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INTEGRATED

AQUACULTURE SYSTEMS
BIO-SOLUTION FOR
A SUSTAINABLE AQUACULTURE

AQUAGRIS WORKSHOP
Bremen, GERMANY
Introduction
CONTEXT

 Aquaculture = emerging industry in Europe


Saprophagy

2.5

2
Millions tons

1.5
Herbivory

TOTAL
1
Plants
Fish
0.5
Molluscs
Perspectives

0
1950
1954
1958

1962
1966

1970

1974
1978
1982
1986
1990
1994
1998
Year 2002
FISHSTAT (March 2007)

AQUAGRIS WORKSHOP (Bremen, GERMANY) - Saturday 9th February 2008


Introduction
CONTEXT

 European aquaculture:
Saprophagy

 Intensive
 Based on high-valued species

 Problem of FFA industries = concentration of wastes


Herbivory

 « Ecological footprint »

 How to mitigate negative impacts


Perspectives

of aquaculture on environment ?

AQUAGRIS WORKSHOP (Bremen, GERMANY) - Saturday 9th February 2008


Introduction
SIMPLIFIED FOOD-WEB

HERBIVORY
PATHWAY
Saprophagy

SAPROPHAGOUS
PATHWAY

Particulate
organic
Herbivory

matter

Light
Perspectives

Dissolved
Microbial loop
nutrients

AQUAGRIS WORKSHOP (Bremen, GERMANY) - Saturday 9th February 2008


Sea cucumber
Introduction
SAPROPHAGOUS PATHWAY

Particulate
Saprophagy

Ahlgren, 1998
organic
Worms
matter
Physico-chemical
processes
Collection and concentration of
suspended particles (mostly OM)
Nitrification Denitrification
Herbivory

 Sludge
NH3/NH4+ NO3-
Bacteria Fungi
Microfauna
Perspectives

NO3- N2

AQUAGRIS WORKSHOP (Bremen, GERMANY) - Saturday 9th February 2008


Introduction CASE STUDY:
« RECIRCULATING SYSTEMS »

Biofiltration
Saprophagy

bacteria Sedimentation pond


and mechanical
filtration systems

Carps
Herbivory
Perspectives

« fresh » water
(3m3/day)
Arbiv & Van Rijn, 1995

AQUAGRIS WORKSHOP (Bremen, GERMANY) - Saturday 9th February 2008


Introduction CASE STUDY:
65% of mean« TAN
RECIRCULATING SYSTEMS »
concentration
18% of feed
volatile
Biofiltration solids input
Saprophagy

bacteria Sedimentation pond


and mechanical
filtration systems

Tilapia
Herbivory
Perspectives

« fresh » water = 7%
of the system volume
Twarowska et al., 1997

AQUAGRIS WORKSHOP (Bremen, GERMANY) - Saturday 9th February 2008


Introduction
HERBIVORY PATHWAY

Nutrient
Saprophagy

CO2

Cyanobacteria Macroalgae
Herbivory

Microalgae
Perspectives

For harvest Biomass (growth) Food source for


and sale other organisms
AQUAGRIS WORKSHOP (Bremen, GERMANY) - Saturday 9th February 2008
Introduction CASE STUDY:
« INTEGRATED AQUACULTURE SYSTEMS »

Sea bass
Saprophagy

High-value products
Nutrients POM
Herbivory

+ Si Oysters
Light
 Time-dynamic Diatoms
culture
Perspectives

 High-
management
demands GENESIS, 2001-2004

AQUAGRIS WORKSHOP (Bremen, GERMANY) - Saturday 9th February 2008


Introduction CASE STUDY:
« INTEGRATED AQUACULTURE SYSTEMS »

Porphyra Palmaria
Saprophagy
Herbivory

Gracilaria
Perspectives

Chondrus
SEAPURA, 2001-2004

AQUAGRIS WORKSHOP (Bremen, GERMANY) - Saturday 9th February 2008


Introduction CASE STUDY:
« INTEGRATED AQUACULTURE SYSTEMS »

 POM and dissolved


Feed Wastes matter returned
Saprophagy

3 kg
back to the sea =
1 kg 4,25% of TAN
Microalgae  Settling faeces =
Ulva lactuca Light 32,8% of TAN
Herbivory

7,8 kg
Oysters
Perspectives

3 kg
 Retention =
63% of TAN
SeaOr Marine farm: Shpigel et al., 1993; Neori et al., 2000; 2004
AQUAGRIS WORKSHOP (Bremen, GERMANY) - Saturday 9th February 2008
Introduction NEW DEFINITION OF
INTEGRATION

 Several organisms with different trophic pathways


Saprophagy

 Mutual benefits achieved ecologically


 Conversion into biomass (≠ dilution)
 Production of each organisms optimized
 Aims of ‘bio-diversification’:
Herbivory

 To reduce environmental impacts of aquaculture activity


 To increase the commercial value of the system

 Proper integration = Water re-used


Perspectives

 Integrated recirculating aquaculture

AQUAGRIS WORKSHOP (Bremen, GERMANY) - Saturday 9th February 2008


Introduction
WETLANDS
Saprophagy

SAPROPHAGOUS HERBIVORY
PATHWAY PATHWAY
Herbivory
Perspectives

Nitrification Denitrification

AQUAGRIS WORKSHOP (Bremen, GERMANY) - Saturday 9th February 2008


Introduction
OVERALL NUTRIENT BALANCE
50-80% feed N
WASTES
35-85% feed P

Herbivory Detrivorous
Saprophagy

conversion conversion

40-70% feed N 5-25% feed N


10-55% feed P 25-45% feed P
Herbivory

Bacteria

Microalgae Macroalgae
Bacteria Worms
Perspectives

Oysters Abalone
BIOMASS CONVERSION =

BIOMASS CONVERSION = 7% feed N and 6% feed P

4-15% feed N and 25-45% feed P Schneider et al., 2005


Introduction
UNSOLVED PROBLEMS

Feed Antibiotics,
Saprophagy

Natural chemicals, …
ecosystems

Nutrients POM
Herbivory

Light
Perspectives

Production

AQUAGRIS WORKSHOP (Bremen, GERMANY) - Saturday 9th February 2008


Introduction NITRIFICATION /
DENITRIFICATION
Saprophagy

 Nitrification:
NO2-
NH3/NH4+ + O2 NO3-
Herbivory

 Denitrification (Anaerobic processes):

NO3- NO2- NO N2O N2


Perspectives

AQUAGRIS WORKSHOP (Bremen, GERMANY) - Saturday 9th February 2008


Dissolved Particulate
nutrients matter

Collection and concentration of


Autotrophy
suspended particles (mostly OM)
Nitrification
Denitrification

Protists Cyanobacteria Plants Heterotrophy

Microbial loop
Microalgae Macroalgae
Scavengers,
Bacteria
Microfauna
Suspension- Macroalgivores Wetlands
feeders

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