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PROJECT WORK

CLIMATE CHANGE
PRESENTED BY ABDULRAHAMAN
BUHARI
SUPERVISOR : MR TEREMEN MOVEGA
2015/2016
THIS RESEARCH HAS BEEN SUBMITTED
TO THE INTERNATIONAL FOUNDATION
PROGRAM AT GILGAL EDUCATION
FOUNDATION.

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Introduction
Climate change has long-since ceased to be a scientific curiosity, and is no longerjust one of many
environmental and regulatory concerns. As the United Nations Secretary General has said, it is the major,
overriding environmental issue of our time, and the single greatest challenge facing environmental
regulators. It is a growing crisis with economic, health and safety, food production, security, and other
dimensions.

Shifting weather patterns, for example, threaten food production through increased unpredictability of
precipitation, rising sea levels contaminate coastal freshwater reserves and increase the risk of
catastrophic flooding, and a warming atmosphere aids the pole-ward spread of pests and diseases once
limited to the tropics.

The news to date is bad and getting worse. Ice-loss from glaciers and ice sheets has continued, leading, for
example, to the second straight year with an ice-free passage through Canada’s Arctic islands, and
accelerating rates of ice-loss from ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica. Combined with thermal
expansion—warm water occupies more volume than cold—the melting of ice sheets and glaciers around
the world is contributing to rates and an ultimate extent of sea-level rise that could far outstrip those
anticipated in the most recent global scientific assessment.

There is alarming evidence that important tipping points, leading to irreversible changes in major
ecosystems and the planetary climate system, may already have been reached or passed. Ecosystems as
diverse as the Amazon rainforest and the Arctic tundra, for example, may be approaching thresholds of
dramatic change through warming and drying. Mountain glaciers are in alarming retreat and the
downstream effects of reduced water supply in the driest months will have repercussions that transcend
generations. Climate feedback systems and environmental cumulative effects are building across Earth
systems demonstrating behaviours we cannot anticipate.

The potential for runaway greenhouse warming is real and has never been more present. The most
dangerous climate changes may still be avoided if we transform our hydrocarbon based energy systems
and if we initiate rational and adequately financed adaptation programs to forestall disasters and migrations
at unprecedented scales. The tools are available, but they must be applied immediately and aggressively.

Climate is the long-term statistical expression of short-term weather. Climate can be defined as "expected
weather". When changes in the expected weather occur, we call these climate changes. They can be
defined by the differences between average weather conditions at two separate times. Climate may change
in different ways, over different time scales and at different geographical scales. In recent times, scientists
have become interested inglobal warming, due to mankind's impact on theclimate system, through the
enhancement of the natural.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE
CLIMATE CHANGE DEFINITION
WHY IS OUR CLIMATE GETTING WARMER
EFFECTS OF CHANGE OF CLIMATE
WHAT DOES IT AFFECT

CHAPTER TWO
FACTS ABOUT CLIMATE CCLASSIFICATION OF CLIMATE
TERMINOLIGIES IN CLIMATE
CLASSIFICATION OF CLIMATE

CHAPTER THREE
GLOBAL WARMING
EFFECTS OF GLOBAL WARMING
EVIDENCE OF CLIMATE CHANGE

SUMARY
CONCLUSION

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CHAPTER ONE
What is climate change?
Climate change is the consequence of unchecked pollution. When carbon emissions caused by human
activity enter the air they have dangerous effects on the environment, the economy, and our wellbeing. But
just as humans cause it, we can halt its progress.

What are the causes of climate change

Climate change is caused by trapping excess carbon in Earth’s atmosphere. This trapped carbon pollution
heats up, altering the Earth's climate patterns. The largest source of this pollution is the burning of fossil
fuels (such as coal and oil) for energy.

While carbon has entered the atmosphere for millions of years through natural events such as forest fires
and volcanoes, the burning of fossil fuels and clearing of land has resulting in the highest levels of
greenhouse pollution in our atmosphere in the last 800,000 years.

Also, Our weather is always changing and now scientists are discovering that our climate does not stay the
same either. Climate, the average weather over a period of many years, differs in regions of the world that
receive different amounts of sunlight and have different geographic factors, such as proximity to oceans
and altitude.Climates will change if the factors that influence them fluctuate. To change climate on a global
scale, either the amount of heat that is let into the system changes, or the amount of heat that is let out of
the system changes. For instance, warming climates are either due to increased heat let into the Earth or a
decrease in the amount of heat that is let out of the atmosphere.

The heat that enters into the Earth system comes from the Sun. Sunlight travels through space and our
atmosphere, heating up the land surface and the oceans. The warmed Earth then releases heat back into
the atmosphere. However, the amount of sunlight let into the system is not always the same. Changes in
Earth’s orbit over thousands of years and changes in the Sun’s intensity affect the amount of solar energy
that reaches the Earth.

Heat exits the Earth system as the Earth’s surface, warmed by solar energy, radiates heat away. However,
certain gases in our atmosphere, called greenhouse gases, allow the lower atmosphere to absorb the heat
radiated from the Earth’s surface, trapping heat within the Earth system. Greenhouse gases, such as water
vapor, carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide, are an important part of our atmosphere because they
keep Earth from becoming an icy sphere with surface temperatures of about 0°F. However, over the past
century or so the amounts of greenhouse gases within our atmosphere have been increasing rapidly,
mainly due to the burning of fossil fuels, which releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Consequently,
in the past one hundred years global temperatures have been increasing more rapidly than the historic
record shows. Scientists believe this accelerated heating of the atmosphere is because increasing amounts
of these greenhouse gases trap more and more heat.

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Why is our climate getting warmer?
Earth’s atmosphere has evolved to retain sufficient warmth from the sun to encourage a healthy, dynamic
ecosystem, while shielding us from its harsher effects. The introduction of huge amounts of excess
pollutants thickens this blanket of protective gases, causing heat to remain trapped within, rather than
harmlessly escaping skywards. These gases can remain in our atmosphere for up to 90 years, contributing
to long-term warming.

As the world warms, there are flow-on effects that can make things worse. For instance, warmer water
melts polar ice caps each summer. Sea ice normally reflects heat from the sun, while water absorbs it. Less
ice means more heat which in turn means less ice, leading to a cycle of warming from which it is hard to
escape. Temperatures are already rising quickly, with the last decade being the hottest on record.

EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE?


Sea level rise affects coastal property, people and ecosystems. By 2050 and a 4°C or 0.48m sea-level
rise, 130 million people per year are expected to be flooded, 3/4 of them in Asia.
Decades of climate science has found that if we fail to reduce carbon pollution, climate change will have
profound impacts on our planet. Climate change isn’t just a temperature change
Warming also affects rainfall and seasons. This in turn threatens food security. Inaction in cutting emissions
and a temperature increase of just 4°C would cause rice and maize yields in Asia to drop by 30%, cutting
off food supply to millions. Warming also increases the severity of extreme weather events such as tropical
cyclones, bushfires, droughts and flooding.
What this means for us
Australia’s environment and economy are particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate change. Some of
these effects are already occurring.
The magnificent Great Barrier Reef is already experiencing severe bleaching due to a 0.4°C rise in water
temperature. Each year, about 60% of our reef is subject to some bleaching. Professor Ross Garnaut
pointed out that we are “likely to see, by mid-century, the effective destruction of the Great Barrier Reef”.

The challenge facing us now requires courage to meet it. We need to drastically reduce the amount of
pollution we create. We need to fundamentally change the ways we produce and use energy
Changing weather patterns are making Australia — already the driest inhabited continent — even drier.
The result has been historically severe droughts and nationwide water shortages. Droughts could occur
twice as often across the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia's foodbowl.
Likewise, some of Kakadu’s unique wetlands are under threat from rising sea levels. Ocean salinity is only
20cm away from devastating this precious natural landmark. Already, two-thirds of Kakadu’smelaleuca
forests have been killed by increasing salinity. If sea levels rise by 60cm, 90% of Kakadu will be hit hard,
yet on current trends, things will be much, much worse.

We need to switch to clean, renewable sources of energy, and end our reliance on inefficient fossil fuels
and wasteful energy habits. Renewable energy is available now. It is safe for the environment and good for

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our economy. By dealing with climate change, we can make Australia a world leader in renewable energy,
create thousands of jobs and ensure clean, healthy air for our children and future generations.

Humans are largely responsible for recent climate


change
Over the past century, human activities have released large amounts of carbon dioxide and other
greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. The majority of greenhouse gases come from burning fossil fuels
to produce energy, although deforestation, industrial processes, and some agricultural practices also emit
gases into the atmosphere.

Greenhouse gases act like a blanket around Earth, trapping energy in the atmosphere and causing it to
warm. This phenomenon is called the greenhouse effect and is natural and necessary to support life on
Earth. However, the buildup of greenhouse gases can change Earth's climate and result in dangerous
effects to human health and welfare and to ecosystems.

The choices we make today will affect the amount of greenhouse gases we put in the atmosphere in the
near future and for years to come.

WHAT DOES IT AFFECT


Climate change affects everyone
Our lives are connected to the climate. Human societies have adapted to the relatively stable
climate we have enjoyed since the last ice age which ended several thousand years ago. A warming
climate will bring changes that can affect our water supplies, agriculture, power and transportation systems,
the natural environment, and even our own health and safety.

Some changes to the climate are unavoidable. Carbon dioxide can stay in the atmosphere
for nearly a century, so Earth will continue to warm in the coming decades. The warmer it gets, the greater
the risk for more severe changes to the climate and Earth's system. Although it's difficult to predict the
exact impacts of climate change, what's clear is that the climate we are accustomed to is no longer a
reliable guide for what to expect in the future.

We can reduce the risks we will face from climate change. By making choices that
reduce greenhouse gas pollution, and preparing for the changes that are already underway, we can reduce
risks from climate change. Our decisions today will shape the world our children and grandchildren will live
in.

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CHPATER TWO
Facts About Climate Change
Climate change is not limited for study to scientist and researchers alone. Today even the common man
wants to be extremely aware of the climate change effects and contribute the best way he can to save
himself and the earth at large. Here is what you can learn all about climate change – from facts to
prevention.
 The global temperature on an average has increased by 0.6 to 1 degree Celsius till the 20 thcentury.
 The United States constitutes 5% of the world population and contributes to 22% of world’s carbon
emission.
 Around 15% of the carbon released in the environment is due to deforestation and change in use
of land.
 The golden Toad is the first species to go extinct due to climate change.
 Vehicles like cars and truck contribute to 20% of carbon emissions in the United States.
 Air conditions and heating elements consume 50% of electricity in America.
 Hurricanes, droughts and coral deaths are few of the natural disasters caused due to climate
change.
 Climate change enhances the spread of pests that causes life threatening diseases like dengue,
malaria, Lyme disease etc.
 The hottest years have been experienced since 1990 till 1997. The warmest years have been from
2005-2010.
 The number of climate change related incidents have increase four fold between 1980 and 2010.
 Land use change and deforestation contributes to 15% of carbon emission every year.

The climate change scenario was much stable before the industrial revolution and has been rapidly
changing since then. Today the reality is that climate change is going to get worse than yesterday.

 A separate budget of US$ 40 million has been allotted for climate change research since 1990.
 Due to the greenhouse effect, the average temperature of the earth is 15 degrees rather than -18
degrees without the greenhouse effect.
 Carbon dioxide constitutes only 3.6 % of total greenhouse gases out of which 0.12% is attributed to
human activities.

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 Over most of Earth’s history, natural processes have been responsible for periods of
climate change. The Earth's climate has changed throughout its history long before human
activity could have played a role. For example, the planet has swung between cold glacial
periods or "ice ages", and warm interglacial periods over the last few million years. Changes in
the past can be explained by natural factors such as changes in the Earth's orbit, in the sun's
intensity, in the amount of explosive volcanic activity, by changes to the surface of the Earth, and
farther back in time, to the position of the continents. Of these, only changes in the sun’s intensity
and volcanic activity are relevant on century timescales.
 Human activity has now become the main cause of recent climate change. The strong
global warming observed since the mid-20th century has been largely attributed to human
influences on the climate. Global warming refers to the observed long-term rise in global average
surface temperature and is one manifestation of climate change. The rate of global warming over
the last half of the 20th century was about twice that for the whole century. This human influence
results primarily from the burning of fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas. Burning these
fuels generates carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas. Land use changes, such as deforestation and
conversion of land to agriculture, have also contributed carbon dioxide to the atmosphere.
 Global warming is primarily attributed to the enhancement of the natural greenhouse
gas effect. Greenhouse gases are so-named because they reduce heat loss from Earth to outer
space. In this respect they act in a way that is similar to a greenhouse, creating warmer
conditions than there would otherwise be, were these gases not present. Atmospheric
concentrations of key greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and
ozone have risen substantially as a result of human activity. This has enhanced or intensified the
natural greenhouse effect.
 The ozone hole is not the main cause of global warming. Global warming and ozone
depletion (in the stratosphere) are issues with fundamentally different primary causes but they
are interlinked in a number of ways. However, ozone depletion itself is not a principal cause of
climate change. Changes in ozone and climate are directly linked because ozone absorbs solar
radiation and is also a greenhouse gas. Stratospheric ozone depletion and increases in global
tropospheric ozone that have occurred in recent decades have opposing contributions to climate
change. The ozone-depletion contribution, while leading to surface cooling, is small compared
with the contribution from all other greenhouse gas increases, which leads to surface warming.
The total forcing from these other greenhouse gases is the principal cause of observed and
projected climate change. Ozone depletion and climate change are indirectly linked because both
ozone-depleting substances and their substitutes are greenhouse gases.
 Climate change is a warming trend, not just a warming cycle. Global temperature
naturally varies up and down from year to year and decade to decade. Natural climate variability
will continue to have an influence on the state of the climate over short time periods, but
superimposed on these natural fluctuations is a long term trend towards global warming. In order
to detect climate change – a long term trend – above the ‘noise’ of natural climate variability, it is
important to look to long term data records. When the record of global average surface
temperature over the past 100 years or so is examined, a long term global warming of about 0.8
°C is observed.

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TERMINOLOGIES IN CLIMATE

 Carbon cycle - the biogeochemical cycle by which carbon is exchanged between the biosphere,
geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere of the Earth.
 Carbon diet - the act of reducing the output of CO2 to reduce impact on the environment.
 Carbon footprint - the total set of greenhouse gas emissions caused by an organization, event or
product.
 Carbon offset - a mechanism for individuals and businesses to neutralize rather than actually reduce
their greenhouse gas emissions, by purchasing the right to claim someone else's reductions as their
own.
 Carbon sequestration - proposals for removing CO2 from the atmosphere, or for preventing CO2 from
fossil fuel combustion from reaching the atmosphere.
 Carbon sink - a natural or artificial reservoir that accumulates and stores some carbon-containing
chemical compound for an indefinite period
 Carbon tax - a tax on energy sources which emit carbon dioxide.
 Clathrate gun hypothesis - the hypothesis that melting methane clathrates could trigger runaway or
very severe global warming.
 Climate - the average and variations of weather in a region over long periods of time.
 Climate change - changes of climate in general, usually with no presumption of human influence.
Note, however, that there is one important exception to this: the UNFCCCdefines "climate change" as
anthropogenic.
 Climate change feedback - a natural phenomenon that may increase or decrease the warming that
eventually results from a change in radiative forcing.
 Climate commitment - how much future warming is "committed", even if greenhouse gas levels do
not rise, due to thermal inertia, mainly of the oceans.
 Climate ethics - an area of research that focuses on the ethical dimensions of climate change.
 Climate forcing - an energy imbalance imposed on the climate system either externally or by human
activities.
 Climate Justice - term used for viewing climate change as ethical issue, and considering how its
causes and effects relate to concepts of justice
 Climate legislation - legislation dealing with regulation of greenhouse gas emissions.
 Climate refugee - a displaced person caused by climate change induced environmental disasters.

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Climate classification
the formalization of systems that recognize, clarify, and simplify climatic similarities and differences
between geographic areas in order to enhance the scientific understanding of climates. Such classification
schemes rely on efforts that sort and group vast amounts of environmental data to uncover patterns
between interacting climatic processes. All such classifications are limited since no two areas are subject to
the same physical or biological forces in exactly the same way. The creation of an individual climate
scheme follows either a genetic or an empirical approach.

The climate of an area is the synthesis of the environmental conditions (soils, vegetation, weather, etc.) that
have prevailed there over a long period of time. This synthesis involves both averages of the climatic
elements and measurements of variability (such as extreme values and probabilities). Climate is a complex,
abstract concept involving data on all aspects of Earth’s environment. As such, no two localities on Earth
may be said to have exactly the same climate.
Nevertheless, it is readily apparent that, over restricted areas of the planet, climates vary within a limited
range and that climatic regions are discernible within which some uniformity is apparent in the patterns of
climatic elements. Moreover, widely separated areas of the world possess similar climates when the set of
geographic relationships occurring in one area parallels that of another. This symmetry and organization of
the climatic environment suggests an underlying worldwide regularity and order in the phenomena causing
climate (such as patterns of incomingsolar radiation, vegetation, soils, winds, temperature, and air masses).
Despite the existence of such underlying patterns, the creation of an accurate and useful climate scheme is
a daunting task.

First, climate is a multidimensional concept, and it is not an obvious decision as to which of the many
observed environmental variables should be selected as the basis of the classification. This choice must be
made on a number of grounds, both practical and theoretical. For example, using too many different
elements opens up the possibilities that the classification will have too many categories to be readily
interpreted and that many of the categories will not correspond to real climates. Moreover, measurements
of many of the elements of climate are not available for large areas of the world or have been collected for
only a short time. The major exceptions are soil, vegetation, temperature, and precipitation data, which are
more extensively available and have been recorded for extended periods of time.
The choice of variables also is determined by the purpose of the classification (such as to account for
distribution of natural vegetation, to explain soil formation processes, or to classify climates in terms of
human comfort). The variables relevant in the classification will be determined by this purpose, as will the
threshold values of the variables chosen to differentiate climatic zones.

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A second difficulty results from the generally gradual nature of changes in the climatic elements over
Earth’s surface. Except in unusual situations due to mountain ranges or coastlines, temperature,
precipitation, and other climatic variables tend to change only slowly over distance. As a result, climate
types tend to change imperceptibly as one moves from one locale on Earth’s surface to another. Choosing
a set of criteria to distinguish one climatic type from another is thus equivalent to drawing a line on a map to
distinguish the climatic region possessing one type from that having the other. While this is in no way
different from many other classification decisions that one makes routinely in daily life, it must always be
remembered that boundaries between adjacent climatic regions are placed somewhat arbitrarily through
regions of continuous, gradual change and that the areas defined within these boundaries are far from
homogeneous in terms of their climatic characteristics.
Most classification schemes are intended for global- or continental-scale application and define regions that
are major subdivisions of continents hundreds to thousands of kilometres across. These may be
termed macroclimates. Not only will there be slow changes (from wet to dry, hot to cold, etc.) across such a
region as a result of the geographic gradients of climatic elements over the continent of which the region is
a part, but there will exist mesoclimates within these regions associated with climatic processes occurring
at a scale of tens to hundreds of kilometres that are created by elevation differences, slope aspect, bodies
of water, differences in vegetation cover, urban areas, and the like. Mesoclimates, in turn, may be resolved
into numerousmicroclimates, which occur at scales of less than 0.1 km (0.06 mile), as in the climatic
differences between forests, crops, and bare soil, at various depths in a plant canopy, at different depths in
the soil, on different sides of a building, and so on.
These limitations notwithstanding, climate classification plays a key role as a means of generalizing the
geographic distribution and interactions among climatic elements, of identifying mixes of climatic influences
important to various climatically dependent phenomena, of stimulating the search to identify the controlling
processes of climate, and, as an educational tool, to show some of the ways in which distant areas of the
world are both different from and similar to one’s own home region.

The climate of an area is the synthesis of the environmental conditions (soils, vegetation, weather, etc.) that
have prevailed there over a long period of time. This synthesis involves both averages of the climatic
elements and measurements of variability (such as extreme values and probabilities). Climate is a complex,
abstract concept involving data on all aspects of Earth’s environment. As such, no two localities on Earth
may be said to have exactly the same climate.

Nevertheless, it is readily apparent that, over restricted areas of the planet, climates vary within a limited
range and that climatic regions are discernible within which some uniformity is apparent in the patterns of

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climatic elements. Moreover, widely separated areas of the world possess similar climates when the set of
geographic relationships occurring in one area parallels that of another. This symmetry and organization of
the climatic environment suggests an underlying worldwide regularity and order in the phenomena causing
climate (such as patterns of incomingsolar radiation, vegetation, soils, winds, temperature, and air masses).
Despite the existence of such underlying patterns, the creation of an accurate and useful climate scheme is
a daunting task.
First, climate is a multidimensional concept, and it is not an obvious decision as to which of the many
observed environmental variables should be selected as the basis of the classification. This choice must be
made on a number of grounds, both practical and theoretical. For example, using too many different
elements opens up the possibilities that the classification will have too many categories to be readily
interpreted and that many of the categories will not correspond to real climates. Moreover, measurements
of many of the elements of climate are not available for large areas of the world or have been collected for
only a short time. The major exceptions are soil, vegetation, temperature, and precipitation data, which are
more extensively available and have been recorded for extended periods of time.
The choice of variables also is determined by the purpose of the classification (such as to account for
distribution of natural vegetation, to explain soil formation processes, or to classify climates in terms of
human comfort). The variables relevant in the classification will be determined by this purpose, as will the
threshold values of the variables chosen to differentiate climatic zones.

A second difficulty results from the generally gradual nature of changes in the climatic elements over
Earth’s surface. Except in unusual situations due to mountain ranges or coastlines, temperature,
precipitation, and other climatic variables tend to change only slowly over distance. As a result, climate
types tend to change imperceptibly as one moves from one locale on Earth’s surface to another. Choosing
a set of criteria to distinguish one climatic type from another is thus equivalent to drawing a line on a map to
distinguish the climatic region possessing one type from that having the other. While this is in no way
different from many other classification decisions that one makes routinely in daily life, it must always be
remembered that boundaries between adjacent climatic regions are placed somewhat arbitrarily through
regions of continuous, gradual change and that the areas defined within these boundaries are far from
homogeneous in terms of their climatic characteristics.

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CHAPTER THREE
Global warming
Global warming and climate change can both refer to the observed century-scale rise in the average
temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects, although climate change can also refer to
any historic change in climate. Multiple lines of scientific evidence show that the climate system is
warming.[2][3] More than 90% of the additional energy stored in the climate system since 1970 has gone into
ocean warming; the remainder has melted ice, and warmed the continents and atmosphere.[4][a] Many of
the observed changes since the 1950s are unprecedented over decades to millennia.[5]
Scientific understanding of global warming has been increasing. In its fifth assessment (AR5) in 2014
theIntergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reported that scientists were more than 95%
certain that most of global warming is caused by increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases and
other human (anthropogenic) activities.[6][7][8] Climate model projections summarized in AR5 indicated that
during the 21st century the global surface temperature is likely to rise a further 0.3 to 1.7 °C (0.5 to 3.1 °F)
for their lowest emissions scenario using stringent mitigation and 2.6 to 4.8 °C (4.7 to 8.6 °F) for their
highest.[9] These findings have been recognized by the national science academies of the major
industrialized nations.[10][b]
Future climate change and associated impacts will be different from region to region around the
globe.[12][13] The effectsof an increase in global temperature include a rise in sea levels and a change in the
amount and pattern of precipitation, as well as a probable expansion of subtropical deserts.[14] Warming is
expected to be strongest in the Arctic, with the continuing retreat of glaciers, permafrost and sea ice. Other
likely effects of the warming include more frequent extreme weather events including heat waves, droughts,
heavy rainfall, and heavy snowfall;[15] ocean acidification; and species extinctions due to shifting
temperature regimes. Effects significant to humans include the threat to food security from decreasing crop
yields and the loss of habitat from inundation.[16][17]
Possible responses to global warming include mitigation by emissions reduction, adaptation to its effects,
building systemsresilient to its effects, and possible future climate engineering. Most countries are parties
to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC),[18] whose ultimate objective is
to prevent dangerous anthropogenic climate change.[19] The UNFCCC have adopted a range of policies
designed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions[20][21][22][23] and to assist in adaptation to global
warming.[20][23][24][25] Parties to the UNFCCC have agreed that deep cuts in emissions are required, [26] and
that future global warming should be limited to below 2.0 °C (3.6 °F) relative to the pre-industrial level.[26][c]

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Evidence of Climate Change
Arctic sea ice has been declining since satellite Sea ice extent measurements are made with
measurements began in 1979, continuing the satellite instruments, and are given in millions of
long-term decline that began in the 1950s. Sea square kilometers. Sea ice measurements are
ice reaches its minimum extent in September in available within the satellite era, and are shown
the Arctic. Both Arctic and Antarctic sea ice is here from 1979 through the previous month.
shown here (tabs) for all months (drop-down list).

Sea Level
Sea level rise is primarily caused by thermal expansion (water expands when it's warmed), and the
melting of land ice, which runs off into the ocean. The data shown above were collected using satellite
instruments designed to measure the height of sea level. Sea level is shown here in centimeters from
January of 1993 to the end of the previous year.

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