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EE 150

Lecture 2 – Basic Concepts


Per-Unit System
In the per-unit system, the voltages, currents,
powers, impedances, and other electrical
quantities are expressed on a per-unit basis by
the equation:

Actual value
Quantity per unit =
Base value of quantity

It is customary to select two base quantities to


define a given per-unit system. The ones usually
selected are voltage and power.
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Per-Unit System
Assume:

Vb  Vrated
Sb  Srated
Then compute base values for currents and
impedances:
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Sb Vb V
Ib  Zb   b
Vb Ib Sb
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Per-Unit System
And the per-unit system is:
Vactual I actual
V p.u .  I p .u . 
Vb Ib
S actual Z actual
S p.u .  Z p.u . 
Sb Zb

Z %  Z p.u. 100% Percent of base Z


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Example 1
An electrical lamp is rated 120 volts, 500 watts.
Compute the per-unit and percent impedance of
the lamp. Give the p.u. equivalent circuit.

Solution:
(1) Compute lamp resistance
V2 V2
(120) 2
P R   28.8
R P 500

power factor = 1.0 Z  28.80


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Example 1
(2) Select base quantities
Sb  500VA
Vb  120V
(3) Compute base impedance
Vb2 (120) 2
Zb    28.8
Sb 500
(4) The per-unit impedance is:
Z 28.80
Z p.u .    10 p.u.
Zb 28.8 6
Example 1
(5) Percent impedance:
Z %  100%
(6) Per-unit equivalent circuit:

VS  10 p.u. Z  10 p.u.

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Example 2
An electrical lamp is rated 120 volts, 500 watts. If
the voltage applied across the lamp is twice the
rated value, compute the current that flows
through the lamp. Use the per-unit method.

Solution:
Vb  120V
V 240
V p.u .    20 p.u.
Vb 120
Z p.u.  10 p.u.
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Example 2
The per-unit equivalent circuit is as follows:

VS  20 p.u. Z  10 p.u.

V p.u. 20
I p.u.    20 p.u.
Z p.u. 10
Sb 500
Ib    4.167 A
Vb 120
I actual  I p.u. I b  20  4.167  8.3340 A 9
Per-unit System for 1-  Circuits
One-phase circuits
Sb  S1  V I
where
V  Vlinetoneutral
I  I linecurrent
VbLV  VLV VbHV  VHV
Sb Sb
I bLV  I bHV 
VbLV VbHV 10
Per-unit System for 1-  Circuits
VbLV (VbLV ) 2 VbHV (VbHV ) 2
Z bLV   Z bHV  
I bLV Sb I bHV Sb

S
S pu   V pu I pu
*

Sb
P
Ppu   V pu I pu cos
Sb
Q
Q pu   V pu I pu sin 
Sb 11
Transformation Between Bases
Selection 1
Sb1  S A Vb1  VA
Then
Vb21 ZL
Z b1  Z pu1 
S b1 Z b1
Selection 2
Sb 2  S B Vb 2  VB
Then 2
V ZL
Zb2  b2
Z pu 2 
Sb 2 Zb2
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Transformation Between Bases
Z pu 2 Z L Z b1 Z b1 Vb21 Sb 2
     2
Z pu1 Z b 2 Z L Z b 2 Sb1 Vb 2
2
 Vb1   Sb 2 
Z pu 2  Z pu1     
 Vb 2   Sb1 
“1” – old
“2” - new
2
 Vb,old   Sb,new 
Z pu ,new  Z pu ,old   
 S


V
 b,new   b,old 
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Transformation Between Bases
Generally per-unit values given to another base
can be converted to new base by by the
equations:
Sbase1
( P, Q, S ) pu _ on _ base _ 2  ( P, Q, S ) pu _ on _ base _1
Sbase 2
V
V pu _ on _ base _ 2  V pu _ on _ base _1 base1
Vbase 2

(Vbase1 ) 2 Sbase 2
( R, X , Z ) pu _ on _ base _ 2  ( R, X , Z ) pu _ on _ base _1
(Vbase 2 ) 2 Sbase1

When performing calculations in a power system, every


per-unit value must be converted to the same base.
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Per-unit System for 1- Transformer
Consider the equivalent circuit of transformer
referred to LV side and HV side shown below:
RS XS
RS  jX S 2
j 2
a a

VLV VHV VLV VHV


N1 N2 VLV N1
Define a  1
S VHV N 2

(1) Referred to LV side (2) Referred to HV side


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Per-unit System for 1- Transformer
Choose:
Vb1  VLV ,rated Normal choose rated
values as base values
Sb  Srated
Compute: VHV 1
Vb 2  Vb1  Vb1
VLV a
Vb21 Vb22
Z b1  Zb2 
Sb Sb
Z b1 Vb21 Vb21
 2   a2
Z b 2 Vb 2 ( 1 V ) 2 16
b1
a
Per-unit System for 1- Transformer
Per-unit impedances are:
RS  jX S
Z p.u .1 
Z b1
RS jX S RS jX S
 2  2
a 2
a a 2
a RS  jX S
Z p.u .2   
Zb2 Z b1 Z b1
a2
Per-unit equivalent
So:
Z p.u.1  Z p.u.2 circuits of transformer
referred to LV side and
HV side are identical !!
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Per-unit Eq. Ckt for 1- Transformer
RS  jX S S
VLV N1
a  1
Z b1 VHV N 2
N1 N2

Vb1 VLV VHV Vb 2


Fig 1. Eq Ckt referred to LV side
Z S , pu
Z S , pu
Vb1 Vb 2
Vb1 Vb 2

1:1 Sb
Fig 2. Per-unit Eq Ckt referred to LV side Fig 3. 18
Per-unit Eq. Ckt for 1- Transformer
RS XS
j 2
S a 2
a
VLV N1
a  1
Zb 2 VHV N 2
N1 N2
Vb1 VLV VHV Vb 2
Fig 4. Eq Ckt referred to HV side
Z S , pu
Z S , pu
Vb1 Vb 2
Vb1 Vb 2

1:1 Sb
Fig 5. Per-unit Eq Ckt referred to HV side Fig 6. 19
Voltage Regulation
Voltage regulation is defined as:
Vnoload  V full load
VR  100%
V full load

In per-unit system:
V pu ,noload  V pu , full load
VR  100%
V pu , full load
Vfull-load: Desired load voltage at full load. It may be equal
to, above, or below rated voltage
Vno-load: The no load voltage when the primary voltage is
the desired voltage in order the secondary voltage
be at its desired value at full load 20
Voltage Regulation Example
A single-phase transformer rated 200-kVA, 200/400-V, and
10% short circuit reactance. Compute the VR when the
transformer is fully loaded at unity PF and rated voltage
400-V.

Solution:
VP j 0.1 VS
Vb 2  400V
Sb  200kVA XS
Sload
Sload , pu  10 pu
X S , pu  j 0.1 pu
Fig 7. Per-unit equivalent circuit
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Voltage Regulation Example
Rated voltage:

VS , pu  1.00 pu
*
 Sload , pu   1.00 *
I load , pu      1.00 pu
 V   1.00 
 S , pu 

VP , pu  VS , pu  I pu X S , pu
 1.00  1.00  j 0.1  1  j 0.1
 1.0015.7 o pu

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Voltage Regulation Example
Secondary side:

V pu , full load  VS , pu  1.00 pu

V pu ,no load  VP , pu  1.0015.7 o pu

Voltage regulation:

V pu ,no load  V pu , full load


VR  100%
V pu , full load
1.001 1.0
 100%  0.1%
1.0
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Per-unit System for 3- Circuits
Three-phase circuits
Sb  S3  3S1  3V I
where
V  Vlinetoneutral  VL (line) / 3
I  I linecurrent  I L
S b  3VL I L
VbLV  VL, LV VbHV  VL, HV
Sb  3VbLV I bLV  3VbHV I bHV 24
Per-unit System for 3- Circuits
Sb Sb
I bLV  I bHV 
3VbLV 3VbHV
VLV VbLV 3VbLV (VbLV ) 2
Z bLV   
ILV 3 Sb Sb
2
(VbHV )
Z bHV 
Sb
S3 3VL I L*
S pu    V pu I *pu
Sb 3Vb I b
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Per-unit System for 3- Transformer
Three 25-kVA, 34500/277-V transformers
connected in /Y. Short-circuit test on high voltage
side:
VLine, SC  2010V
I Line,SC  1.26 A

P3 ,SC  912W


Determine the per-unit equivalent circuit of the
transformer.

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Per-unit System for 3- Transformer
(a) Using Y-equivalent

I SC  1.26 RS  jX S

2010
VSC  Sb  25000VA
3
34500
277
3
2010
VSC   1160.47V
3
1160.47
Z SC   921.00
1.26
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Per-unit System for 3- Transformer
912 P 304
P   304W RS  2
 2
 191.48
3 I SC 1.26

XS  Z SC  RS2  9212  191.482  900.86


2

So Z SC  191.48  j900.86
34500
Sb  25000VA Vb, HV   19918.58V
3
19918.582
Z b,HV   15869.99
25000
191.48  j900.86
Z SC , pu ,Y   0.012  j 0.0568 pu
15869.99
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Per-unit System for 3- Transformer
(b) Using -equivalent
1.26
I SC 
3 Z SC ,

VSC  2010 Sb  25000VA

34500 277

1.26
VSC  2010V I SC   0.727 A
3
2010
Z SC ,   2764.79
0.727
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Per-unit System for 3- Transformer
912 P 304
P   304W RS ,  2
 2
 575.18
3 I SC 0.727
2
X S ,  Z SC ,  RS2,  2764.792  575.182  2704.30

So Z SC  575.18  j 2704.30
Sb  25000VA Vb, HV  34500V

345002
Z b,HV   47610
25000
575.18  j 2704.30
Z SC , pu ,   0.012  j 0.0568pu
47610
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Problem 1
j100
G

20 kV 22kV/220kV 220kV/20kV 50MVA


80MVA 50MVA 0.8 PF
14% 10% lagging

Select Vbase in generator circuit and Sb=100MVA,


Determine p.u. equivalent circuit. Compute VG and
system power factor.

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Exercise 1
A 50-kVA 13,800/208-V ∆-Y distribution transformer has a
resistance of 1% and a reactance of 7% per unit.
a) What is the transformer’s phase impedance referred to the
high voltage side?
b) Calculate this transformer’s voltage regulation at full load
and 0.8PF lagging, using the calculated high side
impedance.
c) Calculate this transformer’s voltage regulation under the
same conditions, using the per-unit system.

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