HIGH AFFINITY RECEPTOR ON mast cells at the Fc region//

Q: Which of the following by far is the highest concentration of antibody in the body?
A: IgA
Q: _____ is the first line of defense against microbes entering through mucosal surfaces.
A: IgA

Q:The first isotype that you will see on a the surface of a new B-cell// The first BCR// First
Isotype// The first isotype secreted during an infection.

A: IgM

Q: Immature B cell just has which of the following isoytpes bound to it?
A: IgM

Q: Mature B cell have which two isotypes bound to it:

A: IgM and IgD

Q: Which of the following has the highest avidity but the lowest affinity and can also activate the
complement pathway by getting C1q bound?
A: IgM

Q: This isotype is present in the serum at very low levels:

A: IgE

Q: IgE plays a significant role in:

A: Allergies and inflammation

Q: IgE binds to Mast cells that release histamine which leads to inflammation.
A: True

Q: This antibody has thhe highest concentration in the blood?

A: IgG

Q: This antibody allows for phagocytosis?

A: no data

Q: _____ is the most abundant class of antibodies in serum.

A: IgG
True or False

Q: Antibody molecules can act as enzyme to directly destroy an antigen.

A: False

Q: Activation of B cells occurs when antigen bonds to B cell surface immunoglobulin receptors.
A: True

Q:Which antibody confers the most important specific local immunity to enteric, respiratory, and
genitourinary pathogens?
A: IgA
Q:In the secondary response to an antigen, the predominant antibody is?
A: IgG

Q: In the primary response to an antigen, the first class of antibody to be secreted is?
A: IgM

Q:The immunoglobulin class that has an Fc region that binds to receptors on basophils and mast
cells is?
A: IgE

Q: The immunoglobulin class that is the only one capable of crossing the placenta is?
A: IgG
Q: The immunoglobulin class that has a dimer form found in mucus, saliva, colostrum, and other
body secretions is?
A: IgA

Q: Which process involves antibodies coating microorganisms in order to facilitate phagocytosis?

A: Opsonization

Q: Which process involves antibodies covering surface receptors on a virus or toxin molecule
thereby disrupting their activity?
A: Neutralization

Q: Which is incorrect about the Fc region of an immunoglobulin?

A) It determines the antibody's distribution in the body.

B) It forms the antigen binding sites.

C) It contains an effector molecule that can bind to cells such as macrophages and mast cells.

D) It contains an effector molecule that can fix complement.

E) It determines the class to which the immunoglobulin belongs.

Q: The molecular fragment on an antigen molecule that a lymphocyte recognizes and responds
to is called a/an:

A) epitope.

B) antigen binding site.

C) variable region.

D) None of the choices are correct.

Q: An antigen that contains more than one epitope is called

A: Multivalent
Q: The region of each antibody molecule where amino acid composition is very different from
one clone of B lymphocytes to another is the:

A) variable region.
B) joining region.
C) constant region.
D) light region.
E) hinge region.

Q: This surface determines specificity and diversity:

A: Hyper-variability aka Complementary determine regions