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Codex Standard for Edible Ices and Ice Mixes

CODEX STAN 137-1981

Introduction

The Codex Standard for Edible Ices and Ice Mixes, including Microbiological Guidelines and
Grouping of Ingredients for Labelling Purposes was adopted by the Codex Alimentarius
Commission at its 14th Session in 1981.

The Standard has been submitted to all Member Nations and Associate Members of FAO WHO for
acceptance in accordance with the General Principles of the Codex Alimentarius.

1 - Scope

This standard applies to edible ices ready for consumption and to ice mixes in liquid or powder
form. It also applies to the edible ice part of foods containing edible ices.

2 - Description

2.1 Product Definitions

Edible mean the sweetened products obtained either from an emulsion of fat and protein with the addition of oth
Ices ingredients and substances, or from a mixture of water, sugars and other ingredients and substances which ha
been treated by freezing and are intended for storage, sale and human consumption in the frozen or partia
frozen state.

Ice mean the products in liquid or powder form intended for the preparation of edible ices.
mixes

3 - Essential Composition

3.1 Edible Ices

Group 1 comprises sweetened products manufactured solely from milk fat and milk protein

(whole milk equivalent) with one or more ingredients permitted in sections 3.4.4 to
3.4.8.

Group 2 comprises sweetened products manufactured from milk fat and any protein not

solely milk protein, with one or more ingredients permitted in sections 3.4.4 to 3.4.8.
Group 3 comprises sweetened products manufactured from any fat not solely milk fat and

from solely milk protein with one or more ingredients permitted in sections 3.4.4 to
3.4.8.

Group 4 comprises sweetened products manufactured from any fat not solely milk fat and

any protein not solely milk protein, with one or more ingredients permitted in sections
3.4.4 to 3.4.8.

Group 5 comprises sweetened products manufactured from ingredients permitted in

sections 3.4.4 to 3.4.8 and food additives permitted in section 4 with marginal addition

of ingredients permitted in sections 3.4.1 to 3.4.3.

Group 6 comprises sweetened products manufactured from ingredients permitted in

sections 3.4.4 to 3.4.8 and food additives permitted in section 4, except that they
contain no fat or protein other than natural components of the ingredients or food additives.

3.2 Ice Mixes

Ice Mix means the liquid product containing all necessary ingredients in proper amounts so that when fro

the resulting food conforms to one of the definitions in sections 3.1.1 to 3.1.5.

Concentrated ice means the liquid, concentrated product which, after the addition of the prescribed amount of wa
mix
results in a product which conforms to the definition in section 3.2.1.

Dried ice mix means the dry product with moisture content equal to or less than 4% which, after the addition of

prescribed amount of water, gives a product conforming to the definition in section 3.1.

3.3 Composition for groups of Edible Ices (Coating of non-ice character excluded).

The figures refer to minimum % m/m, unless otherwise indicated.

1 2 3 4 5
Product Group

Sub-group 1 2 3 1 2 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3

Fat, protein and other milk fat milk fat milk fat and/or milk fat and/or marginal milk fat
requirements other fat other fat and/or other fat
milk protein milk marginal milk
Composition protein milk protein milk protein protein and/or
and/or and/or other other protein
other protein
protein
Total solids 30 28 26 30 26 30 30 20 30 30

Milk fat 8 2.5 <2.5 8

Fat 8 5 <5 8 5
incl
udin
g, if
pres
ent,
milk
fat

Unflavoure Milk protein 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 <2.5


d (whole milk
equivalent)

Protein 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 <2.5


including, if
present milk
protein

If egg is declared: Egg yolk 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4
solids
Flavoured Total solids 28 26 24 28 24 28 28 20 28 28 20 10 10 10

Milk fat 7 2.2 <2.2 7 <2.2 <2.5

Fat incl., if 7 4 <4 7 4 <4 <2.5


present, milk
fat

Milk protein, 2.2 2.2 <2.2 2.2 2.2 <2.2 <2.5


whole milk
equivalent

Protein incl., 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 <2.2 <2.5


if present,
milk protein

Weight by volume (g/l) 47 47 475 47 475 47 47 475 47 47 475 475 475 475
5 5 5 5 5 5 5

no

no
pr
ot
th
na
co
nt
pe
d
in
nt
ad
15

47
5

3.4 Permitted ingredients

Milk, milk derived constituents and milk products - fresh, concentrated, dried, fermented,
reconstituted or recombined.

Edible fats and oils other than those derived from milk.

Edible protein other than that derived from milk.

Sugars for the purpose of this standard mean those sugars for which standards have been
elaborated by the Codex Alimentarius Commission.

Water - the water shall be of potable quality; standards for potability shall be not less than
those contained in the latest edition of the WHO International Standards for Drinking Water.

Eggs and pasteurized egg products or egg products having undergone equivalent heat
treatment.

Fruit and fruit products.

Food and food ingredients intended to impart flavour, taste or texture, e.g. coffee, ginger,
cocoa, honey, nuts, liqueurs, salt (sodium chloride).

4 - Food Additives

4.1 Colours

The colours listed in sections 4.1.1 to 4.1.5 are subject to the individual maximum

levels specified, and the total amount of colours in sections 4.1.1 to 4.1.5 shall not
exceed 300 mg/kg in the final product.

Analytical characteristics

CI Maximum Level in the Final Product


Number

Black

Brilliant Black PN 288440 100 mg/kg

Blue

Brilliant Blue FCF 42090 100 mg/kg

Indigotine 73015 100 mg/kg


Green

Chlorophyll copper complex 75810 100 mg/kg

Chlorophyllin copper complex and Na and K salts 100 mg/kg

Fast Green FCF 42053 100 mg/kg

Analytical characteristics

CI Maximum Level in the Final Product


Number

Red

Amaranth 16185 50 mg/kg

14720 100 mg/kg


Azorubine (Carmoisine)

100 mg/kg
Beet Red

Erythrosine 45430 100 mg/kg

Ponceau 4R 16255 50 mg/kg

Yellow, Orange

75120 100 mg/kg


Annatto extracts

beta -carotene 100 mg/kg

Analytical characteristics

CI Maximum Level in the Final Produ


Number

beta-apo -8'-carotenal 100 mg/kg

beta-apo -8' carotenoic acid, ethyl ester of 100 mg/kg

Canthaxanthine 100 mg/kg

Curcumin 50 mg/kg
Riboflavin (lactoflavin) 50 mg/kg

Quinoline Yellow 47005 50 mg/kg

Sunset Yellow FCF 15985 100 mg/kg

Tartrazine 19140 100 mg/kg

Brown

Limited by GMP
Caramel colours (plain)

3 g/kg
Caramel colours (made by the ammonium sulphite process)

4.2 Emulsifiers, Stabilizers and Thickening agents

Maximum Level in the Final Product

Agar 10 g/kg, singly or in combination

Alginic acid and its ammonium, sodium, potassium and calcium salts 10 g/kg, singly or in combination

Alginate, propylene glycol 10 g/kg, singly or in combination

Cellulose, hydroxypropylmethyl 10 g/kg, singly or in combination

Cellulose, methyl 10 g/kg, singly or in combination

Cellulose, methylethyl 10 g/kg, singly or in combination

Cellulose, microcrystalline 10 g/kg, singly or in combination

Carboxymethylcellulose, sodium and potassium salts 10 g/kg, singly or in combination

Mono- and diglycerides 10 g/kg, singly or in combination

Mono- and diglycerides, acetic acid esters of 10 g/kg, singly or in combination

Mono- and diglycerides, cetric acid esters of 10 g/kg, singly or in combination

Mono- and diglycerides, lactic acid esters of 10 g/kg, singly or in combination

Mono- and diglycerides, L-tartaric acid esters of 10 g/kg, singly or in combination


Mono- and diglycerides, diacetyl-tartaric acid esters of 10 g/kg, singly or in combination

Carragenan (incl. furcellaran) 10 g/kg, singly or in combination

Gum arabic 10 g/kg, singly or in combination

10 g/kg, singly or in combination


Gum carob (locust bean gum)

Gum guar 10 g/kg, singly or in combination

Gum xanthan 10 g/kg, singly or in combination

Pectin (amidated) 10 g/kg, singly or in combination

Pectin (not amidated) 10 g/kg, singly or in combination

Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids 10 g/kg, singly or in combination

Polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monostearate 10 g/kg, singly or in combination

Polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan mono-oleate 10 g/kg, singly or in combination

Polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan tristearate 10 g/kg, singly or in combination

10 g/kg, singly or in combination


Sucrose esters of fatty acids and sucroglycerides

4.3 Modified Starches

Acid-treated starches 30 g/kg, singly or in combination

Alkali-treated starches 30 g/kg, singly or in combination

Bleached starches 30 g/kg, singly or in combination

Dextrins, white and yellow 30 g/kg, singly or in combination

Distarch adipate, acetylated 30 g/kg, singly or in combination

Distarch glycerol 30 g/kg, singly or in combination

Distarch glycerol, acetylated 30 g/kg, singly or in combination

Distarch glycerol, hydroxypropyl 30 g/kg, singly or in combination


Distarch phosphate 30 g/kg, singly or in combination

Distarch phosphate, hydroxypropyl 30 g/kg, singly or in combination

Distarch phosphate, phosphated 30 g/kg, singly or in combination

Distarch phosphate, acetylated 30 g/kg, singly or in combination

Enzyme-treated starches 30 g/kg, singly or in combination

Monostarch phosphate 30 g/kg, singly or in combination

Oxidated starch 30 g/kg, singly or in combination

Starch acetate 30 g/kg, singly or in combination

Starch, hydroxpropyl 30 g/kg, singly or in combination

4.4 Flavours

a ) Natural flavours and flavouring substances and nature-identical flavouring substances as


defined for the purpose of the Codex Alimentarius (see Codex Guide to the Safe Use of
Food Additives, (CAC/FAL 5-1979)

b ) Artificial flavouring substances as defined for the purpose of the Codex Alimentarius and
included in List A (see Codex Guide to the Safe Use of Food Additives CAC/FAL 5-1979)

4.5 Acids, Bases and Salts

Maximum Level in the Final Product

Acetic Acid Limited by GMP

Citric acid and its sodium, potassium and calcium salts Limited by GMP

dl-Lactic acid and its sodium, potassium and calcium salts Limited by GMP

Limited by GMP
L-Lactic acid

dl-Malic acid Limited by GMP

Limited by GMP
L-Malic acid

Sodium, potassium and calcium orthophosphates 2 g/kg, singly or in combination expressed as P2 O5


Sodium and potassium polyphosphates 2 g/kg, singly or in combination expressed as P2 O5

Sodium hydrogen carbonate Limited by GMP

L(+) Tartaric acid and its sodium and potassium salts 1 g/kg

4.6 Miscellaneous

Glycerol 50 g/kg, singly or in combination

Sorbitol

4.7 Carry-over

Section 3 of the "Principle Relating to the Carry-over of Food Additives into Foods" (
Codex Alimentarius Volume 1) shall apply.

5 - Hygiene

It is recommended that the products covered by the provisions of this standard be prepared in
accordance with the Recommended International Code of Practice - General Principles of Food

Hygiene ( CAC/RCP 1-1969 Rev. 2 (1985), Codex Alimentarius Volume 1).

To the extent possible in good manufacturing practice the product shall be free from objectionable
matter.

When tested by appropriate methods of sampling and examination the product:

a ) shall not contain any pathogenic microorganisms;

b ) shall not contain any substances originating from microorganisms in amounts which may
represent a hazard to health; and

c ) shall not contain any other poisonous or deleterious substances in amounts which may
represent a hazard to health.

All ingredients used in the preparation of the product shall conform with all the hygiene provisions
of all applicable Codex codes of practice.

Microbiological Guidelines

It is recommended that the products covered by this standard be in conformity with the
Microbiological Guidelines for Edible Ices and Ice Mixes included in Annex A.

Pasteurization Requirements

Milk ingredients used in edible ices shall have undergone pasteurization or equivalent heat
treatment as indicated by the absence of phosphatase. Regarding mixes, with the exception of
product group 6, the whole mix except for colours and/or flavours and flavouring substances
including ingredients in 3.4.7 and 3.4.8 shall have undergone pasteurization or equivalent
heat treatment as indicated by the absence of phosphatase.

Further pasteurization will not be required for edible ices manufactured from concentrated or dry
ingredients by the addition of only potable water, pasteurized milk and flavouring matter which has
been frozen within one hour after the addition of such substances.

6 - Packaging

The product shall be packed in containers which will safeguard the hygienic and other qualities of
the food.

The containers including packaging material shall be made only of substances which are safe and
suitable for their intended use. Where the Codex Alimentarius Commission has established a
standard for any such substance used as packaging material, that standard shall apply.

7 - Labelling

In addition to the general provisions of the Codex General Standard for the Labelling of

Prepackaged Foods ( CODEX STAN. 1-1985 (Rev. 1-1991) Codex Alimentarius Volume 1),
the following specific provisions apply. Reference to milk components shall be in accordance with
the Code of Principles concerning Milk and Milk Products ( CAC/RM 1-1973).

7.1 Name of the Product

The name of the edible ice product shall be a description customarily used in the
country in which the product is sold, provided that any such description shall not mislead the
consumer.

The name of the ice mix product shall be ice mix ( 3.2.1), concentrated ice mix (

3.2.2) or dry ice mix ( 3.2.3) supplemented by the name of the product customarily
used in the country in which the product is sold, provided that any such description shall not
mislead the consumer.

Where a declaration of a particular ingredient is made in the name of the food, the
ingredient shall be present in an amount sufficient to characterize the product. Where the
ingredient is chocolate, the characteristic flavour shall be derived from non-fat cocoa solids.

7.2 List of Ingredients

A complete list of ingredients shall be declared on the label in descending order of

proportion in accordance with section 4.2 of the Codex General Standard for the

Labelling of Prepackaged Foods ( CODEX STAN. 1-1985) ((rev. 1991), Codex


Alimentarius Volume 1), except as provided for in Annex B.

If the milk ingredient or its constituents are not derived from the cow's milk, their origin shall
be indicated on the label. If eggs other than hens' eggs are used, their origin shall be
indicated on the label.
If other protein than that contained in milk solids non-fat (MSNF) is added, the type shall be
declared, e.g., soy protein.

For a coated product, the coating shall be described in terms of the ingredients used; the
description "chocolate" shall not be used unless the product conforms to the Codex

Standard for Chocolate ( CODEX STAN. 87-1981).

7.3 Net Contents

A declaration of net contents is not compulsory for consumer packs with a net weight less
than 75 g/150 ml, in which case the labelling should be on each bulk container.

7.4 Directions for Use of Ice Mixes

Packages of concentrated and dried ice mix shall bear clear directions for the amount of
water to be added to obtain the ice mix.

7.5 Additional Requirements

Information for keeping the product shall be given on retail packs with a net weight above
75/150 ml.

8 - Methods of Analysis and Sampling

See Codex Alimentarius Volume 13.

Appendix

A. Microbiological Guidelines for Edible Ices and Ice Mixes

1 - Methods

For the purpose of these Guidelines the procedures outlined in the Microbiological

Specifications for Egg Products may be used for obtaining the appropriate number of field
samples from a lot together with sampling methods and reference methods for detecting
Salmonellae and for enumeration of mesophilic aerobic bacteria and coliform bacteria.

2 - Sampling Plans and Microbiological Limits


2.1 Ice Mixes

2.1.1 Mesophilic aerobic bacteria

Mesophilic aerobic bacteria should not be recovered from any of the 5 sample units
examined, when the test is carried out according to the method described, in a
number exceeding 105 per g, nor in a number exceeding 2.5 x 104 per g from 3 or
more of the 5 sample units examined (n = 5, c = 2, m = 2.5 x 104 , M = 105 ).

2.1.2 Coliform bacteria

Coliform bacteria should not be recovered in a number exceeding 100 per g from any
of the 5 sample units examined nor in a number exceeding 10 per g from 3 or more
of the 5 sample units examined when the test is carried out according to the method
described (n = 5, c = 2, m = 10, M = 103 ).

2.1.3 Salmonellae

: Salmonella organisms should not be recovered from any of the 10 sample units
examined when the test is carried out according to the method described (n = 10, c =
0, m = 0).

2.2 Edible Ices

2.2.1 Mesophilic aerobic bacteria

Mesophilic aerobic bacteria should not be recovered from any of the 5 sample units
examined, when the test is carried out according to the method described, in a
number exceeding 2.5 x 105 per g, nor in a number exceeding 5 x 104 per g from 3
or more of the 5 sample units examined (n = 5, c = 2, m = 5 x 104 , M = 2.5 x 105 ).

2.2.2 Coliform bacteria

Coliform bacteria should not be recovered from any of the 5 sample units examined
when the test is carried out according to the method described, in a number
exceeding 103 per g nor in a number exceeding 100 per g from 3 or more of the 5
sample units examined (n = 5, c = 2, m = 102 , M = 103 ).

3. - Salmonellae

Salmonella organisms should not be recovered from any of the 10 sample units examined when
the test is carried out according to the method described (n = 10, c = 0, m = 0).

Appendix
B. Grouping of Ingredients In Edible Ices and Ice Mixes for
Labelling Purposes

1 ) Skim milk, concentrated skim milk, and non-fat dry milk may be declared as "skim milk".

2 ) Milk, concentrated milk and dried milk may be declared as "milk".

3 ) Sweetcream buttermilk, concentrated sweetcream buttermilk, and dried sweetcream buttermilk


may be declared as "buttermilk".

4 ) Cheese whey, concentrated cheese whey, and dried cheese whey may be declared as "whey".

5 ) Cream, dried cream, and plastic cream (sometimes known as concentrated milk fat) may be
declared as "cream".

6 ) Butteroil and anhydrous butterfat may be declared as "butterfat".

7 ) Dried egg whites, frozen egg whites and liquid egg whites may be declared as "egg whites".

8 ) Dried egg yolks, frozen egg yolks and liquid egg yolks may be declared as "egg yolks".

9 ) Sugar (sucrose) shall be declared as "sugar", and invert sugar may be declared as "sugar".

10 ) Sweeteners derived from corn may be declared as "glucose syrup".

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The products covered by each group may contain other ingredients permitted in Sections 3.4.4 to 3.4.8 and food

additives specified in Section 4.

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Temporarily endorsed.

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Not made by the ammonia process

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Governments are requested to notify the specific names exclusively provided for the various sub-groups in their national
legislation.

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See Annex V, Report of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation on Microbiological Specifications for Foods, published by
FAO, Rome, 1975, (EC/Microbiol/75/Report 1).

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Concentrated and dried ice mixes should be tested after the addition of the prescribed amount of water to give a product

which conforms to the definition under section 3.2.1 of the Standard.