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102086 Designing Teaching & Learning

Assignment 2: QT Analysis Template

Evaluate the lesson plan according to the following NSW Quality Teaching model elements.

Evaluation score – refer to NSW QTM Classroom Practice Guide for each element
Comments incl. evidence for evaluation score (2 sentences)

1 Intellectual quality
1.1 Deep knowledge
1 – 2 – 3 – 4 – 5 Comments: Pitch is discussed at a superficial level. The key elements of pitch outlined in the
syllabus are not mentioned in the lesson.

1.2 Deep understanding


1 – 2 – 3 – 4 – 5 Comments: Student obtain a shallow understanding of musical notation and pitch through the whole
lesson. Students are not given any opportunity to demonstrate their understanding through
explanations, problem solving or drawing conclusions.

1.3 Problematic knowledge


1 – 2 – 3 – 4 – 5 Comments: The lesson presents most information as fixed fact such as the teacher only presenting
one method of composing. However, students are asked to perform their own compositions which
allows them to present the music in any form.

1.4 Higher-order thinking


1 – 2 – 3 – 4 – 5 Comments: The lesson is largely made up of activities that has the students reciting information and
participating in lower-order thinking. However, students do have the opportunity to compose their
own simple melody.

1.5 Metalanguage
1 – 2 – 3 – 4 – 5 Comments:
The lesson does have “mini-lessons” to explain and explore the concepts and terms. However, the
lesson only provides a brief explanation and there are missed opportunities to use more terminology.

1.6 Substantive communication


1 – 2 – 3 – 4 – 5 Comments: The students are not given any opportunity to have reciprocal sustained interaction.
There is no scope for interaction as students are not asked to provide an responses.

Quality learning environment


2.1 Explicit quality criteria
1 – 2 – 3 – 4 – 5 Comments:
The lesson only provides procedural and technical instructions. The lesson does not demonstrate
any explicit statements for the quality of work.

2.2 Engagement
1 – 2 – 3 – 4 – 5 Comments:
Students have the potential to be engaged in the activities that require practical work. However, the
activities are teacher-based and limits the students’ creativity.

2.3 High expectations


1 – 2 – 3 – 4 – 5 Comments:
The lesson does not allow students to participate in challenging activities. Students are not explicitly
told to work hard or take risks with any activities.

2.4 Social support

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1–2–3–4–5 Comments: The lesson demonstrates that students are undermined as the lesson is largely teacher
based. However, there is scope for positive reinforcement through possible teacher observation.

2.5 Students’ self-regulation


1 – 2 – 3 – 4 – 5 Comments: Students are given the opportunity to self-regulate during a few tasks that require
individual work. However, teacher maintains an instructor role for the majority of the lesson.

2.6 Student direction


1 – 2 – 3 – 4 – 5 Comments: Student direction is not expressed in the lesson plan. The teacher does not provide
students with multiple options for tasks, pace or assessment.

3 Significance
3.1 Background knowledge
1 – 2 – 3 – 4 – 5 Comments: Students’ prior classroom knowledge is acknowledged and contributes to the lesson
activities. However, the lesson does not acknowledge students’ outside knowledge.

3.2 Cultural knowledge


1 – 2 – 3 – 4 – 5 Comments: No recognition of cultural influences is mentioned. No cultural ideologies are mention
that would counter the domain culture.

3.3 Knowledge integration


1 – 2 – 3 – 4 – 5 Comments: The lesson makes a connection to the students’ knowledge about rhythm. Rhythm also
contributes to the overarching concept of the lesson.

3.4 Inclusivity
1–2–3–4–5 Comments:
Students with a disability and those from different cultures would feel cultural excluded from the
lesson. However, some activities could include people with a disability.

3.5 Connectedness
1 – 2 – 3 – 4 – 5 Comments: The lesson does not connect the content to the meaning and value it is given in the real
world. Students are not shown how composition or musical knowledge can be used outside of the
classroom.

3.6 Narrative
1–2–3–4–5 Comments: The lesson connects rhythm and pitch to contribute to students making a composition.
The narrative of the lesson is not clearly structured or communicated to the students.

Identifying Areas for Improvement

Identify the four NSW QT model elements you are targeting for improvement.

QT model
1) Deep Understanding 2) High Expectations
3) Student Direction 4) Connectedness

Lesson Plan

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Topic area: Stage of Learner: Syllabus Pages:
Pitch Stage 4
Date: Location Booked: Lesson Number: /

Time: Total Number of students Printing/preparation


50-minute Lesson
 Whiteboard
 
 Keyboards
 Print out instructions
for two activities.

Outcomes Assessment Students learn about Students learn to


4.5 Notates compositions  identifying,  Create simply
using traditional and/or non-  Quiz on understanding and compositions both
traditional notation. previous lesson describing how the individually and in
content. concepts of music groups
4.9 Demonstrates musical have been used and
literacy through the use of  Observing manipulated
notation, terminology, and students’  perform musical
the reading and interpreting participation/  notating compositions and
knowledge in compositions using arrangements
of scores used in the music
activities. various forms of individually and/or in
selected for study
traditional and non- groups
traditional notation

Time Teaching and learning actions


Intro Discuss layout of the lesson so students know what activities are going to take
place.
2min

Body Review previous lesson on rhythm asking students to recount note types/names.

5min Conduct a five-question quiz on rhythm: Students to write answers neatly because
they will be swapping books with another student to mark the quiz.
Play a one-bar rhythm (in 4/4 metre) for each question.

Teacher explains the Staff, ledger lines and explains that the treble clef dictates
10min what notes are present on the staff.
Give acronym “Every Good Boy Deserves Fruit” and “FACE” for remembering
notes on the staff. (Student must write down).
Direct Draw a keyboard diagram and show when middle C is, and that notes are either
Instruction higher or lower from middle C.
Explain that what is a melody.
Explain why large leaps between notes is not practical.

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Play melody to students to demonstrate the smooth transitions a melody should
have.
Get students to play the melody.

Students will be doing independent research project, explain and also provide
10min handout of instructions.
 Student needs to find a partner
 Get own smart device
 Each student only chooses one of the research projects to complete (cannot
be the same as your partner’s)

Options:
1) Define indefinite and definite pitch. Find a composer who uses indefinite
pitch in their work. Write an explanation of how the indefinite pitch adds
to the narrative of the piece.

2) Besides a composer, find a job in the musical field that invokes


composes to some level. Write a rap, describing the career and what the
job involves and why you would/would not like to do this job.

3) Find a simple melody. Notate the melody in your book and draw a line
that follows the curves of the melody. What is the melody direction?
Draw a picture that represents the melodic direction

 Once task complete partners are to share their answer only with each other
 Then move onto next activity with partner.

15min Students can collect sheet from the front of the class that states the instructions for
this activity:

 Students must individually compose a four-bar melody in 4/4 metre.


Must include quavers and crotchets and use more than four different pitches.

 Then in pairs, one student will play their melody repeatedly while the other
student will be improvising using definite and indefinite pitch. Students can
swap roles at any time. (Any instruments can be used)

 (Instructions should also state definitions of definite, indefinite pitch (and


examples) and improvisation and encourage students to sound weird.)

Conclusion Get student to come together and get them to watch Charlie Puth- Song writing clip
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IU8BEMi8UyM 0:27-3:45.
8min
Discuss with class how the clip shows that composition music can be done in
different ways.

 Why is notation (of any kind) important in music?

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 What can music convey?

 How does Puth write his songs?

 How does Puth use traditional notation?

Then discuss how today’s lesson was provided the skills to be able to write music
and understand how the melodies you sing in your head etc. You can use the skills
learnt today in any form of composition.

How am I measuring the outcomes of this lesson?

Learning Outcome Method of measurement and recording


4.5 Notates compositions Students write a four-bar melody using traditional
using traditional and/or notation
non-traditional notation.
4.9 Demonstrates musical Students participating in research projects activity as
literacy through the use of students must explain terminology and read melodies.
notation, terminology, and
the reading and interpreting
of scores used in the music
selected for study.

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Academic Justification:

The original lesson plan did explore the content necessary for music literacy; however, the content

was simplified to the point that was not allowing the lesson to be greatly effective. The altered

lesson improves four elements of the NSW Quality Teaching Model (Ludwig and Gore, 2003);

deep understanding, student direction, high expectations and connectedness, to increase the overall

quality of the lesson.

The alteration of the lesson plan aimed to improved students deep understanding of composition

and pitch (which were the topic outlined in the original lesson plan). Mitchell et al. (2017) argues

that having a few big ideas in a lesson and even more broadly in the curriculum encourages deeper

understanding. A few big ideas offer a sense of direction and allows students to engage deeply with

a concept rather than covering a lot of ideas at a superficial level (Mitchell et al., 2017). Though the

original lesson plan did focus on the “big idea” of pitch, the lesson did not thoroughly unpack the

elements that define pitch within music. The altered lesson plan engages specifically with pitch and

asks students to critically think about the manipulation and meaning of pitch in music. The altered

lesson plan covers the elements of pitch that is outlined in the syllabus such as melodic direction,

definite and indefinite pitch that the original lesson plan did not cover (Music 7-10 syllabus, 2003).

Through the lesson covering more elements of pitch it enables students to have a deeper

understanding of how pitch is manipulated, notated and defined within music.

The lesson was altered to enable student direction through providing students with options in an

activity and allowing students to pace some of the lesson. Direct instruction is minimized greatly so

that students are more engaged and so there is more opportunity for student direction. Students are

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able to choose their own activity during one period of the new lesson and students are also given

the power to choose when they move onto the next task. Patall, Cooper and Wynn (2010) establish

that providing choice to students increases their autonomy and increases intrinsic motivation to

complete school tasks. Though the lesson was altered to provide more student direction there is still

ten-minutes of uninterpreted direct instruction (Belcher and Lowe, 2012). Belcher and Lowe (2012)

conducted a study that demonstrated that ten-minutes of direct instruction improves students’

musical literacy more effectively than any other method. Overall the lesson aimed to integrate

teacher instruction and student direction to create a cohesive lesson and allow students to learn

from both their teacher and themselves.

Ludwig and Gore (2003) define connectedness as exploring the connection between classroom

knowledge and real-world situations that significantly impact students’ thinking. The lesson

originally lacked connectedness, however, modifications were made to the lesson to connect the

musical content to careers in the music industry (a real-life situation). Johnson (2000) argues that

teachers need to make connections to the real world during lessons, so students can use their skills

in innovative ways when entering the workplace. An activity in the modified lesson encourages

students to investigate careers that use musical notation in some form, excluding composers. This

activity asks students to critically think about how classroom content can be applied to a diverse

range of musical careers and fields. Sakakeeny (2015) illustrates that musical activities have the

ability to prepare individuals for a career as a professional and famous musician. The lesson also

encourages students to dream big as becoming a composer is represented in the class discussion as

a viable career. The lesson makes the connection that the skills learnt in the classroom can be built

on to enable a career as a composer and encourages students to have a lifelong engagement with

music. Furthermore, the clip played to stimulate the class discussion demonstrates different

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applications of elements from formal notation (Rolling Stone, 2017). (Formal notation is learnt in

the modified lesson). Therefore, students can observe how ideas from the classroom can be

manipulating to create new music in a new technological era.

The final alteration aimed to instil high expectations in the lesson plan. Walkey et al. (2013) argues

that “setting modest goals for students could be communicating and reinforcing low expectations”

(p. 313). The improved lesson, sets high goals for all students as they are expected to explore topics

independently and perform with others without invasive supervision. Rubie-Davies (2007)

establishes that teachers who have high expectations more frequently develop their students’ higher

order thinking than teachers who have low or average expectations. The lesson does get students to

do different activities that involve different methods of exploration of pitch such as defining,

explaining, performing and interpreting information. The lesson focused largely on increasing

expectations through allowing students to have autonomy and setting work that invokes higher

order thinking.

Reference List:

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Patall, E., Cooper, H., & Wynn S. (2010). The Effectiveness and Relative Importance of Choice in

__________the Classroom. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102 (4), 896-915. doi:

__________10.1037/a0019545

Lowe, G., & Belcher, S. (2012). Direct Instruction and Music Literacy: One Approach to

__________Augmenting and Diminishing? Australian Journal of Music Education, 1, 3-13.

Mitchell, I., Keast, S., Panizzon, D., & Mitchell, J. (2017). Using ‘big ideas’ to enhance teaching

__________and student learning. Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 23 (5), 596-610.

__________doi: 10.1080/13540602.2016.1218328

Sakakeeny, M. (2015). Music Lessons as Life Lessons in New Orleans Marching Bands. Souls, 17

__________(3), 279-302.

Walkey, F., McClure, J., Meyer, L., & Weir, K. (2013). Low expectations equal no expectations:

__________Aspirations, motivation, and achievement in secondary school. Contemporary

__________Educational Psychology, 38, 306-315.

Rubie-Davies, C. (2007). Classroom interactions: Exploring the practices of high- and low-

__________expectation teachers. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 77, 289-306.

Johnson, L. (2000). The Relevance of School to Career: A Study in Student Awareness. Journal of

__________Career Development, 26 (4), 263-276.

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Music 7-10 syllabus. (2003). NSW Education Standards Authority. Retrieved from

__________http://educationstandards.nsw.edu.au/wps/portal/nesa/k-10/learning-areas/creative-

__________arts/music-7-10

Ludwig, J., & Gore, J. (2003). Quality Teaching in NSW Public Schools A classroom practice

__________guide. Retrieved from https://app.education.nsw.gov.au/quality-teaching-

__________rounds/Assets/Classroom_Practice_Guide_ogogVUqQeB.pdf

Rolling Stone. (2017, October 3). See Charlie Puth Break Down Emotional Hit Song, "Attention”

__________[Video File]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IU8BEMi8UyM

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