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Terms Associated with Maintenance of Land Ownership Records

1. Khatauni
Khatauni is the register of all persons cultivating or otherwise occupying land in a village as
prescribed according to Delhi Land Revenue Rules. It is prepared in Form P-VI. It is a
document prepared as part of record-of-right in every estate. It contains entries regarding
ownership, cultivation and various rights in land. It is revised every 4 years when it is
prepared by Patwari and attested by the Revenue officer. This duration is called Fasli-year.
Khasra: (Record of Cultivation) It is a register of harvest inspections (parhtaal). The
Lekhpaal conducts the field harvest inspections in the month of October, February & April,
wherein he records facts regarding crop grown, soil classification, cultivable capacity of the
cultivators. The first six monthly inspection starting from Ist October is called as "Khariff"
parhtaal while the second commencing from Ist February is called "Rabi" parhtaal. In the
month of april the "Zaid" parhtaal is done.
2. Jamabandi
It is a document prepared as part of record-of-right of all persons owning land in a village
according to Punjab Land Record Manual. It contains entries regarding ownership,
cultivation and various rights in land. It is revised every 4 years when it is prepared by
Patwari and attested by Revenue officer. The changes of rights in land coming to the notice
are reflected in the Jamabandi according to a set procedure after verification by Revenue
Khatauni/Jamabandi are kept in the custody of halqua patwari. They are re-written after
every four years incorporating all the mutations (ie. charge of ownership) that has taken
place during the four year period. Khatauni/Jamabardi is the most important document as
far as ownership of agricultural land is concerned and one must ensure when he buys a
piece of land that his / her name is incorporated in Khatauni/Jamabandi by way of mutation.
There is a seperate Khatauni/Jamabandi for each village.
3. 'Chak Bandi' of Land Holdings
It means amalgamation & redistribution of all or any of the land in a revenue estate or sub-
division of an estate, so as to reduce the number of plots in the holding.
4. Khasra Girdhawari : (Record of Cultivation)
It is a register of harvest inspections. The patwari conducts the field harvest inspections in
the month of October, February & April, wherein he records facts regarding crop grown, soil
classification, cultivable capacity of the cultivators. The first six monthly inspection starting
from 1st October is called as Khariff Girdhawari while the second commencing from Ist
February is called Rabi Girdhawari. In the month of April the "Zaid" Girdhawari is done.
The entries made by the Halqa Patwari are verified by the field Kanungo Kharsa Girdawari
entries are made in form P-1V in case of Delhi Land Revenue Act 1954 and in form no.11 in
case of Punjab Land Revenue Act 1887.
Some terms used in Girdhawari are:-
- Khasra number: a number assigned to a block of land.
- Murabba: a land block of 25 acres (100,000 m2).
- Patti: a composition of Khasra numbers.
- Intkaal: a notice required after registering a piece of land in ones name. One has to inform
the Tehsil to update their records.
- Wakf board: a government institution in religious and community land.
- Haq shufa: preemption right- blood relative or tiller can claim right to repurchase property
at sale price within one year should it be sold to an outsider.
- Muzaira: a cultivator who does not own land.
- Vasiyat: a will
- Khatouni: revenue record
- Ntkaal: it used to be the responsibility of buyer but now with computerization this process
has become automatic in India.
Several other terms are used. Some of them are listed here: Theka, Khevat, Kilabandi,
Registry, Fard, Mushtarka, Chhijraa, Degree, Decree, Takseem, Halfia Bayaan, Mutation.
Revenue Administration-Its function
1. Custodian of Land Records
2. Custodian of State, Kahcharai and Shamilat Lands
3. Maintenance of various documents and their regular updations
4. Implementation of various laws, policies and acts
5. Survey and Settlement
Land Records Maintenance
Maintenance, preservation and updations of land record are done in accordance with
Revenue Acts of the Jammu and Kashmir State. These acts are guiding factor for making
new records at the time of new Settlement. In the present structure, Revenue Department
maintains the following necessary and major type of documents;
• Record of Rights (RoR)
• Jamabandi
• Girdawari
• Mutation Register (Intikal)
The brief introduction to these documents is given below;
Record of Rights
The records prepared at the time of settlement operations in an estate or village is called
Record of Rights.(Misalhaquat).It contains the details of persons who are land holders,
tenants or assignees of Land revenue, rates, cesses or other payments due from such
persons. It also contains genealogical tree (Shajranasb), map of estate, village etc. This is
the most important record so far as the evidential value is concerned.
It is the amended edition of the Record of Rights and actually that part of ROR which gives
the list of land holders and tenancy holders with details of fields, rents paid by each tenant
and land revenue paid by each land holder. It is prepared after every four years and is
called annual record or Jamabandi Chaharsala.
Known as harvest inspection is conducted twice in a year for Kharief and Rabi crops. It is
carried out by the Patwaris after spot inspection of each field for recording the condition of
the standing crop including kharaba.
Mutation Register
It is printed register with Patwari, separately maintained for each village consisting of
normally 100 leaves. Each leaf has a foil and counterfoil and is duly numbered. The title
page depicts the name of village, Tehsil, District and date of issue etc. The foil is known as
“Parat –Sarkar” and counterfoil as “Parat-Patwar”. The parat-Patwar has to be entered by
the Patwari as per the existing entries of the Jamabandi and Parat- Sarkar are made as per
the orders passed by the Revenue officers on mutations. There are as many as twenty five
categories of mutations and before writing up of Jamabandi of any village or mauza, all
changes which have taken place in record since the previous Jamabandi, are updated
through the orders passed on mutation.
Terms and Definitions

Terms defined in the Punjab Land Revenue Act, 1967, are following:-

1.Land - The world Land has not been defined in this Act, but under the Punjab
Tenancy Act,1887 it means" any land occupied or let for the agricultural purpose or for
the purpose subservient to the agricultural or for the pasture, and includes the sites or
building and other structure on such land "

2. Agricultural Year -the year commencing on the first day of July, or on such other
date as the Board of Revenue, appoint for any specified area.

3. Arrears of Land-Revenue - Land-revenue which remains unpaid after the date on

which it becomes payable.

4. Assessment Circle- Group of estates which in the opinion of the Board of Revenue,
sufficiently homogeneous to admit of a common set of rates being used as a general
guide in calculating the land-revenue to be assessed upon them.

5. Board of Revenue - The Board of Revenue established under the Board of Revenue
Act, 1957. (West Pakistan Act XI of 1957)

6.Boundary Mark - Any object or mark, whether natural or artificial, which is set up,
employed or specified by any authorized Revenue Officer to designate the boundary of
any portion of land.

7. Commencement - the day/date on which this Act or any provision thereof, comes
into operation.

8. Defaulter - Person liable for payment of land-revenue, and includes a person who is
responsible as surety for payment, do not pay it on the date, they become defaulters.

9. Encumbrance – Burdens or charges upon or claim against land, arising out of a

private grant or contract.

10. Estate – Any area for which a separate record-of-rights has been made; or which
has been separately assessed to land-revenue; or which the Board of Revenue, declare
to be an estate.

11. Holding - A share or portion of an estate held by one land-owner or jointly by two
or more land-owners.

12. Irrigated Land - Land irrigated by a canal, tube well, well, lift, spring, tank or by
any other artificial means of irrigation

13. Unirrigated Land- land other than irrigated land, and includes land fed by rains,
floods, hill torrents, and uncultivable or waste land.

14.Landlord - a person under whom a tenant holds land, and whom the tenant is, or a

15. Land Owner – a person whom a holding has been is transferred or an estate or
holding has been let in farm, but exclude a tenant.

16.Kanungo - supervising Tapedar.

17. Land-Revenue – "Land-revenue assessed or assessable under the Land Revenue

Act, or under any other law for the time being in force relating to land-revenue, and
includes any rates imposed on account of increase in the value of land due to irrigation”.

18.Tenant - A person who holds land under another person, and is, or but for a special
contract would be, liable to pay rent for that land to that other person, and includes the
predecessors and successors-in-interest of such person, but does not include a
mortgagee of the rights of a land-owner.


A person who takes from Government a lease of unoccupied land for the purpose of
subletting it.

19.Tenancy - a parcel of land held by a tenant under one lease or one set of conditions.

20. Legal Practitioner - Any legal practitioner within the meaning of the Legal
Practitioners Act, 1879 (Act XVIII of 1879), except a Mukhtar and Revenue Agents.

21. Net Assets – The Profit after all expenses of cultivation (including water rates ) but
before payment of Land Revenue and cesses.

22. Patwari - Tapedar and a Special or Additional Tapedar.

23. Pay - to rent, “deliver” and “render”.

24.Prescribed - prescribed by rules made under this Act

25. Rates and Cesses - Primarily payable by land-owners by the authority of

Government; village officers’ cess ; and any sum payable on account of village expenses.

26. Rent - Whatever is payable to a land-lord in money or kind by a tenant on account

of the use, but shall not include any cess, or other contribution.

27. Revenue Court - Court constituted as such under the law relating to tenancy as in
force for the time being.

28. Revenue Officer -Having authority under this Act to discharge the function of a
Revenue Officer.

29. Service Centres - The Computerized Service Centre established by the Board of
30. Service Centre Official – A Person appointed as the Service Centre Official.

31. Survey Mark - Any mark set up by the Department of Survey of Pakistan.

32 . Survey Number/Khasra Number - A Portion of land of which the area is

separately entered under an indicative number in the record-of-rights.

33. Village Officer - Any person appointed under this Act whose duty it is to collect, or
to supervise the collection of, the revenue of an estate

Some More Terms and Their Definations

1. Mussavie (Index Map) : Geographic data is recorded on special kind of paper maps
for each village.These are known as the Mussavies .These are surveyed paper maps at
different scales depending upon village area, normally at a scale of 1”=40 Karam .The
measuring unit on Mussavies is“karam”. Mussavies are developed at the time of
settlement. No changes can be made in this record set till next settlement.

2. Shajrah Parcha /Latha/Kapra :The reflection mussavie on big cotton cloth map is
known as “latha” or “kapra”. This record set is primarily kept by patwari of the village,
who makes temporal changes like splitting or merging of land parcels. (usually with a
red pencil)

3.Field Book: It is an alphanumeric representation of Mussavie, which keeps the entire

attribute information related to every land parcel of that particular village .
The Attributes of Field Book includes:
•The dimensions of plot in various directions ,
•Old Khasra number (Plot ID of last settlement),
• New Khasra number (Plot ID of current settlement),
• Khatuni number (Farmer ID),
• Type of land for every parcel,
• Area of each type of every parcel.
• Aggregated chart of the village at the end (shows total land types and
their areas in the village, total agricultural land in the village and some
other aggregated information like total number of plots, etc.)

4.Records of Rights (Register Haqdaaraan-e-Zamin or Misl-e-Haqiat): This

register contains ownership records and is developed at the time of settlement along
with field book and Mussavie, and owner information. It indicates the ownership of each
parcel .
Records of Rights Book contains
•Pedigree sheets (which gives the details of the cultivating and
landowner families of the village and their relationship. This record
set contains several indexes such as: Owner ID vs Parcel ID List
(Khaivet number vs Khasra number),Alphabetical index of owners
(Index Radeef war Malkaan) etc.
• Owner ID ,
• Participants in the Ownership,
• Land parcels comes under their Ownership,
• Share of each owner names of farmers who plough this field,
•Types and areas
• Information of levy and taxes .
5. Mutation Register (Register Intaqaal): This register dynamically changes as
mutation in land records happen. This register contains all transitional land ownership
record. At the time of new settlement it replaces the name of old owner with new owner.
This is a very important register that contains the sale purchase value of mutation.

6.Khasra Girdawari: It is the crop inspection register, wherein entry of every crop
cultivated in every Khasra number (per acre) is made after spot visit by the Patwari in
presence of Lambardar (Village headman) and other interested persons. It also indicates
ownership, person cultivating and the crop sown on the land. It is made twice in a year
i.e. for crops of Kharif (October) and Rabi (March).

7. Roaznamchah (Diary): It is a daily report register in which all important daily

events are written like crop health, pesticide attack on crop, land transfer or mutation,
village boundary benchmark(SehHadda) status and other similar activities

Batai:- Crop product sharing between landowner and peasant

Benami :- Alienation of land to anonymous persons

Bhaichara Village :-Village where all claimants of landholdings were perceived to be

the joint holders of the village

Deh:- Smallest Administrative Division of land (in sindh) for Land Revenue purposes

Doabs :- Territory between two rivers

Goth:- Village in Sindh

Haari:- Sharecropper in Sindh

Jagirdari:-Possession of 'Jagir'

Jagirs:-Land awarded by colonial officers on which Revenue was not due

Kammis:- Pejorative term used for menial workers

Katchi Abadi:- Irregular Settlement

Khasra Girdavri:- Village Revenue Record

Laapo:- Share of crop belonging to 'Zamindar', equivalent To 1/16th of Total Crop


Lambardar:- Honorary Government-appointed person for Revenue Collection and

control of Village affairs

Mahal:- Smallest Administrative Division of Land (In Punjab And Nwfp) for Land
Revenue Purposes; Village

Mahalwari:-Land Revenue System In Punjab And Nwfp, based on recognizing the

village as the Basic unit of Land Administration

Mukhtiarkar:- Town level Land Revenue Government Official in Sindh

Nambardar:-Landowner in villages in Punjab, appointed by The Revenue Department as

its Honorary representative; responsible for collecting Land Revenue.
Nambardari:- Having The Status Of A 'Nambardar'

Nawab:- Chief of 'Jagir' Or State

Pattidari:-Land on Claim

Patwar:-Low tier (lower than 'Tehsildar') Revenue Government Employee In Punjab

Rakh:-High Land Away From The Riverine Tracts

Ryot/ Raiyat:-Cultivator

Ryotwari :-Cultivator-based land settlement

Sardar:-Chief of Tribe

Sardari:- Pertaining to Chief of Tribe

Shaamilat:-Land not individually owned, Communal Land or Common Property

Tehsildar:- Town level Land Revenue Government Official in Punjab


Zamindari:- Land held by a 'Zamindar'

Measurements of land Linear Measure

1 inch = 2.54 centimetres
1 foot = 30.48 centimetres
1 yard = 91.44 centimetres
1 mile =1.61 kilometres
1 Ghatta = 8.25 feet

Square Measure
1 square foot = 0.093 square metre
1 square yard = 0.836 square metre
1 square mile = 2.59 square kilometre = 259 hectares
1 acre = 0.405 hectares
1 Acre = 4 Bigha 16 Biswa (4840 Sq.Yds)
1 Bigha = 20 Biswas (1008 Sq.Yds)
1 Biswa = 50 Sq.Yards

The following are the basic measurements of land used in Punjab, Pakistan and Punjab,
India in ascending order.
• 1 karam is 5.5 feet
• 1 marla is 9 Sq karams (272.25 sq ft)
• 1 kanaal is 20 marlas (5,445 sq ft)
• 1 keela is 8 kanaals (43,560 sq ft = 1 acre)
• 1 marabba is 25 keelas (1,089,000 sq ft = 25 acres)

A keela is measured rectangularly, reckoned as an area 36 karams x 40 karams, or 198

feet x 220 feet = 43,560 square feet.
Kothis are measured in marlas and kanaals. Most are 2-4 kanaals but the big ones can
be anything from 4-6 kanaals.
A couple of older measures:

1 biswa = 15 Sq karams; 12 biswas = 1 kanaal

1 bigha = 20 biswas - 1008 Sq Yards - 842.68 Sq Mtr

In land transaction the acre is often used to express areas of land. Land records are
written in metric system. An acre is approximately 40% of a hectare.
The measurement of agricultural land was carried in British Units. The units used for land
measurement were as follows:

12 inches = 1 foot
3 feet = 1 yard
9 Square Feet = 1 square yard
121Square yard = 1 Guntha
40 Gunthas = 1 acre

In so many village maps you might have seen scale as a for example 1Inch=10 Chain.
You have to convert chain into feet as follows:
1 Chain = 66 feet or 22 yards
10 chains = 1 furlong
1 furlong = 201.168 Metres

The land is now measured in Metric System using following decimal table.
1000 Millimeters = 1 Metre
100 Square Metres = 1 Are
100 Ares = 1 Hector

In 1958, the United States and countries of the Commonwealth of Nations defined the
length of the international yard to be 0.9144 meters. Consequently, the international
acre is exactly 4,046.8564224 square meters. Accordingly
1 Hector = 2.47 acres (approximately)

In the Village Form VII-XII when you read in the “area” column numbers for example
01-34-21 it means
01 = 10000 Square Metres
34 = 3400 Square Metres
21 = 21 Square Metres
Total = 13421 Square Metres

Conversion Table
1 Inch = 2.54 Centimetre
36 Inches = 1 yard
1 yard = 91.44 Centimetres
1 yard = 00.9144 Metres
1 Centimetre = 00.393 inches
100 Centimetres = 39.3 inches
1 Metre = 3.28 ft
1 acre = 1 furlong X 1 chain
1 acre = 660 ft X 66 ft
1 acre = 43560 Sq. ft.
1 acre = 4840 square yards
1 acre = 4046.8564224 Square Metres
1 hectare = 10,000 Square Metre
1 hectare = 107,639 sq ft
1 hectare = 11959.8 sq. yards (1 sq. yard = 0.83612736 sq. Metre)
1 hectare = 11959.8/4840 = 2.47 acre

Revenue terminology
Revenue is a very crucial subject attached to everybody’s life in direct or indirect way.
It is general perception that reading and understanding the revenue documents is
very tedious and complex task. However in actual it is very simple, but one has to
clear some basic facts and terminology of revenue. The below mentioned terminology
is mainly used in north india in one or other form.
Before understanding the revenue, first acquaint with unit of measurement
Unit of measurements:
In north india generally there are three types of unit of measurement of land. These
1. Kanal marla system
2. Bigha Biswa system
3. Meter system
The third one is most common now and in new measurements and documentation it
is used, the conversion of above two with 3rd one is as under:
Kanal marla System
1 Hectare = 10000 m2 = 2.5 Acres
1 Acre = 4000 m2 = 8 Kanal
1 Kanal = 500 m2 = 20 Marlas
1 Marla = 25 m2
Bigha Biswa system
1 Hectare = 10000 m2 = 2.5 Acres
1 Acre = 4000 m2 = 1.59 ~1.60 Bigha (Pukhta / Bada bigha)
1 Acre = 4000 m2 = 4.72 Bigha (Kachha/Chota bigha)
1 Bigha = 2529 m2 (pukhta) or 847 m2 (Chota)
In some areas one bigha is also considered for 800 m2 only.
In revenue documents there are mainly three types of records i.e. Jamabandi,
Girdwari, Map (sajra or latha). In some area fard haquit is also issued. This is the
consolidated document of total land holding of individual and present market rate is
mentioned. Jamabandi reflect the total land ownership, its type, source of irrigation
etc., however girdwari represent the cultivation pattern, crop growing of land etc,
therefore girdwari is made in every crop season i.e. after 6 months however
jamabandi is made after 4-5 years. Map represents the actual position of land with
important land marks.
Revenue Terminology
1. Khewat number : The number of owner of the land
2. Khatoni Number : The number of possetioner/ cultivator of land
3. Khasra number : The number of measurement of area in jamabandi
4. Kita number : The Number mentioning the khasra number in jamabandi
5. Mutation/rapat : Any entry regarding sale purchase or transfer of land
6. Vassiat : transfer of land through will
7. Hiba : transfer of land through gift
8. Billa : Devoid of/without
9. Hadbast number : Number of revenue village boundary
10. Mushqueel/ Murrabha/ rectangle : comprise of 25 Acres/bighas
11. Lal Dora : The boundary of inhabited village, within which ownership of land is
generally through possession only.
Type of land
1. Chahi : Irrigated through wells/tubewells
2. Nahri : Irrigated through Canals
3. Barani : Rainfed
4. Gair mumkin : Non cultivable
5. Abadi : Inhabited
6. Banjar : Not cultivated from four cropping seasons
Type of Possession
1. Khud Kast : Self cultivated
2. Gair Marusi : Unauthorised possessioner (Kache mujahire)
3. Gair Dakhildar : Unauthorised permanent possessioner (pakkee mujahire)
4. Rehan : mortgage with possession
5. Aadrehan : mortgage without possession

Khewat Number

The Khewat number normally referred as ‘KHATA NUMBER’ by revenue officials is

the account number given to owner(s) which form a set of co-sharers who own the
land in same or different proportions. It therefore, can be understood as the account
number given to various owners in the Khewat. The Khewat number in the
Jamabandi runs sequentially starting from 1 to N.
The Khewat Number may get changed in the next Jamabandi due to rearrangements
i.e. same owners who were owners in some Khewat earlier may get another Khewat
number in next Jamabandi. To clarify the things further, let us assume that there are
10 Khewats in a village and owners A, B & C were earlier in ownership of the Khewat
5 and did some transactions to a person say X who may be an owner in this village
already or may appear in the Shajra and Jamabandi of the village due to this
transaction for the first time. Now due to mutation(s), it may be the case that owners
in Khewat number 5 sold complete land to X. If complete Khewat is sold and owner
‘X’ already exists in the village, then all the land will shift to Khewat that belongs to
X. In case owner ‘X’ is a new owner and was not there in the Jamabandi earlier, then
during mutation entry Khewat number 5 will cease to exist and instead Khewat
number 5/1 will be given to ‘X’. During final rearrangement / sequencing of Khewat
number, then it may be the case that depending upon the caste/sub-caste of the
Owner ‘X’ now Khewat number 5/1 (Khewat created from 5) may get another

The arrangement, which has been shown above is a simple one for the purpose of
understanding but in real situations it may be more complicated one depending upon
the nature and type of mutations taking place in the village.

You may say if above is the case then what is the way to know the Khewat of owners
in the previous Jamabandi. This can be known with the help of Khewat number
written with red ink (in computerized print it is shown as underlined) beneath the
current Khewat number. In case you see Khewat number 6 (in blank ink) and
beneath that Khewat a number say 5 is written in red-ink, then you can simply
assume that present owners of Khewat number 6 in the current Jamabandi were
owners in Khewat number 5 in the previous Jamabandi.

Sometimes, a denominator is attached to a Khewat number also. This happens

because of the fact that during the writing of Jamabandi and arrangement of Khewat
numbers, a Khewat is left inadvertently and has to be inserted in between. For
example though there were 10 Khewats and Patwari tried wrote the details for 10
Khewat in sequence one after another but forgot to mention a Khewat in between.
Such Khewat if is to be inserted after Khewat 6 will be given number 6/1 or if is to be
inserted after 8 will be given number 8/1. Though this practice of writing Khewat
number is wrong but there is no immediate solution available. A facility has been
given to enter such Khewats also by giving additional field i.e. bata (denominator) for
such Khewat number. However, after the mutations, once a new Jamabandi is
prepared, such denominators will not be allowed.

Above is true in case of khatoni number also. But for denominator of Khasra, there is
specific meaning and it has been explained in the section 2.4 ‘Khasra Number’.

Khatoni Number

As Khewat number refers to a set of owners, khatoni number refers to a set of

cultivators in the same sense. This khatoni number is given to the cultivators in the
Khewat and runs sequentially in the village starting from 1 to N. Each Khewat will
have at least one khatoni or more khatonies but will appear in a sequence within the
Khewat and in the village.

The Khatoni number if in one sense shows the cultivators then in another sense will
show who are the persons who have the possession of the Khatoni consisting of
various Khasras in the Khewat. In still another sense it also shows who are the
persons who are owners of various khasras in the khatoni. In the same way as in case
of Khewat where owner may sell, gift or mortgage, same type of transaction also
takes place in the Khatoni also. Before the things start confusing you, the example
shown below would help you to understand this issue.

Say, A, B & C are owners in Khewat number 5 and this Khewat has three Khatonies
number 5, 6 and 7. In Khatoni number 5, it is written ‘Kast Va Kabja Swayam’ and
has got three khasras. Then this means that these three khasra are collectively
possessed and cultivated by all the three owners mentioned in Col.4 i.e. Owners
Details of Jamabandi. In the next khatoni i.e. Khatoni number 6 which say has one
khasra and it is written ‘A, B, C Hissadar Baya X Mustari Kast Va Kabja Swayam
Mustari’. This description means that the Khasra in the khatoni number 6 has been
sold by all the three owners collectively i.e. A, B & C to X who is the owner in ‘Khana
Kast’. This is because of the fact that owners A, B and C have sold a particular khasra
number to X and X will be shown in khatoni number 6 as buyer and possession is
also with X i.e. the purchaser. The purchaser will not get any Khewat number for the
reason that khasra sold was earlier under the possession with all the three owners.
Purchaser X will get another Khewat only when this Khewat number gets divided and
shares are worked out based upon the area owned by each owner.
Beneath the khatoni number, another number is written (underlined in
computerised print) in red ink in the manually written Jamabandi) which shows the
Khatoni number of current Khatoni in the previous Jamabandi. In the manually
written Jamabandi this number is not shown. But once the mutations take place
through this software and Khatonies are rearranged, then under each current
Khatoni number, old Khatoni number would be shown as underlined.

As explained under section 2.2, that in the manually written Jamabandi, sometimes a
bata (denominator) is added to show the Khewat inserted in between. It is also true
in case of Khatoni.

Khasra Number

The Khasra number is nothing but a plot number given to a specific piece of land in
the village. Same way as one or more Khatonies form a Khewat, similarly one or
more Khasra form a khatoni. The Khasra numbers in a khatoni may or may not be
mentioned sequentially and once a khasra number has appeared in a khatoni, it can
not figure in another Khatoni except in the case if the Khasra is ‘Min’. But if it is min
then it can not repeat in the same Khatoni.

The Khasra numbers in a village are created once settlement of village starts. The
settlement officials take village as a whole and on its map start from North East and
give number to each and every plot in each direction and reach to North East
direction again after giving number to each plot in all the directions.

Khasra number may get divided due to sale, gift etc. during the mutation and is given
a new number with denominator. For example, because of mutation, Khasra number
100 is divided into two parts then during mutation two divisions of this khasra i.e.
100/1 and 100/2 will be created and transaction takes place. Once all the mutations
have taken place the rearrangement of Khasra i.e. numbering is done by Patwari.
How this renumbering/rearrangement is done is explained below:

Say in the village only 499 Khasras were there in the previous Jamabandi and two
new khasra divisions i.e. 100/1 and 100/2 were created due to mutation. During
reorganisation, Khasra number 100/1 will get number 500/100 and 100/2 will get
Khasra number 501/100 and khasra number 100 will cease to exists i.e. the last
Khasra number is incremented by one (that is 499 now become 500 and 501) and in
the denominator Khasra number out of which the Khasra is formed is attached. This
will be the case for all the Khasra divisions. New Khasra number generation takes
into account the principal of ‘First-In First-Out (FIFO)’ that is Khasra which got
divided due to mutation number 5 will have precedence in getting new number over
the khasra number which has been divided due to mutation number 10. To make the
things further clear, let us say that khasra 100 was divided due to mutation number 5
and Khasra number 45 was divided into two parts (i.e. 45/1 and 45/2) due to
mutation number 10. Then once the mutations are over and rearrangement of
Khasra is undertaken, then new Khasra numbers are generated based upon the
principal of ‘FIFO’. Suppose last khasra in previous Jamabandi was 499 then new
Khasra number will be 500/100, 501/100 (for khasra number 100) and 502/45 and
503/45 (For Khasra Number 45). So the example clarifies though the khasra number
45 is a number lesser than Khasra number 100 yet Khasra numbers generated out of
45 due to mutation number 10 will get next i.e. higher numbers.

Group Number

During the execution of this software, you will often encounter the term ‘Group
Number’ not visible in the Jamabandi anywhere but software making abundant use
of this term. The group number has been given to each owner who himself or along
with other owners owns a specific proportion of land in the Khewat or who have
same parentage. Group number will also refer to the owners in the different
proportions even if their parentage is same. During the writing of Khatoni
description also, sometimes group numbers are generated to show the groups of

Min & Salam

In the course of the implementation of Land Records Computerisation software you

will often see the term Min/Saalam (feu / lkye) invariably. The ‘Min’ means partially
and ‘Saalam’ means completely. If min is mentioned against an old
Khewat/Khatoni/Khasra number then you can assume that the Khewat / khatoni /
khasra under consideration is carved / formed out of the old Khewat / Khatoni /
Khasra partially or transaction is taking place partially. ‘Salam’ word refers to the fact
that new Khewat / Khatoni / Khasra is formed out of the old Khewat / Khatoni /
Khasra when same was transacted completely. In case the Khewat / Khatoni / Khasra
is formed due to min transaction, then you will see ‘Min’ besides the Khewat /
Khatoni / Khasra. In case nothing is mentioned then you can very well assume that
the Khewat / khatoni / khasra is ‘Salam’, by default.


In case an owner takes loan from some individual or an institution with the security
of his land then the deed is known as Mortgage deed and persons / institutions from
which loan is taken are known as mortgagee. If mortgage takes place from one
persons to another, then the mostly mortgage is with possession that is the
mortgagee has the possession of the piece of land mortgaged and in revenue
terminology it is known as ‘RAHIN’. If the mortgage takes place and loan is taken
from some Government Institution, then the mortgage is without possession and it is
known as ‘AD-RAHIN’

Awaal / Doaym / Soyam

Suppose A took loan from B and after mortgaging the land to B then B is known as
Mortgagee ‘Awwal’ if B further takes loan from ‘C’ after keeping the land mortgaged
as security, which he had taken from A. Then C will be known as Mortgagee ‘Doyam’.
If C further mortgage the land taken from B to D then D will be referred as
Mortgagee ‘Soyam’.

Type of Holding

During the course of entering the khatoni details, there is a field known as ‘Type
Holding’. The type of holding will be ‘Individual’ if the possession and ownership
rests with the same family. In case the holding is owned by more than one family
then the holding type will be ‘Joint’. If both are not true for a holding then the
holding type will be ‘Institutional’. This information is very important to understand
and should be entered carefully as in Agriculture Census the information is analysed
based upon this parameter.


In the British regime a village was divided into number of patties/sections based
upon the caste of the persons residing in that village. For example, Rajput used to
dwell in a separate location, Brahimn in other and ‘Shudras’ still in another location.
These locations were known as ‘pattis’. But after the independence, this classification
was changed and at present refers to various cluster / hemlets in the village in which
villagers reside in groups irrespective of their caste.

Chak Tashkhish

This term refers to land classification in a broader sense. If it is ‘Parvati’ then it

means that the village falls in mountainous area. In case if it is known, as ‘Changar’
then it means that in the area in which village falls, irrigation is totally rain-fed.
There are different land classifications based upon this land classification.

Conversion Factor

Conversion factor (ranges from 0.000 to 1.000) is specified to convert the local area
unit prevalent in the village to the Metric System i.e. mentioned in terms of Hectares-
Ares-Centares. When the local unit is multiplied with this conversion factor then the
area in Metric system can be obtained. The reports sent to Government of India are
firstly converted to the Metric system if local unit is different from the Metric system.

If the local unit is Kanal-Marla then a kanal has 20 Marlas. If local unit is ‘Bigha-
Biswa-Biswansi’ then 20 Biswansi make up a Biswa and 20 Biswa make a Bigha. If
local area unit is ‘Meters–Decimetres’ (normally in the urban areas where
khasra/plots are very small) then 100 decimetre make up a meter. In case, the local
unit is ‘Hectare-Ares-Centeres’, then 100 centare (equal to a meter) form an Are and
100 are form a Hectare. Therefore a hectare refers to 10000 metres of land.
Revenue Unit

On behalf of Govt., the Nambardar of a village collects land revenue and deposits the
revenue in the Treasury. This service rendered by the Nambardar is a paid one.

The rate of swai changes from time to time and at present it is 65% of total demand
that is if demand is Rs. 1/- then swai will be 0.65 paisa and total revenue to be
collected from the owner(s) will be Rs.1.65/-. Of this 65%, 30 is local rate and 35% is
Nambardari that is the amount given to the Nambardar for this service.

Percentage Collection of Land Revenue

The land revenue collection is normally done twice a year by the Govt. through
Nambardar in such a way that land revenue collection is done half in Kharif and half
in Rabi season. But sometimes it is done in different percentage proportion say 60%
in Kharif and 40% in Rabi or as the villagers decide at the time of Permanent

Professional Area of Village

The professional area of village is measured by the Survey of India organisation. And
in all the Agriculture Census reports this area figures are mentioned. It has been
observed that normally Patwari is not aware of professional area. If that is the case,
then actual area mentioned in the village may be entered against this field where ever
referred to.


This term will appear during the entry of Shajra Nasb. This normally connotes a
person’s characteristic. If an owner has alamat as ‘Bandobasti Kabij’ / ^^cUnkscLrh
dkfct^^ then that means that the owner was also owner at the time of settlement. In
case alamat is ‘Baap Dada Jivit Hai’ / ^^cki nknk thfor gS^^ then it means that the
owner’s father/grandfather are alive. These alamat details are to be entered correctly
as the processing & printing of Shajra Nasb depends upon this field information. For
example, even if an owner’s father and grandfather are not alive but entered as alive
then the box of the father and grand father will be depicted left to the owner’s box
whereas if this alamat is not there and not filled then owner’s box will be exactly
below the box of his father and father’s box will be beneath the box of owner’s grand

Total Shares

In Column 4 of Jamabandi, in the very beginning, total shares are mentioned. These
shares are in proportion to the total area of the Khewat. For example if there 100
shares mentioned and total area of the Khewat is 1000 meters then that means each
share is worth 10 meters. (1000mts. / 100shares)

Further each group shares are mentioned which are in proportion to the total area of
the Khewat. For example there are three groups in the Khewat with respective shares
as 10, 30 and 50. If in first group there are 2 owners then each owner will have 10
shares each and owns 100 meters of land. If in next group also there are two owners
then each will own 15 share i.e. 150 meters of land each. In the third group there are
5 owners then each owns 10 shares which equivalent to 100 meters of land to each
owner. So the total land comes out to be 1000mts.


In case the land is cultivated by other than the owner of the land, then the person
cultivating the land is liable to pay something either is cash or kind to the owner or
agreed based upon the mutual agreement between the two. The agreement between
two parties is known as ‘Lagan’. Sometimes if there is sale deed in the Khatoni, then
the revenue will be mentioned in this column in that case.

Mazrua (Krisht)/Giar Mazrua (Akrisht)

In case the land of khasra is such that it is possible to cultivate it either through man-
made irrigation sources or through rainwater then land type is known as ‘Mazrua’
otherwise it is known as ‘Gair-Mazrua’.
Under the ‘Gair-Mazrua’ land classification one term is usually referred to, as ‘Gair-
Mumkin’ which specifies that anything constructed on it, is impossible to shift. For
example, if a house is constructed on a piece of land, then the classification of that
Khasra will be ‘Gair-Mumkin Makan’ as it is impossible to shift the same house
somewhere else.

Wazib_Ul_Arj & Peshani

The customary rights of the village are shown in a report known as ‘Wazib_Ul_Arj’.
The attestation of these customary rights by the revenue officer in front of village and
signature of villagers to whom the customary rights information is read is known


The TD rights or forestry rights of the villagers in revenue terminology are known as

Common Terminology

Term Description of Term

Site of village where predominantly people live.

Abadi Deh

Badastur Unaltered / Same As

Banjar Uncultivated land

Banjar Jadid New fellow (land not cultivated for continuous four harvests
though it was cultivated earlier.

Old fallow (If continued to be uncultivated for next four

Banjar Kadim

Barani Dependent on rainfall

A measure of area (It is different in different areas

Bigha based upon local Karam unit)

Biswa One twentieth of a bigha

Biswansi One twentieth of a biswa

Chahi Irrigated from well

Chahi Nahri Irrigated partly from a well and partly from canal.

Lump sum grain rent or rent consisting of a foxed

Chkota amount of grain in the Rabi and Kharif.

A type of land on which existing arrangement are difficult

to move.

Girdawar Kanungo or Supervisor of Patwaris

Girdawari Harvest Inspection

Unit of Length and varies from tehsil to tehsil and district to


Portion of crop that has failed to come due some calamity


Kharif Autumn harvest

Khasra List of fields, field register

Khasra Girdawari Harvest Inspection Register

Khata Holding of tenant

Khatauni Holding slips prepared at re-measurement

Khewat A list of Owner’s holding

Khud Kashat Cultivated by the owner himself

Killabandi Rectangular measurement

Lamaberdar Village Headman

Latha Girdawari Cloth copy of the Patwari’s Map

Marla Measuring of Area

Mauza Village

Min Portion / Part

Record-of-Right prepared at the time of settlement.

Misal Haqiyat

Musavi Mapping Sheet

Nahri Irrigated from canal

Parat Patwar Patwari copy of the new settlement record

Parat Sarkar Government Copy of the new settlement record

Rabi Spring Harvest

Sabika Former

Loan granted by a Government to landowner for

Taccavi agriculture purposes.

Waris Successor

Wasil Baqi Nawis Revenue Accountant in the Tehsil

Zamindar Landowner

Varsal This type of Mutation is caused by either death or will of a

person. In case of death of a person in the family, Patwari
records the details regarding name of the person who has
died, date of death and entry number of Chawkidar
Register in his Roznamcha Waqaiti (Diary of daily events).
Land can also be transferred to the successors i.e. sons,
daughters, relative or any other person even if the owner is
alive by way of his will.

Whenever a person sells his land either completely or

partially, to another person, this type of mutation is know
as Bai or Sale. The information recorded in this case is Sale
Deed No., date of Registry and amount of Registration etc.

This type of mutation is carried out after the settlement of

dispute by some court. This is also know as degree by court
(Ba Hakumat Adalat). The information recorded in this case
includes Case Number, Date of starting of Case, Date of
Judgment, Name of the Court, Name of the Judge, names of
the persons who filed the Case, Names of the persons on
whom Case is filed & Judgment Details etc.
Tabdeel Malkiat:

Whenever a land is mortgaged, completely or partially, to

another person or party, mutation is of Rahin type. The
deal can be either verbal or through Registry. In this case
information like Date of Mortgage, Amount and Registry No.
(or Roznamcha No. in case the deal is verbal). The land can
Rahin (Mortgage be mortgaged with or without possession.

This type of mutation is reverse process of Rahin.

Whenever a person who has mortgaged his land want to
get it back after paying dues to the mortgagee, the type of
mutation is called Fak-ul-Rahin. It can be of two sub types.
Verbal (through Roznamcha) or through

Registry. In case of verbal type, the details include type of

Mortgage Serial No. of Roznamcha Waqaiti amount of
Fak-Ul-Rahin Mortgage returned etc. In case of Registry, Deed No. is also
(Redemption deed recorded in addition to the above information.
of Mortgage)
Tabadla or mutation of exchange is the mutation, when two
owners decide to exchange their lands. It can Again be
either verbal (through Roznamcha Waqaiti) or
throughRegistry.The details recorded are similar as those in
the previous case i.e. either through Roznamcha Waqaiti
Tabadala entry or through Registry.

Whenever a part of complete land is gifted to some person,

the mutation is called Hibba or Gift. The details of the
person to whom land has been gifted are recorded.
Hibba (Gift):

Whenever a piece of land is given on lease for a long

period, the mutation is known as Pattanama.

Whenever there is a division of land in a joint holding, the

mutation is known as Takseem or Mutation of Partition. The
partition can be verbal among the landowners or when
court directs the partition.



Prepared in every estate at the time of settlement, it forms a part of record of rights.
Shajra Nasb is a pedigree table showing succession to ownership rights occurring
from time to time in an estate. It is revised after every five years along with
Jamabandi and in the interval, changes occurring from time to time are reflected in
the Patwari’s copy through suitable references.

The Shajra Nasb also serves as an index for locating an owner’s accounts (Khata
Numbers) in the Jamabandi. In the new Jamabandi owner’s accounts are arranged
as per arrangement in the Shajra Nasb. The name of owner in the Shajra Nasb is
arranged according to caste and sub-caste.

It is prepared quinquenially in duplicate for every estate on the basis of entries
existing and changes recorded on the Mutation Register, Khasra Girdawari Register
and Fard Badr over a period of 5 years. It is the document to which a presumption of
truth is attached. The form of the Jamabandi has 12 columns and gives Khewat /
Khatoni number-wise information of total holding of each owner of land in a
particular revenue estate. It also indicates cultivation, rent and revenue and other
cesses payable on land and constitutes an up to date record of various rights in land.
The new Jamabandi is prepared by the Patwari and is attested by the Revenue Office
in a public meeting of local villages. Two copies of the revised Jamabandi are
prepared, one copy is filed to the District Record Room and other copy remains with
the Patwari. All changes in title/interests of the revenue estate coming into the notice
of Revenue Authorities are duly reflected in the Jamabandi according to set


All changes in title or interest are incorporated into the Jamabandi through
attestation of mutation. The Patwari enters the mutations on the basis of a
document/verbal information presented by the concerned parties for the change in
title/interest on land. This information is first entered into the Patwari’s Diary
(Roznamcha Wakyati) giving serial no. And date and then into the mutation register
referencing the Roznamcha no. However, the final changes in the Jamabandi are
made only after the Revenue officer has attested the mutation. The mutation form
has 15 columns and every entry is given a Serial Number, which is called Mutation
Number. This Mutation Number runs continuously from one settlement to another
for each estate. The Mutation register is maintained by the Patwari and all entries are
made in duplicate. The Patwari’s copy (PARAT PATWAR) contains the brief
substance of the Revenue Officer’s order, while the other copy (PARAT SARKAR)
contains the detailed order and is kept in the Tehsil in separate estate-wise bundles.
Whenever a mutation is entered, the Patwari makes a note in the remark column of
the Jamabandi in pencil giving the Mutation No. and type of mutation. When the
mutation is attested, he makes the entry in Red ink, giving Mutation No., type and
date of attestation.

When the new Jamabandi is written, all the mutations accepted are attached to the
new Jamabandi for cross-reference and an index sheet linking the mutations to the
Khatas is placed in the Jamabandi.

It is a register of harvest inspections unlike the Jamabandi, which is Khewat-wise,

the Girdawari, is Khasra-wise. The Patwari conducts a field to field harvest
inspections every six months in the month of October and April. He records the plot-
wise details regarding crop grown, land description and status of the cultivator This
register is considered important as it acts as master file for the preparation of many
returns and reports. This document is retained in the custody of Patwari for the
period of 12 years after which it is retrieved from him and destroyed. No
presumption of truth is attached to this record though entries in it are often used as
evidence in courts. Changes in the tenancy however are made through mutations in
view of Section 10-A on the Tenancy Act.


A field map for every revenue village is prepared at the time of the Settlement. The
original map is called ‘MUSAVI’. Its updated version is called ‘SHAJRA KISTWAR’
and these are kept in safe custody in the Record Room. A wax copy called ‘MOMI’ is
available in the Tehsil.

All changes in field boundaries occurring due to partition, sale etc. attested in
Mutation are entered from the Parat Sarkar Mutation onto the Momi. A copy on
cloth called ‘LATHA’ is kept and updated by the Patwari.


Popularly known as “LAL KITAB” these are prepared at the time of settlement. The
kitab has valuable information regarding crops grown in the estate, soil
classification, area under different crops, land use, transfers in land, wells and other
means of irrigation in the village and abstract of the livestock and cattle census in the
village. The data is updated regularly through harvest inspections and revisions of
other records, which are the main source of the data to this kitab. These Lal Kitabs
are prepared at village, tehsil and district level and maintained in the Patwari Office,
Kanungo and Sadar Kanungo respectively.

In this customary rights of the villagers are maintained. This information is attached
at the end of the Misal Hakiyat(Permanent Settlement). In the subsequent
Jamabandies this information is not attached.


The forestry right popularly known as TD rights details is maintained in this

document. This too is the part of Misal Hakiyat(Permanent Settlement). In
subsequent Jamabandies, this information is not attached.